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Aes Formatum
Aes Grave
Aes Rude
The Age of Gallienus
Alexander Tetradrachms
Ancient Coin Collecting 101
Ancient Coin Prices 101
Ancient Coin Dates
Ancient Coin Lesson Plans
Ancient Coins & Modern Fakes
Ancient Counterfeits
Ancient Glass
Ancient Metal Arrowheads
Ancient Oil Lamps
Ancient Weapons
Ancient Wages and Prices
Ancient Weights and Scales
Anonymous Folles
Anonymous Follis
Anonymous Class A Folles
Antioch Officinae
Armenian Numismatics Page
Augustus - Facing Portrait
Byzantine Denominations
A Cabinet of Greek Coins
Caesarean and Actian Eras
Campgates of Constantine
A Case of Counterfeits
Byzantine Christian Themes
Clashed Dies
Coins of Pontius Pilate
Conditions of Manufacture
Corinth Coins and Cults
Countermarked in Late Antiquity
Danubian Celts
Damnatio Coinage
Damnatio Memoriae
Denarii of Otho
Diameter 101
Die Alignment 101
Dictionary of Roman Coins
Doug Smith's Ancient Coins
Edict on Prices
ERIC - Rarity Tables
Etruscan Alphabet
The Evolving Ancient Coin Market
Fel Temp Reparatio
Fertility Pregnancy and Childbirth
Friend or Foe
The Gallic Empire
Gallienus Zoo
Greek Alphabet
Greek Coins
Greek Dates
Greek Coin Denominations
Greek Mythology Link
Greek Numismatic Dictionary
Hellenistic Names & their Meanings
Hasmonean Dynasty
Helvetica's ID Help Page
The Hexastyle Temple of Caligula
Historia Numorum
Horse Harnesses
Identifying Ancient Metal Arrowheads
Illustrated Ancient Coin Glossary
Important Collection Auctions
Islamic Rulers and Dynasties
Julian II: The Beard and the Bull
Julius Caesar - The Funeral Speech
Kushan Coins
People in the Bible Who Issued Coins
Imperial Mints of Philip the Arab
Later Roman Coinage
Latin Plurals
Latin Pronunciation
Library of Ancient Coinage
Life in Ancient Rome
List of Kings of Judea
Malloy Weapons
Maps of the Ancient World
Military Belts
Mint Marks
Museum Collections Available Online
Nabataean Alphabet
Nabataean Numerals
The [Not] Cuirassed Elephant
Not in RIC
Numismatic Bulgarian
Numismatic Excellence Award
Numismatic French
Numismatic German
Numismatic Italian
Numismatic Spanish
Parthian Coins
Patina 101
Paleo-Hebrew Alphabet
Phoenician Alphabet
Pi-Style Athens Tetradrachms
Pricing and Grading Roman Coins
Reading Judean Coins
Representations of Alexander the Great
Roman Coin Attribution 101
Roman Militaria
Roman Mints
Roman Names
Rome and China
Satyrs and Nymphs
Serdi Celts
The Sign that Changed the World
Silver Content of Parthian Drachms
Star of Bethlehem Coins
Statuary Coins
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum
Syracusian Folles
Taras Drachms with Owl Left
The Temple Tax
The Temple Tax Hoard
Test Cut
Travels of Paul
Tribute Penny
Tribute Penny Debate Continued (2015)
Tribute Penny Debate Revisited (2006)
Tyrian Shekels
Uncleaned Ancient Coins 101
Venus Cloacina
What I Like About Ancient Coins
Who was Trajan Decius
Widow's Mite

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French numismatic terms and abbreviations

a.d. - to right (a droite)
a.g. - to left (a gauche)
aigle - eagle
aile - wing
anneau - ring
assis - seated
astre - star
au-dessous - below
au-dessus - above
autel - altar
av. - averse - obverse
avec - with

baguette - rod, staff
bandelette - strip (fillet, ribbon)
bas - low
(en) biseau = bevelled
bouclier - shield
bouquetin - wild goats or ibex
branche de laurier - laurel branch

cantonnée-angled (objects at an angle)
carré creux - incuse square
casque - helmet
cerf - stag
champ - field
cheval - horse
chouette - owl
cimier - crest (of a helmet)
coiffé(e) - head covered or hair-styled
coin - die
collier - necklace
corne d'abondance - cornucopia
cornu - horned
côté - side
couronne - crown
criniere - mane
croissant - crescent
croix cléchée - voided cross
cuisse - thigh
cygne - swan

dans - in
dans le champ - in the field
debout - standing
dentellé(e) - serrated
dernier - last, final
dessous - below
dessus- above
deux - two
devant - before
diadémé(e) - diademed
dr. - obverse
drapé - draped
dresse - stands
droite - right

échanchré - clipped
effon­dré(e) - collapsed
égide - aegis (shield or short cloak)
en bas - below 
en biseau - bevelled
entre - between
épars - scattered, streaming (hair)
epi - ear (of grain)
épis - ears (of grain)
éperon de navire-ram (prow) of ship
et - and
étoile - star

fanon - (1) diadem end (2) wattle (folds of skin on throat)
favoris - sideburns
fer de lance - spearhead
février - February
flambeau - torch
flambeau de course - race torch
flanque - flanks
fleur - flower
foudre - fulmen (thunderbolt)
fruste - rough (coin graded Poor to Fair)

grappe de raisin - bunch of grapes
grénétis - beading (dot border)
gauche - left
guerrier - warrior
graveur - engraver

haste - spear
haut - above
haut cimier - high crest (as in helmet)

idem - same
imberbe - beardless
indiquant - showing
isiaque - Isis

javelot - javelin
joug - yoke

lance - spear
laurier - laurel

machoire - jaw
main - hand
mais - but
mais avec - but with
marchant - marching, walking
massue - club
même(s) - same
Mg - engraver (Monnaie graveur)
Mm - mint master (Maître de la monnaie)
moindre - smaller (lesser)

ND - no date

ou - or
oreilles - ears

pans - diadem ends
pavot - poppy
pendent - fillet, ribbon, earring
pieds - feet
plumb (pl.) - lead
printemps - spring
protomè - forepart

quelquefois - sometimes

raisin - grapes
rayons - rays
recourbé(e) - curved
roi - king
rogné - clipped
rv. - reverse

sa - his
sanglier - boar
sans - without
sceptres croisés - transverse scepters
soc de charrue - plow
son - his
sous - under
sur - on

tenant - holding
tête - head
trépied - tripod
tourelé - turreted (wearing crown of city walls)

un, une - a

voir - see


F - fruste - Poor to Fair
très bien conservée - G - Good
B - beau - VG - Very Good
TB - très beau - F - Fine
TTB - très très beau - VF - Very Fine
TTB - très très beau - EF - Extremely Fine
SUP - superbe - nice EF to UNC - nice Extremely Fine to Uncirculated
FDC - Fleur de coin - FDC - Fleur de coin
FB - Flan bruni - Proof

fêlure du flan - flan crack
foureé - plated
rognés - clipped
troueé (tr.) - holed






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