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XI. Samaria

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Antipatris (probably Kafr Saba on the road between Jaffa and Nablous), originally Kapharsaba, refounded by Herod the Great. Imperial of Elagabalus; inscr., ΑΝΤ. (?) ΑΝΤΙΠΑΤΡ..; typeTemple of Astarte.

Caesareia, a splendid city and seaport founded by Herod the Great. The town was called Καισαρεια, and its port Σεβαστος λιμην. Regal bronze of Agrippa I (Madden, Coins of the Jews, p. 133) and autonomous bronze. TypeAnchor. Imperial, Augustus to Nero, with inscr., ΚΑΙΣΑΡΕΩΝ or ΚΑΙΣΑΡΙΑ Η ΠΡΟΣ ΣΕΒΑΣΤΩ ΛΙΜΕΝΙ. Imperial colonial, Vespasian to Gallienus. Inscr., COLONIA PRIMA FLAVIA AVGVSTA FELIX CAESARENSIS, or CAESAREA METROPOLIS PROVINCIAE SYRIAE PALAESTINAE, variously abbreviated. Types numerous. Among them, the Head of Sarapis; Dionysos riding on lion; Astarte, sometimes in temple; Eagle holding wreath containing letters SPQR; Altar-shaped enclosure containing two trees; etc. (De Saulcy, Terre-Sainte, pp. 112 sq.).

Diospolis-Lydda, near Joppa. Imperial, Severus to Caracalla. Inscr., Λ. CЄΠ. CЄΟΥ. ΔΙΟCΠΟΛΙC (Lucia Septimia Severiana). TypesHeads of Sarapis and Demeter; Astarte in temple; etc. Era begins A.D. 199/200 (Kubitschek, Oesterr. Jahresh., vi. pp. 50 f.).

Joppa, the port of Jerusalem, the scene of the myth of Andromeda. It was one of the mints of the tetradrachms of Alexander's types (Mller Alexander, Class IV, Nos. 1468-9), and Ptolemies II and III also struck money there, distinguished by the letters ΙΟΠ; symbol, sometimes, harpa of Perseus. Its later coins are autonomous bronze reading ΙΟΠΗ. Type Poseidon seated on rock. Imperial of Elagabalus. Inscr., ΦΛΑΟΥΙΟ. ΙΟΠΠΗC. TypeAthena. (De Saulcy, Terre-Sainte, p. 177; Hamburger, Frankfurter Mnzblatter, i, Nos. 8, 9.)

Neapolis, situate nearly in the center of Samaria between the two hills, Ebal and Gerizim. Imperial, Titus to Maximinus. Inscr., ΦΛΑΟΥΙ. ΝΕΑΠΟΛ. ΣΑΜΑΡΕ or ΦΛ. ΝЄΑC ΠΟΛЄΩC CΥΡΙΑC ΠΑΛΑΙCΤΙΝΗC. Era dates from A.D. 72. Imperial colonial, Philip I to Gallienus. Inscr., COL. NEAPOLI.; COL. IVL. NEAPOL.; or COL. SERGIA. NEAPOL.; COL NEAPOLI NEOCORO, etc., and on the late issues ΦΛ. ΝЄΑC- ΠΟΛЄWC ЄΠΙCΗΜΟΥ ΝЄWΚΟΡΟΥ. There are two principal types (a) a representation of Mount Gerizim (sometimes supported by an eagle) with two summits, on one of which is the temple of Zeus, approached by a flight of steps (cf. Damascius, ap. Phot. Bibl., 1055), and on the other, a small edifice or altar; (β) Simulacrum of Jupiter Heliopolitanus standing between two humped bulls; he usually holds in one hand a whip, and in the other ears of corn. Among the other types are the Capitoline Triad, Sarapis, Asklepios, Apollo, etc.

Nysa Scythopolis, on the northern frontier of Samaria, close to the Jordan. Imperial, Nero to Gordian. Inscr., ΝΥCΑΙЄWΝ, ΝΥCΑΙЄWΝ ΤWΝ ΚΑΙ CΚΥΘΟΠΟΛЄΙΤWΝ, or ΝΥC. CΚΥΘΟΠΟΛЄΙΤWΝ ΙЄΡΑC. Era uncertain. TypeNysa nursing infant Dionysos with others of less interest.

Samaria was the capital of the northern Kingdom of Israel in the 9th - 8th centuries B.C. The ruins are located in the Samaria mountains of Palestine, almost 10 km to the northwest of Nablus. The Assyrians took the city and the northern kingdom in 722/721 B.C. The city did not recover until the Persian period, the mid 5th century. The tensions between the ruling Sanballat family and Jerusalem under the governorship of Nehemiah are documented in the Bible (Ezra 4:10, Neh 4:78). Samaria became Hellenistic in 332 B.C. Thousands of Macedonian soldiers were settled there following a revolt. The Judaean king John Hyrcanus destroyed the city in 108 B.C., but it was resettled under Alexander Jannaeus. In 63 B.C. Samaria was annexed to the Roman province of Syria.

Sebaste, the ancient Samaria, fortified by Herod, and renamed by him Sebaste (Joseph., Ant. Jud., xv. 8. 5). Imperial, Nero to Severus Alexander. Inscr., CЄΒΑCΤΗΝΩΝ, CΕΒΑCΤΗΝWΝ CΥΡΙΑC, etc., and colonial after Sept. Severus. Inscr., COL. L. SEP. SEBASTE, Colonia Lucia Septimia Sebaste. Era dates probably from B.C. 25. Types Rape of Persephone, etc. (De Saulcy, Terre-Sainte, p. 275).

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