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ERIC Table of Contents


Title Page

Introduction

About Roman Coins

Denominations

Coins of Other Ancient Cultures

Identifying Roman Coins

How To Use This Book

Mintmarks

Mint Map

Pricing And Grading

Bibliography

Reference Catalogs Cited

Coin Terms Used

Glossary

Rarity Tables

Index of Rulers

Photography Credits

Additional Web Resources

Imperial Catalog:

AUGUSTUS
LIVA
AGRIPPA
NERO CLAUDIUS DRUSUS
GERMANICUS
AGRIPPINA I
TIBERIUS
DRUSUS
ANTONIA
CALIGULA
CLAUDIUS I
BRITANNICUS
AGRIPPINA II
NERO
GALBA
CLODIUS MACER
OTHO
VITELLIUS
VESPASIAN
DOMITILLA
TITUS
DOMITIAN
DOMITIA
JULIA TITI
NERVA
TRAJAN
PLOTINA
MARCIANA
MATIDIA
HADRIAN
SABINA
AELIUS
ANTONINUS PIUS
FAUSTINA I
MARCUS AURELIUS
FAUSTINA II
LUCIUS VERUS
LUCILLA
COMMODUS
CRISPINA
PERTINAX
DIDIUS JULIANUS
MANLIA SCANTILLA
DIDIA CLARA
PESCENNIUS NIGER
CLODIUS ALBINUS
SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS
JULIA DOMNA
CARACALLA
PLAUTILLA
GETA
MACRINUS
DIADUMENIAN
ELAGABALUS
JULIA MAESA
JULIA SOAEMIAS
JULIA PAULA
AQUILIA SEVERA
ANNIA FAUSTINA
SEVERUS ALEXANDER
JULIA MAMAEA
ORBIANA
MAXIMINUS I
PAULINA
MAXIMUS
GORDIAN I
GORDIAN II
BALBINUS
PUPIENUS
GORDIAN III
TRANQUILLINA
PHILIP I
OTACILIA SEVERA
PHILIP II
PACATIAN
JOTAPIAN
TRAJAN DECIUS
HERENNIA ETRUSCILLA
HERENNIUS ETRUSCUS
HOSTILIAN
TREBONIANUS GALLUS
VOLUSIAN
AEMILIAN
CORNELIA SUPERA
SILBANNACUS
URANIUS ANTONINUS
VALERIAN I
MARINIANA
VALERIAN II
GALLIENUS
SALONINA
SALONINUS
REGALIANUS
DRYANTILLA
POSTUMUS
LAELIANUS
MARIUS
VICTORINUS
DOMITIAN II
TETRICUS I
TETRICUS II
QUIETUS
MACRIANUS
CLAUDIUS II
QUINTILLUS
AURELIAN
SEVERINA
ZENOBIA
VABALATHUS
TACITUS
FLORIAN
PROBUS
SATURNINUS
CARUS
CARINUS
MAGNIA URBICA
NIGRIAN
NUMERIAN
JULIAN I
DIOCLETIAN
MAXIMIAN
CARAUSIUS
ALLECTUS
DOMITIUS DOMITIANUS
CONSTANTIUS I
THEODORA
GALERIUS
GALERIA VALERIA
SEVERUS II
MAXENTIUS
ROMULUS
CONSTANTINE I
HELENA
FAUSTA
ALEXANDER
LICINIUS I
CONSTANTIA
MAXIMINUS II
LICINIUS II
CRISPUS
VALERIUS VALENS
MARTINIAN
CONSTANTINE II
DELMATIUS
HANNIBALLIANUS
CONSTANS
CONSTANTIUS II
MAGNENTIUS
DECENTIUS
NEPOTIAN
VETRANO
CONSTANTIUS GALLUS
JULIAN II
JOVIAN
VALENTINIAN I
VALENS
PROCOPIUS
GRATIAN
VALENTINIAN II
THEODOSIUS I
AELIA FLACCILLA
MAGNUS MAXIMINUS
FLAVIUS VICTOR
EUGENIUS
HONORIUS
CONSTANTINE III
CONSTANS II
MAXIMINUS
PRISCUS ATTALUS
JOVINUS
SABASTIANUS
CONSTANTIUS III
GALLA PLACIDIA
JOHANNES
VALENTINIAN III
LICINIA EUDOXIA
HONORIA
PETRONIUS MAXIMINUS
AVITUS
MAJORIAN
LIBIUS SEVERUS
ANTHEMIUS
EUPHEMIA
ANICIUS OLYBRIUS
GLYCERIUS
JULIUS NEPOS
ROMULUS AUGUSTUS
ARCADIUS
EUDOXIA
PULCHERIA
THEODOSIUS II
EUDOCIA
MARCIAN
LEO I
VERINA
LEO II
ZENO
ARIADNE
BASILISCUS
ZENONIS
LEONTIUS I
ANASTASIUS I
ANONYMOUS COINAGE

