- The Collaborative Numismatics Project
  Welcome Guest. Please login or register. The column on the left includes the "Best of NumisWiki" menu. If you are new to collecting, start with Ancient Coin Collecting 101. All blue text is linked. Keep clicking to endlessly explore. Welcome Guest. Please login or register. The column on the left includes the "Best of NumisWiki" menu. All blue text is linked. Keep clicking to endlessly explore. If you have written a numismatic article, please add it to NumisWiki.

Resources Home
Home
New Articles
Most Popular
Recent Changes
Current Projects
Admin Discussions
Guidelines
How to
zoom.asp
Index Of All Titles


BEST OF

AEQVITI
Aes Grave
Aes Rude
The Age of Gallienus
Alexander Tetradrachms
Ancient Coin Collecting 101
Ancient Coin Prices 101
Ancient Coin Dates
Ancient Coin Lesson Plans
Ancient Coins & Modern Fakes
Ancient Counterfeits
Ancient Glass
Ancient Oil Lamps
Ancient Weapons
Ancient Wages and Prices
Ancient Weights and Scales
Anonymous Folles
Anonymous Follis
Anonymous Class A Folles
Antioch Officinae
Aphlaston
Armenian Numismatics Page
Brockage
Byzantine
Byzantine Denominations
A Cabinet of Greek Coins
Caesarean and Actian Eras
Campgates of Constantine
Carausius
A Case of Counterfeits
Byzantine Christian Themes
Clashed Dies
Codewords
Coins of Pontius Pilate
Conditions of Manufacture
Corinth Coins and Cults
Countermarked in Late Antiquity
Danubian Celts
Damnatio Coinage
Damnatio Memoriae
Denomination
Denarii of Otho
Diameter 101
Die Alignment 101
Dictionary of Roman Coins
Doug Smith's Ancient Coins
Draco
Edict on Prices
ERIC
ERIC - Rarity Tables
Etruscan Alphabet
The Evolving Ancient Coin Market
EQVITI
Facing Portrait of Augustus
Fel Temp Reparatio
Fertility Pregnancy and Childbirth
Fibula
Flavian
Fourree
Friend or Foe
The Gallic Empire
Gallienus Zoo
Greek Alphabet
Greek Coins
Greek Dates
Greek Coin Denominations
Greek Mythology Link
Greek Numismatic Dictionary
Hellenistic Names & their Meanings
Hasmoneans
Hasmonean Dynasty
Helvetica's ID Help Page
The Hexastyle Temple of Caligula
Historia Numorum
Horse Harnesses
Identifying Ancient Metal Arrowheads
Illustrated Ancient Coin Glossary
Important Collection Auctions
Islamic Rulers and Dynasties
Julian II: The Beard and the Bull
Koson
Kushan Coins
People in the Bible Who Issued Coins
Imperial Mints of Philip the Arab
Later Roman Coinage
Latin Plurals
Latin Pronunciation
Library of Ancient Coinage
Life in Ancient Rome
List of Kings of Judea
Malloy Weapons
Maps of the Ancient World
Military Belts
Mint Marks
Monogram
Museum Collections Available Online
Nabataean Alphabet
Nabataean Numerals
The [Not] Cuirassed Elephant
Not in RIC
Numismatic Bulgarian
Numismatic Excellence Award
Numismatic French
Numismatic German
Numismatic Italian
Numismatic Spanish
Parthian Coins
Patina 101
Paleo-Hebrew Alphabet
Phoenician Alphabet
Pi-Style Athens Tetradrachms
Pricing and Grading Roman Coins
Reading Judean Coins
Representations of Alexander the Great
Roman Coin Attribution 101
Roman Militaria
Roman Mints
Roman Names
romancoin.info
Rome and China
Satyrs and Nymphs
Scarabs
Serdi Celts
Serrated
Siglos
The Sign that Changed the World
Silver Content of Parthian Drachms
Star of Bethlehem Coins
Statuary Coins
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum
Syracusian Folles
Taras Drachms with Owl Left
The Temple Tax
The Temple Tax Hoard
Test Cut
Travels of Paul
Tribute Penny
Tribute Penny Debate Continued (2015)
Tribute Penny Debate Revisited (2006)
Tyrian Shekels
Uncleaned Ancient Coins 101
Vabalathus
Venus Cloacina
What I Like About Ancient Coins
Who was Trajan Decius
Widow's Mite
XXI

