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By British Museum. Dept. of Coins and Medals, Barclay Vincent Head, Reginald Stuart Poole
The want of a general chronological view of the coinage of the ancients has long been felt by all who have devoted any study to this branch of archaeology. It is this want which I have here made a first attempt to supply.
In the choice and classification of the coins described in the following pages, I have throughout endeavoured to keep simultaneously in view the historic, artistic, and strictly numismatic interest of the coins selected. Thus, and thus alone, have I found it possible to present to the spectator a tolerably complete representative series of the gold and silver money current throughout the ancient world in approximate chronological order.
This series gives at the same time a view of the finest and most interesting Greek coins in the National Collection. Putting aside all theoretical esthetic methods of classification according to styles and schools of art, my endeavour lias been to arrive at one which is strictly historical. With this object in view I began by erecting as many definitely fixed points of comparison as possible, that is to say, I chose a certain number of dated coins, or coins about the precise dates of which numismatists are generally agreed. Working by analogy, I next proceeded to group around these fixed points all such other coins as seemed to me on various grounds, numismatic, historical, or artistic, to belong, as nearly as possible, to the same periods. The divisions into periods do not, it will be seen, exactly correspond with those of the history of art, but are rather those of the political history of the times.
If, then, the result of thus grouping together from an historical standpoint specimens of the chief monetary issues of all parts of the ancient world prove to be also a commentary on the history of the growth, development, and decline of Greek art, it will be none the less valuable for being a thoroughly independent commentary.
As an aid to those who may not be intimately acquainted with the well-known handbooks of Greek art, a few slight indications have been given, at the head of each period, of the chief characteristics of the art of that period, as exemplified by the most notable extant sculptures.
The artistic side is, however, but one of many from which it is possible to approach the science of numismatics, and I hope that it will be found that undue importance has not been attached to any one aspect of interest to the neglect of the others.
In the very compressed form in which alone the dimensions of this little Guide permit of explanations of the coins described, prominence has been given to the time and circumstance of the striking, and to such information as is not generally accessible to the public in the dictionaries of classical archaeology. The works to which I am indebted for the matter contained in these notes are for the most part numismatic treatises by English and foreign archaeologists far too numerous to cite. Among the articles which I have found of the greatest value are those of Monsieur W. H. Waddington, Mr. C. T. Newton, C.B., Mr. E. S. Poole, Mr. P. Gardner, Professors Mommsen and Curtius, Drs. Friedlander, Von Ballet, Brandis, and Imhoof-Blumer, Professor F. Lenormant, and Mr. J. P. Six, of Amsterdam. 1 have, moreover, to acknowledge the personal advice and assistance rendered me in the arrangement of the coins by Mr. P. Gardner and Mr. C. T. Newton, and in the portions relating to the history of art by Mr. A. S. Murray, and especially in the revision of the whole by Mr. E. S. Poole.
Barclay V. Head. March 1880.
PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.
The favourable reception which this Guide has met with, both in this country and abroad, has led to the preparation of a second edition, which will be accompanied by the large number of 70 plates, on which every coin described in the text (792 in all) will be figured.
In order to bring the work within the reach of a wider circle of students, it is proposed to publish it in a series of 10 consecutive issues, each of which will contain the complete text of the whole, but an instalment only of the plates. Each issue will thus contain, in addition to the text, a different set of 7 plates, with illustrations of about 80 coins. By the adoption of this method of publication it is hoped that a twofold object may be attained: first, that of providing an inexpensive Guide Book for the use of the public visiting the Museum; and secondly, that of producing by instalments a convenient handbook of ancient coins which shall contain in its 70 plates a far larger body of material than is elsewhere available for students.
As the number of copies printed is not large, the successive issues will follow at short intervals. The precise time occupied in the production of the whole work will necessarily depend upon the rate of the sale.
Barclay V. Head. Maroh 1881.
SELECT GREEK AND ROMAN COINS.
PERIOD I.—Circa B.c. 700-480.
About seven hundred years before the Christian era, the Lydians in Asia Minor, at that time ruled by the illustrious dynasty of the Mermnadse, first began to stamp small ingots of their native gold ore, obtained from the washings of the river Pactolus, with an official mark as a guarantee of just weight, thus rendering an appeal to the scales on every fresh transaction no longer a matter of necessity. These stamped ingots were the first coins.
The official marks on these earliest of all coins consisted merely of the impress of the rude uneugraved punches, between which the ingot was placed to receive the blow of the hammer. Very soon, however, the art of the engraver was called in to adorn the lower of the two dies, that of the obverse, with the badge of the state or the symbol of the local divinity under whose auspices the currency was issued, the earliest mints having been, it is generally supposed, within the sacred precincts of a temple.
The Greek cities which studded the coasts and islands of Asia Minor soon adopted and improved upon this simple but none the less remarkable Lydian invention, and to the Greeks the credit is probably due of substituting engraved dies for the primitive punches, and certainly of inscribing them with the name of the people or ruler by whom the coin was issued.
In European Greece, Phidon, ting of Argos, is said to have been the first to strike money, on which occasion he dedicated the ancient bars of metal, 6/3eAi'crKoi, which had before served for money, in the temple of Hera at Argos. The Euboean cities Chalcis and Eretria, as well as Corinth with her colonies, and Athens, were not slow to follow his example.
From these centres, Asiatic and European, the new invention spread far and wide, to the coasts of Thrace on the north, to those of the Cyrenai'ca on the south, and to Italy and Sicily in the west. In each district the weight of the standard coin or stater was carefully adjusted in proportion to the talent there in use for weighing the precious metals, these talents being different in different localities, but all or nearly all traceable to a Babylonian origin.
The form of the ingot (flan) of most of the early coins was bean-shaped or oval, except in Southern Italy, where the earliest coins of the Achaean cities were flat and circular. The device (type) consisted usually of the figure of an animal or of the fore-part of an animal, heads and figures of gods and men being rare in the early period. The reverse side of the coin does not at first bear a type, but only the impress in the form of an intaglio or incuse square of the upper of the two dies between which the flan or ingot was fixed. The early coins of certain cities of Magna Graecia above mentioned are characterised however by having devices on both sides (generally the same) on the obverse in relief and on the reverse incuse.
