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Babelon, E. Traité des Monnaies Grecques et Romaines. (Paris, 1901-1932).
Burnett, A., M. Amandry, et al. Roman Provincial Coinage. (1992 - ).
Grose, S. W. Catalogue of the McClean Collection of Greek Coins, Fizwilliam Museum, Vol. I - III. (Cambridge, 1923-29).
Head, B. A Catalog of the Greek Coins in the British Museum, Central Greece (Lorcris, Phocis, Boeotia, and Euboea). (London, 1884).
Langton, N. "Notes on some Phocian Obols" in NC 1903, pp. 197 sqq.
Numismatica Ars Classica NAC AG. The BCG Collection, Lokris - Phokis. Auction 55. (8 October 2010). Zürich.
Sear, D. Greek Coins and Their Values, Volume 1: Europe. (London, 1978).
Strauss, P. Collection Maurice Laffaille - monnaies grecques en bronze. (Bàle, 1990).
Svoronos, J. N. Nomismatikae ton Delphon, Νομισματικη των Δελφων, Bull. Corr. Hell. 1896, pp. 1 sqq.
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Denmark, The Royal Collection of Coins and Medals, Danish National Museum, Volume 3: Greece: Thessaly to Aegean Islands. (West Milford, NJ, 1982).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, Münzsammlung Universität Tübingen, Part 3: Akarnanien-Bithynien. (Berlin, 1985).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Greece 6, The Alpha Bank Numismatic Collection, From Thessaly to Euboea. (Athens, 2011).
Williams, R.T. Silver Coinage of the Phokians. (London, 1972).
The coinage of Phocis begins at a very early period, probably not much later than the middle of the sixth century. Like the archaic money of Arcadia it is distinctly federal in character.
The twenty-two confederate Phocian towns held their periodical synedrion (assembly) in a building called Phokikon, near Daulis (Paus. x. 5. 1), and here, perhaps, rather than at any one of the Phocian towns, the federal mint may have been established. Money would be issued at this mint only on the occasions of the meetings of the synedrion (συνεδριον), when it may be supposed that a concourse of people from all parts of the Phocian territory was gathered together, and that a fair or market was held for the exchange and purchase of commodities, as at Delphi during the Pythian festivals.
The weight-standard of the Phocian money is the Aeginetic, of which Triobols (48 grs.), Trihemiobols (24 grs.), Obols (16 grs.), and Hemiobols (8 grs.), occur.
The inscription on the archaic coins is Ο, ΟΚΙ, or ΦΟΚΙ.
|Female head in incuse square.
|Id. or in profile.
[BMC Central Greece Pl. III. 11-15.]
|Forepart of boar in incuse square, sometimes with mark of value Ο for obolosο βολος
[N. C., 1895, 269]. |
|Bull's head in profile.
[BMC Central Greece Pl. III. 16.]
|Helmet in incuse square.
It is possible, however, that a few bronze coins may have been struck in this interval.
In this period of Theban supremacy in Central Greece bronze coins make their first appearance.
|Head of Athena, facing.
[BMC Central Greece Pl. III. 17.]
|Φ or ΦΩ in olive-wreath. |
This is the period of the third Sacred War, during which the Phocians, under their successive strategi, Philomelus (357-354), Onymarchus (354-352), Phayllus (352-351), and Phalaecus (351-346). held possession of the oracle of Delphi, and turned its sacred treasures into coin.
|Head of the Delphian Apollo, laur.
[Z. f. N., xv. 41, Pl. III. 7.]
|Φ Ω Lyre, the whole in laurel-wreath.
AR Drachm, 73 grs.
|Bull's head, facing.
[BMC Central Greece Pl. III. 18-20.]
|ΦΩ Head of the Delphian Apollo; symbol, lyre or laurel-branch.|
|ΦΩΚΕΩΝ Three bulls' heads.
[BMC Central Greece Pl. III. 21.]
|Τ in laurel-wreath. |
Æ Trichalkon .85
|Bull's head, facing.||ΦΩ in laurel-wreath. |
|Id. [BMC Central Greece Pl. III. 24.]||ΟΝΥΜΑΡΧΟΥ in wreath. |
|Id.||ΦΑΛΑΙΚΟΥ in wreath. |
Of this period more coins would doubtless have been preserved had not the Locrians at the end of the war collected the Phocian treasures and melted them down to make a silver hydria for dedication to Apollo at Delphi (Plut. De Pyth. Orac. xvi). The complete devastation of the land by Philip in 346 (Demosth. Fals. Leg. p. 361) put an end to all coinage in Phocis. On this subject see Hill, Hist. Gk. Coins, p. 90.
