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XXI

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Roman Statue Bases on Julio Claudian Coinage

Joe Geranio

I have been doing research on Roman statue bases on Julio Claudian coinage. I was blessed enough to secure this coin from the reign of Claudius with statue(s) of DIVUS IULIUS and AUGUSTUS on the reverse. I am currently doing research on Julio Claudian statue bases and again; numismatics plays a key role in identifying bases from the Julio Claudian period. I am asking your help! If you have any photos of Julio Claudian statue bases on coins, please add.

 

 

MACEDON, Philippi. Claudius. AD 41-54. Æ 26mm (9.69 g, 6h). Bare head left / Statue group of Augustus being crowned by Divus Julius Caesar on base inscribed [D]IVVS [AVG] in two lines. RPC I 1653; SNG ANS 684; SNG Copenhagen 3074.

Joe Geranio Collection- Anyone may use image as long as credit is given.

MACEDON, Philipi. Claudius. AD 41-54. Æ 25mm (11.06 g). Bare head left / Three bases: center base with statues of Divus Augustus (on left) crowned by Divus Julius, Augustus wearing military attire and Julius wearing toga; base inscribed DIVVS AVG. RPC I 1653; SNG Copenhagen 307; SNG ANS 684.

 

 

MACEDON, Philippi. Augustus. 27 BC-AD 14. Æ 22mm (6.44 g, 12h). Laureate head right / Statue group of Augustus being crowned by Divus Julius, both standing left on central base; flanked by smaller bases. RPC 1650.

Octavian. Spring-summer 36 BC. AR Denarius (20mm, 3.92 g, 7h). Southern or central Italian mint. Bare-headed and bearded head right / Temple of Divus Julius: statue of Julius Caesar, holding lituus, within tetrastyle temple; DIVO IVL on architrave, star within pediment; altar at left. Crawford 540/2; CRI 315; Sydenham 1338; RSC 90.

 

Octavian. Autumn 30-summer 29 BC. AR Denarius (18mm, 3.42 g, 9h). Italian (Rome?) mint. Laureate head right / Rostral column set on low basis, decorated with six rostra and two upturned anchors, and surmounted by statue of Octavian holding spear and parazonium. RIC I 271; CRI 423; BMCRE 633; RSC 124.

L. Marcius Philippus. 57 BC. AR Denarius (19mm, 3.39 g, 1h). Rome mint. Diademed head of Ancus Marcius right; lituus behind / Equestrian statue right on aqueduct; flower below horse. Crawford 425/1; Sydenham 919; Marcia 28.

 

 

MACEDON, Philippi. Augustus. 27 BC-AD 14. Æ 25mm (9.02 g). Laureate head right / Three bases: center base with statues of Divus Augustus (on left) crowned by Divus Julius, Augustus wearing military attire and Julius wearing toga. RPC I 1650; SNG ANS 683.

 

IONIA, Smyrna. Tiberius. 14-37 AD. Æ 22mm (5.66 gm, 11h). P. Petronius, proconsul and Hieronymus, strategus. Struck 29-35 AD. Diademed and draped bust of Senate right vis-à-vis draped bust of Julia Augusta (Livia) left, wearing stephane / Statue of Tiberius as pontifex standing facing within tetrastyle temple set on three-tiered base; shield within pediment. RPC I 2469; Klose Series A (Einenhalbe), - (V-/R27; unlisted obv. die); SNG Copenhagen 1339.

 

CAPPADOCIA, Comana-Hierapolis-Chryse Comassa ad Sarum. Nero. 54-68 AD. Æ 28mm (14.68 gm, 1h). Dated RY 2 (55/6 AD). NEPWNOC KLAUDIOU KAICAPOC CEBACTOC, laureate and draped bust right; B (date) below bust / IEROPOLITWN [TWN PR]OC TW CAPOWI, twin mountain shrine with statue on one peak and grotto shrine at the base of the other. RPC I Supp. 3661A

 

 

NERO. 54-68 AD. Æ Dupondius (15.88 g, 5h). Rome mint. Struck 64 AD. NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER P M TR P IMP P, radiate head right / MAC AVG above, S C across field, façade of the Macellum Magnum: statue standing facing on base within cylindrical tetrastyle entrance set on tiered base, upper tristyle story surmounted by ornate conical dome; two-story tristyle porch on either side; II, mark of value, in exergue. RIC I 184 var. (obv. legend); BMCRE 195 var. (same); Cohen 130 var. (same); Triton II, lot 823 (same dies).

The Macellum Magnum was Nero’s great provision market, probably dating from 59 AD. This magnificent structure, originally occupying the middle of a square lined with porticoes and shops, was located on the Caelian Hill. During the turbulent fifth century AD, the building fell into partial ruin, until it was transformed into the church of St. Stefano Rotondo under Pope Simplicius (468-482).


This obverse legend for the Rome mint is unrecorded in the standard references. Though the legend is listed for the Lugdunum mint, there is no globe at the point of the bust, characteristic of Lugdunum. In addition, this reverse type with S C across the field and II (mark of value) below, is only recorded for the Rome mint.

Claudius. AD 41-54. Æ Sestertius (29.13 g, 6h). Rome mint. TI CLAVDIVSCAESAR • AVG P M TR P • IMP • P • P •, laureate head right / NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMAN IMP, S C across field, Arch of Nero Claudius Drusus: triumphal arch consisting of single arch and decorated piers set on raised base with four columns supporting ornate attic; attic contains central pediment decorated with simpulum and litui on either side; clippeus and ewer in flanking panels; arch surmounted by equestrian statue of Nero Claudius Drusus rearing right, spearing downward, and trophies consisting of Gallic helmets and shields flanking. RIC I 114; von Kaenel type 71; BMCRE 188; BN 213; Cohen 48.

