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ERIC Table of Contents


Title Page

Introduction

About Roman Coins

Denominations

Coins of Other Ancient Cultures

Identifying Roman Coins

How To Use This Book

Mintmarks

Mint Map

Pricing And Grading

Bibliography

Reference Catalogs Cited

Coin Terms Used

Glossary

Rarity Tables

Index of Rulers

Photography Credits

Additional Web Resources

Imperial Catalog:

AUGUSTUS
LIVA
AGRIPPA
NERO CLAUDIUS DRUSUS
GERMANICUS
AGRIPPINA I
TIBERIUS
DRUSUS
ANTONIA
CALIGULA
CLAUDIUS I
BRITANNICUS
AGRIPPINA II
NERO
GALBA
CLODIUS MACER
OTHO
VITELLIUS
VESPASIAN
DOMITILLA
TITUS
DOMITIAN
DOMITIA
JULIA TITI
NERVA
TRAJAN
PLOTINA
MARCIANA
MATIDIA
HADRIAN
SABINA
AELIUS
ANTONINUS PIUS
FAUSTINA I
MARCUS AURELIUS
FAUSTINA II
LUCIUS VERUS
LUCILLA
COMMODUS
CRISPINA
PERTINAX
DIDIUS JULIANUS
MANLIA SCANTILLA
DIDIA CLARA
PESCENNIUS NIGER
CLODIUS ALBINUS
SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS
JULIA DOMNA
CARACALLA
PLAUTILLA
GETA
MACRINUS
DIADUMENIAN
ELAGABALUS
JULIA MAESA
JULIA SOAEMIAS
JULIA PAULA
AQUILIA SEVERA
ANNIA FAUSTINA
SEVERUS ALEXANDER
JULIA MAMAEA
ORBIANA
MAXIMINUS I
PAULINA
MAXIMUS
GORDIAN I
GORDIAN II
BALBINUS
PUPIENUS
GORDIAN III
TRANQUILLINA
PHILIP I
OTACILIA SEVERA
PHILIP II
PACATIAN
JOTAPIAN
TRAJAN DECIUS
HERENNIA ETRUSCILLA
HERENNIUS ETRUSCUS
HOSTILIAN
TREBONIANUS GALLUS
VOLUSIAN
AEMILIAN
CORNELIA SUPERA
SILBANNACUS
URANIUS ANTONINUS
VALERIAN I
MARINIANA
VALERIAN II
GALLIENUS
SALONINA
SALONINUS
REGALIANUS
DRYANTILLA
POSTUMUS
LAELIANUS
MARIUS
VICTORINUS
DOMITIAN II
TETRICUS I
TETRICUS II
QUIETUS
MACRIANUS
CLAUDIUS II
QUINTILLUS
AURELIAN
SEVERINA
ZENOBIA
VABALATHUS
TACITUS
FLORIAN
PROBUS
SATURNINUS
CARUS
CARINUS
MAGNIA URBICA
NIGRIAN
NUMERIAN
JULIAN I
DIOCLETIAN
MAXIMIAN
CARAUSIUS
ALLECTUS
DOMITIUS DOMITIANUS
CONSTANTIUS I
THEODORA
GALERIUS
GALERIA VALERIA
SEVERUS II
MAXENTIUS
ROMULUS
CONSTANTINE I
HELENA
FAUSTA
ALEXANDER
LICINIUS I
CONSTANTIA
MAXIMINUS II
LICINIUS II
CRISPUS
VALERIUS VALENS
MARTINIAN
CONSTANTINE II
DELMATIUS
HANNIBALLIANUS
CONSTANS
CONSTANTIUS II
MAGNENTIUS
DECENTIUS
NEPOTIAN
VETRANO
CONSTANTIUS GALLUS
JULIAN II
JOVIAN
VALENTINIAN I
VALENS
PROCOPIUS
GRATIAN
VALENTINIAN II
THEODOSIUS I
AELIA FLACCILLA
MAGNUS MAXIMINUS
FLAVIUS VICTOR
EUGENIUS
HONORIUS
CONSTANTINE III
CONSTANS II
MAXIMINUS
PRISCUS ATTALUS
JOVINUS
SABASTIANUS
CONSTANTIUS III
GALLA PLACIDIA
JOHANNES
VALENTINIAN III
LICINIA EUDOXIA
HONORIA
PETRONIUS MAXIMINUS
AVITUS
MAJORIAN
LIBIUS SEVERUS
ANTHEMIUS
EUPHEMIA
ANICIUS OLYBRIUS
GLYCERIUS
JULIUS NEPOS
ROMULUS AUGUSTUS
ARCADIUS
EUDOXIA
PULCHERIA
THEODOSIUS II
EUDOCIA
MARCIAN
LEO I
VERINA
LEO II
ZENO
ARIADNE
BASILISCUS
ZENONIS
LEONTIUS I
ANASTASIUS I
ANONYMOUS COINAGE

