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ERIC Table of Contents


Title Page

Introduction

About Roman Coins

Denominations

Coins of Other Ancient Cultures

Identifying Roman Coins

How To Use This Book

Mintmarks

Mint Map

Pricing And Grading

Bibliography

Reference Catalogs Cited

Coin Terms Used

Glossary

Rarity Tables

Index of Rulers

Photography Credits

Additional Web Resources

Imperial Catalog:

AUGUSTUS
LIVA
AGRIPPA
NERO CLAUDIUS DRUSUS
GERMANICUS
AGRIPPINA I
TIBERIUS
DRUSUS
ANTONIA
CALIGULA
CLAUDIUS I
BRITANNICUS
AGRIPPINA II
NERO
GALBA
CLODIUS MACER
OTHO
VITELLIUS
VESPASIAN
DOMITILLA
TITUS
DOMITIAN
DOMITIA
JULIA TITI
NERVA
TRAJAN
PLOTINA
MARCIANA
MATIDIA
HADRIAN
SABINA
AELIUS
ANTONINUS PIUS
FAUSTINA I
MARCUS AURELIUS
FAUSTINA II
LUCIUS VERUS
LUCILLA
COMMODUS
CRISPINA
PERTINAX
DIDIUS JULIANUS
MANLIA SCANTILLA
DIDIA CLARA
PESCENNIUS NIGER
CLODIUS ALBINUS
SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS
JULIA DOMNA
CARACALLA
PLAUTILLA
GETA
MACRINUS
DIADUMENIAN
ELAGABALUS
JULIA MAESA
JULIA SOAEMIAS
JULIA PAULA
AQUILIA SEVERA
ANNIA FAUSTINA
SEVERUS ALEXANDER
JULIA MAMAEA
ORBIANA
MAXIMINUS I
PAULINA
MAXIMUS
GORDIAN I
GORDIAN II
BALBINUS
PUPIENUS
GORDIAN III
TRANQUILLINA
PHILIP I
OTACILIA SEVERA
PHILIP II
PACATIAN
JOTAPIAN
TRAJAN DECIUS
HERENNIA ETRUSCILLA
HERENNIUS ETRUSCUS
HOSTILIAN
TREBONIANUS GALLUS
VOLUSIAN
AEMILIAN
CORNELIA SUPERA
SILBANNACUS
URANIUS ANTONINUS
VALERIAN I
MARINIANA
VALERIAN II
GALLIENUS
SALONINA
SALONINUS
REGALIANUS
DRYANTILLA
POSTUMUS
LAELIANUS
MARIUS
VICTORINUS
DOMITIAN II
TETRICUS I
TETRICUS II
QUIETUS
MACRIANUS
CLAUDIUS II
QUINTILLUS
AURELIAN
SEVERINA
ZENOBIA
VABALATHUS
TACITUS
FLORIAN
PROBUS
SATURNINUS
CARUS
CARINUS
MAGNIA URBICA
NIGRIAN
NUMERIAN
JULIAN I
DIOCLETIAN
MAXIMIAN
CARAUSIUS
ALLECTUS
DOMITIUS DOMITIANUS
CONSTANTIUS I
THEODORA
GALERIUS
GALERIA VALERIA
SEVERUS II
MAXENTIUS
ROMULUS
CONSTANTINE I
HELENA
FAUSTA
ALEXANDER
LICINIUS I
CONSTANTIA
MAXIMINUS II
LICINIUS II
CRISPUS
VALERIUS VALENS
MARTINIAN
CONSTANTINE II
DELMATIUS
HANNIBALLIANUS
CONSTANS
CONSTANTIUS II
MAGNENTIUS
DECENTIUS
NEPOTIAN
VETRANO
CONSTANTIUS GALLUS
JULIAN II
JOVIAN
VALENTINIAN I
VALENS
PROCOPIUS
GRATIAN
VALENTINIAN II
THEODOSIUS I
AELIA FLACCILLA
MAGNUS MAXIMINUS
FLAVIUS VICTOR
EUGENIUS
HONORIUS
CONSTANTINE III
CONSTANS II
MAXIMINUS
PRISCUS ATTALUS
JOVINUS
SABASTIANUS
CONSTANTIUS III
GALLA PLACIDIA
JOHANNES
VALENTINIAN III
LICINIA EUDOXIA
HONORIA
PETRONIUS MAXIMINUS
AVITUS
MAJORIAN
LIBIUS SEVERUS
ANTHEMIUS
EUPHEMIA
ANICIUS OLYBRIUS
GLYCERIUS
JULIUS NEPOS
ROMULUS AUGUSTUS
ARCADIUS
EUDOXIA
PULCHERIA
THEODOSIUS II
EUDOCIA
MARCIAN
LEO I
VERINA
LEO II
ZENO
ARIADNE
BASILISCUS
ZENONIS
LEONTIUS I
ANASTASIUS I
ANONYMOUS COINAGE