The Arch of Nero Claudius Drusus was erected by order of the Senate sometime after the death of Drusus in 9 BC. Located on the Via Appia, it commemorated his victories along the German frontier. Eventually, the presence of the arch may have lent its name to the surrounding region, known colloquially known as the vicus Drusianus (Drusus' district). By the late fourth century AD, the arch may have survived as the arch then known as the arcus Recordationis (Arch of Remembrance).

 

Claudius Æ27 of Macedonia, Philippi. TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TRP IMP, bare head left / COL AVG IVL PHILIP, cippus inscribed with DIVVS AVG in two lines, on which stand statues of Augustus (to left) & Caesar (to right), altar on either side of cippus. BMC 24, SGI 428, Lindgren 1127, Moushmov 6923

 

Octavian. Autumn 30-summer 29 BC. AR Denarius (28mm, 3.70 g, 8h). Italian (Rome?) mint. Laureate head of Octavian (as Apollo) right / Statue of Octavian standing facing, holding spear and parazonium, atop rostral column ornamented with two anchors and six beaks of galleys. RIC I 271; CRI 423; RSC 124.


 

See also "The Statue Bases of Claudius a Reassessment of the Portraiture of Claudius" by Jacok Hojte.  Prof. Hojte gave me permission to use this article.  http://portraitsofcaligula.com/clients/6600/BSS1_25_Hojte.pdf

 

Here is a statue base where a statue of Caligula once stood with the inscription:

Right outside the synagoge in Sardis, is a stone dedication to, of all people, Emperor Caligula.

gerMANIKON kaisaRA QEON sebasTON O DH mos kaqierwSEN


Corpus of Roman Imperial Statue Bases - Caligulan Statue Base Info.

Province:
Asia
Town:
Sardis
Context:


Lower date:
37
Upper date:
41
Dating criteria:


Type of monument:
Unknown

Dimensions (hxwxd):
1.18 x 2.06 x 0.26 m.

Letter size: 0.09 m.



Type of dedicator:
Public, community

Lemmata:
AE: En 1965, dans les fondations d'un édifice d'époque tardive, au SE de la synagogue. Bloc de marbre brisé à g., avec moulure sup. abattue; surface inscrite détruite en b. à g. Les deux dernières lettres de la première l. sont gravées sur un martelage. Herrmann: Besonders eindrücksvoll ist ein über zwei Meter breiter Marmorblock, der 1965 freigelegt wurde, und zwar im Unterbau eines spätantiken Tetrapylon.

Bibliography:
AE 1995, 1459. SEG 45, 1645. P. Herrmann, Sardeis, in E. Schwertheim, Forschungen in Lydien, Asia Minor Studien 17 (Bonn 1995) 31-32.

Geranio, Joe, Portraits of Caligula: The Seated Figure? Journal of
the Society for Ancient Numismatics (1997) Vol. XX, No. 1 pp- 30.

 

Statue dedication for emperor Claudius
Description: White marble statue base with heavy moulding above and below on three sides (W. 0.81 at moulding, W. 0.69 at face x H. 0.47 × D. 0.77); the moulding and part of the left side are chipped away.
Text: Inscribed on the face.
Letters: 0.018-0.02
Date: A.D. 41/54 (reign)
Findspot: Walls, South-east: reused and fallen, south of the East gate, near 12.514 (MAMA 434), 12.510 (430), 12.516 (599).
Original Location: Unknown
Last recorded location: Findspot (1983)
History of discovery: Copied in 1705 by Picenini (10102, 28), whence Sherard (10101,39); by Wood (14, f.45); by Deering (2v, no.12); by Loew; by Waddington; by Gaudin (78); by the MAMA expedition; by the NYU expedition in 1977.
Bibliography: Published by Boeckh from Sherard, CIG 2739; corrected by Franz from Loew, a.10 ; published by Waddington, LBW 1621; mentioned by Reinach, from Gaudin's squeeze, 26; published by Cormack from the MAMA records, MAMA 8, 447, whence SEG 1980.1244, McCabe PHI Aphrodisias 203.
Text constituted from: Preliminary transcription (Reynolds); Sherard papers; Wood; Deering; Gaudin squeeze (checked); publications. This edition Roueché and Bodard (2007).
Edition Diplomatic Epidoc (XML) [Conventions] [Font help] 1 Τιβέριον Κλαύδιον Καίσαρα
2 Σεβαστὸν Γερμανικὸν αὐτοκράτορα
3[ὁ δ]ῆμος καὶ Μένανδρος Διογένους
4 τοῦ Ζήνωνος ἀρχιερεὺς αὐτοῦ καὶ v.
5 vacat Διονύσου vacat 1ΤΙΒΕΡΙΟΝΚΛΑΥΔΙΟΝΚΑΙΣΑΡΑ
2[··]ΒΑΣΤΟΝΓΕΡΜΑΝΙΚΟΝΑΥΤΟΚΡΑΤΟΡΑ
3[··]ΗΜΟΣΚΑΙΜΕΝΑΝΔΡΟΣΔΙΟΓΕΝΟΥΣ
4[·]ΟΥΖΗΝΩΝΟΣΑΡΧΙΕΡΕΥΣΑΥΤΟΥΚΑΙ 
5        ΔΙΟΝΥΣΟΥ          

Apparatus
Letters recorded by Deering but not read subsequently are highlighted.

Translation:
(Statue of) Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus Imperator: the People (put up his statue, acting) with Menandros son of Diogenes the son of Zenon, his high priest, and (?priest) of Dionysos.

Commentary:
The wording would seem to imply that Menandros was high -priest of Dionysos; but such a position would be very unusual, and it seems likely that in this text, which is unconventionally phrased, we should understand 'priest'.