ERIC The Encyclopedia of Roman Imperial Coins
by Rasiel Suarez


Theodosius I

Augustus 375-395

The son of a famous general, Theodosius's own military prowess caught the eye of Gratian who sent him off with an army to deal with the various barbarian hordes making regular excursions into Roman territory. After scoring some impressive victories on the battlefield Gratian gave Theodosius the ultimate reward by crowning him emperor and formal successor to Valens.
 
Theodosius then went on to settle a peace treaty with the barbarians and conferred upon them "federate" status and allowed them to occupy Roman territory under the condition that they would defend it against other intruders. The benefit, in principle at least, was that this settlement created a buffer zone for the Romans. In the following years he put down the rebellions headed by Magnus Maximus and then, literally with a little help from the weather, by the puppet emperor Eugenius.  
 
During the waning years of his life he became the first Roman emperor to turn full circle on the issue of religious persecution. After centuries of Christian persecution and then another three quarters of a century whereby Christianity coexisted mostly peacefully with Pagan rituals, Theodosius began the active persecution and steady elimination of all non-Christian sects and their temples. This policy would be vigorously followed by all succeeding emperors. He died in 395 leaving behind a split empire to be ruled by his sons Honorius and Arcadius.
 

Theodosius leaves a strong numismatic legacy, by fourth century standards, with a myriad of different denominations, sizes and weights of his coins.
 
For several decades coinage in general had inexorably tended towards smaller coins made of cheaper metal alloys while at the same time maintaining or increasing their nominal value. In other words, inflation.
 
While the economic maladies ailing the empire were far greater than Theodosius could hope to remedy he does temporarily increase the size and heft of the bronzes. He also introduces the Tremissis, a small but versatile coin that is successful enough to continue being used for the next 200 years. These measures, at least symbolically, aim to strengthen the shrinking empire.
 
Asides from their historical significance, the collector will be pleased to find that obtaining high-grade “type” sets of this emperor is an easy and surprisingly affordable task. The small bronzes are particularly plentiful and make up a sizeable proportion of “uncleaned” coins as available on the Internet and most coin dealers.

Busts:

 
1) Diademed (pearls), draped and cuirassed bust right
2) Diademed (rosettes), draped and cuirassed bust right
3) Helmeted, diademed (pearls), draped and cuirassed bust right, holding spear and shield
4) Helmeted, diademed (rosettes), draped and cuirassed bust right, holding spear and shield

Obverses:


 
1) DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG
2) DN THEODOSVIS PF AVG

 

Reverses:

 
1) CONCORDIA AVGG
2) CONCORDIA AVGGG
3) CONCORDIA AVGGGG
4) GLORIA REIPVB
5) GLORIA REIPVBLICE
6) GLORIA ROMANORVM
7) PERPETVETAS
8) REPARATIO REIPVB
9) RESTITVTOR REIPVBLICAE
10) RESTITVTOR REIPVBLICE
11) SALVS REIPVBLICAE
12) SPES REIPVBLICAE
13) SPES ROMANORVM
14) TRIVMFATOR GENT BARB
15) VICTORIA AVG
16) VICTORIA AVGG
17) VICTORIA AVGGG
18) VICTORIA AVGVSTORVM
19) VIRTVS EXERCITI
20) VIRTVS EXERCITVS
21) VIRTVS ROMANORVM
22) VOTA PVBLICA
23) VRBS ROMA
24) VRBS ROMA FELIX
25) No legend

 

Types:

 
1) City gate with (2) turrets.
2) Constantinopolis seated, facing, stepping on galley prow, holding globe and scepter.
3) Constantinopolis seated, facing, stepping on galley prow, holding scepter
4) Constantinopolis seated, facing, stepping on galley prow, holding scepter and cornucopia
5) Constantinopolis seated, facing, stepping on galley prow, holding scepter and globe
6) Constantinopolis seated, facing, stepping on galley prow, holding scepter and shield reading VOT / V / MVL / X
7) Constantinopolis seated, facing, stepping on galley prow, holding scepter and shield reading VOT / X / MVL / XV
8) Constantinopolis seated, facing, stepping on galley prow, holding scepter and shield reading VOT / X / MVLT / XV
9) Constantinopolis seated, facing, stepping on galley prow, holding spear
10) Constantinopolis seated, facing, stepping on galley prow, holding scepter and cornucopia.
11) Roma seated left, holding Victory on globe and spear.
12) Roma seated, facing, holding globe and spear.
13) Roma standing, facing, holding trophy and Victory on globe; shield by feet.
14) Theodosius I advancing right, dragging captive and holding trophy.
15) Theodosius I and Gratian seated, facing, together holding globe over palm; Victory above and between them.
16) Theodosius I and Valentinian II seated, facing, each holding a scepter.
17) Theodosius I riding horse right, raising hand.
18) Theodosius I standing left, holding hand of kneeling woman with cornucopia and labarum
19) Theodosius I standing left, holding hand of kneeling woman with cornucopia and Victory on globe
20) Theodosius I standing left on galley, holding phoenix on globe and labarum; Victory seated to right, steering galley.
21) Theodosius I standing left on galley, raising hand; Victory seated to right, steering galley.
22) Theodosius I standing right, stepping on captive, holding labarum and globe
23) Theodosius I standing, facing, holding labarum and globe
24) Theodosius I standing, facing, holding labarum and globe; seated captive to left.
25) Theodosius I standing, facing, holding labarum and resting hand on shield
26) Theodosius I standing, facing, holding Victory on globe and labarum.
27) Theodosius I standing, facing, raising hand and holding globe
28) Victories (2) standing, facing each other, each holding a wreath and a palm
29) Victory advancing left, holding trophy and dragging captive.
30) Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm
31) Victory advancing right, dragging captive and holding trophy.
32) Victory seated right, holding shield reading VOT / V / MVL / X on lap
33) Victory standing right, holding wreath and cross on globe
34) Wreath, VOT / V / MVLT / X within
35) Wreath, VOT / V within
36) Wreath, VOT / X / MVLT / XX within
37) Wreath, VOT / X / MVLT / XXX within
38) Wreath, VOT / X / MVLTIS / XX within
39) Wreath, VOT / XV / MVLT / XX within
40) Wreath, VOT / XX / MVLT / XXX within

 

Mints:

 
1) Alexandria
2) Antioch
3) Aquileia 
4) Arelate 
5) Constantinopolis 
6) Cyzicus
7) Heraclea
8) Londinium
9) Lugdunum
10) Mediolanum
11) Nicomedia
12) Roma
13) Sirmium
14) Siscia
15) Thessalonica
16) Treveri


AU Solidus Reference(s)