In B.C. 339 Athens and Thebes combined to reconstitute Phocis and to rebuild some of the ruined towns. The few remaining bronze coins are of careless execution:—
|Bull's head, facing.||ΦΩΚΕΩΝ Head of Apollo. |
On some specimens over the bull's head are the letters ΑΝ, ΕΛ. ΛΕ, or ΛΙ, which may stand for the Phocian towns Anticyra, Elateia, Ledon, and Lilaea (Imhoof, Mon. gr., 150).
|Head of Poseidon with trident at his shoulder. [Zeit. f. Num., vi. 15.]||ΑΝΤΙΚΥΡΕΩΝ Artemis huntress.
Delphi. The chronology of the coinage of Delphi has been discussed in detail by J. N. Svoronos in B. C. H., 1896, where, on Pls. XXV-XXX, all the following coins are figured. He divides the autonomous issues of silver coins into the following periods. They follow the Aeginetic standard.
|Tripod.||Θ (phiale), in incuse square.
|Ram's head.||Id. |
AR ½ Obol.
|Ram's head; beneath, dolphin.||Bust of goat in incuse square.|
|Id.||Two dolphins, in incuse square.|
|Id.||Goat's head facing, between two dolphins, in incuse square.|
|Id.||Busts of two goats face to face, in incuse square; above, sometimes, dolphin.|
|Head of negro (Delphos).||Ram's head, beneath, dolphin; in incuse square.|
|Id.||Two rams' heads in juxtaposition, in incuse square, as on tridrachm infra.|
|Id.||D Α Goat's head facing, in incuse square.|
|Bull's head facing.||D Α Similar. |
AR ¼ Obol.
|DΑΛΙΚΟ Two rams' heads in juxtaposition, faces downwards; above, two dolphins (Fig. 191).||Four deep incuse squares resembling
lacunaria, in each of which a dolphin
and flower. |
AR Tridrachm, 279 grs.
|Same inscr. Ram's head; beneath, dolphin. [Babelon, Traité, Pl. XLII. 19.]||Similar; but stars in the four deep
AR Didrachm, 191 grs.
Also Trihemiobols and Obols, as above, but the incuse squares more regular in form.
Trihemiobols as above, but with inscr. DΑΛ; also—
|Head of negro (Delphos) in dotted circle.||in incuse square.|
During this period Delphi, deprived of political autonomy, struck no coins.
After the Peace of Nicias (B.C. 421) Delphi, once more independent, resumed the issue of small silver coins in its own name.
|Ram's head; beneath, dolphin.||ΔΑΛ or ΔΕΛ Goat's head facing, between two dolphins, in slightly incuse circle.|
|Head of negro (Delphos) in dotted circle.||in slightly incuse circle|
The object represented on the earliest coins is probably the sacrificial φαλη with a boss or ομφαλος in the centre (patera umbilicata), which is especially appropriate on the coins of Delphi, as symbolical of the libation and sacrifice to the Pythian Apollo (N. C., 1895, p. 320).
The ram's head (καρνος) is a symbol of Apollo as the god of flocks and herds, Καρνειος. The goats' heads recall the story told by Diodorus (xvi. 26), that some goats feeding on the brink of the chasm in the rock, over which in after-times the oracular tripod was placed, became intoxicated by the fumes which issued from the opening, and by their strange antics first made known the existence of the oracle to the herdsmen ou charin aixi malista chraestaeriazontai mechri tou non oi Delphoi.ου χαριν αιξι μαλιστα χρηστηριαζονται μεχρι του νον οι Δελφοι.
The dolphins refer to the cultus of Apollo Delphinios, who assumed the form of a dolphin (Homeric Hymn to Apollo, l. 390). Cf. Steph. Byz. s. v. Delphoi:—eklaethaesan de Delphoi, oti Apollon sunepleuse delphini eikstheis.Δελφοι:—εκληθησαν δε Δελφοι, οτι Απολλον συνεπλευσε δελφινι εικσθεις. The negro's head has been supposed to represent the mythical founder of Delphi, by name Delphos, the son of Poseidon by the nymph Melaine (Panofka, Delphos und Melaine, p. 7).
|Head of Demeter of Anthela veiled and crowned with corn (Fig. 192).||ΑΜΦΙΚΤΙΟΝΩΝ Apollo in long chiton, with lyre and laurel-branch, seated on Delphian omphalos, over which hang fillets.|
|Id. [Rev. Num., 1860, Pl. XII. 8.]||ΑΜΦΙΚΤΙΟΝΩΝ Omphalos, round
which is coiled a serpent.
