- The Collaborative Numismatics Project
  Welcome Guest. Please login or register. The column on the left includes the "Best of NumisWiki" menu. If you are new to collecting, start with Ancient Coin Collecting 101. All blue text is linked. Keep clicking to endlessly explore. Welcome Guest. Please login or register. The column on the left includes the "Best of NumisWiki" menu. All blue text is linked. Keep clicking to endlessly explore. If you have written a numismatic article, please add it to NumisWiki.

Resources Home
Home
New Articles
Most Popular
Recent Changes
Current Projects
Admin Discussions
Guidelines
How to

Index Of All Titles


BEST OF

Aes Grave
Aes Rude
The Age of Gallienus
Alexander Tetradrachms
Ancient Coin Collecting 101
Ancient Coin Prices 101
Ancient Coin Dates
Ancient Coin Lesson Plans
Ancient Coins & Modern Fakes
Ancient Counterfeits
Ancient Glass
Ancient Oil Lamps
Ancient Weapons
Ancient Wages and Prices
Ancient Weights and Scales
Anonymous Folles
Anonymous Follis
Anonymous Class A Folles
Antioch Officinae
Aphlaston
Armenian Numismatics Page
Brockage
Byzantine
Byzantine Denominations
A Cabinet of Greek Coins
Caesarean and Actian Eras
Campgates of Constantine
Carausius
A Case of Counterfeits
Byzantine Christian Themes
Clashed Dies
Coins of Pontius Pilate
Conditions of Manufacture
Corinth Coins and Cults
Countermarked in Late Antiquity
Danubian Celts
Damnatio Coinage
Damnatio Memoriae
Denomination
Denarii of Otho
Diameter 101
Die Alignment 101
Dictionary of Roman Coins
Doug Smith's Ancient Coins
Edict on Prices
ERIC
ERIC - Rarity Tables
Etruscan Alphabet
The Evolving Ancient Coin Market
Facing Portrait of Augustus
Fel Temp Reparatio
Fertility Pregnancy and Childbirth
Fibula
Flavian
Fourree
Friend or Foe
The Gallic Empire
Gallienus Zoo
Greek Alphabet
Greek Coins
Greek Dates
Greek Coin Denominations
Greek Mythology Link
Greek Numismatic Dictionary
Hellenistic Names & their Meanings
Hasmoneans
Hasmonean Dynasty
Helvetica's ID Help Page
The Hexastyle Temple of Caligula
Historia Numorum
Horse Harnesses
Identifying Ancient Metal Arrowheads
Illustrated Ancient Coin Glossary
Important Collection Auctions
Islamic Rulers and Dynasties
Koson
Kushan Coins
People in the Bible Who Issued Coins
Imperial Mints of Philip the Arab
Later Roman Coinage
Latin Plurals
Latin Pronunciation
Library of Ancient Coinage
Life in Ancient Rome
List of Kings of Judea
Malloy Weapons
Maps of the Ancient World
Military Belts
Mint Marks
Monogram
Museum Collections Available Online
Nabataean Alphabet
Nabataean Numerals
The [Not] Cuirassed Elephant
Not in RIC
Numismatic Bulgarian
Numismatic Excellence Award
Numismatic French
Numismatic German
Numismatic Italian
Numismatic Spanish
Parthian Coins
Patina 101
Paleo-Hebrew Alphabet
Phoenician Alphabet
Pi-Style Athens Tetradrachms
Pricing and Grading Roman Coins
Reading Judean Coins
Representations of Alexander the Great
Roman Coin Attribution 101
Roman Militaria
Roman Mints
Roman Names
romancoin.info
Rome and China
Satyrs and Nymphs
Scarabs
Serdi Celts
Serrated
Siglos
The Sign that Changed the World
Silver Content of Parthian Drachms
Star of Bethlehem Coins
Statuary Coins
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum
Syracusian Folles
Taras Drachms with Owl Left
The Temple Tax Hoard
Test Cut
Travels of Paul
Tribute Penny
Tribute Penny Debate Continued (2015)
Tribute Penny Debate Revisited (2006)
Tyrian Shekels
Uncleaned Ancient Coins 101
Vabalathus
Venus Cloacina
What I Like About Ancient Coins
Who was Trajan Decius
Widow's Mite