 
1) B1, O1, R02, T05, M05 Exe: CONOB RIC 43b (IX, Constantinopolis)
2) B1, O1, R02, T06, M05 Exe: CONOB Officina at end of reverse legend RIC 70b (IX, Constantinopolis)
3) B1, O1, R02, T08, M05 Exe: CONOB Officina at end of reverse legend RIC 71A (IX, Constantinopolis)
4) B1, O1, R16, T15, M10 Exe: COM RIC 5b (IX, Mediolanum)
5) B1, O1, R16, T15, M10 Exe: M/D/COM RIC 8b.2 (IX, Mediolanum)
6) B1, O1, R16, T15, M13 Exe: SIROB RIC 9c (IX, Sirmium)
7) B1, O1, R16, T15, M16 Exe: TROB` RIC 50 (IX, Treveri)
8) B1, O1, R17, T22, M13 Exe: S/M/CONOB Officina at end of reverse legend RIC 15 (IX, Sirmium)
9) B2, O1, R02, T05, M05 Exe: CONOB Officina at end of reverse legend RIC 45d (IX, Constantinopolis)
10) B2, O1, R02, T06, M05 Exe: CONOB Officina at end of reverse legend RIC 44b (IX, Constantinopolis)
11) B2, O1, R02, T08, M05 Exe: CONOB Officina at end of reverse legend RIC 71b (IX, Constantinopolis)
12) B2, O1, R03, T08, M05 Exe: CONOB Officina at end of reverse legend RIC 47b (IX, Constantinopolis)

 
AU Tremissis

 
13) B1, O1, R18, T33, M05 Exe: */CONOB 
14) B1, O1, R18, T33, M05 Exe: CONOB RIC 75b (IX, Constantinopolis)

 
AR Siliqua

 
15) B1, O1, R02, T03, M16 Exe: TRPS RIC 55a (IX, Treveri)
16) B1, O1, R21, T11, M16 Exe: TRPS RIC 94b (IX, Treveri)
17) B1, O1, R25, T36, M05 Exe: CONS RIC 87a (IX, Constantinopolis)
18) B1, O1, R25, T36, M10 Exe: MDPS RIC 14b (IX, Mediolanum)

 
AE2

 
19) B1, O1, R06, T22, M02 Exe: ANT` RIC 68a (IX, Antiochia)
20) B1, O1, R06, T22, M07 Exe: SMH` RIC 27a (IX, Heraclea)
21) B1, O1, R06, T23, M01 Exe: ALE` RIC 21a (IX, Alexandria)
22) B1, O1, R08, T19, M12 Exe: SMR` RIC 43d (IX, Roma)
23) B1, O1, R08, T19, M14 Exe: *`SISC RIC 26c.5 (IX, Siscia), L 1527
24) B1, O1, R08, T19, M14 Exe: *`SISC• RIC 26c.7 (IX, Siscia), L 1533
25) B1, O1, R08, T19, M14 Exe: `SIS•
26) B1, O1, R08, T19, M14 Exe: `SISC RIC 26c.1 (IX, Siscia), L 1514
27) B1, O1, R08, T19, M14 Exe: `SISC• RIC 26c.3 (IX, Siscia), L 1521
28) B1, O1, R19, T22, M06 Exe: SMK` RIC 25b (IX, Cyzicus)
29) B1, O1, R19, T22, M07 Exe: */•SMH` RIC 24b.2 (IX, Heraclea)
30) B1, O1, R19, T22, M07 Exe: •SMH` RIC 24b.1 (IX, Heraclea)
31) B1, O1, R19, T22, M11 Exe: SMN` RIC 44b (IX, Nicomedia), L 2394
32) B2, O1, R06, T05, M05 Exe: °/I/CONS` RIC 57d (IX, Constantinopolis)
33) B2, O1, R19, T22, M01 Exe: ALE` RIC 18c (IX, Alexandria)
34) B3, O1, R06, T21, M02 Exe: =/ANT` RIC 40d (IX, Antiochia)
35) B3, O1, R06, T21, M05 Exe: =/CON` RIC 52c (IX, Constantinopolis)
36) B3, O1, R06, T21, M05 Exe: T/CON` RIC 79b (IX, Constantinopolis)
37) B3, O1, R06, T21, M06 Exe: =/SMK` RIC 14c (IX, Cyzicus)
38) B3, O1, R06, T21, M06 Exe: T/SMK` RIC 23 (IX, Cyzicus)
39) B3, O1, R06, T21, M07 Exe: SMH` RIC 11c (IX, Heraclea)
40) B3, O1, R06, T21, M07 Exe: T/SMH` RIC 21b (IX, Heraclea)
41) B3, O1, R06, T21, M11 Exe: =/•SMN` RIC 25c (IX, Nicomedia)
42) B3, O1, R06, T21, M15 Exe: =/•TES` RIC 44b (IX, Thessalonica)

