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ERIC Table of Contents


Title Page

Introduction

About Roman Coins

Denominations

Coins of Other Ancient Cultures

Identifying Roman Coins

How To Use This Book

Mintmarks

Mint Map

Pricing And Grading

Bibliography

Reference Catalogs Cited

Coin Terms Used

Glossary

Rarity Tables

Index of Rulers

Photography Credits

Additional Web Resources

Imperial Catalog:

AUGUSTUS
LIVA
AGRIPPA
NERO CLAUDIUS DRUSUS
GERMANICUS
AGRIPPINA I
TIBERIUS
DRUSUS
ANTONIA
CALIGULA
CLAUDIUS I
BRITANNICUS
AGRIPPINA II
NERO
GALBA
CLODIUS MACER
OTHO
VITELLIUS
VESPASIAN
DOMITILLA
TITUS
DOMITIAN
DOMITIA
JULIA TITI
NERVA
TRAJAN
PLOTINA
MARCIANA
MATIDIA
HADRIAN
SABINA
AELIUS
ANTONINUS PIUS
FAUSTINA I
MARCUS AURELIUS
FAUSTINA II
LUCIUS VERUS
LUCILLA
COMMODUS
CRISPINA
PERTINAX
DIDIUS JULIANUS
MANLIA SCANTILLA
DIDIA CLARA
PESCENNIUS NIGER
CLODIUS ALBINUS
SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS
JULIA DOMNA
CARACALLA
PLAUTILLA
GETA
MACRINUS
DIADUMENIAN
ELAGABALUS
JULIA MAESA
JULIA SOAEMIAS
JULIA PAULA
AQUILIA SEVERA
ANNIA FAUSTINA
SEVERUS ALEXANDER
JULIA MAMAEA
ORBIANA
MAXIMINUS I
PAULINA
MAXIMUS
GORDIAN I
GORDIAN II
BALBINUS
PUPIENUS
GORDIAN III
TRANQUILLINA
PHILIP I
OTACILIA SEVERA
PHILIP II
PACATIAN
JOTAPIAN
TRAJAN DECIUS
HERENNIA ETRUSCILLA
HERENNIUS ETRUSCUS
HOSTILIAN
TREBONIANUS GALLUS
VOLUSIAN
AEMILIAN
CORNELIA SUPERA
SILBANNACUS
URANIUS ANTONINUS
VALERIAN I
MARINIANA
VALERIAN II
GALLIENUS
SALONINA
SALONINUS
REGALIANUS
DRYANTILLA
POSTUMUS
LAELIANUS
MARIUS
VICTORINUS
DOMITIAN II
TETRICUS I
TETRICUS II
QUIETUS
MACRIANUS
CLAUDIUS II
QUINTILLUS
AURELIAN
SEVERINA
ZENOBIA
VABALATHUS
TACITUS
FLORIAN
PROBUS
SATURNINUS
CARUS
CARINUS
MAGNIA URBICA
NIGRIAN
NUMERIAN
JULIAN I
DIOCLETIAN
MAXIMIAN
CARAUSIUS
ALLECTUS
DOMITIUS DOMITIANUS
CONSTANTIUS I
THEODORA
GALERIUS
GALERIA VALERIA
SEVERUS II
MAXENTIUS
ROMULUS
CONSTANTINE I
HELENA
FAUSTA
ALEXANDER
LICINIUS I
CONSTANTIA
MAXIMINUS II
LICINIUS II
CRISPUS
VALERIUS VALENS
MARTINIAN
CONSTANTINE II
DELMATIUS
HANNIBALLIANUS
CONSTANS
CONSTANTIUS II
MAGNENTIUS
DECENTIUS
NEPOTIAN
VETRANO
CONSTANTIUS GALLUS
JULIAN II
JOVIAN
VALENTINIAN I
VALENS
PROCOPIUS
GRATIAN
VALENTINIAN II
THEODOSIUS I
AELIA FLACCILLA
MAGNUS MAXIMINUS
FLAVIUS VICTOR
EUGENIUS
HONORIUS
CONSTANTINE III
CONSTANS II
MAXIMINUS
PRISCUS ATTALUS
JOVINUS
SABASTIANUS
CONSTANTIUS III
GALLA PLACIDIA
JOHANNES
VALENTINIAN III
LICINIA EUDOXIA
HONORIA
PETRONIUS MAXIMINUS
AVITUS
MAJORIAN
LIBIUS SEVERUS
ANTHEMIUS
EUPHEMIA
ANICIUS OLYBRIUS
GLYCERIUS
JULIUS NEPOS
ROMULUS AUGUSTUS
ARCADIUS
EUDOXIA
PULCHERIA
THEODOSIUS II
EUDOCIA
MARCIAN
LEO I
VERINA
LEO II
ZENO
ARIADNE
BASILISCUS
ZENONIS
LEONTIUS I
ANASTASIUS I
ANONYMOUS COINAGE