The coins of the two centuries previous to the Persian wars exhibit considerable varieties of style and execution. In common with the other remains of archaic art which have come down to us, and with which it is instructive to compare them, they may be divided into two classes, of which the earlier is characterised by extreme rudeness in the forms and expressiveness in the actions represented; the later, by a gradual development into more clearly defined forms with angularity and stiffness. The eye of the human face is always drawn, even when in profile, as if seen from the front, the hair is generally represented by lines of minute dots, the mouth wears a fixed and formal smile ; but, withal, there is in the best archaic work a strength and a delicacy of touch which are often wanting in the fully developed art of a later age.
To facilitate a comparison of the coins with the other contemporary productions of the plastic art, a list of some of the chief artists and best known works of art is appended :—
Sicyon—Dipoenus and Scyllis of Crete, circ. B.C. 600 (?). Founders of the earliest school of sculpture in marble.
jEgina—Callon and Onatas.
Sicyon—Canachus and Aristocles.
Athens—Endoeus, Antenor, and Hegias; also Critias and Nesiotes, the sculptors of the group of Harmodius and Aristogiton.
Principal extant Works:
The three oldest metopes of Selinus.
Branchidte. British Museum.
Seated Athena attributed to Endceus. Athens.
Stele of Aristion by Aristocles. Athens.
Harpy Tomb. British Museum.
Copy of Apollo of Canachus. British Museum.
Copy of group of Harmodius and Aristogiton. Naples.
The Thasos Reliefs. Paris.
This is the earliest known coin. B.c. circ. 700.
half-stater. Wt. 110 grs.
Euboic stater. Wt. 124 grs.
5. Samos. EL. Obv. Lion's scalp. Bev. Oblong and triangular sink
ings. Euboic stater. Wt. 133 grs.
Struck probably during the period of the highest prosperity of Miletus, before B.c. 623.
7. HalicarnaSBUS (?). EL. Obv. 4>ANO2 EMI ZHMA (retro
This is the earliest inscribed coin known. Phanes was a Halicarnassian, of no small account at the court of Amasis, the king of Egypt, whose service, however, he deserted for that of Cambyses, king of Persia, whom he assisted in his invasion of Egypt, B.c. 525. This coin may, however, have been struck at Halicarnassus (where it was found) by an ancestor of Phanes.
Wt. 217 grs.
square. Phoenician stater. Wt. 217 grs.
A coin perhaps struck during the rule of Polycrates, B.c. 530-520.
stater. Wt. 248-5 grs.
stater. Wt. 252-7 grs.
squares, one containing a scorpion. Phocaic stater. Wt. 252 grs.
Nos. 10, 11, and 12 may belong to the period immediately preceding the reform of the coinage by Croesus, circ. 560 B.c.
14. Sardes. N. Similar. J stater. Wt. 42 grs.
15. Sardes. M. Similar. Babylonic stater. Wt. 139 grs.
16. Sardes. JR. Similar. Siglus. Wt. 82-4 grs.
Nos. 13-16 are specimens of the gold and silver coinage of Crossus, B.c. 568-554, which he substituted for the previous coinage in electrum.
Incuse. Daric. Wt. 129 grs.
A Persian daric of the earliest style; struck in the reign of Darius I., B.c. 521-485.
Aristotle (ap. Steph. Byz. s. v. Tenedos) refers this type to a decree of a king of Tenedos, which enacted that all persons convicted of adultery should be beheaded. He is, however, certainly wrong in this interpretation : as Leake justly remarks, " such subjects were never represented on the money of the Greeks ; their types, like their names of men and women, were almost always euphemistic, relating generally to the local mythology and fortunes of the place, with symbols referring to the principal productions, or to the protecting numina." Cf. the myth of Tennes and the Tenedian axes dedicated at Delphi. (Paus. x. 14.)
adorned with floral devices. Wt. 182 grs.
Extremely archaic. As early as the seventh century B.c.
Perhaps the earliest known coin of this rich Ionian city. In the time of Crossus the Clazomenii had a treasury at Delphi (Herod, i. 51). Like certain coins of Methymna, &c., also having types on both sides, previous to 480, this coin is of the Euboiic standard.
square. Wt. 58'5 grs.
This coin is contemporary with the earliest electrum of Phocasa, struck in the time of Croesus, circ. B.c. 568 (cf. a stater in the Munich collection with the same type). The Phocasan Thalassocracy lasted from about 602-558.
Sev. XEP. (retrograde). Head and neck of bull. Wt. 183-4 grs.
square. Wt. 96 grs.
Chersonesus and Cnidus in early times were two distinct cities, but were afterwards united into one. The lion is the symbol of the sun-god, the bull of the moon-goddess, the Asiatic Aphrodite, whose head is seen on the coins of Cnidus.
Wt. 63 grs.
an incuse depression. Wt. 155 grs.
This head perhaps represents one of the Argive heroes who were shipwrecked on this island after the Trojan War. The style is rude, but the coin may not be much earlier than B.c. 480, at which time Calymna was subject to Artemisia I. of Halicarnassus.
divisions. Wt. 185 grs.
The territory of the island of Ehodes was anciently divided among the three cities Lindus, lalysus, and Camirus. Of the above coins, that of Camirus is the earlier. It exhibits the form of incuse peculiar to the Carian coasts.
32. Poseidion in Carpathus. JR. Obv. Two dolphins. Ban.
Two oblong sinkings as on No. 30. Wt. 208 grs.
triskelion ending in cocks' heads. Wt. 143'2 grs.
<1>A£. Stern of galley in incuse square. Wt. 171 grs.
The types are appropriate to a maritime city of the importance of Phaselis, a.nd.parlants ; cf. <^cur?;A.os) " a skifi'."
an ancient settlement of the Phoenicians, but Greeks from Samos settled there in the sixth century B.c.
3. Thasos. JR. Obv. Satyr kneeling with a nymph in his arms.
Men. Incuse square. Wt. 150-2 grs.
4. Lete. JR. Obv. Satyr standing opposite a nymph and holding her
5. Lete. JR. Similar, but of finer work. Wt. 146-6 grs.
The types of the above coins all refer to the "worship of the rude forces of nature symbolised in the orgiastic rites of the Thracian Bacchus and his following (Centaurs, Satyrs, Msenads, &c.). Mt. Pangaeum, on the summit of which was the famous oracle of Bacchus, was the religious centre of the Thracian mining tribes, whose coinage spread over the whole district north of Chalcidice, from the Nestos in the east to the Haliacmon in the west, before the time of the Persian wars.
Wt. 268 grs.