ERIC The Encyclopedia of Roman Imperial Coins
by Rasiel Suarez


Caracalla 

   Augustus 197-217 

Caracalla's real name was Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. He got the nickname from his habit of wearing a cloak by the same name. Caracalla was the elder son of Septimius Severus and brother of Geta whom he positively hated. Hated so much, in fact, that he had him murdered a few years later. In the mayhem that followed, Caracalla's men went on a killing spree of anyone suspected of being a Geta sympathizer. In the massacre, it's estimated up to 20,000 people lost their lives. Caracalla would go on to rule for another five years but his bad karma caught up with him and he was assassinated in a plot perpetrated by Macrinus
As an emperor Caracalla possessed few redeeming qualities and among the worst of them would be his ruinous drain on the treasury. Because he knew everyone hated him he sought the protection of the army. And the surest way of getting this protection was to buy it outright. He raised the pay of the solider to about four denarii per day, nearly quadrupling the salary of just a few years prior. And on top of their regular salary he heaped endless bonuses and other concessions meant to endear them. This money could only have come by the oppressive taxation of ordinary citizens as well as the seizures of property of the wealthy under trumped-up charges. This not only intensified the hatred against him but also had the effect of corrupting the military who had become accustomed to this life of luxury and throwing the economy into lasting disarray. 
 
As is the case with the coins of his parents, Caracalla is also very well represented in the silver Denarius but pretty scarce in the copper denominations. These Denarii today can cost as little as $20 for a well-preserved one. 
 
Sometime after his Dad had died Ė and had his brother murdered Ė Caracallaís economists presented him with a grim picture that must have sent shivers down his spine. Basically, his silver mines were shutting down and the inbound treasure from all corners of the empire was dwindling. At the same time his soldiers were getting ever more used to fat paychecks in turn for their loyalty. 
 
Something had to be done. The scheme he (they?) came up with was a classic inflationary swindle. They would create a new coin, the Antoninianus, worth twice as much as the Denarius but with a small catch: it was to contain only 80% of the silver of two regular Denarii. This was great business for the imperial treasury which could now turn a tidy profit if it could pay its debts in Ants but demand that taxes be paid in Denarii
 
Why this plan didnít kick off a massive civil war is left to speculation. Probably because it wasnít introduced cold turkey and on a massive scale. Indeed, his Antoniniani are quite a bit harder to find than the Denarius and it wouldnít be until another twenty years later that the new denomination caught on and the venerable Denarius retired.  

Busts:

1) Bare head right 
2) Bare-headed, draped and cuirassed right 
3) Bare-headed, draped bust right 
4) Laureate head left. 
5) Laureate head right 
6) Laureate, cuirassed bust right 
7) Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left 
8) Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right 
9) Laureate, draped bust left 
10) Laureate, draped bust right 
11) Radiate head right 
12) Radiate, cuirassed bust left 
13) Radiate, cuirassed bust right 
14) Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust left 
15) Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right 
16) Radiate, draped bust left 
17) Radiate, draped bust right 

 

Obverses: 

 
1) ANT PIVS AVG PON TR P VI 
2) ANTON P AVG PON TR P IV COS 
3) ANTON P AVG PON TR P
4) ANTON P AVG PON TR P V COS 
5) ANTON P AVG PON TR P VI 
6) ANTON P AVG PON TR P VI COS 
7) ANTON P AVG PONT TR P VI 
8) ANTON PIVS AVG PON TR P VI 
9) ANTONIN PIVS AVG PONT TR P
10) ANTONINVS AVG PON TR P V COS 
11) ANTONINVS AVG PONT TR P III 
12) ANTONINVS AVG PONT TR P IIII 
13) ANTONINVS AVG PONT TR P V COS 
14) ANTONINVS AVGVSTV 
15) ANTONINVS AVGVSTVS 
16) ANTONINVS PI AVG BRIT 
17) ANTONINVS PI AVGV BRIT 
18) ANTONINVS PIVS AVG 
21) ANTONINVS PIVS AVG PON TR P IIII 
22) ANTONINVS PIVS AVG PON TR P
23) ANTONINVS PIVS AVG PONT TR P IIII 
24) ANTONINVS PIVS AVG PONT TR P VI 
25) ANTONINVS PIVS AVG PONT TR P VII 
27) DIVO ANTONINO MAGNO 
28) IM C M AVR ANTONINVS AVG 
29) IMP C M AVR ANTON AVG P TR P 
30) IMP C M AVR ANTONINVS AVG 
31) IMP C M AVR ANTONINVS PONT AVG 
32) IMP CAE M AVR ANT AVG 
33) IMP CAE M AVR ANT AVG P TR P 
34) IMP CAE M AVR ANT AVG P TR P II 
35) IMP CAES M AVR ANTON AVG 
36) IMP CAES M AVR ANTONINVS AVG 
37) IMP M AVR ANTONINVS PIVS AVG PM TR P XIII 
38) M AVR ANTON CAES PONTIF 
39) M AVR ANTONINVS CAES 
41) M AVR ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM MAX 
43) M AVREL ANTONINVS PIVS AVG 
44) M AVREL ANTONINVS PIVS AVG BRIT 
45) M AVREL ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM 
46) M AVREL ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM MAX 
47) M AVREL ANTONINVS PIVS FELIX AVG 
48) M AVRELIVS ANTON AVG 