   View Menu
 


699

Pamphylia

2000px-Anatolia_Ancient_Regions_base_svg.png

Ancient Coins from Pamphylia for sale in the Forum Ancient Coins Shop

Arslan, M. & C. Lightfoot. Greek Coin Hoards in Turkey. (Ankara, 1999).
Atlan, S. Sidenin Milattan önce V ve IV Yüzyil Sikkeleri Üzerinde Arastirmalar. (Ankara, 1967).
Babelon, E. Traité des Monnaies Grecques et Romaines. (Paris, 1901-1932).
Babelon, J. Catalogue de la collection de Luynes: monnaies greques. (Paris, 1924-1936).
Brett, A.B. Catalogue of Greek Coins, Boston Museum of Fine Arts. (Boston, 1955).
Burnett, A., M. Amandry, et al. Roman Provincial Coinage. (London, 1992 - ).
Cohen, E. Dated Coins of Antiquity: A comprehensive catalogue of the coins and how their numbers came about. (Lancaster, PA, 2011).
Colin, H.J. Die Münzen von Perge in Pamphylien aus hellenistischer Zeit. (Köln, 1996).
Forrer, L. Descriptive Catalogue of the Collection of Greek Coins formed by Sir Hermann Weber, Vol. III, Part 2. (London, 1929).
Grose, S.W. Catalogue of the McClean Collection of Greek Coins, Fizwilliam Museum, Vol. III: Asia Minor, Farther Asia, Egypt, Africa. (Cambridge, 1929).
Hersh, C. "Additions and Corrections to Martin J. Price’s 'The Coinage in the name of Alexander the Great and Philip Arrhidaeus'" in Studies Price.
Hill, G.F. A Catalogue of Greek Coins in the British Museum, Lycia, Pamphylia, and Pisidia. (London, 1897).
Imhoof-Blumer, F. Kleinasiatische Münzen. (Vienna, 1901-2).
Klein, D. Sammlung von griechischen Kleinsilbermünzen und Bronzen. Nomismata 3. (Milano, 1999).
Lindgren, H. Lindgren III: Ancient Greek Bronze Coins. (Quarryville, 1993).
Lindgren, H. & F. Kovacs. Ancient Bronze Coins of Asia Minor and the Levant. (San Mateo, 1985).
Meadows, A.R. “Amyntas, Side, and the Pamphylian Plain” in Studies Kroll.
Naville Co. Monnaies grecques antiques S. Pozzi. Auction 1. (4 April 1921, Geneva).
Olcay, N. & H. Seyrig. Trésors monétaires séleucides. I: Le trésor de Mektepini en Phrygie. (Paris, 1965).
Olçay, N. & O. Mørkholm. "The Coin Hoard from Podalia" in NC 1971.
Price, M.J. The Coinage in the name of Alexander the Great and Philip Arrhidaeus. (Zurich-London, 1991).
RPC Online - http://rpc.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/coins/
Sear, D. Greek Coins and Their Values, Vol. 2: Asia and Africa. (London, 1979).
Sear, D. Greek Imperial Coins and Their Values. (London, 1982).
Seyrig, H. “X. Side” in “Monnaies hellénistiques,” RN 1963.
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Denmark, The Royal Collection of Coins and Medals, Danish National Museum, Vol. 6: Phrygia to Cilicia. (West Milford, NJ, 1982).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland: Pfälzer Privatsammlungen, Part 4: Pamphylien. (Munich, 1993).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, Sammlung Hans Von Aulock, Vol. 2: Caria, Lydia, Phrygia, Lycia, Pamphylia. (Berlin, 1962).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, France, Bibliothèque Nationale, Cabinet des Médailles, Vol. 3: Pamphylia, Pisidia, Lycaonia, Galatia. (Paris, 1994).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain XII, The Hunterian Museum, Univ. of Glasgow, Part 1: Roman Provincial Coins: Spain-Kingdoms of Asia Minor. (Oxford, 2004).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Österreich, Sammlung Leypold, Kleinasiatische Münzen der Kaiserzeit, Vol. II: Phrygia – Commagene. (Vienna, 2004).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Turkey 1: The Muharrem Kayhan Collection. (Istanbul, 2002).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, United States, Burton Y. Berry. Part 2. Megaris to Egypt. (New York, 1962).
Tekin, O. "Aspendian 'Wrestlers' An Iconographic Approach" in MIMAA. (2000).
Thompson, M. "The Mints of Lysimachus," in Essays Robinson.