All the early coins of the cities of Chalcidice follow the Attic standard. That there were lions in this district at the time of the Persian wars we learn from Herodotus, who relates how they came down from the mountains and seized upon the beasts of burden in the army of Xerxes.
8. Mende. JR. Obv. Crow on the back of an ass; in the background,
The Dionysiac types on the coinage of this city refer to the famous Mendaean wine.
9. jPotldaea. JR. Obv. Poseidon Hippios, on horseback, holding tri
Dicsea in Chalcidice was a colony of Erctria in Eubcea, whence its coin-types are derived.
209 8 grs.
These coins were both procured at Salonica, and may have been struck at the ancient Therma, before that city was incorporated in the Macedonian kingdom.
cuse. Octadrachm. Wt. 440-3 grs.
17. Odomanti (?). JR. Obv. Bearded charioteer, in wicker-sided car
The Bisaltse, Edoni, Orrescii, Odomanti, &c., were Thracian tribes, who dwelt in the valleys of the Strymon and the Angites, to the north of the Pangrean range. The Orrescii probably also occupied a portion of that range, as some of their coins follow the Babylonic standard. The large octadrachms, &c. of these peoples belong to the Phoenician standard introduced from Abdera. When Alexander I. of Macedon took possession of the Bisaltian territory, about B.c. 480, he adopted the Bisaltian coin types, and appears to have put an end to all coinages within his dominions except his own.
ings ; within which, ornament called Gardens of Alcinous. Wt. 170 grs.
The Corcyreans identified their island with the Scheria of Homer, inhabited by the Phaeacians and their king Alcinous.
Wt. 44 grs.
the archaic form of the letter 0, within a deep incuse. Wt. 190 grs.
divided diagonally. Wt. 126 grs.
divided diagonally. Wt. 127 grs.
Wt. 133-7 grs.
The bull's head may allude to the name of the island.
head in one of the triangular divisions of the sunk square. Wt. 131-6 grs.
incuse square. Wt. 254-3 grs.
The above coins, Nos. 21-25, were formerly attributed to Athens before the time of Solon, but they have been recently restored by Prof. E. Curtius to Euboea. The Gorgon-head is probably the type of the city of Eretria, as the wheel is of Chalcis. The tetradrachm, No. 25, probably dates from the time when the Fisistratidse were exiles in Euboaa.
branch in incuse square. Wt. 264-8 gr«.
28. Athens. JR. Similar. Wt. 257 grs.
These two tetradrachms are fine examples of the archaic style of art in Hellas. It is probable that they are not much later than the time of Solon, or, in other words, of about the middle of the sixth century B.c. At this remote period Athens seems to have been the only city which made use of double dies (reverse as well as obverse) for the coinage.
eight compartments. Wt. 192 grs.
Phidon, king of Argos (7th cent. B.c.), is said to have been the first to introduce the art of coinage into European Greece. He is said to have coined his money in the island of jSCgina. The sea-tortoise is a symbol of Astarte, the Phoenician goddess of trade. It is probable that the ^Eginetic standard is also of Phoenician origin.
Incuse square, divided into eight triangular compartments. Wt. 128-3 grs.
This is the earliest coinage of Corinth. It may date from the time of Periander, B.c. 625-585.
Incuse of peculiar form, resembling a m&ander pattern, or swastica.
Wt. 131-3 grs.
These thin flat coins of Corinth are also of a very early period, though later than the preceding.
similar to that of No. 30. Wt. 180 grs.
square, in eight triangular compartments. Wt. 187*5 grs.
Wt. 197 grs.
Mussel with marine plant. Wt. 117-2 grs.
The coins of the Campanian cities are from the earliest times struck on both sides.
The oldest coins of Tarentum, with those of many of the neighbouring Greek cities of Southern Italy, are distinguished from all other early Greek coins by their having, instead of the plain incuse square, an incuse type on the reverse. All the coins of this style are probably anterior to B.c. 500.
cuttle-fish. Rev. TAR A £ (retrograde). Sea-horse; beneath, scallop shell. Wt. 124-5 grs.
We learn from Aristotle that the youthful figure seated on the dolphin, which is the most common type on the coins of this city, was intended for Taras, a son of Poseidon, from whom the city is said to have derived its name.
9. LaiiS. JR. Obv. AA$ (retrograde). Man-headed bull, looking
No. 11, which is less spread than No. 10, is re-struck upon a Corinthian stater similar to I. B. 31. The ear of corn refers to the fertility of the territory of Metapontum, which was so great that the people of Metapontum were able to dedicate at Delphi " a golden harvest " (Strab. vi. 264).
12. Posidonia. JR. Obv. MOP=nOZ (retrograde). Poseidon naked but for chlamys, which hangs across his shoulders, wielding trident. Rev. Same type incuse, except inscription, which is in raised letters. Wt. 115-5 grs.
At Posidonia, as at the other Achaean towns of Southern Italy, the flat coins with an incuse type on the reverse give place at an early period to pieces of smaller dimensions, thicker, and having a type in relief on both sides.
Monetary alliances of this kind between two towns are not unusual in the sixth century in Southern Italy. The reverse inscription, Humous, is the name of the town in the nominative ; Stptvos is an adjective, also in the nominative case ; sub.
Sybaris was colonized from Achsea about B.c. 720, and it enjoyed unexampled prosperity until B.c. 510, when it was destroyed by Croton.
Lion, above which B. Wt. 123-5 grs.
17. Bruttii. Caulonia. JR. Obo. KAV/1. Apollo, naked, hold
ing in his raised right hand a branch, and on his outstretched left arm a small running figure with winged feet, which also holds a branch; in front, a stag, looking back. Sec. Same type incuse, but small figure wanting. Wt. 128 grs.
The meaning of this type is obscure.
18. Caulonia. JR. 06*. KAVA (retrograde). Similar type. Ken.
The same change of fabric is noticeable here as on coins of Tarentum, Nos. 4 and 5; Laiis, 8 and 9; Posidonia, 12 and 13.
Wt. 115-7 grs.
incuse. Wt. 123-6 grs.
The earliest coins of Croton, an Achasan colony founded about B.c. 700, resemble in fabric those of the other Achaean cities, but, unlike those of Caulonia, Sybaris, &c., the series of its money is prolonged to a late period.
Rev. VM (2u). bull, looking back. Wt. 123-9 grs.
This federal money of Croton and Sybaris together is of considerable value as an indication of the style and fabric in use before the great war which terminated, B.c. 510, in the destruction of Sybaris.