   View Menu
 

The Coinage and Iconography in Sculpture of Britannicus

By Joe Geranio

Britannicus. AD 41-55. Æ Sestertius (29.81 g, 6h). Uncertain Balkan/Thracian mint. Struck under Claudius, circa AD 50-54. TI CLAVDIVSCAESAR • G • F • BRITANNICVS •, bareheaded and draped bust left / Mars, barefoot, but wearing full military outfit, including sagum (cape), advancing left, holding spear in outstretched right hand and round shield in left; large S C across field. RIC I pg. 130, note; von Kaenel, "Britannicus, Agrippina Minor und Nero in Thrakien," SNR 63 (1984), Type B, 5 (same dies); BMCRE 226 (Claudius).

The coinage of Britannicus has always been of interest to me because of the dynastic change that happened when Nero came to power in the principate. After the downfall of his mother Messalina, Britannicus' youth became a liability for Claudius. The lack of an adult heir made the emperor vulnerable to conspiracies aimed at overthrowing the dynasty. He died on 11 February 55, one day before his 14th birthday, less than a month before he was to assume manhood, According to Suetonius, Britannicus was good friends with the future Emperor Titus, whose father Vespasian had commanded legions in Britain. As part of the Flavians' attempts to link themselves with the Julio-Claudians, Titus claimed that he had been seated with Britannicus on the night he was killed. He even claimed to have tasted the poison, which resulted in a serious and long illness. Titus would go on to erect a gold statue of his friend, and issue coins in his memory. The above sestertius has been mentioned as a possible posthumous issue struck under Titus because of the friendship that is mentioned by Suetonius. CNG mentions the following about this issue: The attribution of the sestertii of Britannicus has been a matter of some speculation. Formerly, the issue had been attributed to Rome around the end of Claudius’ reign when Britannicus adopted the toga virilis. Mattingly, however, demonstrated that such an attribution was problematic, since the Rome mint was not producing aes at that time. Instead, he assigned the type to the early years of Titus, when many restoration and commemorative issues were being struck, a logical assumption given the reported close friendship between the two. More recently, substantial numbers of Latin coins (sestertii and dupondii) in the name of Britannicus, Agrippina Jr., Nero Caesar, and Nero Augustus have been found in the Balkan region, and von Kaenel argued for a Thracian origin for the series. Von Kaenel’s analysis is plausible, since the style and fabric of the coins, as well as the find spots, indeed suggest a Thracian mint, and such local issues would have been struck for use by the legions servicing the border."

RARE- ONLY ONE KNOWN PUBLISHED

Interesting Britannicus from IONIA, Clazomenae now in the BM. IONIA, Clazomenae. Britannicus. AD 41-55. Æ 16mm (3.91 g, 12h). Struck circa AD 48. Bare-headed and draped bust right / Cult-statue of Cybele, veiled and wearing polos, standing facing. RPC 2502.1 = E.S.G. Robinson, “Greek Coins From the Dardanelles,” NC 1921, 28. Extremely rare, only one specimen published (now in BM).

MORE PROVINCIAL ISSUES OF BRITANNICUS

MYSIA, Pergamum. Nero and Britannicus. Caesars, circa AD 50-54. Æ 17mm (2.57 g). Bare-headed and draped bust of Nero right / Bare-headed and draped bust of Britannicus right. RPC I 2371; Imhoof-Blumer, KM p. 31, 3. CNGCOINS.COM
PHRYGIA, Laodicea ad Lycum. Britannicus. AD 41-55. Æ (16mm, 4.08 g, 12h). Polemon, the son of Zeno, (hiereus for the fourth time). Bare head right / Tripod lebes surmounted by serpent. RPC 2915; SNG München -; SNG von Aulock -; SNG Copenhagen 560; BMC 163 (attributed to Nero). cngcoins.com
TROAS, Ilium. Claudius, with Britannicus. AD 41-54. Æ 18mm (6.37 g, 6h). Struck AD 41/2(?). Bare head of Claudius right / Bare head of Britannicus right; before, scepter surmounted by an owl and monogram. Bellinger T123; RPC I 2314; SNG Copenhagen 388. CNGCOINS.COM

LYDIA TRALLES - CLAUDIUS with MESSALINA 41-54 AD- BRITANNICUS - VERY RARE

Claudius and Messalina.,41-54 AD

AE-Bronze

43-48 AD

Vs. Τ Ι ΚΛΑ Ψ ΚΑΙ CΕ ΒΑ C The bust of Messalina facing the bust of Claudius (with laurel wreath).