Reverses: 

 
1) ADVENT AVGG 
2) ADVENTVI AVG 
6) AEQVITATI PVBLICAE 
7) AETERNIT IMPERI 
9) ARCVS AVGG 
12) CERERI FRVGIS 
13) CONCORDIA 
18) CONCORDIAE AVGG 
20) COS II 
21) COS III 
22) COS III PP 
23) COS IIII PP 
24) COS LVD SAECVL FEC 
27) DI PATRII 
28) FELICIA / TEMPORA 
29) FELICITAS 
33) FELICITAS TEMPOR 
34) FELICITATEM PVBLICAM 
35) FIDEI EXERCITVS 
37) FORT RED PM TR P XIIII COS III PP 
39) FORTVNAE FELICI 
42) IMP ET CAESAR AVG FILI COS 
44) INDVL FECVNDAE 
46) INDVLGENTIAE AVG 
50) IVSTITIA 
53) LAETITIA / TEMPORVM 
55) LIBERAL AVG VIIII 
57) LIBERALITAS AVG IIII 
60) LIBERALITAS AVG VII 
64) LIBERALITAS AVGG IIII 
66) LIBERALITAS AVGG VI 
67) LIBERALITAS AVGVS 
71) MARTI PACATORI 
78) NOBILITAS 
79) P MAX TR P III 
80) P MAX TR P IIII COS 
81) P SEPT GETA CAES PONT 
83) PACI AETERNAE 
84) PART MAX PM TR P VIIII 
85) PART MAX PM TR P
86) PART MAX PON TR P V COS 
87) PART MAX PONT TR P IIII 
88) PART MAX PONT TR P
89) PIETAS 
90) PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA 
91) PLAVTILLAE AVGVSTAE 
92) PM TR P VIII COS II PP 
93) PM TR P XIIII COS III PP 
94) PM TR P XIIII COS III PP FORT RED 
95) PM TR P XV COS III PP 
96) PM TR P XV COS III PP IOV VIC 
97) PM TR P XV COS IIII PP 
98) PM TR P XVI COS IIII PP 
99) PM TR P XVI IMP II  
100) PM TR P XVII COS III PP 
101) PM TR P XVII COS IIII PP 
102) PM TR P XVII IMP III COS IIII PP 
103) PM TR P XVIII COS IIII PP 
104) PM TR P XVIII IMP III COS IIII PP 
105) PM TR P XVIIII COS IIII PP 
106) PM TR P XX COS IIII PP 
107) PM TR P XX IMP III COS IIII PP 
108) PONT TR P II 
109) PONT TR P VI COS 
110) PONTIF TR P II 
111) PONTIF TR P III 
112) PONTIF TR P IIII 
113) PONTIF TR P VI COS 
114) PONTIF TR P VII COS 
115) PONTIF TR P VIII COS II 
116) PONTIF TR P VIIII COS II 
117) PONTIF TR P
118) PONTIF TR P X COS II 
119) PONTIF TR P XI 
120) PONTIF TR P XI COS III 
121) PONTIF TR P XII COS III 
122) PONTIF TR P XIII COS III 
123) PONTIF TR P XIIII COS III 
124) PONTIFEX TR P II 
125) PONTIFEX TR P III 
127) PRINC IVVENT 
128) PRINC IVVENTVTIS 
129) PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS 
130) PROF AVG PONT M TR P XIX 
131) PROF AVGG PONTIF TR P XI COS III 
132) PROF AVGG PONTIF TR P XII 
133) PROF AVGG PONTIF TR P XII COS III 
134) PROF PONTIF TR P XI COS III 
138) PROVIDENTIAE DEORVM 
140) RECTORI ORBIS 
144) SACRA SAECVLARIA 
147) SALVS ANTONINI AVG 
148) SECVRIT IMPERI 
149) SECVRIT ORBIS 
153) SECVRITATI BRITTANNICAE 
154) SECVRITATI PERPETVAE 
155) SEVERI AVG P II FIL 
156) SEVERI P II AVG FIL 
157) SOSPITATORI 
160) TRAIECTVS PONTIF TR P XI COS III 
163) VIC PART PM TR P XX COS IIII PP 
165) VICT AETERNAE 
166) VICT BRIT PM TR P XIIII COS III 
167) VICT PART MAX 
177) VICTORIAE 
178) VICTORIAE / AVGG 
181) VICTORIAE BRITTANICAE 
182) VICTORIAE PARTHICA 
183) VICTORIAE PARTHICAE 
184) VIRT AVGG 
186) VIRTVS AVGG PONT TR P IIII 
189) VOT SOL DEC PONTIF TR P XI COS III 
190) VOT SVSC DEC PON TR P V COS 
192) VOTA SOLVT DEC 
196) No legend 

 

Types: 