 
AE3

 
43) B1, O1, R01, T01, M15 Exe: `/TES RIC 62b (IX, Thessalonica)
44) B1, O1, R02, T02, M11 Exe: SMN` RIC 29 (IX, Nicomedia)
45) B1, O1, R02, T02, M14 Exe: `SISC RIC 27d (IX, Siscia)
46) B1, O1, R02, T05, M05 Exe: O/CONS` RIC 57a (IX, Constantinopolis)
47) B1, O1, R06, T14, M14 Exe: `SISC• RIC 28 (IX, Siscia), L 1558
48) B1, O1, R06, T14, M15 Exe: `/TES RIC 60b (IX, Thessalonica)
49) B1, O1, R06, T17, M05 Exe: CONS` RIC 89a (IX, Constantinopolis)
50) B1, O1, R06, T23, M05 Exe: CONS` RIC 88a (IX, Constantinopolis)
51) B1, O1, R17, T20, M15 Exe: `/TES RIC 61b (IX, Thessalonica)

 
AE4

 
52) B1, O1, R05, T01, M15 Exe: `/TES RIC 62b (IX, Thessalonica)
53) B1, O1, R11, T29, M02 Exe: ¢/ANT` RIC 70a (IX, Antiochia)
54) B1, O1, R11, T29, M02 Exe: ¤/ANT` RIC 67b.2 (IX, Antioch)
55) B1, O1, R11, T29, M05 Exe: ¤/CONS RIC 86b (IX, Constantinopolis)
56) B1, O1, R11, T29, M06 Exe: ¤/SMK` RIC 27b (IX, Cyzicus), L 1984
57) B1, O1, R11, T29, M07 Exe: SMH` RIC 26b (IX, Heraclea)
58) B1, O1, R11, T29, M11 Exe: SMN` RIC 45b (IX, Nicomedia), L 2404
59) B1, O1, R11, T29, M15 Exe: ¤/TES` RIC 65 (IX, Thessalonica)
60) B1, O1, R17, T30, M04 Exe: `CON RIC 30d (IX, Arelate), L 563
61) B1, O1, R17, T30, M14 Exe: `SIS RIC 39b.1 (IX, Siscia), L 1576
62) B1, O1, R17, T30, M14 Exe: `SIS• RIC 39b.3 (IX, Siscia), L 1580
63) B1, O1, R25, T34, M14 Exe: `SISC RIC 29d (IX, Siscia), L 1546
64) B1, O1, R25, T35, M07 Exe: SMH` 
65) B1, O1, R25, T36, M05 Exe: CON` RIC 63b (IX, Constantinopolis)
66) B1, O1, R25, T36, M06 Exe: SMK` RIC 19 (IX, Cyzicus), L 2557
67) B1, O1, R25, T36, M07 Exe: SMH` RIC 19c (IX, Heraclea)
68) B1, O1, R25, T36, M14 Exe: `SISC RIC 30b (IX, Siscia)

 
 

Theodosius I Busts

Theodosius I Types