RECINON (retrograde). Hare. Wt. 261-3 grs.
Aristotle states that Anaxilaus, tyrant of Ehegium B.c. 494-476, having gained a victory at Olympia with the mule-car, aTrffirt], struck coins for Rhegium on which the mule-car was represented. This is one of the coins alluded to by the philosopher.
Terina was a colony of Croton. Its coins are of great beauty, but little is known of its history.
25. Catana. M. Obv. Man-headed bull; above, water-fowl; beneath,
to the left. Wt. 266-8 grs.
If this coin of Catana does not belong to the period before B.c. 476, when the inhabitants were expelled by Hiero I. of Syracuse, and the name of the city changed to Mtna,, it must be brought down to B.c. 461, when the Catanasans were reinstated.
26. Gela. JR. Obv.
Gelon, the tyrant of Gela, conquered in the chariot-race at Olympia, in B.c. 488. The reverse-type of this coin may commemorate the event.
like the sails of a mill. Wt. 89-5 grs.
The most ancient coins of the towns Himera, Naxus, and Zancle in Sicily, and Ehegium and Cumee in Italy, follow the j^Eginetic standard. All these cities are Chal- cidic colonies. The coins of this standard struck at Himera are all previous to B.c. 481, when Theron of Agrigentum seized Himera and introduced the Attic standard.
AEONTINON. Lion's head with open jaws; around, four barleycorns. Wt. 264-3 grs.
representing the harbour of Zancle. Rec. Shallow incuse, divided into several compartments; in the centre, a shell. Wt. 85-6 grs.
The name of Zancle was derived from the old Sicilian word Dancle, a sickle, and had reference to the form of the harbour. The town was afterwards called Messana.
Calfs head. Wt. 267-1 grs.
After the taking of Miletus, B.c. 494, a band of Samians sailed to Sicily, and under the advice of Anaxilaus of Ehegium seized the city of Zancle. Anaxilaus soon afterwards sent a mixed colony to Zancle, and changed its name to Messana. The Samian types of this coin show that it dates from this period, circ. B.c. 490-480.
31. Naxus. JR. 0:>v. Head of Dionysus, with pointed beard and long
hair, wearing ivy-wreath. Jieo. NAXION. Bunch of grapes. Wt. 87-2 grs.
Naxus was conquered by Hippocrates of Gela, in B.c. 498. The earliest coins of this city of ^Eginetio weight are anterior to this conquest.
ZECEZTAI1B. Head of"Trojan damsel Segesta. Wt. 127-3 grs.
This city was said to have been founded by Egestus (the Acestes of Virgil), the son of Segesta, by the river- god Crimissus, who appeared to her in the form of a dog.
divisions, the alternate ones deeper. Wt. 128 grs.
This city derived its name from the plant selinon (parsley), which grew there in abundance.
The delicate work of this coin is extremely remarkable for the time (the reign of Gelon, B.c. 485-478) to which it belongs. The head surrounded by dolphins is that of the nymph Arethusa. The Olympian victory of Gelon is commemorated here, as at Gela, by the Victory, who crowns the horses of the chariot.
PERIOD II.—Circa B.c. 480-400.
The coins of this period, which coincides with that of the Athenian supremacy, may be divided broadly into two classes, (a) those which resemble more or less the archaic coins of Period I., and (/3) those which border upon the coins of the fully developed art of Period III.
In Asia Minor the important commercial city of Cyzicus, on the Propontis, gradually obtained something like a monopoly of coining electrum, the Great King retaining in his own hands that of coining pure gold.
In European Greece the Athenian coinage had by far the largest circulation, and obtained so high a reputation, not only in Europe, but even in the far East, for purity of metal and accurate weight, that it was found inadvisable to make any improvement in the types, lest its circulation should be affected.
The Corinthian money had also a wido circulation, chiefly however towards the West. The coins of Elis, unlike those of Athens and Corinth, present a great number of types and a continued development in style.
In Italy the coinage of Tarentum is the richest. In Sicily Syracuse affords a larger variety of types than any other Greek city, and on this series the progress in style from archaic to fine art may be traced step by step.
During this transitional period a great advance is noticeable in the technical skill in which the dies of the coins are prepared. The rude incuse square is generally superseded by a regular incuse square, containing sometimes a device, sometimes a more or less ornamental quartering, together with the name of the city or of the magistrate under whose jurisdiction the coin was issued. In Asia Minor the incuse square is for the most part retained down to a later date than in European Greece.
Artistically the devices on the coinage of this period are characterised by an increased delicacy in the rendering of details and a true understanding of the anatomical structure of the human body, and towards the close of the period by greater freedom of movement, every effort being then directed to realize ideal conceptions, a complete mastery of technical skill having been attained during the preceding transitional stage.
The chief sculptors with whose works the coins of this period are contemporary are the following :—
Class a. Sicyon—Canachus anil Aristocles.
jEgina—Gallon and Onatas.
Argos—Ageladas, B.c. 508-452.
Rhegium—Pythagoras, before B.c. 450.
Peloponnesus—Polycletus, P&eonius of Mende.
The principal extant works are :—
Class a. The sculptures of the Temple of Athena at JEg(n&.
Munich. Casts in British Museum.
Class 8. Marble copy of Myron's Discobolus in the Palazzo
Massimi, Rome. Another in British Museum.
Parthenon sculptures. British Museum.
The sculptures of the Theseium and of the Temple of
quartered. Wt. 216 grs.
ornament. £ev. Incuse square, quartered. Wt. 216 grs.
These three staters of the Phcenician standard appear to be of later date than Nos. 8 and 9 of Period I. They are not to be confounded with the Cyzicenes, which follow a different monetary system.
6-19. Cyzicus, &c. EL.
Electrum staters of Cyzicus, of early style. Cyzicus appears to have had a monopoly of coining these staters and the hectae, which circulated in immense numbers throughout the ancient world from about B.c. 478 down to 387, and perhaps later. They are frequently mentioned both by writers and in inscriptions. The tunny- fish is the mint-mark of Cyzicus ; the types are extremely numerous. Of the above, the most interesting are No. 12, which represents the two golden eagles on the omphalos of Apollo at Delphi, which are mentioned by Pindar (Pyth. iv. 4), and No. 14, Cecrops, half man and half serpent, holding an olive-branch. The weight of the stater is about 248 grs. No. 15 is a hecte of Cyzicus (wt. 41 grs.), Nos. 16-19, hectse of Phocsea (wt. 40-38 grs.); the mint-mark on these being a small seal in addition to the coin type. No. 17 has also
Sinope was the wealthiest Greek city on ihe coasts of Ihe Euxine, of which its fleet was mistress as far as the entrance of the Bosporus. On its currency the city is likened to a sea-eagle seizing its prey in the waters.
trate's name. Wt. 226-4 grs.
