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XXI

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Denarii of  L. Calpurnius Piso L.f. L.n Frugi Struck at the Rome Mint in 90 B.C.

Crawford 340/1, SRCV I 235, RSC I Calpurnia 6 - 12d, Crawford 650 - 677, BMCRR Rome 1859 -2137

David Sear notes in SRCV I, on page 117, "The extraordinarily large and complex issue [of Lucius Calpurnius Piso L.f. L.n Frugi, in 90 B.C.] represents one of the principal war-coinages of the Romans during the conflict with he Marsic Confederation. The control marks are legion and consist of letters, numerals, and symbols in a multitude of combination on ob. and rev."

H.A. Seaby notes in RSC I on page 25, "This is one of the most prolific issues in the whole republican series, the British Museum collection alone contains over 300 different varieties. The type of the head of Apollo and of the horseman refers to the Ludi Apollinares which were established in B.C> 212 the annual celebration of which was proposed by the praetor L. Calpurnius Piso, an ancestor of the moneyer."

Obverse: Laureate head of Apollo right (or rarely to the left), hair in long ringlets, sometimes X (XVI ligature, mark of value) behind or below chin, usually control mark left or right, bead and reel  border or dot border

Reverse: Nude horseman galloping right or left, holding palm frond, torch or whip, L PISO FRVGI or L PISO L F FRVGI or PISO FRVGI or similar below, sometimes ROMA or Roma monogram or ROMA with MA ligate below (or rarely above), usually with control mark in field

Control symbols chart from BMCRR I page 252 for this issue.

Note: Caius Calpurnius Piso L.f. Frugi, the son of this moneyer, was himself a moneyer c. 67- 60 B.C. and issued denarii types that copied his father, with Apollo on the obverse and a horseman on the reverse. The coins of father and son can most easily be distinguished from each other by the name on the reverse. The father's coins read PISO FRVGI, L PISO FRVGI or L PISO L F. The son is C PISO L F FRVGI, often abbreviated but always beginning with C (unless it is worn, unstruck or off flan). For the coins of Caius Calpurnius Piso L.f. Frugi, see the NumisWiki page for Hersh Piso, the primary reference for his types.

References

Crawford, M. Roman Republican Coinage. (Cambridge, 1974).
Grueber, H. Coins of the Roman Republic in The British Museum. (London, 1910).
Russo, R. The RBW Collection of Roman Republican Coins. (Zurich, 2013).
Seaby, H., D. Sear, & R. Loosley. Roman Silver Coins, Volume I, The Republic to Augustus. (London, 1989).
Sear, D. Roman Coins and Their Values, Volume One, The Republic and the Twelve Caesars 280 BC - AD 86. (London, 2000).
Sydenham, E. Aes Grave, a Study of the Cast Coinages of Rome and Central Italy. (London, 1926).
Sydenham, E. The Coinage of the Roman Republic. (London, 1952).


Laureate head of Apollo RIGHT

Horseman galloping right holding TORCH (RSC I Calpurnia 6 - 7b)

Obverse: bead and reel border, X (mark of value) below chin, control symbol behind
Reverse: PISO FRVGI, control symbol above rider - RSC I Calpurnia 6, Sydenham 653 (very scarce), Crawford 340/1, SRCV I 235, BMCRR Rome 1865 (symbols (11/12)
Reverse: PISO FRVGI, control symbol below inscription - RSC I Calpurnia 6a, Sydenham 653a (rare), Crawford 340/1, SRCV I 235, BMCRR Rome 1864 (symbols 9/10)
Reverse: PISO FRVGI / ROMA, - RSC I Calpurnia 7, Sydenham 654 (rare), Crawford 340/1, SRCV I 235, BMCRR Rome 1866 (symbols 13/14)
Reverse: L. PISO L. F / ROMA, control letter above - RSC I Calpurnia 7b, Sydenham 654a (very rare), Crawford 340/1, SRCV I 235, BMCRR Rome -

Obverse: dot border, X (mark of value) below chin, control symbol behind
Reverse: PISO FRVGI / ROMA - RSC I Calpurnia 7a, Crawford 340/1, SRCV I 235, BMCRR Rome 1867 (symbols 19/20), Sydenham 654 (rare) var. (bead and reel)


Horseman galloping LEFT holding TORCH (RSC I Calpurnia 10 - 10b)

Obverse: FRVGI behind Apollo, bead and reel border, control symbol below chin, no mark of value
Reverse: L. PISO. L. F, control symbol above, X (mark of value) below - RSC I Calpurnia 10, Sydenham 650 (rare), BMCRR Roma p. 253 note, Crawford 340/1, SRCV I 235

Obverse: ROMA behind Apollo, bead and reel border, control symbol below chin, no mark of value
Reverse: L. PISO FRVGI ROMA, control symbol above - RSC I Calpurnia 10bis, Sydenham 650a (very rare), Crawford 340/1, SRCV I 235, BMCRR Roma -

Obverse: Control symbol behind Apollo, bead and reel border, no mark of value
Reverse: L. PISO. FRV. N., X (mark of value) above, control symbol below - RSC I Calpurnia 10a, Sydenham 651 (very scarce), Crawford 340/1, SRCV I 235, BMCRR Roma 1859 (symbols 1/2)

Obverse: Nothing behind Apollo, bead and reel border, X (mark of value) below chin
Reverse: L. PISO. FRV. N., control symbol above, no mark of value - RSC I Calpurnia 10b, Sydenham 651a (very rare), Crawford 340/1, SRCV I 235, BMCRR Roma -