Rs. Britannicus wearing toga standing left and holding 2 grain ears in his extended right hand. ΚΑΙ−ΣΑΡΕςΝ−ΒΡΕΤΑΝΝΙΚΟΣ.

RPC 2654

MACEDON, Thessalonica. Claudius, with Britannicus. AD 41-54. Æ (24mm, 8.05 g, 5h). Bare head of Claudius left; c/m: head of Apollo(?) right within circular incuse / Bare head of Britannicus left. RPC I 1588; for c/m: cf. Howgego 1. CNGCOINS.COM
PAPHLAGONIA, Sinope. Britannicus, with Nero as Caesar. AD 41-55. Æ 22mm (7.43 g, 2h). Dated CY 100 (AD 54/5). Laureate head of Britannicus left / Laureate head of Nero left; date in legend. RPC 2135; Amandry, Notes II, pp. 72-4; RG -.CNGCOINS.COM
JUDAEA, Caesaraea Panias. Claudius. AD 41-54. Æ (22mm, 10.65 g, 12h). Laureate head left / The three children of Claudius: to left, Antonia standing right, holding cornucopia; at center, Britannicus standing facing; to right, Octavia standing left, holding cornucopia. RPC I 4842; Rosenberger 11; SNG ANS -. CNGCOINS.COM
ACHAEA, Patrae. Claudius, with Britannicus, Antonia, and Octavia. AD 41-54. Æ 28mm (11.94 g, 5h). Struck circa AD 41-45. Bare head of Claudius left / Crossed cornucopias surmounted by draped busts of Antonia, on left, and Octavia, on right; between, draped bust of Britannicus left. RPC 1255; BCD Peloponnesos 543. CNGCOINS.COM
Britannicus. AD 41-55. Æ Sestertius (26.03 g, 6h). Uncertain Balkan/Thracian mint. Struck under Claudius, AD 50-54. Bare-headed and draped bust right / Mars advancing left, holding spear and shield. RIC I p. 130, note; von Kaenel, Thrakien, Type A, B3 (same obv. die). Near VF, brown surfaces, areas of minor roughness. The rarer of the two varieties of this very rare sestertius, with the portrait of Britannicus facing right not left. CNGCOINS.COM The attribution of Britannicussestertii has been a matter of some controversy. In earlier scholarship, the issue had been attributed to Rome around the end of Claudius’ reign when Britannicus adopted the toga virilis. Mattingly demonstrated that such an attribution was problematic, as the Roman mint was not producing aes at that time, and he assigned the type instead to the early years of Titus, when many restoration and commemorative issues were being struck. More recently, substantial numbers of Latin coins (sestertii and dupondii) in the name of Britannicus, Agrippina Jr., Nero Caesar, and Nero Augustus have been found localized in the Balkan region, and von Kaenel argued for a Thracian origin for the series. Von Kaenel’s analysis must be correct, for the style and fabric of the coins, as well as the find spots, indicate a Thracian mint, and there is nothing in the types or legends to suggest that any of these coins are posthumous. These local issues would have been struck for use by the legions servicing the border.
CARIA, Alabanda. Britannicus. AD 41-55. Æ 31mm (17.57 g, 12h). Bare-headed bust right, slight drapery on far shoulder / Apollo Cissius standing facing with quiver slung across back, head left, holding bird and bow; to left at feet, sheep standing left. RPC 2818.5 (this coin; illustrated); SNG München -; SNG von Aulock -.CNGCOINS.COM
IONIA, Smyrna. Britannicus. AD 41-55. Æ (16mm, 3.05 g, 12h). Philistos and Eikadios, magistrates. Bareheaded and draped bust right / Nike standing right, holding trophy over shoulder. Klose type XXXI; RPC I 2476 (Nero). CNGCOINS.COM
MOESIA INFERIOR, Tomis. Britannicus. AD 41-55. Æ 14mm (2.21 g, 6h). Laureate head right / Three grain-ears flanked by torches. RPC I 1834; AMNG 2585. CNGCOINS.COM
KINGS of BOSPORUS. Cotys I, with Britannicus. AD 45/6-68/9. Æ 8 Units (18mm, 5.34 g, 12h). Struck AD 49-54. Diademed and draped bust of Sauromates right / Bare head of Britannicus right; monogram to left, mark of value to right. RPC I 1926; MacDonald 328; Anokhin 345; Frolova & Ireland p. 78, A/c, 1 (same dies). CNGCOINS.COM