It is usual to assign these coins to Abydos, but the A and the anchor (a type parlant) render it probable that they are of Ancore, the chief town of Bithynia. It bore in later times the name of Nicaea.
Incuse square. Wt. 235 grs.
One of the " Lampsacene staters " mentioned in Attic inscriptions, together with staters of Cyzicus. About the end of the fifth century these coins were superseded by a currency in pure gold. The sea-horse is a symbol of Poseidon.
Pordosilene wag one of the little islands called Hecaton- nesi in the channel between Lesbos and the mainland.
in incuse square. Wt. 7 2 '7 grs.
The reverse of this coin bears a monogram composed of the letters IH, on which account it is attributed lo Zenis, satrap of ^olis, under Artaxerxes Mnemon. The figure on horseback is supposed by some to represent the famous queen Mania, his wife, and successor in the satrapy.
tree and grapes. Wt. 59 grs.
Scepsis had belonged to Mania, but after her death Dercyllidas the Spartan got possession of this town, and restored the sovereign power to the citizens, B.c. 399. This is probably the date of the coin.
them a tree. Bev. Incase square. Wt. 169 grs.
square. Wt. 108 grs.
30. Colophon. JR. 06». KOAOOONIflN (retrograde). Head of
Wt. 205 grs.
32. Erythrse. JR. Obv. Naked youth holding in a prancing horse,
which is stung by a bee or wasp. Bev. EPY0. Flower in incusu square. Wt. 72 grs.
A coin of the best transitional style; the bee is probably only the symbol of a magistrate.
mask. Bev. Incuse square. Wt. 178 grs.
bunch of grapes. Bev. Incuse square. Wt. 235-7 grs.
incuse square. \Vt. 203 grs.
A coin of the latter end of the fifth century. Tho ox was the symbol of Hera, the tutelary goddess of Samos.
before tripod. Ken. Crab in incuse square. Wt. 250 grs. Cos, Lindus, lalysus, Camirus, and Cnidus made up tho Dorian Pentapolis. The temple of the Triopian Apollo near Cnidus was the central point of this union.
37. Termera. JR. Obv. TYMNO. Herakles kneeling. Jin.
This highly interesting little coin was procured by Mr. Newton in the island of Cos. Tho obverse bears the name of Tymnes, a despot of Termera about the middle of the fifth century. He was probably a son of Histiseue the son of Tymnes of Termera, whom Herodotus mentions as serving in the fleet of Xerxes in B.c. 480.
The triskelion, like the wheel, is supposed by some to be a symbol of the sun. This opinion is borne out by its combination on this coin with the lion, a well-known solar symbol.
41. Cyprus. JR. Obo. Ram, accompanied by the name of Euelthon,
Euelthon was one of the Teukrid kings of Salamis. The ram is a symbol of Aphrodite Pandemos.
characters. Lion devouring stag. Wt. 169'6 grs.
Baalmelek (448-410) and Azbaal (410-387) were Phoenician kings of Citium in Cyprus. They shared the hegemony of the island with the Greek kings of Salamis.
Incuse square, granulated. Wt. 229-9 grs.
The type of the coins of Byzantium is almost identical with that of those of Chalcedon on the opposite side of the Bosporus, the name of which is referred to the cow, lo, who is fabled to have crossed here from one continent to the other.
4. Maronea. Obr. MAPQN. Horse, prancing; above, cautharus.
Bm. Efl I MHTPOAOTO. Vine enclosed in square. Wt. 212-6 grs.
Maron, the mythical founder of this city, was a grand- Ron of Bacchus. Maronea was famous for the excellence of its wine.
5. Seuthes I. JR. Obv. Armed horseman. liev. EEYOA
KOMMA. (The striking of Seuthes.) Wt. 132-5 grs.
Seuthes, king of the Thracian Odrysra, succeeded Sitalccs B.c. 424. He was friendly to the Athenians, who admitted him to the privileges of citizenship. Another coin of Seuthes is known, reading ZEY0A APrYPION.
6. Thasos. JR. Obv. Satyr, kneeling, with a nymph in his arms.
ivy. Rev. GAZ1ON. Herakles, drawing bow. Wt. 229-1 grs.
The remarkable change of fabric, as well as standard, in tho coinage of Thasos, which is noticeable in comparing Nos. 6 and 7, probably took place about B.C. 411, when the democracy in the island was overthrown.
A square, the four quarters of which are granulated. Wt. 219*5 grs.
9. Mende. JR. Obv. Dionysus on ass; in front, crow seated in a vine,
and beneath ass, a dog. Rev. MENAAION. Vine with grapes. Wt. 260 grs.
flying, in incuse square. Wt. 255'6 grs.
This is an archaic tetradrachm of the important city of Olynthus, struck soon after B.c. 479, when the Bottiseans were expelled from Olynthus and the Chalcidian population restored by Artabazus. The type may commemorate an Olympian victory in the chariot race.
11. Alexander I. of Macedon, B.c. 498-454. JR. Obv. Man
12. Archelaus I., B.C. 413-399. JR. Obv. Horseman wearing
The Thessalian youths were renowned for their skill in catching bulls and taming horses.
Cf. I. B. 18.
(16) 0EB. Herakles, walking, holding bow and club. Wt.
185 grs. (17} 0EBAIOJ. Herakles stringing his bow. Wt.
188 grs. (18) 0EBAION. Herakles carrying off the Delphic
tripod. Wt. 184 grs.
(wt. 32-5 grs.).
It is instructive to compare these coins with I. B. 27, 28 ; the later coins are " archaistic," the earlier truly archaic in style. The archaic stylo and execution of the Athenian money is to be accounted for by the fact that any alteration in the appearance of coins having so wide a circulation as those of Athens might have damaged their credit. This fixed hieratic character of the coinage of one of the greatest Hellenic cities remains, however, an isolated fact in Greek numismatics.
divided into five compartments, within which the letters N I and
dolphin. Wt. 189 grs.
