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The denarius was introduced in 211 B.C. The early denarii were anonymous with the obverse type: helmeted head of Roma right, X (mark of value = 10 asses) behind; and reverse type: Dioscuri on horseback galloping right, ROMA below.
Sermarini comments: Sydenham is listed first here because he included charts of the helmet types and earrings, which will be used in discussing plate coins from other reference.
- Sydenham 140 - Helmet earring combinations: A1a1, A1b1, A2a1, A2b1, B1a1, B4a1. c. 187 - 155 B.C., S. Italy (Rhegium?). These are the earliest denarii, distinguished by fine style with clear Greek influence. Helmets are simpler and earrings are derived from Greek didrachms of S. Italy.
Sermarini comments: Dates appear to be wrong. Probably struck 211 - c. 208 B.C. Sydenham appears to indicate the fine Greek style type always has ROMA in relief within a frame? Or if that is not the case, he just does not indicate if ROMA is ever on a tablet, or in the exergue, or incuse, or partially incuse on this type. He does note 5 different variations of the letter A. P.S. So far I have only found this type with ROMA in relief within a frame.
- Sydenham 166 - ROMA incuse on tablet; Helmet earring combinations: B1a3, B1c2
- Sydenham 167 - some letters of ROMA incuse, some in relief; Helmet earring combinations: B3b2, B4a1
- Sydenham 168 - ROMA in relief in frame with top, bottom and right side; Helmet earring combinations: B2a4
- Sydenham 169 - ROMA in relief under exergue line; Helmet earring combinations: B1a3, B1a4, B3a3, B3a4
All dated c. 182 -172 B.C., S.E. Italy mint (Apulia or Picenum?). Distinguished by broad thin flans, crude, shallow relief types (lesser Greek style).
Sermarini comments: Dates appear to be wrong. Probably struck c. 211 - c. 206 B.C. Sydenham identifies two or more Greek mints for anonymous denarius without a control symbols. One with fine Greek style, Sydenham 140, and another or others with lesser Greek style, Sydenham 166 - 169. Crawford 53/2 does seem to be Anonymous from Rome without control symbols, but Sydenham does not seem to attribute any anonymous denarii without control symbols to Rome.
Sermarini comments: Helmets and earrings on coins will rarely perfectly match the types above.
- RSC I 1 - ROMA incuse (=BMCRR Italy 91, Sydenham 166, Crawford 45/1). From 211. No mint identified.
Comments: no plate coin.
- RSC I 1a - ROMA partly incuse (=BMCRR Italy 90, Sydenham 167, Crawford 45/1). From 211. No mint identified.
Comments: plate coin has flan broad as described for Sydenham 167, lesser Greek Style, B1b1, ROMA between horizontal lines, RO in relief, MA incuse.
- RSC I 2 - Roma in relief (=BMCRR Rome 1, etc.; Sydenham 140, 168, etc.; Crawford 44/5). From 211. No mint identified. Comments: plate coin compact flan, high relief, Greek style (but not exceptional), B1b1. RSC I 2 does not distinguish between ROMA in relief in a frame (with a three sided boarder on the top, right, and bottom) or in exergue.
- SRCV I 36 - ROMA incuse (=Crawford 45/1, Sydenham 166, BMCRR Italy 91, RSC I 1). 211- 206 B.C. No mint identified. Comments: no plate coin.
- SRCV I 37 - Roma partially incuse (=Crawford 45/1, Sydenham 167, BMCRR Italy 90, RSC I 1a). 211- 206 B.C. No mint identified. Comments plate coin as RSC I 1a above.
- SRCV I 38 - Roma in relief (=Crawford 44/5, Sydenham 140, BMCRR Rome 1, RSC I 2). 211- 206 B.C. No mint identified. Comments: Plate coin has Rome style, Sydenham helmet/earring type E3C2. SRCV 38 same comments as RSC I 2 above.
- 44/5 - ROMA incuse on tablet or in linear frame (incuse or in relief in linear frame not specified) (=BMCRR Rome 1) From 211 B.C., Rome.
Pl. IX, 16. Appears to be Sydenham 167, lesser Greek style, B3b1, RO in relief, MA incuse.
Pl. IX, 24. Appears to be Sydenham 140, fine Greek style, B4a1, Roma in relief in a linear frame.
Crawford 's type 44/5 seems hopelessly confusing, combining at least two issues probably from different mints and should be split.
- 53/2 - ROMA in linear frame. After 211, Rome. Eight plate coins.
Pl. X, 13. Sydenham 169 var. Rome Style(?), E3C1, Roma in relief in below exergue line
Pl. X, 14. Sydenham 169 var. Rome Style(?), E3C1, Roma in relief below exergue line, second line below
Pl. X, 15. Sydenham 169 var. Rome Style(?), E3C1, Roma in relief in below exergue line
Pl. X, 16. Sydenham 168 var. Rome Style(?), E3C1, Roma in relief in linear frame with top, right side, and bottom
Pl. X, 17. Sydenham 168 var. Rome Style(?), E3C1, Roma in relief in linear frame with top, right side, and bottom
Pl. X, 18. Sydenham 168 var. Rome Style(?), E3C1, Roma in relief in linear frame with top, right side, and bottom
Pl. X, 19. Sydenham 168 var. Rome Style(?), E3C1, Roma in relief in linear frame with top, right side, and bottom
Pl. X, 20. Sydenham 169 var. Rome Style(?), E3C1, Roma in relief below exergue line, second line below
Sermarini comments: This type does appear to be Rome mint and does not appear to be uniquely identified by the other references. Better dating is needed (at the least an end date). The type could be broken into sub-types by the arrangement of ROMA in a frame or in the exergue, if that indicates different issues. However, the coins are so similar that the difference appears to be due to the engraver 's whim, which makes multiple types unnecessary.