 
1) Aesculapius standing, facing, holding wand with snake around it; globe to right. 
2) Aesculapius standing, facing, holding wand with serpent wound around it; Telesphorus to left, globe to right. 
3) Aesculapius standing, facing, holding wand with serpent wound around it; Telesphorus to left. 
4) Annona seated left, holding grain ears over modius and cornucopia
5) Annona standing left, holding grain ears over modius and cornucopia
6) Apollo seated left, holding branch and resting arm on lyre
7) Apollo seated right, resting arm on lyre and holding branch 
8) Apollo standing left, holding branch and lyre on column 
9) Apollo standing left, holding branch and spear. 
10) Bridge with two soldiers, boats passing under. 
11) Caracalla and Geta seated left on platform, accompanied by Liberalitas and; citizen to lower left 
12) Caracalla and Geta standing, facing each other, sacrificing over altar; three soldiers holding standards and seated captive in background 
13) Caracalla and Geta standing, facing, together holding Victory 
14) Caracalla and Septimius Severus sacrificing over altar; Concordia behind them, musicians on either side, temple in background. 
15) Caracalla and Septimius Severus seated right; attendant behind, citizen in front. 
16) Caracalla laureate, draped bust right facing Geta bare-headed draped bust left. 
17) Caracalla riding horse left over enemy 
18) Caracalla riding horse left, holding spear 
19) Caracalla riding horse left, raising hand and holding spear 
20) Caracalla riding horse left, spearing enemy 
21) Caracalla riding horse right, holding spear 
22) Caracalla riding horse right, holding spear; captive to right 
23) Caracalla riding horse right, holding spear; soldier to right 
24) Caracalla riding horse right, holding spear; soldier to right and another to left 
25) Caracalla riding horse right, holding spear; soldier to right and two to left 
26) Caracalla riding horse right, spearing enemy 
27) Caracalla riding quadriga left, holding scepter with eagle atop. 
28) Caracalla riding quadriga right, being crowned by Victory 
29) Caracalla riding quadriga right, holding scepter with eagle atop. 
30) Caracalla riding rearing horse right, holding spear. 
31) Caracalla seated left, accompanied by lictor to right and Liberalitas to left, holding coin counter and cornucopia; citizen to lower left 
32) Caracalla seated left, holding scepter, facing Aequitas standing to left, holding scale and cornucopia
33) Caracalla seated left, sacrificing over altar and holding scepter 
34) Caracalla standing left on right, shaking hands with Plautilla to left 
35) Caracalla standing left on right, stepping on crocodile, holding scepter, receiving grain ears from Isis to left, holding sistrum
36) Caracalla standing left, holding branch and scepter
37) Caracalla standing left, holding branch and scepter; trophy with shield at base to right 
38) Caracalla standing left, holding branch. 
39) Caracalla standing left, holding globe and scepter, being crowned by Victory to right; seated captive to left 
40) Caracalla standing left, holding parazonium and spear; seated captive to left 
41) Caracalla standing left, holding Victory and spear 
42) Caracalla standing left, holding Victory and spear; seated captive on either side 
43) Caracalla standing left, holding Victory and spear; Victory crowning him. 
44) Caracalla standing left, holding Victory on globe and spear; seated captive to left 
45) Caracalla standing left, holding Victory on globe with wreath and spear; seated captive to lower left. 
46) Caracalla standing left, holding wand and spear; trophy to right. 
47) Caracalla standing left, sacrificing over altar 
48) Caracalla standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding scepter 
49) Caracalla standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding scepter; bull behind altar 
50) Caracalla standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding spear; Aesculapius and child to left in temple with four columns and witness to right 
51) Caracalla standing left, sacrificing over altar in front of temple of Vesta; two Vestals to left and two witnesses and child to right 
52) Caracalla standing left, sacrificing over altar, facing victimarius with bull to left and musician in center background 
53) Caracalla standing left, stepping on captive, holding parazonium and spear 
54) Caracalla standing left, stepping on crocodile, holding scepter and receiving corn ears from Isis to left, holding sistrum 
55) Caracalla standing left, touching trophy with seated captive on either side of its base. 
56) Caracalla standing right on left, holding spear, being crowned by Victory, shaking hands with Geta to right, holding scepter, being browned by Hercules 
57) Caracalla standing right on left, sacrificing over altar, facing Geta to right, holding scepter; musician in center background. 
58) Caracalla standing right on left, sacrificing over altar, facing victimarius with bull to right; musician in center background 
59) Caracalla standing right on left, shaking hands with Geta to right. 
60) Caracalla standing right on left, shaking hands with Plautilla on right; Concordia between them. 
61) Caracalla standing right on left, shaking hands with Plautilla to right. 
62) Caracalla standing right on platform, accompanied by two lictors, facing soldiers to right 
63) Caracalla standing right, holding spear; soldier holding standard to left. 
64) Caracalla standing right, holding spear; two standards to left. 
65) Caracalla standing, facing, holding spear and parazonium; river god to left, another two lying down to right. 
66) Caracalla, Septimius Severus and Geta each riding horse left, raising hand. 
67) Caracalla, Septimius Severus and Geta seated left with Liberalitas in front, soldier behind and citizen on steps to lower left. 
68) Caracalla, Septimius Severus and Geta seated on platform accompanied by two lictors 
69) Caracalla, Septimius Severus and Geta seated right, accompanied by lictor; citizen to lower right 
70) Caracalla, Septimius Severus and Geta seated, facing, on platform 
71) Ceres seated left, holding grain ears and torch 
72) Circus Maximus: birdís eye view of galley and animals within. 
73) Circus Maximus: birdís eye view of structure within, obelisk and chariots 
74) Concordia seated left, holding patera and two cornucopiae 
75) Concordia standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding two cornucopiae 
76) Dea Caelestis riding lion right over flowing water, holding thunderbolt and scepter 
77) Eagle standing left on altar 
78) Eagle standing left on globe 
79) Eagle standing left on vexillum; standard on either side 
80) Elephant advancing left 
81) Elephant advancing right 
82) Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and baby. 
83) Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia 
84) Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and scepter 
85) Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus
86) Fides standing left, holding standard in each hand 
87) Fides standing left, holding standard in each hand; another standard to right. 
88) Fides standing left, standard on either side
89) Fides standing, facing, holding grain ears and fruit basket 
90) Fides standing right, holding grain ears and fruit basket 
91) Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia; wheel under chair 
92) Fortuna standing left, leaning on column, holding cornucopia
93) Fortuna standing left, leaning on column, holding cornucopia; wheel to left 
94) Fortuna standing left, holding cornucopia and rudder. 
95) Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia 
96) Four Seasons frolicking. 
97) Galley sailing left 
98) Galley sailing left; animals below and four quadrigae above 
99) Galley sailing right 
100) Genius standing left, holding branch 