In the following pages I include in the province of Pamphylia only the strip of low-lying coast-land, some twenty to thirty miles in breadth, between Mount Solyma, the Lycian boundary, on the west, and the river Melas on the east. The mountainous country to the north, much of which was included in Byzantine Pamphylia, I have preferred to call Pisidia.

Aspendus (Balkyzi), on the river Eurymedon, about eight miles from the sea, was a populous and wealthy city. It began to coin silver on the Persic standard early in the fifth century B.C.

Circ. B.C. 500-400.


FIG. 317.

Naked warrior, armed with round shield and sword. Ε, ΕΣ, ΕΣΤ, ΕΣΤFΕ, ΕΣΠ, etc. Incuse square, Triskeles of three human legs; in field, usually a symbol.
AR Staters 17.1 grs.
Warrior, with shield and spear. (Fig. 317.) ΕΣΠ Incuse square, Triskeles, with lion running beside it.
AR Staters 170 grs.
Horseman armed with spear. ΕΣΤ, ΕΣΤFΕΔΙΙΥΣ, etc. Boar.
AR Dr. 84 grs.
ΕΣ Two-handled vase.
[Imhoof-Bloomer KM, p. 309, No. 1.]
ΕΣ Triskeles; incuse square.
AR 18.52 grs.
Vase without handles.
[Imhoof-Bloomer KM, No. 2.]
Triskeles.
AR 15 grs. or less.

To the end of the century belongs

Gorgoneion.
[Imhoof-Bloomer KM, p. 309, Nos. 4f.]
ΕΣΤ or no inscr. Head of Athena; incuse square.
AR 16.4 grs. or less.

The hoplite represents the soldiery for which Aspendus was famous.

Tissaphernes, whose head quarters in 411 were at Aspendus, issued staters, drachms, and hemidrachms of the Rhodian standard which have been attributed to this mint; obv. Head of satrap in Persian tiara; rev. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ or abbreviation, the Great King as archer, running; symbol on stater, galley. See supra, p. 597.

Circ. B.C. 400-300, and later.

Two wrestlers engaged; on the later specimens, magistrates’ letters between them. [Brandis, p. 494.] ΕΣΤFΕΔΙΙVΣ Incuse square, Slinger; in field, triskeles; also, rarely, letters.
AR Staters 170 grs.
Gorgoneion (on later specimens, of the Helios-type). Head of Athena [Imhoof-Bloomer KM, p. 310, Nos. 7, 8].
AR 15.5 grs. or less.

Aspendus was originally an Argive colony, and Brand is has conjectured that its coin-type, the Slinger, was chosen from the resemblance of the word σφενδονητης to the name of the town.

