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Seleucid Era (S.E.)

The Seleukid Era is based on a lunar calendar, beginning in the autumn of 312 B.C.

Convert the Seleukid year to the corresponding B.C. or A.D. year as follows:
If the Seleukid year (x) is less than 312, the corresponding B.C. interval is from autumn 313x to autumn 312x.
If the Seleukid year (x) is greater than 312, the corresponding A.D. interval is from autumn x-312 to autumn x-311.

The Seleukid era or Anno Graecorum (AG) was a system of numbering years in use by the Seleukid Empire, and other ancient and not so ancient states. The era dates from Seleukos I Nicator's re-conquest of Babylon in 312/311 B.C. after his exile in Ptolemaic Egypt, considered by Seleukos and his court to mark the founding of the Seleukid Empire.

The Babylonian calendar new year falls on 1 Nisanu (3 April in 311 B.C.), so in this system year 1 of the Seleukid era corresponds roughly to April 311 B.C. to March 310 B.C.

The Macedonian court adopted the Babylonian calendar (substituting the Macedonian month names) but reckoned the New Year to be in the autumn (the exact date is unknown). In this system, year 1 of the Seleukid era corresponds to the period from autumn 312 B.C. to autumn 311 B.C. By the 7th century A.D. the west Syrian Christians settled on 1 October-30 September.

Jews, however, began the start of each new Seleukid year with the lunar month Tishri.

These differences in the beginning of the year mean that dates may differ by one. For example, the restoration of the temple of Jerusalem by Judas Maccabaeus, approximately 15 December 164 B.C., fell in the year 148 of the Seleukid Era according to Jewish (and Babylonian) calculation, but in the year 149 for the Seleukid court.

The Seleukid Era was used on coins up to the 3rd century A.D. (some coins of the Roman usurper Uranius Antoninus dated to the Seleukid year 565, i.e. 253/4 A.D., and some coins of the Parthian king Vologases VI dated to the Seleukid year 539, i.e. 227/8 A.D.). Even after that, the Seleukid Era was used outside of coinage for a long time, especially by the Church of the East. In the 6th century A.D., for instance, the Zebed inscription from Syria is dated the 24th of Gorpiaios, 823 (24 September, 512 A.D.), and in the writings of John of Ephesus use Seleukid Era dates. Syriac chroniclers continued to use it up to the reign of Michael the Syrian in the 12th century A.D. The Seleukid Era was still used by a Christian community in the Chinese port city Zayton (modern Quanzhou), in the 14th century A.D. The Jewish / Babylonian calendar was used by Yemenite Jews until modern times, and continues to be used by them for certain ritual purposes even today.


SeleukidTraces.info: http://www.seleukidtraces.info/information/ci_apameia_on_the_axios
Wikipedia - Seleucid Era: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seleucid_era

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