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ERIC Table of Contents


Title Page

Introduction

About Roman Coins

Denominations

Coins of Other Ancient Cultures

Identifying Roman Coins

How To Use This Book

Mintmarks

Mint Map

Pricing And Grading

Bibliography

Reference Catalogs Cited

Coin Terms Used

Glossary

Rarity Tables

Index of Rulers

Photography Credits

Additional Web Resources

Imperial Catalog:

AUGUSTUS
LIVA
AGRIPPA
NERO CLAUDIUS DRUSUS
GERMANICUS
AGRIPPINA I
TIBERIUS
DRUSUS
ANTONIA
CALIGULA
CLAUDIUS I
BRITANNICUS
AGRIPPINA II
NERO
GALBA
CLODIUS MACER
OTHO
VITELLIUS
VESPASIAN
DOMITILLA
TITUS
DOMITIAN
DOMITIA
JULIA TITI
NERVA
TRAJAN
PLOTINA
MARCIANA
MATIDIA
HADRIAN
SABINA
AELIUS
ANTONINUS PIUS
FAUSTINA I
MARCUS AURELIUS
FAUSTINA II
LUCIUS VERUS
LUCILLA
COMMODUS
CRISPINA
PERTINAX
DIDIUS JULIANUS
MANLIA SCANTILLA
DIDIA CLARA
PESCENNIUS NIGER
CLODIUS ALBINUS
SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS
JULIA DOMNA
CARACALLA
PLAUTILLA
GETA
MACRINUS
DIADUMENIAN
ELAGABALUS
JULIA MAESA
JULIA SOAEMIAS
JULIA PAULA
AQUILIA SEVERA
ANNIA FAUSTINA
SEVERUS ALEXANDER
JULIA MAMAEA
ORBIANA
MAXIMINUS I
PAULINA
MAXIMUS
GORDIAN I
GORDIAN II
BALBINUS
PUPIENUS
GORDIAN III
TRANQUILLINA
PHILIP I
OTACILIA SEVERA
PHILIP II
PACATIAN
JOTAPIAN
TRAJAN DECIUS
HERENNIA ETRUSCILLA
HERENNIUS ETRUSCUS
HOSTILIAN
TREBONIANUS GALLUS
VOLUSIAN
AEMILIAN
CORNELIA SUPERA
SILBANNACUS
URANIUS ANTONINUS
VALERIAN I
MARINIANA
VALERIAN II
GALLIENUS
SALONINA
SALONINUS
REGALIANUS
DRYANTILLA
POSTUMUS
LAELIANUS
MARIUS
VICTORINUS
DOMITIAN II
TETRICUS I
TETRICUS II
QUIETUS
MACRIANUS
CLAUDIUS II
QUINTILLUS
AURELIAN
SEVERINA
ZENOBIA
VABALATHUS
TACITUS
FLORIAN
PROBUS
SATURNINUS
CARUS
CARINUS
MAGNIA URBICA
NIGRIAN
NUMERIAN
JULIAN I
DIOCLETIAN
MAXIMIAN
CARAUSIUS
ALLECTUS
DOMITIUS DOMITIANUS
CONSTANTIUS I
THEODORA
GALERIUS
GALERIA VALERIA
SEVERUS II
MAXENTIUS
ROMULUS
CONSTANTINE I
HELENA
FAUSTA
ALEXANDER
LICINIUS I
CONSTANTIA
MAXIMINUS II
LICINIUS II
CRISPUS
VALERIUS VALENS
MARTINIAN
CONSTANTINE II
DELMATIUS
HANNIBALLIANUS
CONSTANS
CONSTANTIUS II
MAGNENTIUS
DECENTIUS
NEPOTIAN
VETRANO
CONSTANTIUS GALLUS
JULIAN II
JOVIAN
VALENTINIAN I
VALENS
PROCOPIUS
GRATIAN
VALENTINIAN II
THEODOSIUS I
AELIA FLACCILLA
MAGNUS MAXIMINUS
FLAVIUS VICTOR
EUGENIUS
HONORIUS
CONSTANTINE III
CONSTANS II
MAXIMINUS
PRISCUS ATTALUS
JOVINUS
SABASTIANUS
CONSTANTIUS III
GALLA PLACIDIA
JOHANNES
VALENTINIAN III
LICINIA EUDOXIA
HONORIA
PETRONIUS MAXIMINUS
AVITUS
MAJORIAN
LIBIUS SEVERUS
ANTHEMIUS
EUPHEMIA
ANICIUS OLYBRIUS
GLYCERIUS
JULIUS NEPOS
ROMULUS AUGUSTUS
ARCADIUS
EUDOXIA
PULCHERIA
THEODOSIUS II
EUDOCIA
MARCIAN
LEO I
VERINA
LEO II
ZENO
ARIADNE
BASILISCUS
ZENONIS
LEONTIUS I
ANASTASIUS I
ANONYMOUS COINAGE