Concerning the Pamphylian legends on these and similar coins see Friedlander, Z. f. N., iv. 297; Imhoof, Z. f. N., v. 133; Bergk, Z. f. N., xi. 337; and Lanckoronski-Niemann-Petersen, Les Villes de la Pamphylie, i. p. 189. The form ΕΣΤFΕΔΙΙVΣ corresponds with the Greek ΑΣΠΕΝΔΙΟΣ. On a variety of the stater the words ΕΛVΨΑ ΜΕΝΕΤVΣ (B. M. C., Pl. XLIV. 16) are to be explained as a magistrate’s name. It would appear that the Greek element in the population of the town gradually decreased down to the time of the Macedonian conquest. The astonishing abundance of the silver money of Aspendus is a proof of the commercial importance of the town; and the number of countermarks and barbarous imitations shows that it circulated largely in the country. For these countermarks, which seem not to be later than about 360 B.C., see Imhoof, Kl. M., pp. 312f. The later staters many of which have the lunate C, continued to be issued probably until about 190 B.C.

The bronze coins of Aspendus appear to be as a rule later in date than the silver. The predominant types (see especially Imhoof, Kl. M., pp. 316 f.) are—

Circ. B.C. 400-190.

Head of Athena. Slinger; in field, two letters.
Æ .65
Forepart of horse, sometimes on shield. Sling between two letters.
Æ .7
Horse galloping. Slinger, Α C.
Æ .65
ΠΟ in monogram on shield. Head of Athena.
Æ .75-.4
Id., sometimes without shield. Triskeles.
Æ .75-.5
Shield. Head of Athena; letters.
Æ .65
Gorgoneion. Caduceus; letters.
Æ .55

After B.C. 190.

After the battle of Magnesia, Pamphylia was added to the dominions of the kings of Pergamum, under whose rule Aspendus appears to have been practically autonomous, for it was probably about B.C. 189 that it began to issue dated Alexandrine tetradrachms, ranging from year Α to ΚΘ and with ΑΣ before the seated Zeus on the rev. (Müller, Nos. 1196-1221). Symbol, on some specimens, a sling. These are the last silver coins known to have been struck at Aspendus. Many of them bear countermarks, of which the Seleucid (?) anchor and the tripod are the most frequent. To this period also belong bronze coins (see Imhoof, Kl. M., pp. 318 f.) reading ΑΣ or ΑC, ΑCΠЄΝΔΙΩΝ. Types— Star, rev. Club; Shield, rev. Caduceus; Horse, rev. Slinger or Hoplite; Forepart of horse, rev. Sling.

On the death of Attalus III, B.C. 133, Pamphylia passed, with the rest of his kingdom, to the Roman people.

Imperial coinage, Augustus to Saloninus. Inscribed, ΑCΠЄΝΔΙΩΝ. Titles—CЄΜΝΗC ЄΝΤЄΙΜΟΥ, ΝЄΩΚΟΡΩΝ (Salonina), ΑCΠЄΝΔΟC Η CΥΜΜΑΧΟC ΡΩΜЄΩΝ. Types—River Eurymedon; Herakles standing before Eurystheus (?), behind whom is a spear-bearer; Zeus seated and goddess seated or standing (Hera ?); Twin cultus-statues of veiled goddess, sometimes in temple, or held by Tyche (Imhoof, Kl. M., p. 319); Sarapis; Harpokrates; Isis Pharia; Hephaestos forging shield; Athena voting; City-goddess voting; Nemesis; Triple Hekate; Asklepios; Apollo with raven; Pantheistic deity; Tyche standing, or of the Antioch type; Two wrestlers; Athlete holding crown and lyre; Agonistic wreath with ΘЄΜΙΔΟC and numerals ΤΞΘ, ΤΟΒ or ΤΟЄ, indicating a period of ten or nine years; etc. Marks of value Ι or ΙΑ (= 10 assaria) in time of Valerian and Gallienus.