ERIC The Encyclopedia of Roman Imperial Coins
by Rasiel Suarez


 Severus II

Augustus 306-307


Chosen by Galerius as Caesar upon Diocletian's abdication, Severus would spend several years in the VP post until Constantius died. In what may have then been a shocking turn of events, rather than Severus automatically becoming the new emperor, the title passed instead to Constantius's son Constantine. On hearing of this Galerius threatened a major civil war. Constantine reached an agreement that ended in Severus claiming the title while he took a demotion to Caesar.

Still, it was becoming evident that Constantine was poised to becoming emperor some day and this most aggravated Maxentius whose father Maximian sidestepped him for the good of the system. With a "no fair" attitude, Maxentius appropriated the city's garrisons and had himself made emperor back in Rome. This, naturally, created a problem for Severus which he had to deal with. He marched his soldiers down into Italy but the expedition met with failure. Maxentius was too powerful and influential and the forces of Severus were demoralized and many deserted him. The loss of manpower put him into retreat mode at the same time that Maxentius was ramping up an offensive. Severus soon found himself the unfortunate guest of the rebel who had him executed.

Primarily due to the short reign, Severus II is considerably more difficult to find than those of his other Tetrarchy-era contemporaries. However, this is all relative. The period itself was quite prolific in pumping out coins for the busy armies of the times and for the populace at large.

The Follis was the mainstay of the economy and under Diocletian it was hoped that the new, faux silver coin would stall the inflationary tailspin that was afflicting all corners of the empire. By the time Severus II became emperor what little silver the coins initially had was gone and, worse, the size of the coin itself, once comparable to that of a beefy Dupondius, was now shrinking quickly into what would soon be the generic AE3 that would become everyman’s coin for the rest of the century.

The Folles and its concomitant fractional derivatives can be found for about $50 and up, silvered specimens survive and often retail for between $100-$200. For this ruler, the Argenteus remains an elusive and exotic denomination hardly ever seen. Gold coins, unfortunately, are reserved for museums and the obscenely wealthy.

Busts:

1) Helmeted, laureate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear over shoulder and shield
2) Laureate head right
3) Laureate, cuirassed bust right
4) Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
5) Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right

Obverses:

1) FL VAL SEVERVS NOB C
2) FL VAL SEVERVS NOB CAES
3) FL VAL SEVERVS NOB CAESAR
4) FL VAL SEVERVS NOBIL C
5) FL VAL SEVERVS NOBIL CAES
6) FLA VAL SEVERVS NOB C
7) FLA VAL SEVERVS NOB CAES
8) IMP C FL VAL SEVERVS PF AVG
9) IMP C FLA VAL SEVERVS PF AVG
10) IMP C SEVERVS PF AVG
11) IMP C SEVERVS PIVS FELIX AVG
12) IMP SEVERVS AVG
13) IMP SEVERVS PF AVG
14) IMP SEVERVS PIVS F AVG
15) IMP SEVERVS PIVS FELIX AVG
16) SEVERVS AVGVSTVS
17) SEVERVS ET MAXIMINVS NB C
18) SEVERVS ET MAXIMINVS NO C
19) SEVERVS NOB C
20) SEVERVS NOB CAES
21) SEVERVS NOB CAESAR
22) SEVERVS NOBIL C
23) SEVERVS NOBILIS C
24) SEVERVS NOBILISSIMVS C
25) SEVERVS NOBILISSIMVS CAES
26) SEVERVS NOBILISSIMVS CAESAR
27) SEVERVS PF AVG
28) SEVERVS PIVS FEL AVG

