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Titus Flavius Vespasianus was the hero / villain of the Judean rebellion and a very popular emperor. He presided over the empire during the cataclysmic eruption of Vesuvius, which buried half the towns of the Bay of Naples, including Pompeii. He was described as handsome, charming and generous. Titus once complained that he had lost a day because twenty-four hours passed without his bestowing a gift. He was, however, generous to a fault, which depleted the treasury. If he had ruled longer, he might have brought the empire to bankruptcy and lost his popularity. He died of illness in 81 A.D., succeeded by his brother Domitian.
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Butcher, K. Coinage in Roman Syria: Northern Syria, 64 BC - AD 253. Royal Numismatic Society Special Publication 34. (London, 2004).
Calicó, E.X. The Roman Avrei, Vol. I: From the Republic to Pertinax, 196 BC - 193 AD. (Barcelona, 2003).
Carradice, I.A. & T.V. Buttrey. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. II, Part 1: From AD 69 to 96. (London, 2007).
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Giard, J-B. Le monnayage de l'atelier de Lyon, De Claude Ier à Vespasien (41-78 après J.-C.), et au temps de Clodius Albinus (196-197 après J.-C.). (Wetteren, 2000).
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Circensean spectacles could be gratified, as they were always sure to be at his own enormous cost. The conuest of
Benignant and glorious indeed, yet eventful was the reign of this great prince; but too short for that generation of mankind in which he lived, and of which, for his active benevolene, he was justly named (amor deliciaeque) the admiration and the delight. From the effects of poison, administered, as is believed, by his own ungrateful and wicked brother Domitian, this renowned emperor expired on the 13th of September, year of
The coins of Titus are numerous. Some represent him with Vespasian, others with Domitian and with his daughter Julia.—On these, as associated with his brother, he is styled TIT. ET DOMIT. VESP. AVG. F.—Also CAESARES VESP. F.—LIBERI. IMP. AVG. VESP.
In animadverting on the mint of Titus, for some singular points in the order of which it is difficult to assign any precise reason, Eckhel refers, with an expression of astonishment, to the fact, that there is no coin of this emperor, bearing the date of v.c. 824 (A.D. 71), which attests the conquest of Judaea; whereas it was Titus alone who brought the Jewish war to a decisive close, and in consequence of which he enjoyed a triumph with his father. "Beyond all doubt (says the author of Doct. Num. Vet. vol. vi. P. 352), the medals which commemorate the conquest of Judaea, were without exception struck in subsequent years, although many coins are extant, with the head of Vespasian, up to the year in question. And, therefore, judging from the absence of this record on other undisputed coins of the same date, we may conclude it to be altogether probable that during this whole year (824) there were no coins of Titus struck, except those on which he appears in fellowship with Domitian. For had such been the case, it would seem strange that there should not be found, as a matter of course, on the coins of Titus, some memorial of a victory so signal, and so mainly attributable to his prowess and generalship."
The title of Imperator is variously placed on the coins of Titus, and in a manner differing from the general usage of all others of the Caesars. On those struck v.c. 822-823, that title is omitted to be given him.—In 824, on his medals of the first half year, he is called CAES. DESIG. IMP., or designatus imperator (imperator elect); whilst on coins struck later in the same year he is styled T. IMP. CAESAR. And thenceforward, until he became Augustus, he is constantly termed T. CAES. IMP., the other titles following. From that time also he continuously presents the laureated head (with however the radiated crown on many second brass), but never the bare head.—It was in v.c. 832 that Titus received the dignity of Augustus; and then we find that the IMP., which was invariably put last on the coins of Titus, as Caesar, was thenceforth put first on his coins as Augustus, and the inscription, by a perpetual rule, became IMP. TITVS CAES. VESP. AVG. &c.—On his coins struck in v.c. 824, he is called DESIGnatus IMPerator. "To this title," observes Eckhel, "it being the fruit of victory, no one was designated, or pre-ordained; but it was conferred after a victory by military acclamation. Moreover, Titus had been in the preceding year (832) already styled Imperator for the capture of
Nor is it less certain, that on the medals of Titus, the word IMP. Sometimes serves to denote colleagueship in government as well as the military title of Imperator, as conferred on account of victories. And from a chronological series of inscriptions on Titus’s coins, Eckhel shews that he was Imperator for the first time in the year of Rome 823, and that the same title was renewed to him every successive year, and in some instances twice, and even four times, in one year, successively till 833-834, when he was IMP. XVI. (Imperator for the sixteenth and last time.) Titus had two wives. The first Arricidia, daughter of Terullus, a Roman knight, whom he married when a young man, but who is not named on any medals. The other, Marcia Furnilla, born of an illustrious family, to whom a Greek medal has been, but in Eckhel’s opinion erroneously, ascribed.
Nor is it less certain, that on the medals of Titus, the word IMP. Sometimes serves to denote colleagueship in government as well as the military title of Imperator, as conferred on account of victories. And from a chronological series of inscriptions on Titus’s coins, Eckhel shews that he was Imperator for the first time in the year of Rome 823, and that the same title was renewed to him every successive year, and in some instances twice, and even four times, in one year, successively till 833-834, when he was IMP. XVI. (Imperator for the sixteenth and last time.)
Titus had two wives. The first Arricidia, daughter of Terullus, a Roman knight, whom he married when a young man, but who is not named on any medals. The other, Marcia Furnilla, born of an illustrious family, to whom a Greek medal has been, but in Eckhel’s opinion erroneously, ascribed.