Aigai (AD 43-55) AE 16 - Britannicus
Britannicus, son of Claudius and Messalina. Circa 43-55 AD. AE16 (2.90 gm). Chaleos, magistrate. Bare head of Britannicus right / Zeus standing left, holding eagle and sceptre.
Only 4 specimens cited in RPC. Extremely rare.

CILICIA. Aegeae. Britannicus, Caesar. Æ 22mm (7.28 g, 12h). dated CY 100 (53/4 AD). Bare head right / Legend and date (ET) P in four lines within wreath. SNG Levante Supp. 402 (this coin); SNG France -. CNGCOINS.COM
MYSIA, Pergamum. Britannicus and Nero, Caesars. 50-54 AD. Æ 19mm (3.78 gm). Bare head of Britannicus right / Bare head of Nero right. RPC I 2371; SNG France 2049; SNG Copenhagen -.CNGCOINS.COM
MYSIA, Cyzicus. Britannicus, Antonia, and Octavia, children of Claudius. 41-54 AD. Æ 13mm (1.96 gm). NEOC [ΓΕΡΜΑΝΙΚOC], KY, bare head of Britannicus right / AN above, confronted busts of Antonia and Octavia, [OKTA] below. RPC I 2248; SNG France -; BMC Mysia -. CNGCOINS.COM

The name "New (or young) Germanicus" dates this rare coin to before 43 AD, when Claudius' son was named Britannicus after his father's conquest of Britain. On some of these coins the names of his daughters are reversed, with OKTA being above the portraits.

AEOLIS, Aegae. Britannicus, son of Claudius and Messalina. Circa 43-55 AD. Æ 16mm (2.90 gm). Chaleos, magistrate. Bare head of Britannicus right / Zeus standing left, holding eagle and sceptre. RPC I 2431; SNG Copenhagen -. CNGCOINS.COM

MYSIA, Pergamum. Nero, as Caesar, and Britannicus. Circa 50-54 AD. Æ 15mm (3.55 gm). Bare head and draped bust of Nero right / Bare head and draped bust of Britannicus right. RPC I 2371. CNGCOINS.COM

SYRIA, Trachonitis. Caesarea Philippi (Paneas). Claudius and Britannicus. 41-54 AD. Æ 19mm (7.30 gm). Laureate head of Claudius left / Bare head of Britannicus right. RPC I 4843; Maltiel-Gerstenfeld 141. CNGCOINS.COM

The interesting thing about the portraiture of Britannicus (Tiberius Claudius Caesar Britannicus) is even rarer than his coin portraiture, and that is his portraiture in the round, we have no portraits that I am aware of that any portraits in the round have survived with inscribed base, just look at all the controversy over his coin portraits? ( see issues from Smyrna and Pergamum). Britannicus died at 14 years of age and the portrait statues of Britannicus are sometimes confused with Nero. This makes sense as they would have both not maturated yet and imperial propaganda dictated hairstyle and any idealization. Be that as it may, there is one portrait head in the MFA museum in Boston that I feel is Britannicus. See link here for all views of portrait: http://educators.mfa.org/objects/detail/243637?classification=Sculpture&pageSize=80&page=53

Here are a few examples of the Portraits in the round of Britannicus: Most of his portrait sculpture is debated and subjective? Here are a few examples below.

Seen as either Gaius and Lucius Caesar? or Nero and Britannicus?

