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ERIC Table of Contents


Title Page

Introduction

About Roman Coins

Denominations

Coins of Other Ancient Cultures

Identifying Roman Coins

How To Use This Book

Mintmarks

Mint Map

Pricing And Grading

Bibliography

Reference Catalogs Cited

Coin Terms Used

Glossary

Rarity Tables

Index of Rulers

Photography Credits

Additional Web Resources

Imperial Catalog:

AUGUSTUS
LIVA
AGRIPPA
NERO CLAUDIUS DRUSUS
GERMANICUS
AGRIPPINA I
TIBERIUS
DRUSUS
ANTONIA
CALIGULA
CLAUDIUS I
BRITANNICUS
AGRIPPINA II
NERO
GALBA
CLODIUS MACER
OTHO
VITELLIUS
VESPASIAN
DOMITILLA
TITUS
DOMITIAN
DOMITIA
JULIA TITI
NERVA
TRAJAN
PLOTINA
MARCIANA
MATIDIA
HADRIAN
SABINA
AELIUS
ANTONINUS PIUS
FAUSTINA I
MARCUS AURELIUS
FAUSTINA II
LUCIUS VERUS
LUCILLA
COMMODUS
CRISPINA
PERTINAX
DIDIUS JULIANUS
MANLIA SCANTILLA
DIDIA CLARA
PESCENNIUS NIGER
CLODIUS ALBINUS
SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS
JULIA DOMNA
CARACALLA
PLAUTILLA
GETA
MACRINUS
DIADUMENIAN
ELAGABALUS
JULIA MAESA
JULIA SOAEMIAS
JULIA PAULA
AQUILIA SEVERA
ANNIA FAUSTINA
SEVERUS ALEXANDER
JULIA MAMAEA
ORBIANA
MAXIMINUS I
PAULINA
MAXIMUS
GORDIAN I
GORDIAN II
BALBINUS
PUPIENUS
GORDIAN III
TRANQUILLINA
PHILIP I
OTACILIA SEVERA
PHILIP II
PACATIAN
JOTAPIAN
TRAJAN DECIUS
HERENNIA ETRUSCILLA
HERENNIUS ETRUSCUS
HOSTILIAN
TREBONIANUS GALLUS
VOLUSIAN
AEMILIAN
CORNELIA SUPERA
SILBANNACUS
URANIUS ANTONINUS
VALERIAN I
MARINIANA
VALERIAN II
GALLIENUS
SALONINA
SALONINUS
REGALIANUS
DRYANTILLA
POSTUMUS
LAELIANUS
MARIUS
VICTORINUS
DOMITIAN II
TETRICUS I
TETRICUS II
QUIETUS
MACRIANUS
CLAUDIUS II
QUINTILLUS
AURELIAN
SEVERINA
ZENOBIA
VABALATHUS
TACITUS
FLORIAN
PROBUS
SATURNINUS
CARUS
CARINUS
MAGNIA URBICA
NIGRIAN
NUMERIAN
JULIAN I
DIOCLETIAN
MAXIMIAN
CARAUSIUS
ALLECTUS
DOMITIUS DOMITIANUS
CONSTANTIUS I
THEODORA
GALERIUS
GALERIA VALERIA
SEVERUS II
MAXENTIUS
ROMULUS
CONSTANTINE I
HELENA
FAUSTA
ALEXANDER
LICINIUS I
CONSTANTIA
MAXIMINUS II
LICINIUS II
CRISPUS
VALERIUS VALENS
MARTINIAN
CONSTANTINE II
DELMATIUS
HANNIBALLIANUS
CONSTANS
CONSTANTIUS II
MAGNENTIUS
DECENTIUS
NEPOTIAN
VETRANO
CONSTANTIUS GALLUS
JULIAN II
JOVIAN
VALENTINIAN I
VALENS
PROCOPIUS
GRATIAN
VALENTINIAN II
THEODOSIUS I
AELIA FLACCILLA
MAGNUS MAXIMINUS
FLAVIUS VICTOR
EUGENIUS
HONORIUS
CONSTANTINE III
CONSTANS II
MAXIMINUS
PRISCUS ATTALUS
JOVINUS
SABASTIANUS
CONSTANTIUS III
GALLA PLACIDIA
JOHANNES
VALENTINIAN III
LICINIA EUDOXIA
HONORIA
PETRONIUS MAXIMINUS
AVITUS
MAJORIAN
LIBIUS SEVERUS
ANTHEMIUS
EUPHEMIA
ANICIUS OLYBRIUS
GLYCERIUS
JULIUS NEPOS
ROMULUS AUGUSTUS
ARCADIUS
EUDOXIA
PULCHERIA
THEODOSIUS II
EUDOCIA
MARCIAN
LEO I
VERINA
LEO II
ZENO
ARIADNE
BASILISCUS
ZENONIS
LEONTIUS I
ANASTASIUS I
ANONYMOUS COINAGE