AR Triobol, 44 grs.
|Horse prancing.||Large Θ (phiale). |
Æ size .6
These remarkable coins seem to have been first issued on the occasion of the reassembling of the Amphictyonic Council at the close of the Phocian war (B.C. 346). At each meeting (pulaia πυλαια) of the Council markets or fairs were held, called pulatides agorai πυλατιδεσ αγοραι, for which such coins may have been struck, but the great Pythian festival of B.C. 346 is by far the most probable date of issue.
From this time until the reign of Hadrian there appears to have been no mintage at Delphi. That emperor's strenuous endeavors to reanimate the ancient religion of the Greeks, together with the influence of Plutarch, who was a member of the Amphictyonic Council, and held the office of Priest of the Pythian Apollo at Chaeroneia, the duties of which must have brought him into frequent relations with the neighboring oracle of Delphi, doubtless added much to the importance of Delphi about this time. The right of coinage was now restored to the city, and numerous pieces were struck, quasi-autonomous and Imperial, in honor of Hadrian and the Antonines, among which two may be here selected as worthy of special mention. Of these one bears the unusual inscription ΑΝΤΙΝΟΟΝ ΗΡΩΑ ΠΡΟΠVΛΟΙ ΑΜΦΙΚΤΥΟΝΕC, rev. Tripod over omphalos and legend, ΙΕΡΕΥC ΑΡΙCΤΟΤΙΜΟC ΑΝΕΘΗΚΕΝ (Zeit. f. N., xiii. Pl. IV. 3; Photiades Cat., 365). The other, without the emperor's name, may be thus described :—
[Millingen, Recueil, T. II. 11.]
|ΠVΘΙΑ The three mountain-peaks of Mt. Parnassus. |
For many other Imperial coins of Delphi see Svoronos (op. cit.) and Imhoof-Blumer, Zeit. f. N., i. 115, especially with regard to the famous Delphian ΕΙ. Cf. Plutarch, peri tou ΕΙ, tou en Delphoisπερι του ΕΙ, του εν Δελφοις. This mystic word is represented on a coin by a large Ε placed within a temple.
Elateia. The authenticity of the following coin, assigned in the first edition of this work to the unimportant Elateia in Thessaly, has been questioned, and it must be acknowledged that its Thessalian origin is inadmissible. It may, however, be accepted, on stylistic grounds, as genuine, if removed to the far more important Elateia in Phocis, which, like Delphi, may have asserted its independence of the Phocian league, and, on the occasion of some local festival, struck coins in its own name some time after the Peace of Nicias, B.C. 421.
|Free horse. [Prokesch, Ined., 1854, Pl. I. 25, now in the Berlin cabinet.]||ΕΛΑΤΕΟ round a female head within an incuse square. |
No other coins of Elateia are known until the second century B.C.
Among the noteworthy objects in this town Pausanias (x. 34. 7) mentions an archaic bronze statue of Athena and a temple of Athena Kranaea. The statue on one of the following coins is perhaps the one referred to.
|ΕΛ Bull's head facing.
[BMC Central Greece p. 237.]
|ΦΩΚΕΩΝ Head of Apollo. |
|ΕΛ Bull's head facing bound with fillet. [N. C., 1898, Pl. XIX. 6.]||Athena charging. |
[BMC Central Greece Pl. IV. 26.]
|ΕΛΑΤΕΩΝ Stiff archaic statue of
Athena in fighting attitude; symbol,
bull's head facing. |
Lilaea, about a day's journey from Delphi, seems to have struck obols and diobols, circ. B.C. 480-421, with Phocian types; but reading Λ Ι in place of Ο (N. C., 1844, p. 124, and 1903, p. 200); and in the second century B.C. some bronze coins with ΛΙ and ΦΩΚΕΩΝ (p. 339 and Num. Zeit., 1870, p. 268).
| Ο Bull's head facing.
[Imhoof MG, p. 150.]
|NΕ Forepart of boar in incuse square.