The coins of .ZEgina were popularly called ^tAwi/cu. This island ceased to strike silver money in B.c. 456, when it became part of the Athenian empire.
Pallas; behind, koppa. Wt. 132-5 grs.
The staters of Corinth were sometimes called TroJXoi, on account of the Pegasus which they bore. In the earliest period the name of the city was spelt with a koppa (Q instead of K), which is afterwards retained as a distinguishing mark on its coinage. Next to the money of Athens, that of Corinth had the widest circulation in the fifth and fourth centuries B.c., especially in the districts to the north of the Corinthian Gulf, and in Sicily and Southern Italy.
. 26-34. Elis. JR. (26) Obv. Eagle, with serpent. Rev. F A. Thunderbolt. Wt. 182 grs. (27) Obv. FAAEION. Eagle, with serpent. Sev. F A. Nike running, carrying wreath. Wt. 185-^ grs. (28) Similar, of later style. Wt. 185 grs. (29) Oitr. Head of the Olympian Zeus. Sev. F A. Thunderbolt, in laurel
wreath. Wt. 185 grs. (30) Obv. Head of Hera, wearing upright Stephanos. Rev. F A. Thunderbolt, in wreath. Wt. 187 grs. (31) Obv. Eagle devouring hare. Rev. F A. Nike seated on a base. In the ejergue, a branch of laurel. Wt. 183 grs. [The reverse type of this coin was copied by Mr. T. Wyon, the engraver of the medal struck to commemorate the battle of Waterloo.] (32) Obv, Eagle's head and leaf of bryonia (?). Ren. F A. Thunderbolt, in wreath. Wt. 185 grs. (33) Obv. Eagle devouring ram. Rev. F A. Thunderbolt. Wt. 190-8 grs. (34) Obv. Eagle devouring hare. Rev. FAAEION. Thunderbolt, with two wings; one extremity ornamented. Wt. 183 grs.
The series of the staters of Elis is one of the most varied and beautiful in the whole range of Greek coins. Artists of the highest abilities were employed at this mint. The types refer to the worship of Zeus and Hera at Olympia. The digamma was not abandoned on the coins of Elis until Roman limes.
35-38. Crete. M. (35) Gortyna. Obv. Europa seated in tree. Rev. rOPTVNION (retrograde). Bull. Wt. 189 grs. (36) ItamiS. Obv. Triton striking with trident. Rev. ITA. Two marine serpents, face to face. Wt. 173 grs. (37) Phsestus. Obv. CEAXANOZ (retrograde). Velchanos (a Cretan form of Zeus) seated on the stump of a tree, with a cock on his knees. Rev.
The coins of the Cretan cities are remarkable for the unconventional style in which the subjects represented are treated. Some of them are very fine "works of art, others surprisingly barbarous. The coins of Gortyna refer to the abduction of Europa by Zeus, in the form of a bull. The assistance rendered by the crab to the hydra (No. 38) is mentioned by Apollodorus (Biblioth. ii. 5, 2). Some of these Cretan coins may with equal probability be given to the earlier half of the next century, as many of them are re-struck on coins of Gyrene which can hardly be earlier than B.c. 400.
on her back a bird. Rev. E. Cuttle-fish. Wt. 252 grs. In Euboea the spot was shown on which Io was believed to have been killed, as well as the cave in which she gave birth to Epaphus. The bird on the cow's back is perhaps Zeus, who, in the form of a bird, guided Hermes to the place where Hera had tied Io to a tree.
This coin has been attributed, to Faesula:. The Gorgon is the symbol of the worship of the moon-goddess, tho wheel of that of tho sun-god (cf. II. A. 39 ; III. C. 2). The date may be about the middle of the fifth century, or earlier. The weight-standard is Persic.
(retrograde). Mussel shell ; above which, pistrii (sea-serpent). Wt. 115-9 grs.
This coin may be assigned to the period of prosperity which Cumae enjoyed after her deliverance from tho Etruscans by Hioro I. of Syracuse, B.c. 474.
Rev. NEP1OV1TEJ (in archaic characters). Jlan-headed bull.
Wt. 115 grs.
The seated figure may represent the Demos of Tarcn- tum. The presence of n on this coin compels us to place it in the last years of the fifth century.
Heraelea was founded by tho Tarentines, B.c. 433. This is one of its earliest coins.
Thurium, on tho Tarentine Gulf, was one of the latest of all the Greek colonies in Italy. It was colonized from Athens about rc.c. 443, and occupied a position near tho site of the deserted Sybaris. The style of 1ho head of 1'alias on this coin may bo compared with II. C. 3 of Ne;ipolis.
VEAHTEnN. Lion; above which, owl flying. Wt. 117'6 grs.
None of the money of this city appears to he later in date than the end of the fifth century B.c.
This is the tripod of the Pythian Apollo who was worshipped at Croton, in a temple called the Pythion.
11. Pandosia. M. Obv. flANAOZIA (in archaic characters).
Head of nymph Pandosia, wearing broad diadem; the whole in laurel-wreath. Sev. KPA0IZ (in archaic characters). River Crathis naked, standing, holding patera and olive-branch; at his feet, a fish. Wt. 104-7 grs.
The archaic forms of the letters on this coin are not consistent with the style of art, which is that of the middle or latter portion of the fifth century. The inscription is therefore an affectation of archaism.
12. Ehegium. M. Obv. Lion's scalp, facing. Sev. RECINOS.
Bearded figure, naked to waist, seated, his right resting on staff; beneath his seat, a dog. The whole in laurel-wreath. Wt. 267-6 grs.
The seated figure on this coin, like that on II. C. 4 of Tarentum, may represent the demos of the city. Coins of this type may date from the time of the expulsion of the despots, B.c. 461.
This is one of the most exquisite productions of the art of die-engraving. The
of column. Ben. Crab; beneath which, floral scroll. Wt. 268-7 grs.
This coin belongs to the beginning of the period to which it is here classed.
about to tear the prey, the other raising its head and screaming. In field, the horned head of a young river-god ; above, 2TPATQN (magistrate's name). Ben. AKPAPANTINON. Nike driving quadriga; above, vine-branch with grapes. Wt. 267-8 grs.
The letter fl occurs occasionally on Sicilian coins before the year 409. Camarina was destroyed in B.c. 405.
facing ; on either side, a fish ; all within a border of waves. Artist's name EYA1. Rev. KAMA. Nymph Camarina, seated on swan, holding her veil as a snil, and passing over water; behind and beneath, a fish. Wt. 122-8 grs.