ERIC The Encyclopedia of Roman Imperial Coins
by Rasiel Suarez


Julian II

Augustus 360-363

Julian was the son of Constantius Gallus and made Caesar by his own father's murderer, Constantius II. Constantius then assigned him an army and sent to suppress yet another German invasion. Upon the successful completion of this task, however, his own soldiers promoted him to the rank of Augustus. Chafing still from his father's fate he was well-prepared to meet Constantius in battle. But the battle was never meant to be because Constantius died of an illness on the way there and was able to rule uncontested. Reversing the growing momentum of Christianity within the empire, Julian attempted to bring back the old pagan gods and its rituals. Again, it can be suspected that this was done as much out of personal conviction as to his efforts in countering the legacy of the Constantines who decimated his family. Taking his army to deal with a new round of Persian invasions, however, left him little time to dwell on eradicating Christianity. He died in 363 from a javelin wound fighting the Persians.

Julian II’s coins are very common among the bronzes. These can be found unrestored among “uncleaned” coin lots sold on Ebay and elsewhere though far fewer in number than the Constantines and family predating him or the Valentinian clan that would follow.
 
For political and/or religious reasons he sought to stand apart from the legacy of Constantius II and, by extension, the Constantine house that had dominated the fourth century so far. Among his various edicts to this end he re-introduced a Sestertius-sized (but much lighter) coin with the old silver sheen begun with Claudius II‟s Antoninianus that had largely fallen out of use by the 320‟s. Although its purchasing power in relation to the familiar AE3‟s remains to us a mystery they must have been a breath of fresh air to the public that had been forced to rely on ever smaller coins for the needs of commerce.
 
But this “AE1” was short-lived and the AE3 would continue to be the coin that, in the end, the public had to make do with like it or not. If anything, within another generation this public would be forced into the even smaller “AE4” class of coins… but that‟s another story.
 
Government and the military still traded in silver and gold and here too Julian is fairly well represented. A siliqua may only cost a couple hundred dollars but the gold pieces will be significantly harder to find and be costlier.
 

Busts:

1) Bare-headed, cuirassed bust right
2) Bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust left
3) Bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right  
4) Diademed (pearls and rosettes), draped and cuirassed bust right
5) Diademed (pearls), draped and cuirassed bust right
6) Diademed (rosettes), draped and cuirassed bust right
7) Diademed bust right, wearing consular robes, holding mappa and scepter
8) Helmeted, diademed, cuirassed bust facing, holding spear and shield 
9) Helmeted, diademed, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield

 

Obverses:

 
1) DN CL IVLIANVS AVG
2) DN CL IVLIANVS N C
3) DN CL IVLIANVS NOB CAES
4) DN FL CL IVLIANVS NOB CS
5) DN FL CL IVLIANVS PF AVG
6) DN FL CL IVLIANVS PP AVG
7) DN IVLIANVS NOB C
8) DN IVLIANVS NOB CAES
9) DN IVLIANVS NOB CAESAR
10) DN IVLIANVS PF AVG
11) FL CL IVLIANVS AVG
12) FL CL IVLIANVS NOB CAES
13) FL CL IVLIANVS PER AVG
14) FL CL IVLIANVS PERP AVG
15) FL CL IVLIANVS PF AVG
16) FL CL IVLIANVS PF P AVG
17) FL CL IVLIANVS PP AVG
18) IVLIANVS AVG
19) IVLIANVS CAES

 

Reverses:

 
1) DN IVLIANVS CAES
2) DN IVLIANVS NOB CAES
3) FEL TEMP REPARATIO
4) FIDES EXERCITVVM
5) GLORIA REIPVBLICAE
6) GLORIA ROMANORVM
7) MONETA AVG
8) REPARATIO GALLIARVM
9) SECVRITAS REIPVB
10) SPES REIPVBLICE
11) VICTORIA AVGVSTORVM
12) VICTORIA DD NN AVG
13) VICTORIA IVLIANI
14) VICTORIA PERPETV
15) VICTORIA ROMANOR
16) VICTORIA ROMANORVM
17) VICTORIA RONANORVM
18) VICTORIAE D N AVG
19) VICTORIAE DD NN AVGG
20) VIRTVS AVG N
21) VIRTVS CAESARIS
22) VIRTVS EXERC GALL
23) VIRTVS EXERCITVM
24) VIRTVS EXERCITVS
25) VIRTVS EXERCITVS ROMANI
26) VIRTVS EXERCITVS ROMANORVM
27) No legend