101) Genius standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding grain ears. 
102) Geta bare headed draped and cuirassed bust right 
103) Hercules seated at table with companions and servants 
104) Hercules standing left, holding branch and club with lion skin 
105) Indulgentia seated left, holding patera and scepter
106) Indulgentia seated left, raising hand and holding scepter
107) Italia seated left on globe, holding cornucopia and scepter
108) Jupiter seated left, holding patera and scepter 
109) Jupiter seated left, holding patera and scepter; eagle to left 
110) Jupiter seated left, holding Victory and scepter; eagle to left. 
111) Jupiter standing right, holding thunderbolt and scepter 
112) Jupiter standing, facing, holding thunderbolt and scepter 
113) Jupiter standing, facing, holding thunderbolt and scepter; eagle to left 
114) Jupiter standing, facing, holding thunderbolt and scepter; eagle to left and two standards to right 
115) Justitia seated left, holding globe. 
116) Justitia seated left, holding patera and scepter
117) Liber standing right on left, holding cup over panther and thrysus, facing four leopards to right 
118) Liber standing right on left, holding cup over panther and thrysus, facing Hercules to right; holding club and lion skin 
119) Liber standing right on left, holding cup over panther and thrysus, facing Hercules to right, holding club and lion skin; cippus reading COS / LVD / SAEC / FEC in between 
120) Liberalitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia
121) Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopia
122) Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopia; globe to left 
123) Libertas standing left, holding pileus and cornucopia
124) Libertas standing left, holding pileus and scepter
125) Lion advancing left, holding thunderbolt in mouth 
126) Lion leaping left, holding thunderbolt in mouth 
127) Luna riding chariot pulled by two bulls to left 
128) Mars advancing left, holding branch and trophy
129) Mars advancing left, holding spear and trophy
130) Mars advancing right, holding spear and trophy 
131) Mars standing left, holding Victory and spear with shield; seated captive to left. 
132) Mars standing left, resting hand on shield and holding spear 
133) Mars standing left, stepping on helmet, holding branch and spear. 
134) Mars standing right, holding spear and shield
135) Mars standing, facing, holding branch and spear with shield
136) Medusaís head, on aegis
137) Medusaís head, winged 
138) Minerva standing left, holding Victory and spear; shield to left and trophy to right. 
139) Minerva standing left, holding Victory and spear; trophy to right 
140) Minerva standing left, resting hand on shield and holding spear 
141) Moneta standing left, holding scale and cornucopia
142) Monetae (3) standing, facing, each holding a scale; coins piled by their feet. 
143) Nobilitas standing right, holding scepter and Palladium; shield to right 
144) Pax advancing left, holding branch and scepter 
145) Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter 
146) Pietas standing left, raising hand over altar and holding incense box. 
147) Plautilla draped bust right. 
148) Providentia standing left, holding wand over globe and scepter
149) Roma helmeted bust left. 
150) Roma helmeted bust right. 
151) Roma seated left, holding Palladium and spear 
152) Roma seated left, holding spear and Palladium
153) Roma seated left, holding Victory and parazonium 
154) Roma seated left, holding Victory and spear; kneeling captive to left 
155) Roma seated left, holding Victory and spear 
156) Roma standing left, holding Victory and spear 
157) Sacrificial implements: simpulum, cruet, lituus, etc. (variously arranged) 
158) Salus seated left, feeding snake on altar 
159) Salus seated left, feeding snake on altar and holding cornucopia 
160) Salus standing left, holding hand of kneeling citizen and scepter with snake coiled around it. 
161) Securitas seated left, holding globe. 
162) Securitas seated left, holding scepter and resting head on hand 
163) Securitas seated right, resting head on hand and holding palm
164) Securitas seated right, resting head on hand and holding scepter
165) Securitas seated right, resting head on hand and holding scepter; altar to right 
166) Septimius Severus laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right facing Caracalla, laureate draped and cuirassed bust left. 
167) Septimius Severus radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right over Julia Domna draped bust on crescent. 
168) Serapis seated left, raising hand and holding scepter 
169) Serapis seated left, raising hand and holding scepter; Cerberus to left 
170) Serapis standing left, holding unidentified object and scepter 
171) Serapis standing left, raising hand and holding scepter
172) Sol radiate, draped bust right 
173) Sol riding quadriga left, raising hand and holding whip 
174) Sol standing, facing, holding globe and spear. 
175) Sol standing, facing, raising hand and holding globe 
176) Sol standing, facing, raising hand and holding whip 
177) Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising skirt. 
178) Temple with (2) columns, Jupiter standing within, holding thunderbolt and scepter 
179) Temple with (4) columns, Jupiter standing within, holding thunderbolt and scepter 
180) Temple with (6) columns; Roma within in center and outer statues 
181) Triumphal arch 
182) Trophy; seated captive on either side
183) Venus standing left, holding Victory and spear with shield 
184) Venus standing left, holding Victory and spear with shield; captive on either side
185) Vexillae (2), standard on each side
186) Vexillum, standard on each side
187) Victories (2) standing, facing each other, placing shield on palm with seated captive on each side
188) Victory advancing left, holding opened wreath over shield 
189) Victory advancing left, holding trophy; seated captive to left 
190) Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm
191) Victory advancing right, dragging captive and holding trophy
192) Victory advancing right, holding trophy with both hands
193) Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm
194) Victory advancing right, holding wreath and trophy
195) Victory riding biga right. 
196) Victory seated left, holding shield and palm
197) Victory seated right, holding shield placed on altar 
198) Victory seated right, holding shield reading VO / XX 
199) Victory seated right, holding shield reading VO / XX; shield, cuirass and helmet below 
200) Victory seated right, holding shield reading VO / XX; trophy to right with seated captive on either side 
201) Victory seated right, holding shield; shield below 
202) Victory standing left, holding trophy; kneeling captive to left. 
203) Victory standing left, holding trophy; seated captive to left. 
204) Victory standing left, holding trophy; supplicant kneeling to left. 
205) Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm 
206) Victory standing right on galley prow, holding wreath and palm 
207) Victory standing right on left, stepping on helmet, touching trophy to right with seated captive on either side 
208) Victory standing right on left, stepping on helmet, touching trophy to right with seated captive at its base; Britannica standing to right, facing 
209) Victory standing right, stepping on helmet, holding shield on palm 
210) Virtus seated left, holding Victory and parazonium
211) Virtus standing left, holding spear and shield
212) Virtus standing left, holding Victory and spear. 
213) Virtus standing left, stepping on helmet, holding parazonium and spear; trophy to left with seated captive by its base. 
214) Virtus standing right, holding Victory and spear. 
215) Virtus standing right, stepping on helmet, holding spear and parazonium
216) Wreath, IMP CAES M AVREL ANTONINVS AVG PM within 
217) Wreath, IMP CAES M AVREL ANTONINVS AVG within 

