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Roman Victory Titles

The following is a list of victory titles assumed by Roman Emperors, not including assumption of the title Imperator (originally itself a victory title); note that the Roman Emperors were not the only persons to assume victory titles (Maximinus Thrax acquired his victory title during the reign of a previous Emperor). In a sense, the Imperial victory titles give an interesting summary of which wars and which adversaries were considered significant by the senior leadership of the Roman Empire, but in some cases more opportunistic motifs play a role, even to the point of glorifying a victory that was by no means a real triumph (but celebrated as one for internal political prestige). For a more complete list of the Emperors themselves, see List of Roman Emperors.

    Caligula, 37–41
        Germanicus ("Victorious in Germania"), born with it
    Claudius, 41–54
        Germanicus ("Victorious in Germania"), born with it
        Britannicus ("Victorious in Britain"), 44
    Vitellius, 69
        Germanicus ("Victorious in Germania"), 69
    Domitian, 81–96
        Germanicus ("Victorious in Germania"), late 83
    Nerva, 96 98
        Germanicus ("Victorious in Germania"), October 97
    Trajan, 98–117
        Germanicus ("Victorious in Germania"), October 97
        Dacicus ("Victorious in Dacia"), 102
        Parthicus ("Victorious in Parthia") and Optimus ("the Best"), 114
    Marcus Aurelius, 161–180
        Armeniacus ("Victorious in Armenia"), 164
        Medicus ("Victorious in Media") and Parthicus Maximus ("The great victor in Parthia"), 166
        Germanicus ("Victorious in Germania"), 172
        Sarmaticus ("Victorious in Sarmatia"), 175
    Lucius Verus, 161–169
        Armeniacus ("Victorious in Armenia"), 164
        Parthicus Maximus ("The great victor in Parthia"), 165
        Medicus ("Victorious in Media"), 166
    Commodus, 177–192
        Germanicus ("Victorious in Germania"), 15 October 172
        Sarmaticus ("Victorious in Sarmatia"), spring 175
        Germanicus Maximus ("The great victor in Germania"), mid-182
        Britannicus, late 184
    Septimius Severus, 193–211
        Arabicus ("Victorious in Arabia") and Adiabenicus ("the victor of Adiabene"), 195
        Parthicus Maximus ("The great victor in Parthia"), 198
        Britannicus Maximus ("The great victor in Britain"), 209 or 210
    Caracalla, 198–217
        Britannicus Maximus ("The great victor in Britain"), 209 or 210
        Germanicus Maximus ("The great victor in Germania"), 213
    Maximinus Thrax, 235–238
        Germanicus Maximus ("The great victor in Germania"), 235 (awarded by Emperor Alexander Severus)
    Claudius II, 268–270
        Gothicus Maximus ("The great victor against the Goths"), 269
    Aurelian, 270–275
        Germanicus Maximus ("The great victor in Germania"), 270 and 271
        Gothicus Maximus ("The great victor of the Goths"), 271
        Parthicus Maximus ("The great victor in Parthia"), 273
    Tacitus, 275–276
        Gothicus Maximus ("The great victor of the Goths"), 276
    Probus, 276–282
        Gothicus ("the victor of the Goths"), 277
        Gothicus Maximus, Germanicus Maximus ("The great victor in Germania"), and Persicus Maximus ("The great victor in Persia"), 279
    Diocletian, 284–305
        Germanicus Maximus ("The great victor in Germania"), 285, twice in 287, 288, 293, and 301)
        Sarmaticus Maximus ("The great victor of the Sarmatians"), 285, 289, 294, and 300)
        Persicus Maximus ("The great victor over the Persians"), 295, and 298
        Britannicus Maximus ("The great victor in Britain") and Carpicus Maximus ("The great victor over Carpians"), 297
        Armenicus Maximus ("Victorious in Armenia"), 298
        Medicus Maximus ("The great victor in Media"), 298
        Adiabenicus Maximus ("The great victor in Adiabene"), 298
    Maximian, 286–305, 306–308
        Maximian's victory titles are the same as those of Diocletian, except that he did not share Diocletian's first assumption of the titles
    Galerius Maximianus, 305–311
        Britannicus Maximus ("The great victory in Britain"), 297
        Carpicus Maximus ("The great victor of the Carpians"), 297, and five more times the last in 308
    Constantine I, 307–337
        Germanicus Maximus ("The great victor in Germania"), 307, 308, 314, and 328
        Sarmaticus Maximus ("The great victor over the Sarmatians"), 323, 334
        Gothicus Maximus ("The great victor over the Goths"), 328, 332
        Dacicus Maximus ("The great Victor over the Dacian"), 336
    Constans, 337–350
        Sarmaticus ("Victorious over the Sarmatians"), 2 times, later critics wrote that proper form required that Constans be called "Sarmaticus Sarmaticus."
    Justinian I, 527–565
        Alamannicus ("Victorious over the Alamanni"), on accession
        Gothicus ("Victorious over the Goths"), on accession
        Francicus ("Victorious over the Franks"), on accession
        Anticus ("Victorious over the Antae"), on accession
        Alanicus ("Victorious over the Alans"), on accession
        Vandalicus ("Victorious over the Vandals"), after the Vandalic War, 534
        Africanus ("Victorious in Africa"), after the Vandalic War, 534