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Index Of All Titles


Aes Formatum
Aes Rude
The Age of Gallienus
Alexander Tetradrachms
Ancient Coin Collecting 101
Ancient Coin Prices 101
Ancient Coin Dates
Ancient Coin Lesson Plans
Ancient Coins & Modern Fakes
Ancient Counterfeits
Ancient Glass
Ancient Metal Arrowheads
Ancient Oil Lamps
Ancient Pottery
Ancient Weapons
Ancient Wages and Prices
Ancient Weights and Scales
Anonymous Follis
Anonymous Class A Folles
Antioch Officinae
Armenian Numismatics Page
Augustus - Facing Portrait
Bronze Disease
Byzantine Denominations
A Cabinet of Greek Coins
Caesarean and Actian Eras
Campgates of Constantine
A Case of Counterfeits
Byzantine Christian Themes
Clashed Dies
Coins of Pontius Pilate
Conditions of Manufacture
Corinth Coins and Cults
Countermarked in Late Antiquity
Danubian Celts
Damnatio Coinage
Damnatio Memoriae
Denarii of Otho
Diameter 101
Die Alignment 101
Dictionary of Roman Coins
Doug Smith's Ancient Coins
Edict on Prices
ERIC - Rarity Tables
Etruscan Alphabet
The Evolving Ancient Coin Market
Fel Temp Reparatio
Fertility Pregnancy and Childbirth
Friend or Foe
The Gallic Empire
Gallienus Zoo
Greek Alphabet
Greek Coins
Greek Dates
Greek Coin Denominations
Greek Mythology Link
Greek Numismatic Dictionary
Hellenistic Names & their Meanings
Hasmonean Dynasty
Helvetica's ID Help Page
The Hexastyle Temple of Caligula
Historia Numorum
Holy Land Antiquities
Horse Harnesses
Illustrated Ancient Coin Glossary
Important Collection Auctions
Islamic Rulers and Dynasties
Julian II: The Beard and the Bull
Julius Caesar - The Funeral Speech
Kushan Coins
Later Roman Coinage
Latin Plurals
Latin Pronunciation
Library of Ancient Coinage
Life in Ancient Rome
List of Kings of Judea
Medusa Coins
Maps of the Ancient World
Military Belts
Military Belts
Mint Marks
Museum Collections Available Online
Nabataean Alphabet
Nabataean Numerals
The [Not] Cuirassed Elephant
Not in RIC
Numismatic Bulgarian
Numismatic Excellence Award
Numismatic French
Numismatic German
Numismatic Italian
Numismatic Spanish
Parthian Coins
Patina 101
Paleo-Hebrew Alphabet
Paleo-Hebrew Script Styles
People in the Bible Who Issued Coins
Imperial Mints of Philip the Arab
Phoenician Alphabet
Pi-Style Athens Tetradrachms
Pricing and Grading Roman Coins
Reading Judean Coins
Representations of Alexander the Great
Roman Coin Attribution 101
Roman Coin Legends and Inscriptions
Roman Keys
Roman Locks
Roman Militaria
Roman Military Belts
Roman Mints
Roman Names
Rome and China
Satyrs and Nymphs
Serdi Celts
The Sign that Changed the World
Silver Content of Parthian Drachms
Star of Bethlehem Coins
Statuary Coins
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum
Syracusian Folles
Taras Drachms with Owl Left
The Temple Tax
The Temple Tax Hoard
Test Cut
Travels of Paul
Tribute Penny
Tribute Penny Debate Continued (2015)
Tribute Penny Debate Revisited (2006)
Tyrian Shekels
Uncleaned Ancient Coins 101
Venus Cloacina
What I Like About Ancient Coins
Who was Trajan Decius
Widow's Mite

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Italian numismatic terms and abbreviations

a.C. - avanti Cristo - B.C.
accollati - jugate
accanto (m) - near, on the side, next to
a d. - a destra - to the right, facing right
alata - winged
ali (le ali) - wings (the wings)
alzata (f) - raised
anche - also
androcefalo - man headed
androprosopo - man faced
ape - bee
aplustre - aphlaston appoggiato (m) - leaning (for example shield resting/leaning against throne)
aquila - eagle
arco - bow
ariete - ram
a s. - a sinistra - to the left, facing left
aquila - eagle

barbuto - bearded
basso - below (in basso - in exergue)
becco - beak
bilancia - scales
bocca - mouth
bolle di fusione - casting bubbles
bordo perlinato - border of dots
brandisce - holds