ERIC The Encyclopedia of Roman Imperial Coins
by Rasiel Suarez


Honorius

Augustus 394-423

Honorius was born to Theodosius and Aelia Flaccilla in 384 and inherited the western part of the empire on his father's death (with the eastern half going to his elder brother Arcadius). During his lifetime Honorius witnessed wave after wave of barbarian invasions, each one more devastating than the previous one. In 404 he moved the imperial palace to a fortress in Ravenna. On cue, Rome was then sacked in 410 by the barbarian forces under the command of Alaric; a first in over 800 years. The Vandals would seize Northern Africa (Italy's bread basket) and various usurpers, most importantly Constantine III, sliced off huge sections of what remained of the Western empire for themselves. In the face of all these military and political catastrophes, Honorius was helpless and he never personally led any armies to counter the invasions and revolts. Still, against all odds, he managed to somewhat stabilize his dwindling domains by diplomatic means with the barbarians and by military action with the help of Constantius III against the usurpers. But he died in 423 leaving the empire significantly weaker and much smaller than when he became emperor.

During the reign of Honorius Roman coinage begins its final artistic slide. Already for over the last hundred years portraiture engraving had stopped the realistic representation of the emperor‟s facial features. Instead, these portraits were now mere effigies frozen in time regardless of the emperor‟s age. In fact, they all begin to look identical from emperor to emperor with the only thing changing being what‟s written between the DN and the PF AVG. 
 
In the fifth century the engraving artistry not only stops concerning itself with realistic portraiture but with everything else as well. Thus the designs become ever more abstract. Epigraphy, too, is another casualty of carelessness. Finally, the coins themselves are made on ever smaller and thinner modules made of increasingly cheaper alloys. The gold denominations, while suffering all the above faults in terms of artistic merit and overall craftsmanship, hold on meticulously to their customary weights and fineness because, being the army‟s pay, the life of the emperor himself depended on it.
 
Blessed with a long if troubled reign, Honorius appears frequently and cheaply in the bronzes. These are by and large of the late fourth century. With the start of the fifth these too mostly disappear from the radar and those that are left in attributable condition are the small AE4 class which often measure no more than 7-10mm across and often smaller. Siliquae are not rare but are typically found heavily clipped making certain attribution difficult or impossible. And then there are the gold Solidi and Tremisses which while not exactly plentiful are always available. The Solidus is the more common of the two and a typical specimen usually goes for between $400-$600.

Busts:

 
1) Diademed (pearls), draped and cuirassed bust left
2) Diademed (pearls), draped and cuirassed bust right
3) Diademed (rosettes), draped and cuirassed bust right
4) Diademed bust left wearing consular robes, holding mappa and scepter with eagle atop
5) Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, raising hand and holding Victory on globe
6) Helmeted, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
7) Helmeted, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust facing holding spear and shield
8) Helmeted, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust facing holding spear over shoulder and spear

 

Obverses:


 
1) DN HONORI AVG
2) DN HONORIIVS PF AVG
3) DN HONORIVS PF AVG
4) DN ONORIVS PF AVG
5) HONORIO AVGVSTO

 

Reverses:

 
1) ADVENTVS FN AVG
2) CONCORDIA AVG
3) CONCORDIA AVGG
4) CONCORDIA AVGGG
5) CONCORDIA NVGGG
6) CONCORIA AVGG
7) GLORIA ROMANORVM
8) REPARATIO REIPVBL
9) SALVS REIPVBLICAE
10) TRIVMFATOR GENT BARB
11) VICTORIA AAVGGG
12) VICTORIA AVGG
13) VICTORIA AVGGG
14) VICTORIA AVGVSTORVM
15) VICTORIA ROMANORVM
16) VIRTVS EXERCITI
17) VIRTVS EXERCITVM
18) VIRTVS EXERCITVS
19) VIRTVS ROMANORVM
20) VOT / V / MVLT / X
21) VOT / X / MVLT / XX
22) VOT XX MVLT XXX
23) VOT XXX MVLT XXXX
24) VOTA PVBLICA
25) VRBS ROMA
26) VRBS ROMA FELIX
27) No legend

Types:

 
1) Constantinopolis seated, facing, stepping on galley prow, holding scepter and Victory on globe
2) Constantinopolis seated, facing, stepping on galley prow, holding scepter and shield reading XX/ VOT / XXX
3) Cross
4) Honorius and Arcadius seated, facing, each holding a mappa and scepter with eagle atop; palm between them.
5) Honorius and Arcadius standing, facing, each holding a scepter and resting hand on shield.
6) Honorius riding horse right, raising hand.
7) Honorius riding six-horse chariot, oncoming, raising hand and holding globe
8) Honorius seated, facing, holding mappa and scepter with eagle atop.
9) Honorius standing left, holding scepter and resting hand on shield; being crowned by Victory to right, holding palm
10) Honorius standing left, holding Victory on globe and labarum
11) Honorius standing right, dragging captive and raising hand; kneeling captive to right
12) Honorius standing right, stepping on captive, holding labarum and Victory on globe
13) Honorius standing right, stepping on captive, holding vexillum reading VOT / X and shield reading MVL / XX
14) Honorius standing, facing, holding labarum and globe
15) Honorius standing, facing, holding labarum and globe; kneeling captive to left
16) Honorius standing, facing, holding spear and resting hand on shield.
17) Honorius standing, facing, raising hand and holding globe
18) Honorius standing, facing, stepping on lion, holding scepter with christogram atop and parazonium, being crowned by Hand of God
19) Honorius, Theodosius II and Arcadius standing, facing, each holding a scepter
20) Roma and Constantinopolis seated, facing each other, together holding shield reading VOT / XXX / MVLT / XXXX; palm between them.
21) Roma seated left, holding Victory on globe and spear.
22) Roma seated, facing, holding globe and spear
23) Roma seated, facing, holding Victory on globe and spear
24) Roma standing, facing, holding trophy and Victory; shield to right
25) Victory advancing forward, holding wreath and globe
26) Victory advancing left, holding trophy and dragging captive.
27) Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm.
28) Victory advancing right, holding wreath and cross on globe.
29) Victory seated right, holding shield reading VOT / V / MVLT / X; Genius to lower right also holding shield.
30) Victory seated right, holding shield reading VOT / X / MVLT / XX
31) Victory seated right, holding shield reading VOT / X / MVLT / XX; Genius to lower right also holding shield.
32) Victory seated right, holding shield reading VOT / XX / MVLT / XXX; Genius to lower right also holding shield.
33) Victory seated right, holding shield reading VOT / XXX / MVLT / XXXX; Genius to lower right also holding shield.
34) Victory seated right, holding shield reading XV / XX
35) Victory seated right, holding shield reading XX / XXX
36) Victory standing left, holding cross
37) Wreath, VOT / V / MVLT / X within
38) Wreath, VOT / X / MVLT / XV within
39) Wreath, VOT / X / MVLT / XX within
40) Wreath, VOT / XV / MVLT / XX within

 

Mints:

 
1) Alexandria
2) Antioch
3) Aquileia
4) Arelate
5) Constantinopolis
6) Cyzicus
7) Heraclea
8) Lugdunum
9) Mediolanum
10) Nicomedia
11) Ravenna
12) Roma
13) Sirmium
14) Thessalonica

 
 
AU Solidus Reference(s)