 

Mints: 

1) Laodicea ad Mare 

2) Roma 

 
 
AU Aureus Reference(s) 
 
1) B03, O39, R155, T157 RIC IVi 3, BMC 183, C 582 
2) B05, O18, R014, T013 RIC IVi 152 
3) B05, O18, R121, T128 RIC IVi 109a 
4) B05, O18, R178, T195 RIC IVi 170 
5) B05, O18, R180, T196 RIC IVi 174, BMC 519, C 633 
6) B05, O18, R188, T066 
7) B05, O18, R193, T058 RIC IVi 205, BMC 576, C 683 
8) B05, O19, R054, T011 RIC IVi 215c 
9) B05, O19, R093, T005 
10) B05, O19, R097, T110 Exe: IOV VIC RIC IVi 200, BMC 34 
11) B05, O19, R138, T148 RIC IVi 227, C 528 
12) B05, O19, R154, T165 RIC IVi 229, BMC 101, C 575 
13) B06, O19, R099, T029 Exe: COS IIII PP RIC IVi 210, BMC 55, C 232 
14) B06, O20, R106, T173 RIC IVi 294b, BMC 195, C 391 
15) B06, O20, R154, T165 RIC IVi 309a 
16) B07, O20, R101, T051  
17) B07, O20, R103, T054 RIC IVi 257b 
18) B08, O04, R017, T167 RIC IVi 59a 
19) B08, O09, R081, T102  
20) B08, O12, R017, T167 RIC IVi 52, BMC 260, C 1 
21) B08, O15, R081, T102 RIC IVi 38, C 1 
22) B08, O15, R139, T174 RIC IVi 39b, BMC 163, C 541 
23) B08, O15, R183, T189 RIC IVi 253 
24) B08, O18, R053, T098 RIC IVi 133, BMC 263, C 117 
25) B08, O18, R141, T151 
26) B08, O18, R167, T190 RIC IVi 144a, BMC 295, C 660 
27) B08, O20, R102, T169 RIC IVi 242, BMC 96, C 253 
28) B08, O20, R103, T050 RIC IVi 270a, BMC 148, C 317 
29) B08, O20, R105, T125 RIC IVi 283a, C 366 
30) B08, O20, R105, T171 RIC IVi 280a, BMC 164, C 347 
31) B08, O20, R106, T170 RIC IVi 289a, BMC 186 
32) B08, O20, R138, T148 RIC IVi 309b, BMC 76, C 530 
33) B08, O33, R075, T138 RIC IVi 25a 
34) B08, O33, R159, T177 RIC IVi 26b, C 598 
35) B08, O36, R052, T044 RIC IVi 20 
36) B08, O36, R124, T044 RIC IVi 27b, BMC 152, C 405 
37) B10, O18, R115, T133 RIC IVi 80b 