Reverses:

1) CONCORDIA AVG ET CAES
2) CONCORDIA AVGG ET CAESS NN
3) CONCORDIA AVGG NOSTR
4) CONCORDIA CAESS NOSTR
5) CONCORDIA MILITVM
6) CONCORIA IMPERII
7) CONSVL AVGG NN
8) CONSVL PP PROCOS
9) FELICITAS AVGG NOSTR
10) FELICITAS CAESS NOSTR
11) FELICITAS SAECVLI AVGG NN
12) FELICITAS SAECVLI CAESS NN
13) FIDES MILITVM
14) FIDES MILITVM AVGG ET CAESS NN
15) GENIO AVGG ET CAESARVM NN
16) GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
17) HERCVLI COMITI CAESS NOSTR
18) HERCVLI CONS CAES
19) HERCVLI CONSER AVGG ET CAESS NN
20) HERCVLI CONSERVAT AVGG ET CAESS NN
21) HERCVLI VICTORI
22) HERCVLI VICTORI NK
23) IOVI CONSERVAT
24) IOVI CONSERVATOR
25) IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG ET CAESS NN
26) MARTI PATRI NK
27) PERPETVITAS AVGG
28) PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS
29) SAC MON VRB AVGG ET CAESS NN
30) SACRA MONET AVGG ET CAESS NN
31) SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART
32) SALVS AVGG ET CAESS NN
33) SOLI INVICT CONSERVAT AVGG ET CAESS NN
34) SOLI INVICTO CONSERVAT AVGG ET CAESS NN
35) VIRTVS AVGG ET CAESS NN
36) VIRTVS MILITVM


Types:

1) Carthago standing, facing, holding fruits in each hand.
2) Concordia seated left, holding patera and cornucopia.
3) Concordia seated left, holding patera and two cornucopiae.
4) Concordia standing left, holding scepter.
5) Concordia standing, facing, holding patera and scepter.
6) Felicitas seated left, holding caduceus and cornucopia.
7) Fides seated left, holding standard in each hand.
8) Fides standing left, holding standard in each hand.
9) Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia.
10) Genius standing left, pouring out patera and holding cornucopia.
11) Genius standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding cornucopia.
12) Hercules standing, facing, resting hand on club and holding apples.
13) Hercules standing, facing, resting hand on club and holding bow
14) Jupiter seated left, holding thunderbolt and scepter
15) Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on globe and scepter.
16) Mars advancing right, holding spear and trophy
17) Mars standing, facing, resting hand on shield and holding scepter
18) Moneta standing left, holding scale and cornucopia.
19) Roma seated left, holding Victory on globe and spear.
20) Salus standing right, holding and feeding snake.
21) Severus II advancing right, dragging captive and holding trophy; captive to right.
22) Severus II riding horse right, spearing kneeling barbarian; second barbarian lying on ground.
23) Severus II standing left, holding globe and scepter.
24) Severus II standing left, holding Victory and spear with shield; seated captive to left.
25) Severus II standing left, raising hand and holding globe; two standards to right.
26) Severus II standing left, raising hand and holding scepter; two standards to right.
27) Severus II standing right on left, receiving Victory on globe from Jupiter to right, holding scepter.
28) Severus II standing, facing, holding Victory and spear with shield; captive to left.
29) Sol standing left, raising hand and holding globe.
30) Sol standing, facing, raising hand and holding globe.
31) Victories (2) standing, facing each other, holding together wreath reading VIC / AVGG
32) Wreath, VOT / X / CAESS / NN within.
33) Wreath, VOT / X / CAESS within
34) Wreath, VOT / XX / AVGG within