Types:

 
1) Bull standing right, two stars above
2) Bull standing right, two stars above; eagle with wreath to right
3) Julian II advancing right, dragging captive and holding trophy.
4) Julian II standing left, holding globe and spear
5) Julian II standing left, holding spear and Victory on globe
6) Julian II standing under arch, facing, holding spear and globe, being crowned with wreath by Victory.
7) Roma seated, facing, holding scepter and shield with star within together with Constantinopolis to right, stepping on galley prow, holding scepter
8) Roma seated, facing, holding scepter and shield with wreath and star within together with Constantinopolis to right, stepping on galley prow, holding scepter
9) Roma seated, facing, holding scepter and wreath reading VO / TIS / V together with Constantinopolis to right, stepping on galley prow, holding scepter
10) Roma seated, facing, holding scepter and wreath reading VOT / XXX / MVLT / XXXX together with Constantinopolis to right, stepping on galley prow, holding scepter 
11) Soldier standing left, spearing falling horseman
12) Spes standing left, holding globe and scepter
13) Standards (3)
14) Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm.
15) Victory seated right, holding shield reading VOT / V; genius to lower right also holding shield.
16) Victory seated right, holding shield reading VOT / X; genius to lower right also holding shield.
17) Victory seated right, holding shield reading VOT / XX; genius to lower right also holding shield.
18) Victory seated right, holding shield with star; genius to lower right also supporting shield.
19) Victory standing right, stepping on globe, holding shield reading VOT / V / MVLT / X; genius to lower right also supporting shield.
20) Virtus standing right, holding head of kneeling captive and trophy.
21) Virtus standing right, holding head of kneeling captive and trophy; eagle with wreath to right.
22) Virtus standing right, holding spear and resting hand on shield.
23) Wreath, star within
24) Wreath, VO / TIS / V within
25) Wreath, VOT / V / MVLT / X within
26) Wreath, VOT / X / MVLT / XX within
27) Wreath, VOTIS / V / MVLTIS / X within
28) Wreath, VOTIS / X / MVLT / XX within
29) Wreath, VOTIS / X / MVLTIS / XX within

 

Mints:

 
1) Alexandria
2) Antioch
3) Aquileia
4) Arelate
5) Constantinopolis
6) Cyzicus
7) Heraclea
8) Lugdunum
9) Nicomedia
10) Roma
11) Sirmium
12) Siscia
13) Thessalonica
14) Treveri

 
 
AU Solidus Reference(s)

 
1) B3, O08, R05, T07, M02 Exe: •SMAN`• RIC 171 (VIII, Antioch)
2) B3, O08, R05, T07, M02 Exe: SMAN` RIC 167 (VIII, Antioch)
3) B5, O15, R26, T03, M02 Exe: ANT` RIC 201 (VIII, Antioch)
4) B5, O17, R26, T03, M05 Exe: `CONS`¯ RIC 157 (VIII, Constantinople)
5) B5, O17, R26, T03, M10 Exe: R` RIC 323 (VIII, Rome)
6) B5, O17, R26, T03, M11 Exe: *SIRM= RIC 95 (VIII, Sirmium)

 
AU Scripulum

 
7) B5, O17, R17, T17, M02 Exe: ANT RIC 207 (VIII, Antioch)

 
AR Siliqua

 
8) B3, O08, R27, T23, M02 Exe: ANT RIC 187 (VIII, Antioch)
9) B3, O08, R27, T27, M04 Exe: `CON RIC 264 (VIII, Arles)
10) B5, O01, R27, T27, M14 Exe: TR RIC 364 (VIII, Trier)
11) B5, O05, R27, T26, M04 Exe: `CONST RIC 309 (VIII, Arles)
12) B5, O05, R27, T26, M04 Exe: `CONST RIC 312 (VIII, Arles)
13) B5, O05, R27, T26, M05 Exe: CP•` RIC 159 (VIII, Constantinople)
14) B5, O05, R27, T26, M08 Exe: `LVG RIC 234 (VIII, Lyons)
15) B5, O10, R27, T27, M04 Exe: `CON RIC 295 (VIII, Arles)
16) B5, O15, R27, T27, M11 Exe: SIRM 
17) B5, O17, R12, T08, M08 Exe: LVG RIC 215a (VIII, Lyons)
18) B6, O15, R27, T25, M08 Exe: LVG RIC 218 (VIII, Lyons)