Attalia (Adalia), founded by Attalus II, king of Pergamum. Autonomous bronze from circ. B.C. 159 to Imperial times. Inscr., ΑΤΤΑΛΕΩΝ. Types—Poseidon; Dolphin; Trident; Rudder; Athena; Nike; Zeus; Hermes; etc. Imperial, Claudius to Corn. Valerianus. Inscr., ΑΤΤΑΛΕΩΝ. Types—Head or statue (sometimes in temple) of Athena; Pergaean Artemis in temple; Nemesis; Artemis with Athena and Nemesis; Head of Sarapis; Harpokrates; Helios in biga; Mên; Hephaestos forging shield; Agonistic crown on table ΙЄΡΟC ΟΙΚΟΥΜЄΝΙΚΟC: Wreath ΙЄΡΟC ΟΛΥΜΠΙΑ (or ΟΛΥΜΠΙΟC) ΟΙΚΟΥΜЄΝΙΚΟC; etc. Marks of value ΑΗ and Ι ( = 8 and 10 assaria) in time of Gallienus. Alliance coins with Athens (ΑΤΤΑΛЄΩΝ ΑΘΗΝΑΙΩΝ CΥΝΓЄΝΙΑ) and Side (q. v.).

Magydus (Laara), about five miles east of Attalia. Quasi-autonomous Æ (ΜΑ or ΜΑΓΥ, Bust of Athena, rev. Star in crescent; Head of Dionysos, rev. Hermes standing. Imperial, from Nero to Salonina. Inscribed, ΜΑΓΥΔЄWΝ and numerals from ΙΒ to ΜΑ, perhaps referring to games celebrated at irregular intervals (Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., 1908, p. 176). Types—Athena standing; Demeter seated or standing; Zens seated; Aphrodite standing; Hermes standing; Sarapis standing; Rape of Persephone; River-god (Katarrhaktes ?).

Olbia (?). To this town, on the borders of Lycia and Pamphylia, Six (N. Chr., 1898, p. 217) would attribute silver staters and drachms of the beginning of the fifth century, explaining the legend ΛΒΙ as the Lycian form of Ολβια, and the other legends as a dynast's name. The attribution is, however, for many reasons doubtful.

Nude winged figure running, with caduceus. ~ΜΞΙΜ~C Lion, head reverted; dotted incuse square.
AR 180.6 grs.
Similar. Λ ΒΙ (?) Lion, head reverted; incuse square.
AR 178.6 grs.
  „   ~ΜΞΙΜ~C Similar.
AR 177.5 grs.
Forepart of lion. ~~ΜΙΞΜΤ Head of Apollo; incuse square.
AR 46.8 grs.


Perga (Murtana) between the rivers Cestrus and Catarrhactes.

Circ. B.C. 190 to Imperial times.


FIG. 318.

Head of Greek Artemis, laureate (Fig. 318). ΑΡΤΕΜΙΔΟΣ ΠΕΡΓΑΙΑΣ Artemis huntress, holding wreath and sceptre; beside her, stag; in field, sphinx.
AR Attic tetradrachm
Id. Similar, but no sphinx.
AR Attic dr. and ½ dr., and Æ size .75
Id. ΑΡΤΕΜΙΔΟΣ ΠΕΡΓΑΙΑΣ Artemis holding torch and bow.
Æ .65
Heads of Apollo and Artemis jugate. ΑΡΤΕΜΙΔΟΣ ΠΕΡΓΑΙΑΣ Artemis holding torch and bow.
Æ .7-.6
Head of Artemis. ΑΡΤΕΜΙΔΟΣ ΠΕΡΓΑΙΑΣ Artemis in long chiton.
Æ .7
Id. ΑΡΤΕΜΙΔΟΣ ΠΕΡΓΑΙΑΣ Nike.
Æ .75
Id. ΠΕΡΓΑΙ Sphinx.
Æ .6
Sphinx. ΑΡΤΕΜΙ. ΠΕΡΓΑ. Artemis standing.
Æ .4
Cultus figure of Artemis Pergaea in temple. ΑΡΤΕΜΙΔΟΣ ΠΕΡΓΑΙΑΣ Artemis holding torch and bow.
Æ .75
Id. ΑΡΤΕΜΙΔΟΣ ΠΕΡΓΑΙΑΣ Bow and quiver, or quiver only.
Æ .75-.6
Sphinx. ~ΑΝΑTΑΣ ΠΡΕΙΙΑΣ (ϝανασσας Περγαιας) Artemis huntress holding wreath and sceptre.
Æ .75-.5