ERIC The Encyclopedia of Roman Imperial Coins
by Rasiel Suarez


Valens

Augustus 364-378

Valens was the younger brother of Valentinian who made him co-emperor soon after his own accession. He then sent Valens off to take care of the eastern portion of the empire. Making Constantinople his capital, he dealt with the Persian factor as best he could which wasn't all that great and saw his borders shrink as a consequence. His ineptitude showed most compellingly at the battle of Adrianople in 378. Resettled barbarians had been allowed within the nominal borders of the empire but were allowed to keep their arms. As the barbarians became squeezed from the double whammy of external tribes pushing against their lands and the systematic and extra-official hard-line policies of lower Roman government officials they became aggressive once more and aimed to push southward. 

Near the city of Adrianople they gathered with the intention of making war and Valens prepared to meet them in battle. He sent for reinforcements from Gratian but before these could arrive he figured in a bout of short-sighted arrogance that he could go at it alone and claim the glory all to himself afterward. On an exceedingly poorly executed attack plan the Romans attacked the barbarians. In what apparently was meant to be a surprise attack, he rushed the barbarians before getting his soldiers into formation and before they had eaten. It was also a very hot and dusty day making their attack that much more energy-sapping. The barbarians watched as their counterparts fumbled and figured out their strategy. Their general sent his cavalry in an outflanking maneuver and managed to encircle Valens's infantry and subsequently slaughtered most. Valens himself perished in battle and the loss of the army along with the demoralizing effect to the rest of the military was another step in the inexorable fall of the empire almost one hundred years later.

As was just mentioned with Valentinian, his brother Valens shares an almost identical run of issues. Neither one is represented more than the other while the two reigned though Valens, outliving Valentinian for three years or so, has a longer time in which to strike coins. Still, seeing that both are so common to begin wth rarity is not a concern.
 
Although quite rare, both brothers were to strike the last hefty bronze coins, the AE1 class, the empire would see until Anastasius‟ reform of 498 kicks off the Byzantine coinage period. From here onwards the bronzes will only get smaller and increasingly shoddier.

 

Busts:


1) Diademed (pearls), draped and cuirassed bust left
2) Diademed (pearls), draped and cuirassed bust right
3) Diademed (rosettes), draped and cuirassed bust left
4) Diademed (rosettes), draped and cuirassed bust right
5) Diademed bust left, wearing imperial mantle, holding mappa and scepter
6) Diademed bust left, wearing imperial mantle, raising hand and holding scepter
7) Helmeted, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield

 

Obverses:

1) DN VALENS AVG
2) DN VALENS MAX AVGVSTVS
3) DN VALENS PER AVG
4) DN AVLENS PF AVG
5) DN VALENS PER F AVG
6) DN VALENS PF AVG
7) IMP CE VALENS PF AVG
8) VALENS AVGVS

 

Reverses:

 
1) CONCORDIA AVGGG
2) DN VALENS VICTOR SEMPER
3) FELICITAS ROMANORVM
4) FELIX ADVENTVS AVG N
5) FELIX ADVENTVS AVGGG
6) GLORIA REIPVBLICAE
7) GLORIA MORANORVM
8) GLORIA ROMANORVM
9) MONETA AVGG
10) MONETA AVGGG
11) PAX PERPETVA
12) PIETAS DDD NNN AVGVSTORVM
13) RESTITVTOR REIP
14) RESTITVTOR REIPVBLICAE
15) SALVS REIP
16) SALVS REIPVBLICAE
17) SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE
18) SPES RP
19) TRIVMFATOR GENT BARB
20) VICT DD NN AVGG
21) VICTORES AVGVSTI
22) VICTORIA AVG
23) VICTORIA AVGG
24) VICTORIA AVGGG
25) VICTORIA AVGVSTORVM
26) VICTORIA DD NN AVG
27) VICTORIA DN AVG
28) VICTORIA DN AVGVSTI
29) VIRTVS EXERCITVS
30) VIRTVS ROMANORVM
31) VOTA PVBLICA
32) VRBS ROMA
33) No legend

 

Types:

 
1) City gate with (2) turrets; S above.
2) Monetae (3) standing, facing, each holding scale and cornucopia.
3) Roma and Constantinopolis seated, facing, each holding scepter and together holding shield reading VOT / X / MVLT / XV
4) Roma and Constantinopolis seated, facing, each holding scepter and together holding shield reading VOT / X / MVLT / XX
5) Roma and Constantinopolis seated, facing, each holding scepter and together holding shield reading VOT / V / MVLT / X
6) Roma seated left on cuirass, holding Victory on globe and spear
7) Roma seated left on throne, holding Victory on globe and spear
8) Standards (3)
9) Standards (4)
10) Valens advancing right, dragging captive and holding labarum.
11) Valens advancing right, dragging captive and holding standard.
12) Valens and Valentinian I seated, facing, each holding a globe and scepter; shield on Genius between them reading VOT / V / MVL / X.
13) Valens and Valentinian I seated, facing, each holding a mappa and scepter; two hunched captives below.
14) Valens and Valentinian I seated, facing, each holding a mappa.
15) Valens and Valentinian I seated, facing, each raising hand and holding globe
16) Valens and Valentinian I seated, facing, holding together globe; Victory above and palm between them.
17) Valens and Valentinian I standing under arch, facing, each holding a scepter and globe.
18) Valens riding horse left, raising hand
19) Valens standing under arch, facing, holding spear and globe.
20) Valens standing, facing, holding labarum and globe; kneeling captive to left.
21) Valens standing, facing, holding labarum and resting hand on shield
22) Valens standing, facing, holding labarum and Victory on globe.
23) Valens standing, facing, holding mappa and scepter.
24) Valens standing, facing, holding spear and resting hand on shield.
25) Valens standing, facing, holding standard and Victory on globe.
26) Valens standing, facing, holding Victory on globe and labarum.
27) Valens standing, facing, stepping on captive, holding labarum and Victory on globe
28) Valens, Gratian and Valentinian II standing, facing, each holding scepter.
29) Victories (2) standing, facing each other, holding together shield reading VOT / V
30) Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm.
31) Victory advancing right, dragging captive and holding trophy.
32) Victory seated right, holding shield on column reading VOT / V / MVL / X
33) Victory seated right, holding shield on column reading VOT / X / MVLT / XX
34) Victory seated right, holding shield reading VOT / V / MVLT / X; Genius to right also holding shield.
35) Victory seated right, holding shield reading VOT / V; Genius to right also holding shield.
36) Victory seated right, holding shield reading VOT / X / MVL / XX
37) Victory seated right, holding shield reading VOT / X / MVLT / XX; Genius to right also holding shield.
38) Victory seated right, holding shield reading VOT / XV / MVLT / XXV
39) Victory standing left, stepping on captive, holding wreath and trophy.
40) Victory standing right, stepping on globe, holding shield on column reading VOT / V / MVLT / X
41) Victory standing right, stepping on globe, holding shield on column reading VOT / X / MVLT / XV
42) Victory standing right, stepping on globe, holding shield on column reading VOT / V / MVLTIS / X
43) Victory standing, facing, holding wreath in each hand
44) Wreath, VOT / V / MVLT / X within.
45) Wreath, VOT / V / MVLTIS / X within
46) Wreath, VOT / V within
47) Wreath, VOT / VX / MVLT / XX within
48) Wreath, VOT / X / MVL / XX within
49) Wreath, VOT / X / MVLT / XV within.
50) Wreath, VOT / X / MVLT / XX within.
51) Wreath, VOT / XV / MVLT / XX within.
52) Wreath, VOT / XX / MVLT / XXX within
53) Wreath, VOTIS / V / MVLTIS / X within
54) Wreath, VOTIS / X / MVLTIS / XV within
55) Wreath, VOTIS / X / MVLTIS / XX within
56) Wreath, VOTIS / XV / MVLTIS / XX within

