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Roman Coin Attribution 101
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Uncleaned Ancient Coins 101
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A Star appears before the head of Mars, on a coin of the Rustia family, because the year was believed to begin with the month Martius, which took its name from the God of War.
Stars are seen on some one coin or other of nearly all the emperors, from Julius Caesar to Justinian, and even still further down the series.
Long-haired Star (Stella Crinita), or comet, appears on denarii of Augustus, referring to an extraordinary meteor seen immediately after the death of Julius Caesar. This cometary sign is placed on some medals behind the portrait of the murdered dictator, or occupies the reverse side of the medal.
A Star, under the heads of Mercury and Hercules, on coins of Vespasian (Khell 33-34).
----within a crescent moon, as in Domitian, Trajan, Septimius Severus, and Caracalla.
----by the side of an emperor sacrificing, as in Elagabalus.
Its frequent occurrence on coins of this Emperor was associated with his Syrian birth and office as priest of the sun at Emesa.----See Bimard i. p. 399-426.
A Star appears opposite the personification of the Sun (SOLI INVICTO), as in Septimius Severus, Elagabalus, Gallienus, Maximinus Daia, Licinius I, and Constantinus M.
----between two military figures, with SALVS REIPVB., as in Theodosius M.
----by the side of Fortune, as in Constantius I Chlorus.
----before the figure of Genius Augusti, as in Licinius I.
----above two emperors, standing with joined hands, as in Theodosius jun.
----is seen over the spirit (anima) of Constantine the Great, drawn in a quadriga.
----in a crown of laurel, on coins of Constantine and Constantius II.
A Star and Cross appear on coins of Constantinus Magnus; also of Flaccilla, wife of Theodosius, and Aelia Eudoxia. Also on Justinianus II and other medals of the Byzantine series.
A Star at the back of Venus, as in a coin of Soemias.----See Venus Caelestis.
----under Vesta, seated.----(Khell, Sup. 74-75.)
----near the figure of Victory, as in Aurelian, Valentinian I, and Gratian.
Two Stars over the bonneted heads of the Dioscuri, who are distinguished thus as often as they are represented on coins or other ancient monuments.----See Castor and Pollux.
----over the head of a bull, as in Julian II the Apostate.----See Securitas Reipub.
----under which Cupid sits on a dolphin, as in silver of Augustus, inscribed S.P.Q.R.
----above the wolf, with Romulus and Remus and the epigraph
VRBS ROMA, on coins of Constantine the Great.
Six Stars on a globe, on which Faustina is seated, with epigraph Aeternitas.
----surrounding the figure of Jupiter.----See IOVI DEFENSori SALVTIS AVG.
----amidst which a naked child sits on a globe, appear on a silver coin of Domitilla, wife of Domitian.
Seven Stars encompassing Augustus, in a chariot drawn by elephants, as on coins of Caligula and Claudius.
----around the figure of Faustina Senior, on a consecration coin of that empress.
Six Stars, surrounding a crescent moon, appear on coins of several families; and on some of Augustus, Hadrian, Faustina Senior, Faustina Junior, Septimius Severus, and Julia Domna.
Stars on Roman imperial coins sometimes serve to distinguish figures, as those representing the children of reigning princes; and, in other instances, their deceased offspring received into the ranks of the gods, and placed amongst the stars.
A Starry sphere, on which stands a phoenix, appears on a coin of Constans.----See FEL TEMP REPARATIO.
----on which stands an eagle, on a consecration medal of Lucius Verus.
----on which the emperor is seated, forms the type of a bronze medallion of Severus Alexander.----See TEMP FELICITAS