campo - field
canna - reed
capovolto (m), capovolta (f) - upside down
cavaliere - horseman
cavallo - horse
cerchietti - annulets
chicco (di orzo) - (barley) grain
Cifr. - cifrare - figure
cinghiale - boar
civetta - owl
clava - club
collo - neck
con - with
conchiglia - shell
coniato - minted
conio - die
conj, conii - dies
conocchia - distaff
contorno - border
cortorno perlinato - beaded (dot) border
coperta (f) - covered
corazza - armor
corona (di alloro) - (laurel) wreath
cozzante - butting
croce - cross

d.  destra - right
D/ - Diritto - obverse
d'alloro - of laurel
da - by (with)
davanti - in front
d.C. (dopo Cristo) - A.D.
delfino - dolphin
destra - right
di - of
di fronte - in front
dietro - behind
dimensioni - size
diritto (D.)- obverse
doppio - double

e - and
elmata - wearing helmet
elmo - helmet
esemplare - specimen

falso - fake
foglia - leaf
foglie - leaves
fronte - front
fulmine (alato) - (winged) thunderbolt
fuso - distaff
fuso, fusa - cast

G.B. - gran bronzo - sestertius
gira - turns (concerning heads)
ghirlanda - garland (wreath)
globetti - pellets
gomito - elbow
gran bronzo - sestertius
granchio - crab
grappolo d'uva - bunch of grapes
guanciale perrucca - Egyptian bag wig
guarda - looking
gufo - owl

in piedi - standing
incoronante (che incorona) - crowning
incoronato - crowned
inginocchiato - kneeling
invece - instead

lancia - spear
laureata - wreathedlegg. - legend
legg. simile - legend similar
leone - lion
lotta con - fights
luna bicorne - crescent moon

M.B. - medio bronzo - dupondius or as
mantello - cloak
mano - hand
medio bronzo (M.B.) - dupondius or as
medaglione - medal
mezzo - half
mistura - billon
monetazione - coinage
monete (antiche) - (ancient) coins
montone - ram

nel - in
nel campo - in the field
nuda (f), nudo (m) - naked

ornato - adorned (decorated)

papaveri - poppies
P.B. - piccolo bronzo - small bronze (smaller than an as)
pelle - skin
perlinato - dotted
pesce - fish
peso - weight
pettine di conchiglia - scallop shell
petto - chest
piccolo bronzo (P.B) - small bronze (smaller than an as)
piedi (in piedi) - standing
pieghe - coil (snake)
piombo (p.) - lead
posata a terra - on the ground
posto - placed, seated
prec. - precedente - previous
prospetto - front (facing)
protome - forepart

quadrato incuso - incuse square

R/ - Rovescio - reverse
rami - branches
redini - reigns
regge - holding
retrospiciente - looking back (used for the bull of Sybaris)
ripiena (f) - filled (cornucopia)
riposa - rests
ritoccata - tooled
roccie - rocks
rovescio - reverse

s.  sinistra - left
scettro - scepter
schienale - back of the seat or throne
scudo - shield
sdraiata (f) - reclining
seduto (m), seduta (f) - seated
seduto su trono - seated on throne
seduto su trono sullo schienale - seated on throne with back
segno di valore - mark of value
seguenti - sg./segg. -  following
senza - without
s.d. - senza data - without date
sigla di zecca - mint mark
sulla - on
simile - similar
sinistra - left
solamente - alone, only
solleva - raises (concerning Spes raising a fold of the dress)
sopra - above
spada - sword
spalla - shoulder
spiegate - spread (wings)
spighe di grano - ears of grain
spighe di orzo - ears of barley
stante - standing
strangolante (che strangola) - strangling
stella(e) - star(s)

T/ - taglio - edge
terra - ground
testa - head
testa nuda - bare-headed
tiene nella - holds in
timone - rudder, tiller
tondello - blank, flan
tonno - tunny fish
toro - bull
tra - between
trono - throne

Vangelo - Gospels
veduto di dorso - seen from behind
vite - vine
vittoria alata - nikevelato - veiled
veste - wearing
veste lorica - cuirassed
veste palud. - draped

zecca - mint


D- discreto - G - Good
B - bello - VG - Very Good
MB - molto bello - F - Fine
BB - bellissimo - VF to EF - Very Fine to Extremely Find
SPL - splendido - EF to UNC - Extremely Fine to uncirculated
FDC - fior di conio - uncirculated mint state

screpolature - cracks


comune (C) - common
non comune (NC) - uncommon/scarce
scarso (S) - scarce
raro (R, R1) - rare
molto raro - very rare
rarissimo (RR, R2) - very rare
rarissimo (RRR, R3) - extremely rare
della massima rarita (RRRR, R4) - of the highest rarity
pochi esemplari noti (RRRRR, R5) - few known examples



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