Roman; c. 25-60 CE; Sebasteion; Lucius and Gaius Caesar; Aphrodisias; Aphrodisias Museum

This statue from Pompeii is considered to be a portrait of Britannicus by some scholars. It even carried the name "so called Britannicus" It dates from Neronian times. photo by Ck Orange

This statue from Pompeii is considered to be a portrait of Britannicus by some scholars. It even carried the name "so called Britannicus"

It dates from Neronian times. photo by Ck Orange

Britannicus photos courtesy DAIDAI Used for Educational Use only under their guidelines

Florenz, Galleria degli Uffizi

Bibliography:

H. Dütschke, Antike Bildwerke in Oberitalien. Die antiken Marmorbildwerke der Uffizien in Florenz III (1878) Cat. no. 126;

J. J. Bernoulli, Römische Ikonographie II 1 (1886) 367
W. Gercke, Untersuchungen zum römischen Kinderporträt von den Anfängen bis in hadrianische Zeit (1968) 104 FK 28
Mansuelli, Uffizi II (1961) 68 Nr. 61

Britannicus- DAI Used for Educational Use only under their guidelines

Hannover, Museum

Portrait of Nero or in my opinion Britannicus? Note: Hair same style as the MFA link on frontal portrait.

DAI Used for Educational Use only under their guidelines

see: http://educators.mfa.org/objects/detail/243637?classification=Sculpture&pageSize=80&page=53

Tigani (Pythagoreion) / Samos, Museum

Bibliography:

L. Curtius, MdI 1, 1948, 72 Pl. 26, 1;
H. R. Goette, Studien zu römischen Togadarstellungen, Beiträge zur Erschließung hellenistischer und kaiserzeitlicher Skulptur und Architektur 10 (Mainz 1990) 125 Cat. no. Ba 247 Pl. 10, 6;
V. Poulsen, Nero, Britannicus and Others. Iconographical Studies, ActaArch 22, 1951, 125 Ill. 15. 16 Cat. no. 8;
R. Tölle-Kastenbein, Das Kastro Tigani. Die Bauten und Funde griechischer, römischer und byzantinischer Zeit, Samos XIV (1974) 174 Ill. 331;










Portrait of Nero or in my opinion Britannicus? Note: Hair same style as the MFA link on frontal portrait.

DAI Used for Educational Use only under their guidelines

Eleusis, Eleusina, Archäologisches Museum

This section of bibliography takes into all aspects of portrait study, including restoration of portraits and the difficulty of young adults and children and the problems that may arise. This is the case with Nero and Britannicus. With Nero's portraiture you will see the beginning of his trademark coma formatta locks which later mature into the Neronian curls we know so well. Youthful portraits that are found without any inscription or with another statue groups are very difficult to identify. Such is the case with Britannicus who died at 14 years of age.

Bibliography:

For a great understanding of Roman / and Julio Claudian Portrait study see : Pollini, John- Review of . D. Boschung's , "Die Bildnisse des Augustus"
D. Boschung, Gens Augusta: Untersuchungen zu Aufstellung, Wirkung und Bedeutung der Statuengruppen des julisch-claudischen Kaiserhauses. MAR 32 (Mainz 2002) 111 Cat. no. 36.2;
F. W. Goethert, RM 54, 1939, 205;
H. R. Goette, Studien zu römischen Togadarstellungen, Beiträge zur Erschließung hellenistischer und kaiserzeitlicher Skulptur und Architektur 10 (Mainz 1990) 38 f. 125 Cat. no. Ba 248 Pl. 11, 1;
F. Havé-Nikolaus, Untersuchungen zu den kaiserzeitlichen Togastatuen griechischer Provenienz (1998) 98 ff. Cat. no. 10 Pl. 8, 2;
H. Möbius – W.Wreder, AA 1927, 349;
C. C. Vermeule, Roman Imperial Art in Greece and Asia Minor (Cambridge 1968) 384 Ill. 113 Cat. no. 5;
D. Boschung, Gens Augusta: Untersuchungen zu Aufstellung, Wirkung und Bedeutung der Statuengruppen des julisch-claudischen Kaiserhauses. MAR 32 (Mainz 2002) 136 Cat. no. 57.2;
H. R. Goette, Studien zu römischen Togadarstellungen, Beiträge zur Erschließung hellenistischer und kaiserzeitlicher Skulptur und Architektur 10 (Mainz 1990) 33. 117 Note 142;
Ch. B. Rose, Dynastic Coommemoration and Imperial Portraiture in the Julio-Claudian Period (1997) 88 Cat. no. 9,2;
L. Sensi, AnnPerugia 20 N.S. 6, 1982/83, 434 ff. Pl. 5, 1C. 2B. E; 6. 7, 2; 8;
D. Boschung, Gens Augusta: Untersuchungen zu Aufstellung, Wirkung und Bedeutung der Statuengruppen des julisch-claudischen Kaiserhauses. MAR 32 (Mainz 2002) 133 Cat. no. 51.1;
L. Curtius, Ikonographische Beiträge VIII: Jugenbildnisse des Tiberius, RM 50, 1935, 268 Cat. no. C;
J. Fink, in: Antike und Universalgeschichte. Festschrift H. E. Stier zum 70. Geburtstag am 25.5.1972 (1972) 284 Pl. 6, 1;
H. Jucker, JdI 92, 1977, 222 ff.;
Nationalmuseets Vejledninger. Antikensamlingen. Orientalsk og klassisk Oldtrid (1955) 96 Ill. 31 Cat. no. 16. 16A;
F. Poulsen, Sculptures antiques des musées de province espagnols (1933) 43 f. Ill. 62–64;
V. Poulsen, Nero, Britannicus and Others. Iconographical Studies, ActaArch 22, 1951, 120 Note 8;
V. Poulsen, Claudische Prinzen. Studien zur Ikonographie des ersten römischen Kaiserhauses, Deutsche Beiträge zur Altertumswissenschaft 14 (Baden-Baden 1960) 35 Note 71;
D. Boschung, Die Bildnisse des Caligula. Das römische Herrscherbild I 4 (Berlin 1989) 64 Note 52;
D. Boschung, Gens Augusta: Untersuchungen zu Aufstellung, Wirkung und Bedeutung der Statuengruppen des julisch-claudischen Kaiserhauses. MAR 32 (Mainz 2002) 133 Cat. no. 51.2;
É. Espérandieu, Recueil général des Bas-Reliefs, Statues et Bustes de la Gaule Romaine. Lyonnaise - Première partie III (1910) Cat. no. 2450;
A. Garcia y Bellido in: Mélanges d’archéologie et d’histoire offerts à A. Piganiol I (1966) 491 Note 13;
H. v. Heintze, Die antiken Porträts in Schloss Fasanerie bei Fulda (Mainz 1968) 99
[zu Nr. 20];
H. Jucker, H. Jucker, Die Prinzen auf dem Augustus-Relief in Ravenna, in: P. Ducrey u.a. (Hrsg.), Mélanges d’histoire ancienne et d’archéologie offerts à Paul Collart (Lausanne 1976) 240 Note 13 III A;
H. Jucker, JdI 92, 1977, 218. 221 Note 48;
F. Poulsen, Sculptures antiques des musées de province espagnols (1933) 44 f. Cat. no. 5;
V. Poulsen, Nero, Britannicus and Others. Iconographical Studies, ActaArch 22, 1951, 120 Note 8;
F. Poulsen, ActaArch 25, 1954, 298 Ill. 11. 12;