 
1) B2, O3, R13, T12, M11 Exe: R/V/COMOB RIC 1287 (X, Honorius)
2) B2, O3, R13, T12, M12 Exe: R/M/COMOB RIC 1252 (X, Honorius)
3) B2, O3, R13, T12, M09 Exe: M/D/COMOB  RIC 1206 (X, Honorius)
4) B2, O3, R13, T12, M13 Exe: S/M/COMOB RIC 2 (X, Arcadius)
5) B6, O3, R13, T18, M11 Exe: R/V/COB  RIC 1310 (X, Honorius)
6) B7, O3, R27, T20, M11 Exe: R/V/COMOB  RIC 1332 (X, Honorius)
7) B8, O3, R03, T01, M05 Exe: */CONOB
8) B8, O3, R03, T01, M05 Exe: */CONOB Officina at end of reverse legend RIC 8 (X, Arcadius)
9) B8, O3, R03, T01, M14 Exe: */COMOB  RIC 348 (X, Theodosius II)
10) B8, O3, R03, T01, M14 Exe: */TESOB  RIC 359 (X, Theodosius II)
11) B8, O3, R03, T01, M14 Exe: COMOB  RIC 38 (X, Arcadius)
12) B8, O3, R04, T01, M05 Exe: CONOB Officina at end of reverse legend RIC 24 (X, Arcadius)

 
AU Semissis

 
13) B2, O3, R14, T31, M11 Exe: R/V/COMOB RIC 1334 (X, Honorius)

 
AU Tremissis

 
14) B2, O3, R14, T28, M09 Exe: M/D/COMOB RIC 1215 (X, Honorius)
15) B2, O3, R14, T28, M11 Exe: R/V/COMOB RIC 1289 (X, Honorius)

 
AR Miliarense

 
16) B1, O3, R07, T17, M05 Exe: */CON RIC 369 (X, Theodosius II)

 
AR Siliqua

 
17) B2, O3, R13, T27, M09 Exe: MD RIC 1234 (X, Honorius)
18) B2, O3, R19, T21, M09 Exe: MDPS RIC 32d (IX, Mediolanum)
19) B2, O3, R19, T21, M12 Exe: RMPS RIC 1267 (X, Honorius)

 
AE2

 
20) B2, O3, R07, T14, M02 Exe: ANT` RIC 68e (IX, Antioch), L 2784
21) B2, O3, R07, T14, M06 Exe: SMK` RIC 28c (IX, Cyzicus)
22) B2, O3, R07, T14, M07 Exe: SMH` RIC 27c (IX, Heraclea), L 1988
23) B2, O3, R07, T14, M10 Exe: SMN` RIC 46c (IX, Nicomedia)
24) B2, O3, R07, T15, M05 Exe: CONS` RIC 88c (IX, Constantinopolis)

AE3 Reference(s)

 
25) B2, O3, R07, T05, M05 Exe: CONS` * behind bust RIC 399 (X, Theodosius II), L 2223
26) B2, O3, R07, T05, M14 Exe: TES` * behind bust RIC 395 (X, Theodosius II), L 1876
27) B2, O3, R07, T06, M02 Exe: ANT` RIC 69e (IX, Antiochia)
28) B2, O3, R07, T11, M12 Exe: SMR` RIC 1357 (X, Honorius), L 827
29) B2, O3, R07, T19, M02 Exe: ANT` * behind bust RIC 153 (X, Arcadius), L 2802
30) B2, O3, R07, T19, M06 Exe: SMK` * behind bust RIC 149 (X, Arcadius), L 2591
31) B2, O3, R16, T09, M01 Exe: ALE` RIC 76 (X, Arcadius), L 2913
32) B2, O3, R16, T09, M02 Exe: ANT` RIC 72 (X, Arcadius), L 2793
33) B2, O3, R16, T09, M05 Exe: CONS` RIC 61c (IX, Constantinopolis), L 2206
34) B2, O3, R16, T09, M05 Exe: SMK` RIC 68 (X, Arcadius)
35) B2, O3, R16, T09, M10 Exe: SMN` RIC 63 (X, Arcadius)
36) B8, O3, R03, T01, M05 Exe: CONS` RIC 87 (X, Arcadius)

 
AE4

 
37) B2, O3, R07, T05, M06 Exe: SMK` * behind bust RIC 403 (X, Theodosius II), L 2598
38) B2, O3, R09, T26, M03 Exe: AQ` RIC 1238 (X, Honorius), L 1113

 

Honorius Busts

Honorius Types