For Menandros son of Diogenes, a combination of names which occurs several times, see Name index.

educational use only

 

Honours for Drusus Caesar
Description: Two joining fragments of a white marble statue base with moulding above and below on all sides (W. 0.67 × H. 0.32 × D. 0.57) damaged at lower left corner, on top front moulding and back left corner. Fragments of the statue have been published (see bibliography).
Text: Inscribed on the face.
Letters: l.1, 0.028; l.2, 0.03
Date: Julio-Claudian (context, lettering)
Findspot: Sebasteion: NW Seb II-82, IX-XB, 08.80
Original Location: Sebasteion
Last recorded location: Depot
History of discovery: Excavated by the NYU expedition in 1981 and 1982 (82.116 + 81.153; SBI 84)
Bibliography: mentioned by Reynolds, StudClas 24, 1986, 112; by Smith, JRS 77, 1987, 95, whence McCabe PHI Aphrodisias 195. Published, with the statue fragments, by Smith, Roman Portrait Statuary from Aphrodisias, no. 27
Text constituted from: Preliminary transcription (Reynolds) This edition Roueché and Bodard (2007).
Edition Diplomatic Epidoc (XML) [Conventions] [Font help] 1 Δροῦσον Καίσαρα
2Τιβερίου υἱόν 1ΔΡΟΥΣΟΝΚΑΙΣΑΡΑ
2ΤΙΒΕΡΙΟΥΥΙΟΝ 
 
Δροῦσον
Καίσαρα
 
Τιβερίου
υἱόν
 
Translation:
(Statue of) Drusus Caesar, son of Tiberius.

Commentary:
One of the Sebasteion group of dedications to the imperial family (9.37=72.224, 9.38=72.237, 9.39=72.275, 9.40=73.145, 9.33=77.123, 9.26=80.172, 9.27=82.108, 9.35=82.109, 9.28=82.116, 9.34=82.117, 9.29=82.118, 9.36=82.210, 9.30=84.30, 9.31=84.31, and 9.32=84.41). On these see Reynolds (1996), 'Ruler-cult at Aphrodisias'.

For another dedication to Drusus see Jahreshefte 53 (1981/82), 155, no.144. There, however, father and son receive their full titulature. Tiberius' lack of titles might suggest a date before his accession, or after his death.

educational use only

 

Honours for Agrippina, daughter of Germanicus
Description: White marble statue base (W. 0.44 × H. 0.285 × D. 0.43) with moulding above and below. There are clamp holes on the top surface; cut down on both sides for re-use.
Text: Inscribed on the face (area W. 0.395 × H. 0.15).
Letters: 0.038.
Date: Julio-Claudian (context, lettering)
Findspot: Sebasteion: SEB W-Pro I-84 VIII-W
Original Location: Sebasteion
Last recorded location: Museum
History of discovery: Excavated by the NYU expedition in 1984 (84.41; SBI 78)
Bibliography: Mentioned by Reynolds, StudClas 24, 1986, 112; by Smith, JRS 77, 1987, 95, whence McCabe PHI Aphrodisias 197
Text constituted from: Preliminary transcription (Reynolds). This edition Roueché and Bodard (2007).
Edition Diplomatic Epidoc (XML) [Conventions] [Font help] 1 ̣ ̣Ἀ̣γριππῖναν Γε[ρμα]-
2ν̣ικοῦ Καίσαρ̣[ος]
3 vac. θυγ̣α̣τέρ[α] 1·ΓΡΙΠΠΙΝΑΝΓΕ[···]
2·ΙΚΟΥΚΑΙΣΑ·[··]
3   ΘΥ··ΤΕΡ[·] 
EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY

Honours for Tiberius Claudius Drusus
Description: White marble statue base (W. 0.76 × H. 0.365 × D. 0.65) with moulding.
Text: Inscribed on the face (area W. 0.695 × H. 0.20).
Letters: ave 0.035-0.04
Date: Julio-Claudian (context, lettering)
Findspot: In front of the Propylon of the Sebasteion; 'SEB. W.Pro. I-84, V-E'.
Original Location: Sebasteion
Last recorded location: Dighouse garden
History of discovery: Found by the NYU expedition during excavation of the Sebasteion in 1984 (84.30; SBI 73)
Bibliography: Mentioned by Reynolds, Clas 24, 1986, 112; by Smith, JRS 77, 1987, 95, whence McCabe PHI Aphrodisias 198
Text constituted from: Preliminary transcription (Reynolds) This edition Roueché and Bodard (2007).
Edition Diplomatic Epidoc (XML) [Conventions] [Font help] 1 Τιβέριον
2Κλαύδιον
3Δροῦον 1ΤΙΒΕΡΙΟΝ
2ΚΛΑΥΔΙΟΝ
3ΔΡΟΥΟΝ 
 
Τιβέριον
 
Κλαύδιον
EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY

Honours for Antonia Augusta
Description: White marble statue base, with moulding above and below on three sides (W. 0.54 × H. 0.405 × D. 0.47). The back and much of the moulding have been broken away, probably to facilitate re-use. Top worked smooth
Text: Inscribed on the face.
Letters: Lightly cut; 0.03-0.04
Date: Julio-Claudian (context, lettering)
Findspot: South portico of the Sebasteion: Seb 80/1, IIIA, at -3.60.
Original Location: Sebasteion
Last recorded location: Museum
History of discovery: Excavated by the NYU expedition in 1980 (80.172; SBI 83)
Bibliography: Published by Reynolds, ZPE 43 (1981), 317-27, no.5, whence SEG 1981.915, BullEp 1982.356, McCabe PHI Aphrodisias 204.
Text constituted from: Transcription (Reynolds). This edition Reynolds (1981).
Edition Diplomatic Epidoc (XML) [Conventions] [Font help] 1 v. Ἀντωνίαν vv.
2 v. Σεβασστὴν v.
3Ἑρμίας ἱερεὺς ἀ - v.
4 vac. νέθηκεν vac. 1 ΑΝΤΩΝΙΑΝ  
2 ΣΕΒΑΣΣΤΗΝ 
3ΕΡΜΙΑΣΙΕΡΕΥΣΑ 
4   ΝΕΘΗΚΕΝ    
EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY

Honours for Germanicus Caesar
Description: White marble statue base, originally with moulding above and below on three sides (W. 0.75 × H. 1.20 × D. 0.69).
Text: Inscribed on the face (0.57 x 0.95). The upper moulding has been chiselled away on the front face.
Letters: 0.035
Date: Julio-Claudian (context, lettering)
Findspot: Portico east of Theatre, SPS, Stratum 4 from wall.
Original Location: Almost certainly from the Sebasteion.
Last recorded location: Museum
History of discovery: Excavated by the NYU expedition, in 1972 (72.237; SBI 56).
Bibliography: Published by Reynolds, PCPS no. 14, whence SEG 1980.1252; BullEp 1982.355; AnnEpig 1980.875; McCabe PHI Aphrodisias 199.
Text constituted from: Transcription (Reynolds) This edition Reynolds (1980).
Edition Diplomatic Epidoc (XML) [Conventions] [Font help] 1 Γερμανικὸν
2Καίσαρα Τιβε-
3ρίου Σεβαστοῦ
4 vac. υἱόν vac. . 1ΓΕΡΜΑΝΙΚΟΝ
2ΚΑΙΣΑΡΑΤΙΒΕ
3ΡΙΟΥΣΕΒΑΣΤΟΥ
4    ΥΙΟΝ     
EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY

 Honours for Gaius Caesar
Description: White marble statue base with moulding above and below on three sides (W. 0.775 × H. 0.28 × D. 0.54).
Text: Inscribed on the face.
Letters: 0.04
Date: Julio-Claudian (context, lettering)
Findspot: Sebasteion: NW SEB II-82, IIB, 0.70
Original Location: Sebasteion
Last recorded location: Dighouse garden
History of discovery: Excavated by the NYU expedition in 1982 (82.118; SBI 85s)
Bibliography: mentioned by Reynolds, StudClas 24, 1986, 112; by Smith, JRS 77, 1987, 95, whence McCabe PHI Aphrodisias 193 .
Text constituted from: Preliminary transcription (Reynolds) This edition Roueché and Bodard (2007).
Edition Diplomatic Epidoc (XML) [Conventions] [Font help] 1 Γάιον
2Καίσαρα 1ΓΑΙΟΝ
2ΚΑΙΣΑΡΑ 
EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY

Honours for Atia mother of Augustus
Description: White marble statue base with moulding above and below (W. 0.77 × H. 0.40 × D. 0.50).
Text: Inscribed on the face (W. 0.67 × H. 0.215); chipped at all corners, especially on the right side.
Letters: First century A.D.; 0.035-0.04.
Date: Julio-Claudian (context, lettering)
Findspot: in the portico east of the Theatre, NPS.
Original Location: almost certainly from the Sebasteion
Last recorded location: Museum (1981)
History of discovery: Found by the NYU expedition in 1973 (73.145; SBI 8)
Bibliography: Published by Reynolds, PCPS no. 12, whence SEG 1980.1247, BullEp 1982.355, AnnEpig 1980.873, McCabe PHI Aphrodisias 190
Text constituted from: Transcription (Reynolds). This edition Reynolds (1980).
Edition Diplomatic Epidoc (XML) [Conventions] [Font help] 1 Ἀτίαν Βάλβου μητέρ̣α̣
2Σεβαστοῦ Καίσαρος 1ΑΤΙΑΝΒΑΛΒΟΥΜΗΤΕ··
2ΣΕΒΑΣΤΟΥΚΑΙΣΑΡΟΣ 
EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY

 

Honours for Julia, daughter of Drusus
Description: White marble statue base (W. 0.64 × H. 0.265 × D. 0.655) with moulding.
Text: Inscribed on the face (inscribed area W. 0.60 × H. 0.14).
Letters: ave. 0.035-0.04
Date: Julio-Claudian (context, lettering)
Findspot: Sebasteion: SEB W.Pro I-84 V-E
Original Location: Sebasteion
Last recorded location: Dighouse garden
History of discovery: Found by the NYU expedition during excavation in 1984 (84.31; SBI 74)
Bibliography: mentioned by Reynolds, StudClas 24, 1986, 112; by Smith, JRS 77, 1987, 95, whence McCabe PHI Aphrodisias 196
Text constituted from: Preliminary transcription (Reynolds) This edition Roueché and Bodard (2007).
Edition Diplomatic Epidoc (XML) [Conventions] [Font help] 1 Ἰουλίαν Δρούσου
2Καίσαρος θυγατέρα 1ΙΟΥΛΙΑΝΔΡΟΥΣΟΥ
2ΚΑΙΣΑΡΟΣΘΥΓΑΤΕΡΑ 
EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY

Honours for Lucius Caesar
Description: White marble statue base, with moulding above and below on all sides (W. 0.75 × H. 0.26 x surviving D. 0.45) and damaged. Fragments of the statue have been published 9see bibliography).
Text: Inscribed on the face.
Letters: l.1, 0.045; l.2, 0.035
Date: Julio-Claudian (context, lettering)
Findspot: Sebasteion: NW Seb II-82, IIIC and VIA, 0.75.
Original Location: Sebasteion
Last recorded location: Museum
History of discovery: Found by the NYU expedition during excavation of the Sebasteion in 1982 (82.108; SBI 72)
Bibliography: Mentioned by Reynolds, StudClas 24, 1986, 112; by Smith, JRS 77, 1987, 95, whence McCabe PHI Aphrodisias 194 . Published, with fragments of the statue, by Smith, Roman Portrait Statuary from Aphrodisias, no. 28
Text constituted from: Preliminary transcription (Reynolds); publications. This edition Roueché and Bodard (2007).
Edition Diplomatic Epidoc (XML) [Conventions] [Font help] 1 Λούκιον
2Καί̣σαρα 1ΛΟΥΚΙΟΝ
2ΚΑ·ΣΑΡΑ 
EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY

 

 

 

 

Roman Statue Base

 

Neronian Period Statue Base by you.