 

Mints:

 
1) Alexandria
2) Antioch
3) Aquileia
4) Arelate
5) Constantinopolis
6) Cyzicus
7) Heraclea
8) Lugdunum
9) Mediolanum
10) Nicomedia
11) Roma
12) Sirmium
13) Siscia
14) Thessalonica
15) Treveri

 
AU Solidus Reference(s)

 
1) B2, O5, R14, T22, M02 Exe: ¤/ANT` RIC 2c (IX, Antiochia)
2) B2, O5, R14, T22, M02 Exe: ANT` RIC 2d.19 (IX, Antiochia)
3) B2, O6, R14, T22, M05 Exe: CONS= RIC 3d (IX, Constantinopolis)
4) B2, O6, R14, T22, M10 Exe: SMN` RIC 2b (IX, Nicomedia)
5) B2, O6, R23, T16, M15 Exe: TROB` RIC 39b (IX, Treveri)
6) B2, O6, R25, T37, M02 Exe: AN RIC 24b (IX, Antiochia)
7) B4, O5, R25, T38, M02 Exe: `/ANOB` 
8) B4, O6, R14, T22, M05 Exe: *CONS= RIC 25b (IX, Constantinopolis)
9) B4, O6, R23, T16, M15 Exe: TR•OB• RIC 17 (IX, Treveri)
10) B5, O6, R08, T04, M02 Exe: ANOB` RIC 16d (IX, Antiochia)
11) B5, O6, R15, T27, M14 Exe: * over */SMTES` RIC 3b (IX, Thessalonica)
12) B5, O6, R31, T13, M10 Exe: S/I/MN RIC 16b.5 (IX, Nicomedia)

 
AU Scripulum

 
13) B2, O6, R25, T36, M02 Exe: ¢/ANOB` RIC 26.2 (IX, Antiochia)
14) B2, O6, R25, T38, M02 Exe: ANT 

 
AR Miliarense

 
15) B2, O6, R29, T21, M13 Exe: •SISC` RIC 10b (IX, Siscia)
16) B2, O6, R29, T21, M15 Exe: SMTR RIC 26b.1 (IX, Treveri)
17) B2, O6, R29, T21, M15 Exe: TRPS RIC 42a (IX, Treveri)
18) B2, O6, R33, T50, M02 Exe: ANT* 

 
AR Siliqua Reference(s)