Imperial coinage. Silver ‘cistophori’ of Nerva and Trajan (cultus figure of DIANA PERG. in temple), perhaps struck at Side. Quasi-autonomous Æ of Flavian period, and Imperial from Tiberius to Aurelian and Tacitus. Inscribed, ΠЄΡΓΑΙΩΝ (or abbrev.), ΠЄΡΓЄΩΝ (Aurelian); ΠЄΡΓΗΙ; ΝЄΩΚΟΡΩΝ (from Valerian onwards); ΙЄΡΑ ΛΑΜΠΡΑ ЄΝΔΟΞΟC ΝЄΩΚΟΡΟC ΠЄΡΓΗ ΠΡΩΤΗ (or Α); ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛЄΩC ΠΑΝΦVΛΙΑC (Tacitus). Festivals: ΙЄΡΑ ΑVΓΟVCΤΙΑ, ΑVΓΟVCΤЄΙΑ ΙЄΡΟC, ΠVΘΙΑ ΑCVΛΙΑ ΙЄΡΟC or ЄΙЄΡΑ, ΙЄΡΟC, ΤΑΚΙΤΙΟC ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛ(Є)ΙΤΙΟC ΚΑΙCΑΡΙΑ(?), ΘЄΜΙC ΤΟ (= 370, cf. Aspendus), etc. Mark of value Ι from Valerian onwards. Types— Artemis Pergaea (ΑΡΤΕΜΙΔΟC ΠЄΡΓΑΙΑC, or ΠЄΡΓΑΙΑC ΑΡΤЄΜΙΔΟC ΑCVΛΟV) in temple, represented as a baetyl decorated with bands of dancing figures, guarded by sphinxes, star and crescent in field, eagle usually in pediment (see Roscher, Lex, s.v. Pergaia); numerous forms of Greek Artemis (e. g. in biga of stags); Asklepios and Telesphoros; Apollo; Aphrodite standing; Dionysos; Triple Hekate; Hephaestos forging shield; Pan; Hermes, Herakles and standard; Sarapis between two standards; Harpokrates; Zeus seated; Elpis; River-god Kestros; Head of City; Eagle in temple between standards; Female figure (ΘЄΜΙC) seated with palm and wreath; Agonistic chest with purses; Star and crescent, etc.

Alliance coins with Apollonia Mordiaeum (q.v.), Delphi (ΠЄΡΓΑΙΩΝ ΔЄΛΦΩΝ ΟΜΟΝΟΙΑ), Ephesus, Mytilene (q.v.) and Side.

Side (Eski-Adalia), a few miles west of the mouth of the Melas. Its chief type is a play on the word σιδη (pomegranate). Greek inscriptions do not appear on the early coins, the inhabitants (colonists from Cyme in Aeolis) having forgotten their original tongue (Arr. i. 26). The coins point to a connection with Holmi in Cilicia in the fifth and fourth centuries B.C.

Persic Standard. Circ. B.C. 500-400.

Pomegranate resting on dolphin. Head of Athena in Athenian helmet. Incuse square.
AR Staters and Tetrobol
 
Pomegranate; across it, olive-branch. Head of Apollo laureate. Incuse square. [MacDonald, Hunter Cat., ii. Pl. LVIII. 6; R. N., 1902, p. 344.].
AR Staters and Tetradrachm.
Pomegranate in olive-wreath. Dolphin and human eye. Incuse square.
AR Staters
Id. [MacDonald, Hunter Cat., ii. Pl. LVIII. 7.] Two dolphins and sprig of olive. Incuse square.
Pomegranate. Head of Athena in Corinthian helmet. Incuse square.
AR Staters, Tetrobols, and Obols.
Lion’s head.
[Imhoof-Blumer KM, p. 334, Nos. 2, 3.]
Id.
AR 12.5 grs.
Gorgoneion. [Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., 1908, p. 178.] Head of Apollo. Incuse square.
AR 15.6 gr.