The Sebasteion
In the 1960s, a number of bronze sculptures, among them some statues of outstanding quality, appeared in the antiquities trade in the United States. The pieces were said to have originated from a single location in the eastern Roman Empire, which was initially assumed to be a temple of the Imperial cult in Pisidian Kremna. But newer studies by the Turkish archaeologist Jale İnan, and the surfacing of diaries belonging to a treasure hunter, have subsequently established the origin of the most important group among those sculptures to be a structure on the main site of Boubon (İnan 1979, 1993, 1994). In 1967, after a bronze torso unearthed by looters had come to the attention of the municipal authorities, the archaeological museum of Burdur undertook the first legal excavation at the site. During the course of that excavation, there was brought to light a structure situated near the centre of the terrace above the agora, which appears to have been a municipal shrine for the Imperial cult, and so became known as "the Sebasteion": a north-south oriented room, its entrance apparently at the south, measuring 6.50 meters in length and 4.80 meters in width.

 

 

 

Two inscribed podiums, in situ along the north and the east walls of the room, and four free-standing bases (A-D) found along the west wall attest the existence at some time of statues of emperors and members of the Imperial household. After excavation, the building was again buried. The inscriptions were subsequently published, by C. P. Jones (1979), on the basis of majuscule copies and photographs. At the same time, İnan undertook to combine the dedicatory inscriptions found at the Sebasteion with some of the bronze pieces that were by now in various collections (İnan 1979).

Following these initial investigations, questions remained concerning the inscriptions and the reconstruction of the podiums--in particular, the arrangement of the statues within them--and the building was therefore excavated a second time, in 1990, by İnan on behalf of the museum in Burdur. Since that time, the building has not been reburied, and is now accessible to visitors. İnan's latest studies (1993 and 1994), in combination with Jones' earlier publication (1979), represent the current state of research on both the epigraphy of the Sebasteion and its connection to the bronzes unearthed there. These publications draw on and update the corpus of inscriptions by Schindler (1972) and İnan's first published discussion of the inscriptions and statues (1979).

As a result of the second series of excavations, it became clear that the room was not an independent structure but was flanked by two similar rooms at its east and west (İnan 1993, pp. 215-216). To judge from its layout, the room might have belonged to a portico. A connection of a sebasteion with a portico is known from Narona in Dalmatia, and is possibly attested in Cilician Cestros and in Choma, in northern Lycia1. Excavation of the surrounding structures will be needed to determine the relationship among these rooms. One of the inscriptions on the north podium suggests that the room was dedicated in the reign of Nero (no. 9). The use of the structure appears to have extended to the reign of Gallienus in the middle of the 3rd century CE.

İnan's study of the sculptural décor of the Sebasteion, and in particular of its several ancient rearrangements, is based on an association of extant and lost statues with the inscriptions on the bases. İnan assigns seven known bronzes a place in the Sebasteion, based on seven of the fourteen dedicatory inscriptions found in situ in the room. Unsurprisingly, some of the Imperial bronzes that were set up in this room have been lost. Notable among these were statues of disgraced emperors and short-lived members of their households, which were removed in antiquity as a result of Imperial politics . Finally, İnan suggests that most of the remaining statues were relocated at some point, to make room for more sculptures. Her proposed reconstruction is generally convincing, but it falters in part on the assumption that changes in the arrangement of the statues are documented by observable changes in the epigraphic texts, i.e., erasures and the effacement and re-engraving of some of the words. It is possible, however, that paint or plaster might also have been used to alter the texts2. In addition, a strict correlation between the survival of a text and an associated statue cannot be entirely certain; for example, the preservation of an inscription in honour of Poppaea Sabina, wife of Nero from 62 CE, does not provide secure evidence that her statue remained in place, two centuries after that of her disgraced husband had been removed. Inan’s reconstruction of the sculptural display in the Sebasteion provides, nonetheless, a useful working hypothesis in anticipation of further study of the bronzes3, and the following overview of the sculptures of the Sebasteion is based largely upon her findings.

The room seems to have served the purpose of honouring members of the Imperial family for a period of over two centuries, roughly from the middle of the 1st to the middle of the 3rd century CE. Initially, it must have contained a statue of Nero and, to his right, one of his second wife, Poppaea Sabina. To judge by the position of the extant dedicatory inscriptions on the north podium , the two statues apparently stood at the northwest corner of the room, on the far left of the north podium rather than at its center, and hence were not positioned immediately opposite the south entrance . Consequently, in this early phase, there apparently was room on the podium for other sculptures. If the building, from its inception, was dedicated exclusively to the worship of the Roman emperors, it is unlikely that the remainder of the podium would have been left free of sculpture, even in anticipation of later Imperial additions, since the relegation of the statues of Nero and Poppaea Sabina to one end of an otherwise empty podium would have been a remarkably negative statement about Imperial rule. It is much more likely that the statues of Nero and Poppaea Sabina were joined on the podium, from the start, by others, probably statues connected with Nero’s public image4 or statues of a god. Hence the statue of the reigning emperor would have been given a prominent position in a new shrine devoted to the Imperial cult. If, on the other hand, the building was not initially dedicated to Imperial cult, the position of the statues of Nero and Poppaea Sabina might suggest that the building was dedicated to the worship of a god. In this case, Apollo would be an obvious candidate, given Nero’s self-identification with the sun god, and the podium would have been shared with statues of Apollo and perhaps also other sculptures evoking Nero’s public image.