V. Poulsen, Claudische Prinzen. Studien zur Ikonographie des ersten römischen Kaiserhauses, Deutsche Beiträge zur Altertumswissenschaft 14 (Baden-Baden 1960) 35 Note 69;
M. Bergmann – P. Zanker, JdI 96, 1981, 321 Note 6;
D. Boschung, Gens Augusta: Untersuchungen zu Aufstellung, Wirkung und Bedeutung der Statuengruppen des julisch-claudischen Kaiserhauses. MAR 32 (Mainz 2002) 26 Cat. no. 2.10 Pl. 19, 1. 3; 20, 1;
W. B. Gercke, Untersuchungen zum römischen Kinderporträt von den Anfängen bis in hadrianische Zeit (Hamburg 1968) 88 f. Cat. no. FK 10;
U. W. Hiesinger, AJA 79, 1975 115 Note 14 Pl. 20, 29;
J. Inan – E. Alföldi-Rosenbaum, Römische und frühbyzantinische Porträtplastik aus der Türkei. Neue Funde (Mainz 1979) 87 Note 5. 6;
H. Jucker, ArtVirg 1973, 2, 23 Note 35 Ill. 17;
V. Poulsen, Nero, Britannicus and Others. Iconographical Studies, ActaArch 22, 1951, 121 Cat. no. 2;
C. Saletti, Il ciclo statuario della basilica di Velleia (1968) 49 Cat. no. 11 Pl. 25–28;
P. Arndt – F. Bruckmann (Hrsg.), Griechische und römische Porträts (München 1891-1942) Cat. no. 691, 692;
L. Curtius, MdI 1, 1948, 63 Pl. 14. 15;
K. Fittschen – P. Zanker, Katalog der römischen Porträts in den Capitolinischen Museen und den anderen kommunalen Sammlungen der Stadt Rom 1. Kaiser- und Prinzenbildnisse, BeitrESkAr 3 (Mainz 1985) Cat. no. 19 Pl. 19. 21. 22;
Helbig4 II Cat. no. 1428;
Z. Kiss, L’iconographie des princes julio-claudiens au temps d’Auguste et de Tibère (Warschau 1975) 66 ff. Ill. 159. 160;
V. Poulsen, Nero, Britannicus and Others. Iconographical Studies, ActaArch 22, 1951, 131 Ill. 21 Cat. no. 3;
H. Stuart Jones, The Sculptures of the Museo Capitolino (1912) 355 Cat. no. 16 Pl. 88;
W. Amelung, Die Sculpturen des Vaticanischen Museums II (1908) 570 f. Cat. no. 385;
M. Bergmann – P. Zanker, JdI 96, 1981, 322 Note 7;
R. Bianchi Bandinelli, RM 47, 1932, 159 Cat. no. 5;
K. Fittschen, Katalog der antiken Skulpturen in Schloss Erbach (Berlin 1977) 35
[Replik Nr. 5];
H. G. Frenz, Zur Benennung des \"Mainzer Kopfes\", AKorrBl 12, 1982, 374 Note 36;
U. W. Hiesinger, AJA 79, 1975 116 Note 19;
H. Jucker, Iulisch-claudische Kaiser- und Prinzenporträts als \"Palimpseste\", JdI 96, 1981, 284 ff. Ill. 55–62 Cat. no. 1;
V. Poulsen, Nero, Britannicus and Others. Iconographical Studies, ActaArch 22, 1951, 120 Cat. no. 4;
P. Arndt – F. Bruckmann (Hrsg.), Griechische und römische Porträts (München 1891-1942) Cat. no. 841. 842;
O. Benndorf – R. Schöne, Die antiken Bildwerke des Lateranensischen Museums (1867) Cat. no. 153;
L. Curtius, Ikonographische Beiträge VIII: Jugenbildnisse des Tiberius, RM 50, 1935, 309 Note 7;
A. Giuliano, Catalogo dei ritratti romani del Museo Profano Lateranense (1957) Cat. no. 15 Pl. 10;
H. v. Heintze, Die antiken Porträts in Schloss Fasanerie bei Fulda (Mainz 1968) 38;
Helbig4 I Cat. no. 1104;
H. Jucker, Gnomon 43, 1971, 807;
L. Polacco, Il volto di Tiberio (Roma 1955) 154;
V. Poulsen, Nero, Britannicus and Others. Iconographical Studies, ActaArch 22, 1951, 119 Ill. 3 Cat. no. 1;
L. Curtius, MdI 1, 1948, 70 Pl. 20, 3. 4;
H. Dütschke, Antike Bildwerke in Oberitalien. Antike Bildwerke in Vicenza, Venedig, Catajo, Modena, Parma und Mailand V (1882) Cat. no. 13;
U. W. Hiesinger, AJA 79, 1975 117 Note 26;
V. Poulsen, Nero, Britannicus and Others. Iconographical Studies, ActaArch 22, 1951, 125 Cat. no. 9;
G. Traversari, Museo Archeologico di Venezia. I Ritratti (1968) 47 f. Ill. 31 a. b Cat. no. 28;
