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Latin: Jupiter the Preserver (guardian, watcher).


Please add updates or make corrections to the NumisWiki text version as appropriate.
IVPPITER CVSTOS - Jupiter the Preserver. Under this title, on the coins of Nero and

others, he is generally represented seated, holding in his right hand something intended to resemble the thunderbolt, and in his left a spear. IVPPITER LIBERATOR of Nero has a similar type. Vaillant observes that Nero caused a coin to be struck, on which the effigy of Jupiter is seen sitting, with the epigraph of Jupiter Liberator, on the occasion of the Pisonian plot having been discovered, in acknowledgement that the deity had rescued him from so great a danger, as in the former medal of IVPPITER he recognised Jove as his keeper and guardian.

This execrable tyrant was , however, not content with honouring Jupiter as his liberator from the poniards of his enemies; but he made a bloody libation at the shrine of his tutelary divinity, by putting Seneca and Thraseas Paetus to death, with a hecatomb of other victims, (IOVI VINDICI) to the avenging of Jove of the Capitol, or rather the sanguinary impulse of his own vindictive and cruel nature.

IVPPITER CVSTOS - IVPPITER LIBERATOR - Jupiter seated, holds the thunderbolt in his right hand and a spear in his left.

The above two legends (with the double P), accompanied by the same type, appear on gold and silver of Nero. "It is very probable (says Eckhel) what Vaillant thinks, that these coins were struck on the occasion of the tyrant 's escape from the conspiracy of Piso, about the year of Rome 818, under the peril of which he acknowledges the interposing guardianship of Jupiter the Protector and the Liberator.

It appears that Nero, after the defeat of that plot against his life, consecrated in the Capitol the dagger which had been aimed at him, an inscribed upon it IOVI VINDICI.

The Greek colonies of Patras and Corinth, were also induced, in consequence of this danger, to inscribe on their coins under Nero, IVPPITER LIBERATOR. See Patrae col. in which he is represented standing with eagle in right and hasta in left hand.

And not only with Nero, but also with others, at the same period, was Jupiter the Liberator held in honour, though from different causes. For Seneca and Thraseas Paetus, doomed by that sanguinary monster to suffer death, sprinkling around the blood of their opened veins, exclaimed libemus Jovi Liberatori. See Jupiter.

Jus appellandi or provocantli - The exercise of this privilege is well represented on a coin of the Porcia family, on the obverse of which there is the head of Rome helmeted, with the inscription P LAECA ROMA (Publius): on the reverse is a fingure in military dress between two others, of whom on the right hand is togated, or in the habit of a Roman citizen, over the head of which the other extends his hand; on the left is a Lictor with rods: in the exergue we read PROVOCO. See Porcia family.

This medal is a monument of law carried by a Tribune of the People, called Lex Porcia, that no citizen of Rome should be beaten with rods. The advantages of this law have been attested by many writers; and especially by Cicero.

On another coin of the same family is found a monument of this Tribune in the safety of the main liberty of Roman citizens. The obverse of this is nearly like the one above described; but on the reverse appears the goddess of liberty with the pileus or bonnet in her right hand, and with a spear in her left, standing in a quadriga, and crowned by a figure of Victory. The legend is M POR ROMA (Marcus Porcius ROMA).

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