Nero's statue was removed after his death in 68 CE, in consequence of his having been declared an enemy of the state by the Roman senate. Also at some time after his death, his name was erased from the inscription on the podium below the statue , which was apparently also the dedicatory inscription of the building (no. 9). If indeed Poppaea's statue remained in place at this time, it appears on the grounds of the preserved inscriptions to have shared the podium with Domitian until his memory was damned in 96 CE (Jones 1979, pp. 291-292). Between 96 and 98 CE, the statue of Poppaea Sabina found a new partner in the statue of Nerva, which was now erected in place of that of Domitian. According to Inan's reconstruction, the statue of Nerva was at a later time placed still closer to that of Poppaea Sabina to make room for statues of Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus. In Boubon, then, it seems that the dazzling beauty who, in life, had abandoned Otho to marry the young emperor Nero, ended up at the side of the aged Nerva, whom she had undoubtedly once known among Nero's courtiers. On the presumption that the pairing of Poppaea and Nerva is not a demonstration of Boubonian humour, an explanation must be sought for the preservation of Poppaea's statue for so many decades, and even centuries, in an architectural context in which apparently there was no space to spare.

Even as a declared enemy (hostis) of the state, Nero the imperator scaenicus remained widely popular in Rome and in the provinces after his suicide5. Hence, the removal of Nero's name from the inscription on the podium under his statue may have been more an action in favour, or in fear, of L. Licinius Mucianus than one aimed directly against the dead emperor. Mucianus, identified in the dedicatory inscription of the Sebasteion as the provincial governor of Lycia under whose auspices the dedication to Nero had taken place, had subsequently governed the province of Syria, and he played a crucial role in the Flavians' accession to power in 69 CE. It is not hard to imagine that those responsible for the sanctuary wanted Nero's name erased from the inscription at the Sebasteion when Mucianus was making his way through Asia Minor, from Syria to Rome, to secure the throne for Vespasian. Such local concerns may also have guided the preservation of the statue of Poppaea Sabina, if we imagine that those who had paid for these costly statues--most likely a number of prominent Boubonians, either independently or supported by the governor--would have been reluctant to eliminate her portrait along with that of her husband.

Imperial statues continued to be installed in this room over the course of the 1st and 2nd centuries, though some of the most important emperors appear never to have been honored here. According to Inan, the Flavians were represented only by Domitian. Nerva's statue is followed by a chronological gap of more than half a century: there is no trace of statues for Trajan, Hadrian, or Antoninus Pius6. The next emperors to be honored in the Sebasteion of Boubon appear to have been Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, whose statues are the earliest that are preserved to us. The last Antonine, Commodus, received an over-life-sized statue that was placed at the east end of the north podium, possibly with Bruttia Crispina to his right. Because Crispina, married to Commodus in 178 CE, was exiled in 192 CE, and then killed and disgraced, the presence of her effigy would likely have been short-lived. The statue of Commodus remained and has survived to our day. It is considerably larger than those of Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, and this distinction in size is an argument against a reconstruction of a statuary group composed of Marcus Aurelius, one of the smaller statues; his sons, including the large statue of Commodus; and his daughter-in-law Bruttia Crispina. Another argument against such a grouping is that the death of Lucius Verus in 169 CE preceded the marriage between Bruttia Crispina and Commodus. Commodus' statue was most likely set up after the death of Marcus Aurelius in 180 CE.

On the evidence of the inscriptions, a statue of the first Severan emperor was included in a group with his wife and sons. Originally, the Severan group appears to have occupied the entire east podium and to have included Geta and Caracalla standing among Septimius Severus and Julia Domna (nos 14-17; Jones 1977, p. 292). Of these statues, those of Severus and the young Caracalla survive. If there was an inscription in honour of Geta, it would likely have been erased after his damnatio memoriae, which was possibly in 211 CE. Presumably in order to make room for a statue of Gordian on the east podium, the statue of Septimius Severus was later removed from the east podium and set up on the north podium next to the statue of Commodus, which was then moved further to the west, possibly into the position left vacant by the elimination of Crispina's statue.

About a decade after Gordian's death, his statue was moved to a separate base (C) against the west wall, to make room on the east podium for another Imperial group, which included Valerianus I, his son Gallienus, and Gallienus' wife Cornelia Salonina. From those statues, a torso identified as that of Valerianus has survived. Our remaining evidence of Imperial inscriptions and statues includes base D, with an inscription honoring Caracalla as sole emperor (no. 17), and a head and torso that have been assigned by İnan to this base. This, Caracalla's second statue in the Sebasteion, stood against the west wall of the room, next to the statue of Gordian . The evidence for whether pilaster A (which included a stone with a Hellenistic inscription in reuse), and base B, which is uninscribed in its present condition, were statue bases is inconclusive.

If this room was the Sebasteion of Boubon, and if the preserved inscriptions dependably reflect the sculptural program of the room, as İnan assumed, it is difficult to explain the choice of emperors represented here. A possible explanation is that the sanctuary consisted of more than one room. If that is so, then the selection of sculptures installed in this room may have been a consequence of arrangements or rearrangements carried out in other rooms. The absence, for example, of a statue of Antoninus Pius among the Antonines here may have been due to its erection elsewhere in the building. Another possible explanation of unexpected omissions is that this collection of Imperial statues in Boubon was made up of donations from the incomplete collections of private individuals. Such a collection is described in Ep. 10.8, where Pliny the younger speaks of Imperial statues in his possession that he had inherited from various persons over the years (per plures successiones traditas mihi) and that he had kept at his estate near Tifernum Tiberium. He had at one time received permission from Nerva to add a statue of that emperor to his collection and to transport the statues to town, where the local magistrates had agreed to assign land for a temple to be built at Pliny's expense7. Surely no statue of the last Flavian was contained in the collection of statues that Pliny offered to set up in the new temple of the Imperial cult in Tifernum. For although Pliny had served in a high position under Domitian, his period in that position had been followed by the official vilification of Domitian, as well as by Pliny's sustained efforts to portray that emperor as a tyrant and as the direct opposite of Trajan and his "father" Nerva. Pliny’s distancing of himself from Domitian was also among his personal concerns, his way of dissociating himself entirely from his own past8.