D. Boschung, Gens Augusta: Untersuchungen zu Aufstellung, Wirkung und Bedeutung der Statuengruppen des julisch-claudischen Kaiserhauses. MAR 32 (Mainz 2002) 128 f. Cat. no. 45.2 Pl. 95, 2;
L. Curtius, MdI 1, 1948, 63 Pl. 15. 16;
É. Espérandieu, Recueil général des Bas-Reliefs de la Gaule Romaine. Aquitaine II (1908) Cat. no. 957;
K. Fittschen – P. Zanker, Katalog der römischen Porträts in den Capitolinischen Museen und den anderen kommunalen Sammlungen der Stadt Rom 1. Kaiser- und Prinzenbildnisse, BeitrESkAr 3 (Mainz 1985) 19 Cat. no. 19
[Replik d];
G. Lippold, RM 33, 1918, 22 Note 2;
V. Poulsen, Nero, Britannicus and Others. Iconographical Studies, ActaArch 22, 1951, 131 Cat. no. 4;
F. Queyrel, RANarb 25, 1992, 78 ff. Ill. 10–13
D. Boschung, Gens Augusta: Untersuchungen zu Aufstellung, Wirkung und Bedeutung der Statuengruppen des julisch-claudischen Kaiserhauses. MAR 32 (Mainz 2002) 91 Cat. no. 27.1 Pl. 76, 1. 3;
M. Fuchs, Untersuchungen zur Ausstattung römischer Theater in Italien und den Westprovinzen des Imperium Romanum (1987) 173 Pl. 70, 1–4;
E. M. Koppel, Die römischen Skulpturen von Tarraco, MF 15 (1985) 14 f. Cat. no. 2 Pl. 2;
Ch. B. Rose, Dynastic Coommemoration and Imperial Portraiture in the Julio-Claudian Period (1997) 134 Ill. 177 Cat. no. 63,1;
W. Amelung, Die Sculpturen des Vaticanischen Museums I (1903) 632 Cat. no. 494 Pl. 67;
D. Boschung, Gens Augusta: Untersuchungen zu Aufstellung, Wirkung und Bedeutung der Statuengruppen des julisch-claudischen Kaiserhauses. MAR 32 (Mainz 2002) 140 Cat. no. 71.3;
K. Fittschen – P. Zanker, Katalog der römischen Porträts in den Capitolinischen Museen und den anderen kommunalen Sammlungen der Stadt Rom 1. Kaiser- und Prinzenbildnisse, BeitrESkAr 3 (Mainz 1985) 18 f. Cat. no. 18 Pl. 18;
Helbig4 I Cat. no. 337;
D. Kent Hill, AJA 43, 1939, 406 f. Ill. 5. 10;
R. Lanciani, BCom 9, 1881, 30. 246 Cat. no. 2 Pl. 1;
C. Pietrangeli, BCom 72, 1946-48, 58 f. Cat. no. 3;
V. Poulsen, Nero, Britannicus and Others. Iconographical Studies, ActaArch 22, 1951, 127 f. Cat. no. 14;
F. Poulsen, ActaArch 25, 1954, 46 Note 17;
D. Boschung, Gens Augusta: Untersuchungen zu Aufstellung, Wirkung und Bedeutung der Statuengruppen des julisch-claudischen Kaiserhauses. MAR 32 (Mainz 2002) 112;
W. Dörpfeld, Troja 1893: Bericht über die im Jahre 1893 in Troja veranstalteten Ausgrabungen (Leipzig 1894) 138 ff. Cat. no. 6;
P. Frisch, Inschriften griechischer Städte Kleinasiens. Ilion (1975) 194 Cat. no. 91;
Ch. B. Rose, Dynastic Coommemoration and Imperial Portraiture in the Julio-Claudian Period (1997) 178 f. Cat. no. 120;

References

  • Barrett, Anthony (1999). Agrippina: Sex, Power, and Politics in the Early Empire. New Haven: Yale University Press.
  • Dio Cassius. Historia Romanum. Books LX-LXII.
  • Levick, Barbara (1990). Claudius. New Haven: Yale University Press.
  • Momigliano, Arnaldo (1934). Claudius: the Emperor and His Achievement. Cambridge: Trans. W.D. Hogarth. W. Heffer and Sons.
  • Oost, S.V. (1958). "The Career of M. Antonius Pallas". American Journal of Philology 79: 113–139.
  • Scramuzza, Vincent (1940). The Emperor Claudius. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  • Suetonius. Twelve Caesars. Life of Claudius.
  • Suetonius. Twelve Caesars. Life of Titus.
  • Tacitus. Annals. Books XI-XIII.
  • Thanks to Classical Numismatic Group for all coin photos
  • Portraits of Caligula: The Seated Figure? Joe Geranio, pg 12, on physiognomy on typology of portraiture in the round