Horseman galloping right holding PALM

Obverse: bead and reel border, X (mark of value) below chin, symbol behind
Reverse: L. PISO FRVG(I), control symbol above rider, obv:  X below chin, bead and reel border, symbol behind - RSC I Calpurnia 8, Sydenham 655 (scarce), Crawford 340/1, SRCV I 235, BMCRR Rome 1868 (symbols 15/16)
Reverse: L. PISO FRVG(I), dot(s) (fraction signs) beside symbols on both sides - RSC I Calpurnia 8b, Sydenham 655a (very scarce), Crawford 340/1, SRCV I 235, BMCRR Rome 1871 (symbols 9/26)
Reverse: L. PISO FRVG(I), no control symbol on reverse - RSC I Calpurnia 8c, Sydenham 655b (rare), Crawford 340/1, SRCV I 235
Reverse: L. PISO. L.F. / FRVGI - RSC I Calpurnia 9, Sydenham 652 (very scarce), Crawford 340/1, SRCV I 235, BMCRR Rome 1861 - 1863
Reverse: L. PISO. L.F. / FRVGI, dot in place of symbol on reverse - RSC I Calpurnia 9a, Sydenham 652, Crawford 340/1, SRCV I 235, BMCRR Rome -
Reverse: L. PISO. L.F. / FRVGI, fraction sign above, X (mark of value) below - RSC I Calpurnia 9b, Sydenham 654b (very rare), Crawford 340/1, SRCV I 235

Obverse: Roman control number (I - CCXXV at least) behind Apollo
Reverse: L. PISO FRVGI / Roma monogram, Roman control number above (I - )- Sydenham 661, RSC I Calpurnia 12b, Crawford 340/1, SRCV I 235

Obverse: Roman control number (C - CXXIIII at least) behind Apollo
Reverse: L. PISO FRVGI / ROMA (MA ligate), Roman control number above (CXXVIII - CXXXXVI)- Sydenham 662, RSC I Calpurnia 12b, Crawford 340/1, SRCV I 235, BMCRR Rome -????

Obverse: dot border, X (mark of value) below chin, symbol behind
Reverse: L. PISO FRVG(I) / ROMA below, symbol, letter or number above or below - RSC I Calpurnia 8a, Sydenham 655, Crawford 340/1, SRCV I 235, BMCRR Rome 1869 (symbol 17/18), BMCRR Rome 1870 (symbol 21/22)

Obverse: dot border, X (mark of value) behind Apollo, Latin letter below chin
Reverse: L. PISO FRVG(I) / ROMA below, symbol above - Sydenham 655, RSC I Calpurnia 11a, Crawford 340/1, SRCV I 235, BMCRR Rome 1872 (B/star), BMCRR Rome 1872 (C/sword in sheath),

Obverse: dot border, symbol, letter or number below chin or behind
Reverse: L. PISO FRVG(I) - RSC I Calpurnia 11, Sydenham 663 - 670, Crawford 340/1, SRCV I 235, BMCRR Rome 1938 - 2129

Obverse: dot border, X (mark of value) below chin, symbol, letter or number below chin or behind
Reverse: L. PISO FRVG(I) - RSC I Calpurnia 11a, Sydenham 671, Crawford 340/1, SRCV I 235, cf. BMCRR Rome 1875 - 1888

Obverse: No controls, no mark of value
Reverse: L. PISO FRVGI / ROMA, symbol above - Sydenham 656b, RSC I Calpurnia 8c, Crawford 340/1, SRCV I 235


Horseman galloping right holding WHIP (Sydenham 658 - 658c)

Obverse: X (mark of value) below chin, Latin control letter behind Apollo
Reverse: L. PISO FRVGI / ROMA, control symbol above - Sydenham 658, RSC I Calpurnia 12b

Obverse: Latin control letter right, no mark of value
Reverse: L. PISO FRVGI / ROMA, control symbol above - Sydenham 658a, RSC I Calpurnia 12b

Obverse: Latin control letter right, no mark of value
Reverse: L. PISO FRVGI / ROMA, no control symbol above - Sydenham 658b, RSC I Calpurnia 12b

Obverse: Roman control number (X - XXVIII) behind Apollo
Reverse: L. PISO FRVGI / Roma monogram - Sydenham 660, RSC I Calpurnia 12b, Crawford 340/1, SRCV I 235, BMCRR Rome 1869 - 70

Obverse: Roman control number (X - XXVIII) behind Apollo
Reverse: L. PISO FRVGI / Roma monogram - Sydenham 660, RSC I Calpurnia 12b, Crawford 340/1, SRCV I 235, BMCRR Rome 1869 - 70

Obverse: No controls, no mark of value
Reverse: L. PISO FRVGI / ROMA - Sydenham 658c, RSC I Calpurnia 12bb, Crawford 340/1, SRCV I 235, BMCRR Rome -


Laureate head of Apollo LEFT

Horseman galloping right holding WHIP

Obverse: Greek letter below chin
Reverse: L. PISO FRVGI / ROMA or Roma monogram - RSC I Calpurnia 12c, Sydenham 659 (extremely rare), Crawford 340/1, SRCV I 235, BMCRR Rome p. 276

Horseman galloping right holding PALM

Obverse: Geek letter below chin
Reverse: L. PISO FRVGI / ROMA or Roma monogram - RSC I Calpurnia 12d, Sydenham 657 (extremely rare), Crawford 340/1, SRCV I 235, BMCRR Rome p. 256





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