 
 
38) B05, O36, R196, T079  

 
 
39) B12, O20, R103, T111 RIC IVi 258b 
40) B12, O20, R103, T125 RIC IVi 273d, C 322  
41) B12, O20, R103, T171 RIC IVi 263d 
42) B12, O20, R103, T173 RIC IVi 265, S 6773, C 289 
43) B15, O20, R103, T110 RIC IVi 260b, C 277a 
44) B15, O20, R103, T111 RIC IVi 258a, C 279 
45) B15, O20, R103, T126 C 402 
46) B15, O20, R103, T127 RIC IVi 256b, C 294 
47) B15, O20, R103, T171 RIC IVi 263e, C 295 
48) B15, O20, R103, T175 RIC IVi 264c, C 287 
49) B15, O20, R106, T173 RIC IVi 284a 
50) B15, O20, R162, T183 RIC IVi 311d 
51) B15, O20, R162, T184 RIC IVi 312a, C 612 
52) B15, O20, R163, T039 RIC IVi 299d, C 654 
53) B15, O20, R168, T199 RIC IVi 314b 
54) B17, O20, R103, T112 RIC IVi 275b, C 338 
55) B17, O20, R103, T125 RIC IVi 283b, C 368 
56) B17, O20, R103, T127 RIC IVi 274d 
57) B17, O20, R103, T171 RIC IVi 263c, C 295d 
58) B17, O20, R103, T173 
59) B17, O20, R105, T171 RIC IVi 280d, C 349 
60) B17, O20, R105, T173 RIC IVi 282e, C 356 
61) B17, O20, R105, T175 RIC IVi 281a, C 358 

 
AR Denarius Reference(s) 
 