 
AE1

 
19) B5, O05, R09, T01, M02 Exe: `ANT`¯ RIC 216 (VIII, Antioch), L 2640
20) B5, O05, R09, T01, M03 Exe: •AQVIL` RIC 243 (VIII, Aquileia)
21) B5, O05, R09, T01, M05 Exe: •CONSP`• RIC 162 (VIII, Constantinople), L 2058
22) B5, O05, R09, T01, M05 Exe: `CONSP`¯ RIC 163 (VIII, Constantinople), L 2059
23) B5, O05, R09, T01, M06 Exe: CVZ` RIC 127 (VIII, Cyzicus), L 2058
24) B5, O05, R09, T01, M07 Exe: •HERACL•` over • RIC 104 (VIII, Sirmium), L 1910
25) B5, O05, R09, T01, M08 Exe: LVGDOFF` RIC 236 (VIII, Lyons)
26) B5, O05, R09, T01, M09 Exe: `NIK`¯ RIC 121 (VIII, Nicomedia), L 2319
27) B5, O05, R09, T01, M09 Exe: `NIK`•¯ RIC 122 (VIII, Nicomedia)
28) B5, O05, R09, T01, M11 Exe: *`SIRM= RIC 106 (VIII, Sirmium), L 1621
29) B5, O05, R09, T01, M11 Exe: *`SIRM¯ RIC 107 (VIII, Sirmium), L 1622
30) B5, O05, R09, T01, M11 Exe: `SIRM= RIC 105 (VIII, Sirmium)
31) B5, O05, R09, T01, M12 Exe: ``SIS¯ RIC 411 (VIII, Siscia)
32) B5, O05, R09, T01, M12 Exe: ``SISC¯ RIC 418 (VIII, Siscia), L 1261
33) B5, O05, R09, T01, M12 Exe: ``SISC= RIC 419 (VIII, Siscia)
34) B5, O05, R09, T01, M13 Exe: `TES`¯ RIC 225 (VIII, Thessalonica), L 1696

 
AE3 Reference(s)

 
35) B3, O07, R03, T11, M05 Exe: •M•/CONS` RIC 140 (VIII, Constantinople)
36) B3, O07, R03, T11, M11 Exe: `SIRM• RIC 70 (VIII, Sirmium)
37) B3, O07, R03, T11, M11 Exe: M/`SIRM• RIC 74 (VIII, Sirmium), L 1611
38) B3, O07, R03, T11, M12 Exe: `SIS RIC 365 (VIII, Siscia), L 1232
39) B3, O07, R03, T11, M12 Exe: M/`SIS- RIC 371 (VIII, Siscia), L 1235
40) B5, O05, R10, T04, M05 Exe: */CON` RIC 160 (VIII, Constantinople)
41) B5, O05, R27, T26, M04 Exe: `CONST RIC 325 (VIII, Arles)
42) B9, O05, R27, T26, M01 Exe: ALE` RIC 90 (VIII, Alexandria), L 2853
43) B9, O05, R27, T26, M02 Exe: SMANT` RIC 219 (VIII, Antioch), L 2643
44) B9, O05, R27, T26, M05 Exe: `CONSP`¯ RIC 166 (VIII, Constantinople)
45) B9, O05, R27, T26, M05 Exe: •CONSP`¯ RIC 167 (VIII, Constantinople)
46) B9, O05, R27, T26, M06 Exe: SMK` RIC 131 (VIII, Cyzicus)
47) B9, O05, R27, T26, M07 Exe: HERACL` RIC 105 (VIII, Heraclea)
48) B9, O05, R27, T26, M07 Exe: HERACL•` RIC 106 (VIII, Heraclea)
49) B9, O05, R27, T26, M09 Exe: NIK` RIC 123 (VIII, Nicomedia)
50) B9, O05, R27, T26, M09 Exe: SMN` RIC 122a (VIII, Nicomedia)
51) B9, O05, R27, T26, M10 Exe: VRB•ROM•` RIC 329 (VIII, Rome), L 695
52) B9, O05, R27, T26, M11 Exe: `SIRM RIC 108 (VIII, Sirmium)
53) B9, O05, R27, T26, M13 Exe: `TES`¯ RIC 227 (VIII, Thessalonica), L 1697

 
AE4

 
54) B3, O04, R10, T04, M06 Exe: SMK` RIC 118 (VIII, Cyzicus)

 
 

Julian II Busts

Julian II Types