 
19) B2, O6, R32, T06, M03 Exe: AQPS RIC 15a (IX, Aquileia)
20) B2, O6, R32, T07, M15 Exe: TRPS RIC 27e (IX, Treveri)
21) B2, O6, R32, T07, M15 Exe: TRPS• RIC 45b (IX, Treveri)
22) B2, O6, R33, T50, M02 Exe: •ANT* RIC 34d.3 (IX, Antiochia)
23) B2, O6, R33, T50, M02 Exe: •ANT` RIC 34d.6 (IX, Antiochia)
24) B2, O6, R33, T50, M02 Exe: ANT•• RIC 34d.1 (IX, Antiochia)
25) B2, O6, R33, T50, M05 Exe: `C`S= RIC 37b (IX, Constantinopolis)
26) B2, O6, R33, T51, M13 Exe: SISCPS RIC 13a (IX, Siscia)
27) B2, O6, R33, T52, M05 Exe: CONCM RIC 42 (IX, Constantinopolis)
28) B4, O6, R33, T46, M05 Exe: C•` RIC 13d.8 (IX, Constantinopolis)

 
AE1

 
29) B2, O6, R14, T22, M03 Exe: SMAQ` RIC 6b (IX, Aquileia), L 962

 
AE2

 
30) B2, O6, R14, T22, M10 Exe: SMN` RIC 7b (IX, Nicomedia), L 2322

 
AE3

 
31) B1, O6, R07, T01, M05 Exe: COMTM
32) B2, O6, R08, T10, M02 Exe: ANT` RIC 10b (IX, Antiochia)
33) B2, O6, R08, T10, M05 Exe: CONS` RIC 16c.7 (IX, Constantinopolis)
34) B2, O6, R08, T10, M06 Exe: SMK` RIC 8b (IX, Cyzicus)
35) B2, O6, R08, T10, M07 Exe: SMH` RIC 3b (IX, Heraclea)
36) B2, O6, R08, T10, M10 Exe: SMN` RIC 9b (IX, Nicomedia)
37) B2, O6, R08, T10, M13 Exe: * over A/D`SISC RIC 5b.7 (IX, Siscia)
38) B2, O6, R08, T10, M13 Exe: `SISC RIC 5b.1 (IX, Siscia)
39) B2, O6, R08, T10, M13 Exe: •`SISC RIC 5b.2 (IX, Siscia)
40) B2, O6, R08, T10, M13 Exe: D/*SISC` RIC 14b.11 (IX, Siscia), L 1306
41) B2, O6, R08, T10, M13 Exe: D`SISC RIC 5b.4 (IX, Siscia), L 1291
42) B2, O6, R08, T10, M13 Exe: M/* over P/`SISC 
43) B2, O6, R08, T10, M13 Exe: R/•`SISC RIC 14b.10 (IX, Siscia), L 1300
44) B2, O6, R08, T10, M14 Exe: */* over `/TES RIC 26b.17 (IX, Thessalonica), L 1750
45) B2, O6, R08, T10, M14 Exe: M/* over `/TES RIC 26b.30 (IX, Thessalonica), L 1781
46) B2, O6, R08, T10, M14 Exe: M/`/TES RIC 26b.28 (IX, Thessalonica), L 1775
47) B2, O6, R08, T10, M14 Exe: TES` RIC 26b.1 (IX, Thessalonica), L 1705
48) B2, O6, R08, T10, M14 Exe: V/* over `/TES RIC 26b.38 (IX, Thessalonica)
49) B2, O6, R08, T10, M14 Exe: Z/* over `/TES RIC 26b.35 (IX, Thessalonica)
50) B2, O6, R08, T10, M14 Exe: Z/• over `/TES RIC 26b.34 (IX, Thessalonica), L 1790
51) B2, O6, R08, T30, M15 Exe: */TR` RIC 31.8 (IX, Treveri), L 107
52) B2, O6, R13, T22, M05 Exe: CONS` RIC 20b (IX, Constantinopolis)
53) B2, O6, R13, T22, M07 Exe: SMH` RIC 4c (IX, Heraclea)
