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PAX. Peace. This word is of very frequent occurrence on Roman coins, nor is it always possible to decide as to which particular pacification it is to be referred.
  Pax, regarded by the ancients as a goddess, was worshipped not only at Rome but also at Athens.  Her alter could not be stained with blood.  The Emperor Claudius began the construction of a magnificent temple to her honour, which Vespasian finished, in the Via Sacra.  The attributes of Peace, as exhibited on medals, are the haste pura, the olive branch, the cornucopiae; and often the caduceus.  Sometimes (as on coins of Vespasian, Domitian, and M. Aurelius) she is represented setting fire to a pile of arms.
  Peace was considered to be in the power of him, to whom belonged the auspices (auspicia); whence, according to Dion, the Caesars were called the Lords of Peace and War (Pacis et Belli Domini).  Accordingly we find coins of the Emperors proclaiming Pax AVGusta, or AVGusti; Pax Aeterna; Pax Perpetua; Pax Fundata; Pax Publica; Pax Ubique Parta; and these inscriptions are accompanied by various symbols such as the Temple of Peace, as on medals of Augustus, or the Temple of Janus shut, as on those of Nero; or a woman holding a cornucopiae in her left hand as in Augustus, Hadrian, &c.  The symbol of Eternal Peace, as manifested in the figure of the goddess setting fire to a heap of armour both offensive and defensive, is seen on coins of Galba, Vitellius, Vespasian, Antoninus Pius, and Aurelius. --See Pax Augusti.
Singular to say, no representation of the superb Temple of Peace, built by Vespasian, appears on coins of that Emperor, nor of his son Titus.--See Templum Pacis.
The head of pax is seen on denarii of Julius Caesar and of Augustus.
  Pax.--The effigy of this goddess (whose blessings the Romans were never more prone to boast of than when their proud empire, hastening to decay, was least in a condition to enjoy them),  is seen with caduceus and olive branch on coins of Titus, Galba, and Otho; with cornucopiae and torch, as in Galba, Vitellius, and Vespasian; with cornucopiae and olive branch, as in Vespasian, Marcus AureliusLucius Verus; bearing the olive branch and hasta, as in Alex. Severus; standing by an alter with patera in right hand, as in Vespasian and Titus; walking with laurel crown, as in Claudius Gothicus; adorned with the sceptre, as in Gordianus Pius, Maximinus, Philip senior, AEmilianus, Numerianus, Trajanus Decius, Volusianus, Gallienus, postumus, Victorinus sen., Gal. Maximianus, &c.; carrying a trophy, as on a coin of Claudius Gothicus : also with olive branch and miliyary ensign, as in Constantine the Great, and Carus.--On coins of Augustus (says Woltereck) we see the Goddess of Peace not only with the caduceus, the olive crown, and other ornaments usually appropriated to her, but with attributes belonging to the Goddess of Health, as if with a view to represent under one type all the emblems of felicity which Rome was supposed to enjoy beneath the paternal sway of that Emperor.
  Peace is signified by two right hands joined as in M. Antony, Augustus, Antoninus Pius. She is also figured under the form of a bull, on a coin of Vespasian.
  The images of Peace appear in an unbroken series on the coins of the Roman Emperors, several of the Augustae, and most of the usurpers, from Julius Caesar to Justinian.--See PACK and PACI; PACATOR, &c.; also ARA PACIS.
  PAX.--A female standing, holding a caduceus and ears of corn.  On a denarius of Augustus.--See also the medallion, p.519.
  The inscription of cos. vi. shows that this coin was struck in the year of Rome 726.--The title which flattery has given on the obverse to this Emperor, of LIBERTATIS P. R. VINDEX. (the champion of the Roman people's liberties) appears on no other medal of this prince, nor of succeeding Augusti.  It was designed to commemorate the peace which was established, on the death of Antony, whose removal put an end to the civil war.  Hence the expression of Paterculus:--Finita vicesimo anno bella civilia, sepulta externa,revocata Pax. L. ii. cap. 89.

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