Mints:

1) Alexandria
2) Antioch
3) Aquileia
4) Cyzicus
5) Heraclea
6) Karthago
7) Londinium
8) Lugdunum
9) Nicomedia
10) Roma
11) Serdica
12) Siscia
13) Ticinum
14) Treveri


AU Aureus Reference(s)

1) B2, O20, R10, T06, M03 Exe: AQ RIC 44 (VI, Aquileia), C 10
2) B2, O20, R18, T12, M02 Exe: ©SMA`* RIC 67 (VI, Antioch)
3) B2, O20, R25, T14, M14 Exe: TR

AE Radiate

4) B5, O05, R05, T27, M01 Exe: `/ALE RIC 60a (VI, Alexandria)
5) B5, O10, R05, T27, M01 Exe: `/ALE RIC 84 (VI, Alexandria)

AE Follis

6) B1, O10, R14, T08, M03 Exe: AQ` RIC 77b (VI, Aquileia)
7) B2, O01, R06, T04, M12 Exe: VI/SIS` RIC 173a (VI, Siscia)
8) B2, O01, R27, T19, M12 Exe: VI/SIS` RIC 184a (VI, Siscia)
9) B2, O02, R06, T04, M12 Exe: VI/SIS` RIC 475 note (VI, Siscia)
10) B2, O02, R16, T10, M04 Exe: K` RIC 20a (VI, Cyzicus)
11) B2, O02, R31, T01, M06 Exe: H/` RIC 40a (VI, Carthago)
12) B2, O03, R16, T11, M11 Exe: `/•SM•SD• RIC 13a (VI, Serdica)
13) B2, O04, R16, T09, M14 Exe: S/F/`TR RIC 668a (VI, Trier)
14) B2, O05, R16, T09, M05 Exe: HT` RIC 25 (VI, Heraclea)
15) B2, O07, R16, T10, M11 Exe: `/•SM•SD• RIC 24a (VI, Serdica)
16) B2, O08, R16, T10, M04 Exe: */K` RIC 27b (VI, Cyzicus)
17) B2, O08, R16, T10, M04 Exe: K` RIC 25b (VI, Cyzicus)
18) B2, O10, R14, T08, M03 Exe: AQ` RIC 78b (VI, Aquileia)
19) B2, O10, R35, T22, M03 Exe: AQ` RIC 80b (VI, Aquileia)
20) B2, O20, R29, T18, M10 Exe: R` RIC 123a (VI, Roma)
21) B2, O20, R29, T18, M10 Exe: RJ` RIC 133a (VI, Roma)
22) B2, O20, R35, T16, M03 Exe: AQ` RIC 70a (VI, Aquileia)
23) B2, O20, R35, T16, M13 Exe: `T RIC 60a (VI, Ticinum)
24) B2, O20, R35, T28, M03 Exe: AQ` RIC 72a (VI, Aquileia)
25) B2, O21, R35, T16, M13 Exe: `T RIC 58a (VI, Ticinum)
26) B3, O01, R16, T11, M08 Exe: */`LG RIC 193 (VI, Lugdunum)
27) B3, O13, R16, T09, M14 Exe: S/F/`TR RIC 652c (VI, Trier)
28) B4, O02, R16, T09, M14 Exe: S/F/`TR RIC 661 (VI, Trier)
29) B4, O04, R16, T09, M14 Exe: S/F/`TR RIC 665 (VI, Trier)
30) B4, O19, R16, T11, M08 Exe: */`LG RIC 199a (VI, Lugdunum)
31) B4, O23, R16, T09, M07 RIC 63b (VI, Londinium)

AE ¼ Follis

32) B2, O01, R16, T09, M12 Exe: SIS RIC 170a (VI, Siscia)
33) B2, O19, R16, T09, M12 Exe: SIS RIC 171a (VI, Siscia)

Severus II Busts

Severus II Types