The influence of such powerful private individuals upon civic bodies could have resulted in the familiar merging of private and public initiative. Pliny, the confidant of emperors, fulfilled the role of a local magnate in Tifernum. While he offered the statues and the financing for the building of a temple of the Imperial cult, the city chose the spot and assigned the land. The seemingly random or, at best, selective collection of Imperial bronzes at Boubon is more easily explained as the result of such private initiatives authorized or endorsed by the polis than as a sculptural program aimed at representing the statues of every emperor from Nero to Gallienus and for some reason failing in that attempt. Further evidence may alter this conclusion.

According to Inan's reconstruction, then, a visitor to this room in its latest ancient arrangement, in the middle of the 3rd century CE, would have seen bronze statues of Poppaea Sabina, Nerva, Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, Commodus, and Septimius Severus on the podium facing the entrance. On the podium to its right stood statues of Julia Domna and the young Caracalla, Salonina, Gallienus, and Valerianus, and to its left, a statue of Caracalla as emperor, one of Gordian, and possibly one or two more Imperial effigies. Seven of those statues survive today, in various states of preservation, the earliest representing Marcus Aurelius and the latest possibly representing Valerianus.

Sculptures in bronze were usually expensive, high-quality artefacts, and the torsos and fragments surviving from the Imperial bronzes in Boubon suggest that these bronzes were no exception. In contrast, the quality of the inscriptions on the bases and podiums under those statues ranges from mediocre to poor, a judgment as true for the inscription for Nerva as for those of the 3rd-century emperors. Other inscriptions found in Boubon, for instance the statue bases inscribed with honorary texts, rise to the usual standard for the region in the 1st and 2nd century and attest the availability of qualified stone masons to Boubon. It is conceivable, however, that access to the sanctuary for purposes of carrying out modifications was more limited than to other areas of the site, restricted perhaps to members of a family or collegium, and that masons were thereby excluded9. Alternatively, the surviving statues may have been in reuse in the Sebasteion, reflecting the artistic level--and possibly the civic finances--of a different period in the history of Boubon from that to which the extant inscriptions belong. Though this author is unqualified to offer a final judgment on the dating of sculptural artwork, at least one of the statues looks as if it could well be of Hellenistic date (cf. Queyrel 2003, pp. 117-118). Finally, if this room was only one in a larger complex of rooms, the low quality of the inscriptions may be a consequence of the statues’ relative unimportance at the time when they were moved into their secondary positions. Some of the extant inscriptions may even have been copies of earlier inscriptions, carved as late as the 3rd century in poor imitation of their originals.

Additional examples of bronzes that possibly originated from Boubon, briefly mentioned by İnan (1993, pp. 236-237), await further interpretation and publication. These include a bust mentioned in the unpublished diary of the treasure hunter M. Çömbül as having been found along the road leading from İbecik to Dikmen/Boubon and a number of pieces that, together with the Imperial statues, surfaced in the United States in the 1960s.

 


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1 Narona: Marin 2004; Cestros: Bean and Mitford 1970 pp. 155-160; Choma: TAM II 905, cf. Kokkinia 2000, no. XIX C 4. Municipal places of Imperial worship: Witschel 2002, especially pp. 120-121 (Boubon). A sebasteion belonging to a portico has been newly excavated in Macedonian Kalindoia (Σισμανίδης 2007).

2 On the possible use of plaster to cover the name of a disgraced personality, see Flower 2006, p. 193.

3 See recently Queyrel 2003 , pp. 117-118.

4 Champlin (2003).

5 Flower (2006) pp. 197-233.

6 Unless a head of Antoninus Pius in Edinburgh does in fact originate from the Sebasteion, as Price (1984, p. 264) suggests.

7 Pliny also records that Trajan allowed him to add a statue of him to those of the deceased emperors and to leave Rome for a month (he was prefectus aerarii Saturni at the time) to tend to this and other matters (Ep. 10.8.4 and 10.9).

8 See now Flower (2006) pp. 262-271.

9 Such restriction of sanctuary access is not known to me from any example in the Greek East, but the case with the fratres arvales in Rome may offer an analogy. On the close connection of the fratres arvales with the Imperial cult, see Scheid 1990, Edelmann 2003.


Educational Use Only

 

 

 

MACEDON, Philippi. Augustus. 27 BC-AD 14. Æ 23mm (8.44 g, 12h). Laureate head right / Statue of Augustus standing left, raising hand, crowned by statue of Divus Julius standing left; both statues on base between two bases. RPC 1650; SNG ANS 683. 

Augustus. 27 BC-AD 14. AR Denarius (3.97 g, 5h). Rome mint. Cossus Cornelius Lentulus, moneyer. Struck 12 BC. AVGVSTVS, bare head right / COSSVS CN • F • LENTVLVS, equestrian statue right of Agrippa, helmeted, bearing trophy over left shoulder, on pedestal, ornamented with two prows. RIC I 412; RSC 418; BMCRE 122-3 = BMCRR Rome 4672-3; BN 551-4.