This is one of the most poetical of the works of Evasnetus; unfortunately, it is not in very good preservation.
hippocamp. Eev. KA. Two olive-leaves with berries. Wt. 18 grs.
See above, II. C. 14.
Bev. Quadriga; horses walking. Wt. 266-4 grs.
These tetradrachms are subsequent to the year B.c. 4G1, when the expelled inhabitants of Catana were reinstated by the Syracusans.
22. Gela. JR. Obv. CEAAZ. Forepart of man-headed bull (river
23. Gela. A/". Obv. Horseman armed with spear, and wearing Phry
This coin was strack between about B.c. 412 and 405. The totradrachm, No. 22, is earlier.
The presence of the letter O on this coin shows that it must have been struck shortly before 405, when Gela was destroyed.
25. Hiniera. JR. O'm. Nymph Himera, sacrificing at altar; behind
Himera was destroyed in B.c. 408. This beautiful coin probably dates from about the middle of the century.
This coin of the latest archaic style seems to be the work of the artist who engraved the famous Demareteion of Syracuse (II. C. 33); it may well have been struck in B.c. 476, when Hieio established at Leontiui a colony of exiled Catanaeans and Naxians.
A coin of the purest transitional style of about the middle of the fifth century.
28. Messana. JR. Obv. MEZZANION. Hare; beneath which,
Ben. NAXION. Naked Silenus with pointed ears and horse's tail, seated on the ground, with a wine-cup in his hand. Wt. 269-2 grs.
in his left hand, and by his side grows ivy. Wt. 2G4'7 grs.
A comparison of those two coins, the first struck about B.c. 460, the second towards the end of the century, shows the transition from the strong firm style which characterises the earlier period to the softer modelling and more ornate work of the later.
wearing sphendone ornamented with stars; beneath, stalk of barley. Rev. Youthful hunter (river-god Crimissus?), accompanied by hounds; he stands before a term, his left foot placed upon a rock. Wt. 260 grs.
The terminations IIA and I Ib of inscriptions on coins of Segesta have not been explained.
32. SelinUS. JR. Obv. ZEAINOZ. Young river-god Selinus sacri
ficing at altar, before which is a cock, indicating it as sacred to Asklepius ; in the left hand of Selinus is the lustral branch ; behind him, a selinon-leaf and an image of a bull standing on a base. Sen. ZEAINONTION (retrograde). Apollo and Artemis in quadriga; Apollo discharging arrows. Wt. 269 grs.
The libation offered by the river-god to Asklepius refers to the draining of a marsh by means of which the territory of the city was relieved from a plague sent by the god Apollo, referred to by the reverse type. A similar idea is represented on the coin of Himera, No. 25, above.
These coins were called Demareteia because they were coined from the proceeds of a present given to Demarete, wife of Gelon, by the Carthaginians, on the occasion of the peace concluded between them and Gelon by her intervention, B.c. 480.
A series of tetradrachms illustrating the various modes of treating the head of Arethusa on the coinage during the fifth century B.c. All these coins are remarkable for refinement and elegance of style.
square, divided into four parts; in the centre of which, a female head. Wt. 17'9 grs.
The engraver of this coin spells his name sometimes with an H, sometimes with an E. Most of his work appears to be earlier than the end of the fifth century. This artist may be said to have introduced the highly ornate style which characterises the Syracusan coinage of the age of Dionysius the Elder.
PEEIOD III.—Circa B.c. 400-336.
During the war in Asia Minor between the Spartans under Agesilaus and the Persians, Cyzicus continued to strike her electrum staters in large quantities. On this currency the incuse reverse of archaic times was to the last retained. Probably about the time of the Peace of Antalcidas, or shortly afterwards, this famous coinage came to an end, and was generally superseded by a gold currency, of which Lampsacus seems to have been the principal mint.
Ephesus, Samos, Chios, and Ehodes now furnish the larger portion of the silver currency of western Asia Minor, while in the east the Phoenician cities of Sidon, Tyre, and Aradus begin about B.c. 400 to strike large silver coins, the circulation of which extended along the caravan routes across the desert as far as the banks of the Euphrates and the Tigris.
In the north the gold coinage of Panticapseum, the modern Kertch, is remarkable for its peculiar weight, as compared with that of other towns. In Macedon the gold and silver currency of the Chalcidian League was predominant until it was finally extinguished by Philip, when about B.c. 358 he began to work the gold mines of Philippi, and re-organised the coinage of the Macedonian empire.
In central Greece the chief currencies were those of Thebes, Athens, and Corinth. In Peloponnesus the Messenians and the Arcadians, under the protection of Epaminondas, began to strike money, though not in large quantities.
In Italy the rich gold and silver coinage of Tarentum was only rivalled by the silver of Neapolis and Meta- pontum.
In Sicily, down to about B.c. 345, when the Dionysian dynasty was finally expelled, the splendid coinage of Syracuse had only to compete with that of the Carthaginian dominions. After Sicily was freed from her tyrants by Timoleon of Corinth, the Pegasus staters supersede the larger coins of the age of the Dionysii.
During this period the numismatic art reached the highest point of excellence which it has ever attained. The devices on the coinage are characterised by intensity of action, pathos, charm of bearing, finish of execution, and rich ornamentation. The head of the divinity on the obverses of the coins of numerous cities is represented facing and in high relief. Among the most remarkable of these heads are those of Apollo at Clazomense, Rhodes, &c., of Hermes at Aenus, of Apollo at Amphipolis, of the nymph Larissa at the city of that name in Thessaly, of Hera Lacinia at Pandosia in southern Italy, of Arethusa and Pallas at Syracuse, and of Zeus Ammon at Cyrene.
Among the most remarkable reverse-types are the seated figures of Pan on the coin of Arcadia, and of Herakles on coins of Heraclea and Croton. As a rule, however, the reverse-types are less varied and interesting than those of the latter part of Period II.
The principal sculptors of this period are the Athenians Scopas and Praxiteles, and the principal extant works with which the coins should be compared are—
The Mausoleum sculptures. British Museum.
.The Choragic monument of Lysicrates. Athens.
The statue of Dionysos from the Choragic monument of Thrasyllos,
B.C. 320. British Museum.
Incuse. (Countermarkcd.) Daric. Wt. 126-8 grs.
4-7. Cyzicus. EL. Staters (wt. 248 grs.) of the best period of art.