54) B2, O6, R13, T22, M14 Exe: TES` RIC 17b (IX, Thessalonica), L 1703
55) B2, O6, R17, T30, M03 Exe: */•/•SMAQ` RIC 18b.19 (IX, Aquileia)
56) B2, O6, R17, T30, M03 Exe: */SMAQ` RIC 12b.18 (IX, Aquileia), L 1036
57) B2, O6, R17, T30, M03 Exe: ¨/SMAQ` RIC 11b.9 (IX, Aquileia)
58) B2, O6, R17, T30, M03 Exe: ¤/SMAQ` RIC 9b.7 (IX, Aquileia), L 987
59) B2, O6, R17, T30, M03 Exe: A/SMAQ` RIC 9b.1 (IX, Aquileia), L 968
60) B2, O6, R17, T30, M03 Exe: B over •/SMAQ` RIC 9b.3 (IX, Aquileia), L 976
61) B2, O6, R17, T30, M03 Exe: SMAQ` RIC 11b.16 (IX, Aquileia), L 1015
62) B2, O6, R17, T30, M04 Exe: OF/III/CONST RIC 17b (IX, Arelate)
63) B2, O6, R17, T30, M05 Exe: •/CONS` RIC 21c (IX, Constantinopolis)
64) B2, O6, R17, T30, M06 Exe: SMK` RIC 11b (IX, Cyzicus)
65) B2, O6, R17, T30, M07 Exe: */=/SMH` RIC 10b (IX, Heraclea)
66) B2, O6, R17, T30, M07 Exe: SMH` RIC 5b (IX, Heraclea)
67) B2, O6, R17, T30, M08 Exe: OF over ¶ / I over R RIC 21b.29 (IX, Lugdunum)
68) B2, O6, R17, T30, M10 Exe: SMN` RIC 12b (IX, Nicomedia)
69) B2, O6, R17, T30, M13 Exe: * over A/D`SISC RIC 7b.7 (IX, Siscia)
70) B2, O6, R17, T30, M13 Exe: * over D/S/`SISC RIC 15b.14 (IX, Siscia), L 1322
71) B2, O6, R17, T30, M13 Exe: * over K/Q/`SISCR RIC 15b.29 (IX, Siscia)
72) B2, O6, R17, T30, M13 Exe: * over P/M/`SISC RIC 15b.17 (IX, Siscia)
73) B2, O6, R17, T30, M13 Exe: •`SISC RIC 7b.2 (IX, Siscia)
74) B2, O6, R17, T30, M13 Exe: A over K/Q/`SISCR RIC 15b.30 (IX, Siscia), L 1383
75) B2, O6, R17, T30, M13 Exe: C over !/S over •/`SISCE RIC 15b.38 (IX, Siscia)
76) B2, O6, R17, T30, M13 Exe: D`SISC RIC 7b.4 (IX, Siscia), L 1293
77) B2, O6, R17, T30, M13 Exe: K over P/Q/`SISCR RIC 15b.27 (IX, Siscia)
78) B2, O6, R17, T30, M13 Exe: R over !/S over •/`SISCE RIC 15b.36 (IX, Siscia)
79) B2, O6, R17, T30, M13 Exe: R over K/Q/`SISCR RIC 15b.32 (IX, Siscia)
80) B2, O6, R17, T30, M14 Exe: * over Z/A/TES` RIC 27b.25 (IX, Thessalonica)
81) B2, O6, R17, T30, M14 Exe: */TES` RIC 27b.3 (IX, Thessalonica), L 1714
82) B2, O6, R17, T30, M14 Exe: TES` RIC 27b.1 (IX, Thessalonica), L 1707
83) B2, O6, R17, T30, M14 Exe: Δ/=/TES` RIC 27b.20 (IX, Thessalonica)
84) B2, O6, R17, T39, M11 Exe: */SMR`  (star is in left field) RIC 28a.9 (IX, Roma)
85) B2, O6, R17, T39, M11 Exe: R•`  Officina is spelled out in Latin; PRIMA, SECVNDA, TERTIA or QVARTA RIC 23b (IX, Roma), L 719


Valens Busts

Valens Types