Circ. B.C. 400-300.

Athena standing, resting on shield and holding owl; in field, usually pomegranate. Undetermined inscribed; Apollo Sidetes, chlamys over shoulders, standing before altar, holding laurel-branch and bow; behind, raven. Incuse square.
AR Staters
Similar, hut Athena holds Nike and spear; undetermined letters in field. Similar, but Apollo (sometimes without raven) rests on long laurel-branch and sacrifices at altar.
AR Staters
Similar to preceding, but on basis.
[N. Chr., 1897, Pl. IX. 6—8.]
Similar to preceding, but Apollo wears short chiton as well as chlamys.
AR Staters

For attempts to decipher the inscription (a form of Aramaic ?) on these coins see Six, N. Chr., 1897, pp. 199 ff.

Lion’s head.
[Imhoof-Blumer KM, p. 334, Nos. 5, 6.]
Head of Athena in Corinthian helmet.
AR 11.2 grs.

To the time of Alexander the Great and his successors belong the Alexandrine AV stater (Müller, Alex., 1248) and AR drachms of Philip III (Müller, Phil. III, 101, 102). In the third century Side began to issue bronze (Head of Athena, rev. Pomegranate; or Facing bust of Athena, rev. Athena fighting).

Attic Standard. Circ. B.C. 190-36.

After the fall of Antiochus, Side continued to be one of the chief mints on the south coast. The types of the new tetradrachms were perhaps suggested by those of Alexander’s AV stater.

Head of Athena in crested Corinthian helmet. Nike holding wreath; in field, pomegranate and magistrates’ names.
AR Staters and Drachms

Among the many countermarks found on these coins (see Mowat in Corolla Numism., pp. 189ff.) are some with a bow in case and initials of cistophoric mints : ΑΔΡΑ, ΑΓΙΑ, ΕΦΕ, ΛΑ°, ΠΕΡ, ΓΙΕΡΓΑ, ΣΑΛΗ, ΣΑΡ, ΣΤΡΑ, ΣΥΝ, ΤΡΑ, i. e. Adramyteum, Ephesus, Laodiceia, Pergamum, Sala (?), Sardes, Stratoniceia ad Caïcum, Synnada, Tralles. The tetradrachms were thus assimilated to the cistophori.

To this period may be attributed bronze coins (size .8-.5) with inscr. ΣΙΔΗΤΩΝ. Types—obv. Head of Apollo or of Athena, rev. Athena with spear and shield accompanied by serpent; Nike with wreath; Pomegranate; or Pomegranate between caduceus and head of Hermes.

From B.C. 36-25 Side was in the dominions of Amyntas of Galatia (q. v.), who continued in his own name the issue of the tetradrachms.

