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Latin abbreviation: Pater Patriae - Father of the Country.


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P. P. Pater Patriae. - Father of the Country. (See the words.) -It was by this title that Augustus was most desirous of being called on his coins, as indicating the clemency of his government, and the security of the people under it; a name of honour which, after his example, the successors of that prince seldom, if ever omitted to couple with their own. - Augustus began to assume the name of P. P.  in the year of Rome 752. - It is found on medals of Tiberius and of CaligulaNero at the commencement of his reign refused the title, but subsequently P. P. is read on his money.  Otho, Vespasian, Domitian, Nerva, Trajan, exhibit on their respective mints the same initials.  Hadrian adopted it in the twelfth year of his reign.  Antoninus began to use the title A.D. 130. Capitolinus relates that the name was proffered by the Senate to this good emperor, who at first declined, but afterwards accepted it.  Hence on his coins we read ANTONINVS AVG. PIVS. P. P. - M. Aurelius first took this denomination A.D. 139.  Commodus amongst his other profanations, must also pass for the father of his country!  Sept. Severus appears first as P.P. in the year 190.; Geta A.D. 211, and Caracalla about the same time.  Postumus and Tetricus also assumed it; and the same title appears on coins of Aemilianus, Valerianus, and other Emperors, down to Theodosius Magnus; bestowed, as in the preceding instances, sometimes on princes who possessed claims on the public gratitude, but much more frequently awarded to unworthy and even odious men in a spirit of servile flattery by a frightened and degraded senate.

P. P. Penates, or Penates Patrii. - Two joined heads laureated and youthful, with stars over them.  On coins of the Fontia and Sulptia moneyers.

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