No. 7, with the head of the veiled Demeter, is especially beautiful. The incuse reverse of these coins is a survival of the archaic style which prevailed when the electrum coinage of Cyzicus commenced.
One of the gems of Greek art, but unfortunately slightly worn.
9-13. Hectae, of electrum, of the period of finest art.
Wt. about 40 grs.
Many of the towns of the western coast of Asia Minor belonged to a monetary league. These hectae, the currency of the union, were probably issued sometimes at one mint, sometimes at another.
Abydos, on the Asiatic side of the Hellespont, began, like Lampsacus, to coin money in pure gold about the year 400 or perhaps a little earlier. There were gold mines within the territory of the city.
130'7 gi-s. (16) Demeter rising from the soil; wt. 129-3 grs.
129-1 grs. (18) Head of Bacchante with pointed ear; wt. 128-5
The gold coins of Lampsacus, which superseded the older electrum staters (cf. II. A. 23) about the end of the fifth century B.c., continued to be issued until about
the time of Alexander. Among them are to be found some of the most beautiful specimens of Greek art in
Tenedos appears to have coined silver money of this type at three different epochs: first, in the early period, before the Persian wars, on the Babylonic standard (cf. I. A. 19); second, about the time of Alexander the Groat, when the island revolted from Persia, on the Phoenician standard, of which coinage these two specimens are examples; and, third, about B.c. 189 (cf. VI. A. 13), on the Attic standard.
Head of city Heracleia. Wt. 177 grs.
This is a coin of Heracleia Pontica, struck while the city was still a free democracy, before the year B.c. 364.
25, 26. Clazomenee. JR. Similar, but with HPAKAEIA and MANAPQNAH. Wt. 250-6 grs. No. 26 also has the engraver's signature—0EOAOTOZ EnOEI. Wt. 261-5 grs.
In the territory of Clazoinense there was a temple of Apollo; the swan is one of the symbols of this god, who sometimes even assumes its form (Nonnus, Dionys. ii. 218). The delta of the Hermus abounds in wild swans, and the name of Clazomenas may be due to their shrill cries. The above coins are magnificent examples of the full-face type of Apollo; they may be compared with coins of Ehodes, Aenus, Amphipolis, and Syracuse. The fashion of placing full-face heads on the coinage is characteristic of the fourth century.
kles strangling serpents. Wt. 178 grs.
ceding coin. Wt. 176'6 grs.
These two coins, with others similar, of Ehodes and Cnidus, are valuable historical records of an alliance entered into by these four cities, B.C. 394-387, for the maintenance of their independence and neutrality in the conflict between Sparta and Athens. The type selected for this coinage is borrowed from coins of Thebes (III. B. 27), at this time the great rival of Sparta. It also occurs on certain coins of Croton, in Italy, struck about B.c. 389, when the Greek colonies of southern Italy, menaced by Dionysius I. of Syracuse, formed an alliance for their mutual defence.
Forepart of stag and palm-tree. Wt. 234 grs.
BAZIAEIAHZ on the cross-bar of an incuse square. Wt. 232 grs.
The magistrate's name marks this coin as of a later date than No. 34 of Period II. A.
A coin apparently of the early part of the fourth century.
SQAAO. Zeus Labrandeus, carryiug double axe (\dj8pvs) and sceptre. Wt. 232-5 grs.
niZOAAPO. Similar. Wt. 64 grs.
niHflAAPOY. Wt. 108 grs.
The date of Pixodarus was 340-335. During this period the genitive in O is superseded by that in OY.
It is instructive to compare the style of this coin with that of Period IV. A. No. 32.
in locks suggestive of rays. Em. POAION. Rose with bud, and vine-spray with grapes ; the whole in incuse square. Wt. 132-6 grs.
The three ancient cities of the island, Lindus, lalysus, and Camirus, combined in B.c. 408 to found the city of Ehodes. This coin is one of the finest Greek coins which have come down to us. M. Waddington, on account of the incuse square, places it in the first half of the fourth cent., but it may belong to the second half.
of bearded Herakles, and Lycian inscription. Wt. 126-6 grs.
The inscriptions on the Lycian coins of the fourth century perhaps designate towns.
The Aramaic inscription on the reverse probably contains the name of the satrap or ruler of Cilicia under whose authority the coin was struck. It may be translated " Mazares, who governs Syria and Cilicia."
Bev. BA SI LE O S E YA GO RO, in the Cyprian character. Moufflon. Wt. 31-5 grs.
Euagoras I. reigned about 410-375.
leaf-like projections. Bev. (42) Nl. Wt. 123 grs. (43) DM. Wt. 128 grs. Head of Aphrodite, turreted.
Nicocles reigned from 374-362, and Pnytagoras from 359-331. During this period the use of the Cyprian character is discontinued.
These large octadrachins were probably struck early in the fourth century. No. 45 is attributed by M. Six to the reign of Strato, B.c. 374—362. They are good instances of the stationary character of art in the East at a time when in Greece it had reached its highest point of development.
46. Tyre. JR. Obv. Jlelkarth holding bow, and riding over the
The coinage of Tyre commences about B.c. 400. The same archaism of stylo is apparent hero as in the money of the other Phoenician towns.
Rev. D NO, in Phoenician characters. Galley, with rowers, on the sea. Wt. 157 grs.
The inscription on this coin is of doubtful meaning. The first two letters may stand for " Melek Arvad," king of Aradus. The third letter is variably in diiferent specimens. This series is attributed by M. Six to the period between B.c. 370 and 350.
The Greek colonists connected the name of this town, which is probably Scythian, with the god Pan. Panti- capsBum, on the Cimmerian Bosporus, the modern Kertch, was an important' commercial city. It began to coin gold money about the same time as Philip in Macedon, or earlier.
Among the coins of Aenus are to be found some of the finest examples of the full face on ancient coins. The practice of representing the human face in this manner upon coins is peculiar to the best period of art. Of. Ehodes, Amphipolis, Syracuse, &c.
The coinage of Maronea, like that of all the other cities of Thrace and Macedon, was put an end to by Philip about B.c. 350.
Lycceius (b.c. 359-340) was the first of the independent kings of Pseonia. The coins of this district are semi- barbarous.
Amphipolis was founded in B.C. 437, and it ceased to strike autonomous coins when it became subject to Philip of Macedon in 358. The fine silver staters of this city are remarkable for intensity of expression.