Imperial Times. Quasi-autonomous Æ and Imperial from Tiberius to Aurelian. Inscr. and Titles—CΙΔΗΤWΝ; Α ΝЄΩΚΟΡΩΝ (from Gallienus); Γ ΝЄΩΚΟΡΩΝ (Aurelian); CΙΔΗC ΝЄΩΚΟΡΟV; Α. Є. (= πρωτης ενδοξου ?); ΛΑΜΠΡΟΤΑΤΗC ЄΝΔΟΞΟV; ΠΙCΤΗC ΦΙΛΗC CVΜΜΑΧΟV ΡΩΜΑΙΩΝ ΜVCΤΙΔΟC CΙΔΗC (Z. f. N., v. 7); ΝΑVΑΡΧΙC; CΙΔΗ ΜVCΤΙC ΝЄΩΚΟΡΟC, etc. On the Neocories of Side see Pick in Jahreshefte, vii, pp. 39 f. Festivals, etc., ΙЄΡΟC ΜVCΤΙΚΟC; ΙЄΡΟC ΠVΘΙΟC ΜVCΤΙΚΟC ΟΙΚΟVΜЄΝΙΚΟC; ΙЄΡΑ ΠVΘΙΑ ЄΙЄΡΟC ΜVCΤΙΚΟC ΟΙΚΟVΜЄΝΙΚΟC; ΙЄΡΑ ΠVΘΙΑ ΠΡΩΤΑ ΠΑΜΦVΛΩΝ; ΙC ΑΙΩΝΑ ΤΑ ΠVΘΙΑ; ΙЄΡΟC ΟΙ.ΚΟVΜЄΝΙΚΟC ЄΙCΟΠVΘΙΟC; ЄΙCЄΛΑCΤΙΚΟC; ΔΩΡЄΑ, etc. Marks of value from Valerian, Є, ΑЄ, Η, Ι, ΙΑ. ΙΔ (= 5, 8, 10, 14 assaria). Names of deities, ΑΘΗΝΑ ΑCVΛΩ; ΑΠΟΛΛΩΝΟC CΙΔΗΤΟV ΝЄΩΚΟΡΟV; ΠVΘΙΟC; ΑCΚΛΗΠΙΩ ΝЄΩΚΟΡΩ. Types—Athena with spear, shield, and serpent; holding thunderbolt and crowning trophy; crowned by Artemis; voting; holding prow; holding temple; with Apollo and pomegranate tree; etc. Apollo wearing short chiton and chlamys, with long branch and phiale (Sidetes); radiate; as kitharoedos with Nike and agonistic table; with tripod; in temple; etc. City-goddess holding Nike or prize crown and part of ship. Tyche of Antioch type. Asklepios with human-headed serpent. Herakles and stag. Three Graces. Goddess on lion. River-god Melas. Harbor of Side. Galley. Three temples. Temple with eagle between two standards (the shrine in which the standards were kept). Soldier with vexillum under battlemented gates; etc.

Alliance coins with Delphi (CΙΔΗΤΩΝ ΔЄΛΦΩΝ ΟΜΟΝΟΙΑ), Myra, Aspendus, Attalia, Perga, Sagalassus, Alexandreia Aeg. (Athena and Isis).

Sillyum (above Assar-keui), between the Cestrus and Eurymedon. Autonomous Æ of third century B.C. and later with Pamphylian inscribed ΣΕΛΥ~ΙΥΣ (Σελυϝιυς, see Lanckoronski, Villes de Pamphylie, i. pp. 70 f.). Types—Head of Apollo, rev. Zeus seated, or fulmen; Head of bearded helmeted hero, rev. Figure of deity with raised r. hand.

In the second century B.C. Sillyum issued Alexandrine tetradrachms with ΣΙΛ and dates Γ to Ϛ (Müller, 1222-24), and bronze reading ΣΙΛΥΕΩΝ. Later the legend is CΙΛVЄΩΝ or CΙΛΛVЄΩΝ. Quasi-autonomous and Imperial from Tiberius to Aurelian. Title, ΦΙΛΗC CVΜΜΑΧΟΥ ΡΩΜΑΙΩΝ. Mark of value Ι from time of Gallienus. Chief Types—Hero fighting boar; Lion attacking bull; Deity standing with raised r. hand; Helmeted hero; Mên on horseback or standing, or his bust (ΘЄΟV ΜΗΝΟC ΑCVΛΟ); Apollo Kitharoedos; Bust of Apollo; Herakles before Eurystheus (?) as at Aspendus; Aphrodite standing arranging hair; Demeter with long torch before stele supporting vase; Dionysos; Pan seated; Veiled goddess to front with small figure beside her; Tyche of Antioch type; etc.