MACEDON, Amphipolis. Augustus. 27 BC-AD 14. Æ 23mm (13.58 g, 1h). Draped bust of Artemis Tauropolos right, with bow and quiver / Statue of Augustus left and crowning male figure right, both advancing left; Φ between. RPC 1628; BMC 77 var. (no Φ on rev.); SNG Copenhagen 94 var. (same).

Augustus. 27 BC-AD 14. AR Denarius (3.82 g, 6h). Rome mint. L. Vinicius, moneyer. Struck 16 BC. Equestrian statue of Augustus riding right on a low square pedestal inscribed S • P • Q • R/IMP/CAES in three lines; all before city wall with arched entrance / L • VINICIVS L • F • III • VIR, cippus inscribed S • P • Q • R/IMP • CAE/QVOD • V/M • S • EX/EA • P • QIS/AD • A • DE in six lines. RIC I 362; RSC 543; BMCRE 82-4 = BMCRR Rome 4472-3; BN 357-61.

Octavian. 36 BC. AR Denarius (19mm, 3.91 g, 6h). Southern or central Italian mint. Bare head right, wearing beard / Temple of Divus Julius: statue of Julius Caesar, holding lituus, within tetrastyle temple; DIVO IVL on architrave, star within pediment, altar at left. Crawford 540/2; CRI 315; Sydenham 1338; RSC 90.

CLAUDIUS. 41-54 AD. AR Cistophoric Tetradrachm (26mm, 11.35 gm, 7h). Ephesus(?) mint. Struck circa 41-42 AD. Bare head left / Cult statue of Augustus standing facing, holding spear, being crowned with wreath by female figure holding cornucopiae, within distyle temple set on four-tiered base; ROM ET AVG across entablature. RIC I 120; RPC I 2221; BMCRE 228; BN 305; RSC 3.

Denarius 12, Rome. Moneyer Cossus Cornelius Lentulus. AVGVSTVS Bare head to r. Rev. COSSVS CN F LENTVLVS Equestrian statue of Agrippa to r. on pedestal. He wears helmet and carries trophy on l. shoulder. The pedestal is ornamented with two prows. 3,97 g. RIC 412. BMC 122. C. 418.

L. Vinicius, Denarius 16 BC, AR 3.87 g. Equestrian statue of Augustus before the walls of a city; the pedestal inscribed S P Q R / IMP / CAES. Rev. L VINICIVS – L F III VIR Cippus inscribed S P Q R / IMP CAE / QVOD V / M S EX / EA P Q IS / AD A DE. RIC 362. BMC 82. C 543. CBN 358.


Marble wasn't available locally, so they made bodies of marble and heads of the local sandstone/limestone/coraline and switched heads as political or religious fashion dictated. This could have been anyone.

The inscription below was not found with the statue. Interestingly, it looks like it belonged to Julia, daughter of Augusta, as in "IS THERE ANYONE IN ROME WHO HAS NO SLEPT WITH MY DAUGHTER??!!!"

But it was probably someone else. 
 
 
Great book by Jakob Hotje
 
The Extant Statue Bases for Gaius Caligula (form Hotje's Site on Imperial Statue Bases)  Joe Geranio
 
 

 

Click on Blue Button to see inscription


 

Emperor

Province

Town

Date

Reference

Caligula

Asia

Mytilene

37-41

IG XII, 2, 209.

Caligula

Asia

Kalymna

-37

IGRR IV, 1022.

Caligula

Lycia et Pamphylia

Perge?

37-41

IGSK 54, 25.

Caligula

Asia

Ephesus

37-41

IGSK 12, 259.

Caligula

Achaea

Athenae

37-41

IG II2, 3266.

Caligula

Achaea

Athenae

37-41

IG II2, 3267.

Caligula

Achaea

Delphi

37-41

SEG 1, 156.

Caligula

Alpes Graiae et Poeninae

Saint-Maurice-en-Valais

37-37

AE 1897, 2.

Caligula

Alpes Graiae et Poeninae

Saint-Triphon

37-37

AE 1985, 659.

Caligula

Asia

Ephesus

-37

AE 1968, 476 c.

Caligula

Cyprus

Paphos

37-41

SEG 30, 1633.

Caligula

Aegyptus

Syene

39-39

CIL III, 14147, 1.

Caligula

Italia, Umbria (Regio VI)

Spoletium

37-41

CIL XI, 4778.

Caligula

Asia

Didyma

37-41

AE 1912, 134.

Caligula

Narbonensis

Vienna

33-37

CIL XII, 1848.

Caligula

Narbonensis

Vienna

33-37

CIL XII, 1849.

Caligula

Narbonensis

Saint-Jean-de-la-porte

37-37

CIL XII, 2331.

Caligula

Achaea

Aigiale

37-41

IG XII, 7, 437.

Caligula

Aquitania

Avaricum

37-41

CIL XIII, 1189.

Caligula

Achaea

Thera

37-41

IG XII, 3, suppl., 1392-1394.

Caligula

Narbonensis

Ruscino

-37

M. Gayraud, RANarb suppl. 7 (1980) 76-77, no. 5.

Caligula

Narbonensis

Maritima

40-40

E. Espérandieu, Insc. lat. de Gaules (1929) 29-30, no. 89.

Caligula

Narbonensis

Vienna

33-37

AE 1995, 1039.

Caligula

Asia

Sardis

37-41

SEG 45, 1645.

Caligula

Italia, Etruria (Regio VII)

Veii

-37

CIL XI, 7744.

Caligula

Asia

Amyzon

37-41

J. & L. Robert, Fouilles d'Amyzon (1983) 266, no. 68.

Caligula

Asia

Kalymna

-37

IGRR IV, 1023.

Caligula

Achaea

Exarkhos

37-41

R. Mellor, Qea; JRwvmh (Göttingen 1975) 106, no. 40.