- The Collaborative Numismatics Project
  Explore Our Website And Find Joy In The History, Numismatics, Art, Mythology, And Geography Of Coins!!! NumisWiki Is An Enormous Unique Resource Including Hundreds Of Books And Thousands Of Articles Online!!! The Column On The Left Includes Our "Best of NumisWiki" Menu If You Are New To Collecting - Start With Ancient Coin Collecting 101 NumisWiki Includes The Encyclopedia of Roman Coins and Historia Nummorum If You Have Written A Numismatic Article - Please Add It To NumisWiki All Blue Text On The Website Is Linked - Keep Clicking To ENDLESSLY EXPLORE!!! Please Visit Our Shop And Find A Coin You Love Today!!!

× Resources Home
New Articles
Most Popular
Recent Changes
Current Projects
Admin Discussions
How to
Index Of All Titles


Aes Formatum
Aes Rude
The Age of Gallienus
Alexander Tetradrachms
Ancient Coin Collecting 101
Ancient Coin Prices 101
Ancient Coin Dates
Ancient Coin Lesson Plans
Ancient Coins & Modern Fakes
Ancient Counterfeits
Ancient Glass
Ancient Metal Arrowheads
Ancient Oil Lamps
Ancient Pottery
Ancient Weapons
Ancient Wages and Prices
Ancient Weights and Scales
Anonymous Follis
Anonymous Class A Folles
Antioch Officinae
Armenian Numismatics Page
Augustus - Facing Portrait
Bronze Disease
Byzantine Denominations
A Cabinet of Greek Coins
Caesarean and Actian Eras
Campgates of Constantine
A Case of Counterfeits
Byzantine Christian Themes
Clashed Dies
Coins of Pontius Pilate
Conditions of Manufacture
Corinth Coins and Cults
Countermarked in Late Antiquity
Danubian Celts
Damnatio Coinage
Damnatio Memoriae
Denarii of Otho
Diameter 101
Die Alignment 101
Dictionary of Roman Coins
Doug Smith's Ancient Coins
Edict on Prices
ERIC - Rarity Tables
Etruscan Alphabet
The Evolving Ancient Coin Market
Fel Temp Reparatio
Fertility Pregnancy and Childbirth
Friend or Foe
The Gallic Empire
Gallienus Zoo
Greek Alphabet
Greek Coins
Greek Dates
Greek Coin Denominations
Greek Mythology Link
Greek Numismatic Dictionary
Hellenistic Names & their Meanings
Hasmonean Dynasty
Helvetica's ID Help Page
The Hexastyle Temple of Caligula
Historia Numorum
Holy Land Antiquities
Horse Harnesses
Illustrated Ancient Coin Glossary
Important Collection Auctions
Islamic Rulers and Dynasties
Julian II: The Beard and the Bull
Julius Caesar - The Funeral Speech
Kushan Coins
Later Roman Coinage
Latin Plurals
Latin Pronunciation
Library of Ancient Coinage
Life in Ancient Rome
List of Kings of Judea
Medusa Coins
Maps of the Ancient World
Military Belts
Military Belts
Mint Marks
Museum Collections Available Online
Nabataean Alphabet
Nabataean Numerals
The [Not] Cuirassed Elephant
Not in RIC
Numismatic Bulgarian
Numismatic Excellence Award
Numismatic French
Numismatic German
Numismatic Italian
Numismatic Spanish
Parthian Coins
Patina 101
Paleo-Hebrew Alphabet
Paleo-Hebrew Script Styles
People in the Bible Who Issued Coins
Imperial Mints of Philip the Arab
Phoenician Alphabet
Pi-Style Athens Tetradrachms
Pricing and Grading Roman Coins
Reading Judean Coins
Representations of Alexander the Great
Roman Coin Attribution 101
Roman Coin Legends and Inscriptions
Roman Keys
Roman Locks
Roman Militaria
Roman Military Belts
Roman Mints
Roman Names
Rome and China
Satyrs and Nymphs
Serdi Celts
The Sign that Changed the World
Silver Content of Parthian Drachms
Star of Bethlehem Coins
Statuary Coins
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum
Syracusian Folles
Taras Drachms with Owl Left
The Temple Tax
The Temple Tax Hoard
Test Cut
Travels of Paul
Tribute Penny
Tribute Penny Debate Continued (2015)
Tribute Penny Debate Revisited (2006)
Tyrian Shekels
Uncleaned Ancient Coins 101
Venus Cloacina
What I Like About Ancient Coins
Who was Trajan Decius
Widow's Mite

   View Menu


Please add updates or make corrections to the NumisWiki text version as appropriate.

MINERVA, the goddess whom fable describes to have come forth fully armed and of mature age from the brain of Jupiter - in other words, an emanation from the intellect of Jove himself. —She was the tutelary divinity of the Athenians, and was called in Greek Athené.  Her head is the type of the medals of Athens; and, under the name of Pallas, she was worshipped in that city and throughout Greece, as the protectress of heroes. —By the Romans she was regarded as the first in rank after Jupiter and Juno, and, with the statues of those deities, was placed in the principal temple of the capitol at Rome.  As the goddess of reason, wisdom, and prudence, she was considered to preside over literature and the sciences.  The invention of weaving and embroidery, together with the honour of having first taught mankind the use of the olive, was ascribed to her. —On consular coins Minerva but seldom appears.  Morell has given her image or attributes on coins the Clovia, Cordia, Cornelia, and Vibia families.  During the period of the empire, she occupies somewhat more frequently a place on Roman medals, particularly those of Domitian (see Domitianus), Commodus, Albinus, Severus, Caracalla, Geta, as far as Gallienus and Postumus.

—On these generally she is figured in a walking attitude, clothed in a long tunic, with sometimes the aegis on her breast, a helmet on her head, holding in her right hand by turns- as the deity both of war and of peace-a spear, the thunderbolt, an image of Victory, a branch of olive, and in her left hand a buckler. —On one silver coin of the Vibia family she stands as Minerva the Vanquisher, with victory and spear; on another her bust is represented, and on a third she stands in a quadriga.- Amongst the rare medallions in brass, struck under Antoninus Pius, without legend, the image of this goddess is three times introduced—viz., 1. Where she is placed on the right hand of Jupiter, whilst Juno is on his left, and all three are seated, full faced, on curule chairs.  2. Minerva leaning against a tree, around which a serpent is entwined, and looking at Prometheus, who is in the act of forming a man.  3. Minerva standing before Vulcan, who is forging a thunderbolt: on another coin a helmet.  4. Vulcan standing before a statue of Minerva placed on a cippus. —On a coin of Clodius Albinus the surname of Pacifera is assigned to this goddess.-See Olea Ramus, the olive branch.

   Minerva was the object of especial adoration with that vain, profligate, and murderous tyrant Domitian; on coins of each metal struck under this Emperor, we see a well executed figure of the goddess, holding in one hand her buckler, and in the other the fulmen or thunderbolt, which she is going to launch, intended, says Oiselius, "as the symbol of Domitian's authority," with the circumscription IMP. XIX. COS. XVI. CENS. P. P. (emperor for the nineteenth time, consul for the sixteenth, censor, father of the country.) —On a first brass of this emperor, without legend on its reverse, but bearing the authorisation of the Senate, he stands between Minerva and Victory, the latter of whom is placing a laurel crown on his head.

View whole page from the Dictionary Of Roman Coins
All coins are guaranteed for eternity