62) B02, O38, R026, T157 RIC IVi 6, S 6672, C 53 
63) B02, O38, R089, T146 RIC IVi 12, C 180 
64) B02, O38, R129, T046 RIC IVi 13b, C 505 
65) B02, O38, R150, T140 RIC IVi 330, C 566 
66) B02, O38, R158, T177 RIC IVi 16, S 6681, C 597 
67) B02, O39, R150, T140 RIC IVi 2, C 562 
68) B02, O39, R155, T157 RIC IVi 4, S 6679, C 587 
69) B02, O39, R158, T177 RIC IVi 5d, C 594 
70) B03, O38, R034, T084 RIC IVi 7, S 6673, C 74 
71) B03, O38, R043, T082 RIC IVi 9, C 95 
72) B03, O38, R073, T130 RIC IVi 11, C 154 
73) B05, O18, R028, T096 RIC IVi 153 
74) B05, O18, R047, T020 RIC IVi 155, C 108 
75) B05, O18, R053, T098 RIC IVi 157 
76) B05, O18, R059, T121 RIC IVi 158, S 6815, C 128 
77) B05, O18, R068, T124 RIC IVi 161, S 6817, C 143 
78) B05, O18, R082, T172 RIC IVi 163d, C 171 
79) B05, O18, R100, T158 
80) B05, O18, R115, T132 
81) B05, O18, R116, T021 RIC IVi 84, C 427 
82) B05, O18, R116, T132 RIC IVi 83a, C 424 
83) B05, O18, R117, T097 Exe: COS II RIC IVi 98 
84) B05, O18, R118, T021 RIC IVi 97, C 436 
85) B05, O18, R118, T065 RIC IVi 96, S 6865, C 441 
86) B05, O18, R118, T130 RIC IVi 88, C 431 
87) B05, O18, R118, T165 RIC IVi 92, S 6863, C 434 
88) B05, O18, R118, T190 RIC IVi 94 
89) B05, O18, R118, T215 RIC IVi 95, S 6864, C 440 
90) B05, O18, R119, T027 Exe: COS III RIC IVi 104, C 451 
91) B05, O18, R120, T021 RIC IVi 107, C 511 
92) B05, O18, R120, T022 Exe: PROF RIC IVi 108, C 510 
93) B05, O18, R120, T023 Exe: PROF RIC IVi 107 aneotal, C 512 
94) B05, O18, R120, T070 RIC IVi 106, C 456 
95) B05, O18, R120, T134 RIC IVi 100, S 6867 
96) B05, O18, R120, T190 RIC IVi 101 
97) B05, O18, R121, T075 RIC IVi 111, S 6868, C 465 
98) B05, O18, R121, T215 RIC IVi 112, S 6869, C 464 
99) B05, O18, R122, T075 RIC IVi 116a, C 484 
100) B05, O18, R122, T215 RIC IVi 117a, C 477 
101) B05, O18, R141, T156 RIC IVi 166, S 6882, C 422 
102) B05, O18, R157, T178 Exe: IOVI RIC IVi 156, C 108 
103) B05, O18, R187, T153 RIC IVi 176, C 672 
104) B05, O18, R192, T058 RIC IVi 205, C 684 
105) B05, O18, R193, T049 RIC IVi 204, S 6906, C 682 
106) B05, O18, R194, T047 RIC IVi 150, S 6909 
107) B05, O18, R195, T057 RIC IVi 181, C 693 
108) B05, O18, R196, T029 Exe: COS III RIC IVi 87, C 38 
109) B05, O19, R004, T019 RIC IVi 212 
110) B05, O19, R029, T084  
111) B05, O19, R035, T087 RIC IVi 213, S 6800, C 76 
112) B05, O19, R037, T093 RIC IVi 189, C 84 
113) B05, O19, R044, T106 RIC IVi 214, C 104 
114) B05, O19, R059, T121 RIC IVi 216 
115) B05, O19, R061, T121 RIC IVi 219, C 134 
116) B05, O19, R071, T135 RIC IVi 222, S 6818, C 149 
117) B05, O19, R072, T129 RIC IVi 223, S 6819, C 150 
118) B05, O19, R076, T141 RIC IVi 224, C 165 
119) B05, O19, R093, T206 RIC IVi 185, C 188 
120) B05, O19, R093, T206 RIC IVi 190, S 6823, C 188 
121) B05, O19, R095, T004 RIC IVi 195, S 6825 
122) B05, O19, R095, T104 RIC IVi 192, C 196 
123) B05, O19, R095, T159 RIC IVi 196, S 6826, C 206 
124) B05, O19, R095, T171 RIC IVi 194, C 195 
125) B05, O19, R098, T104 RIC IVi 206a, S 6828, C 220 
126) B05, O19, R098, T124 RIC IVi 209a, S 6830, C 224 
127) B05, O19, R098, T171 RIC IVi 208a, S 6829, C 211 
128) B05, O19, R100, T081 RIC IVi 211a, C 230 
129) B05, O19, R122, T020 RIC IVi 118b 
130) B05, O19, R122, T075 RIC IVi 116b, C 483 
131) B05, O19, R122, T215 RIC IVi 117b 
132) B05, O19, R123, T074 RIC IVi 183, C 192 
133) B05, O19, R123, T144 RIC IVi 184, C 190 
134) B05, O19, R123, T215 RIC IVi 191, C 494 
135) B05, O19, R135, T064 RIC IVi 225, S 6876, C 509 
136) B05, O19, R138, T148 RIC IVi 227d, C 529 
137) B05, O19, R180, T190 RIC IVi 231, C 632 
138) B05, O19, R180, T192 RIC IVi 231a, C 629 
139) B05, O20, R046, T105 RIC IVi 300, S 6808, C 103 
140) B05, O20, R055, T121 RIC IVi 302, C 139 
141) B05, O20, R072, T129 RIC IVi 307, C 152 
142) B05, O20, R098, T104 RIC IVi 206c, C 222 
143) B05, O20, R098, T171 RIC IVi 208c, C 213 
144) B05, O20, R101, T006 RIC IVi 238a, C 242 
145) B05, O20, R101, T007  
146) B05, O20, R101, T036 RIC IVi 246, C 247 
147) B05, O20, R101, T081 RIC IVi 250a 
148) B05, O20, R101, T104 RIC IVi 239, C 244 
149) B05, O20, R101, T113 RIC IVi 240, S 6832, C 239 
150) B05, O20, R101, T171 RIC IVi 244, C 241 
151) B05, O20, R103, T001 RIC IVi 251, S 6834, C 302 
152) B05, O20, R103, T002 RIC IVi 253, C 307 
153) B05, O20, R103, T008 RIC IVi 254, S 6835, C 282 
154) B05, O20, R103, T039 RIC IVi 299e, C 655 
155) B05, O20, R103, T086 RIC IVi 266, S 6840, C 315 
156) B05, O20, R103, T111 RIC IVi 258c, S 6836 
157) B05, O20, R103, T125 RIC IVi 273e 
158) B05, O20, R103, T145 RIC IVi 255, S 6841, C 284 
159) B05, O20, R103, T156 C 246 
160) B05, O20, R103, T169 
161) B05, O20, R103, T171 RIC IVi 263 
162) B05, O20, R103, T175 RIC IVi 264a, S 6839 
163) B05, O20, R105, T110 RIC IVi 277c, C 343 
164) B05, O20, R105, T111 RIC IVi 275a, C 337 
165) B05, O20, R105, T112 RIC IVi 276, C 340 
166) B05, O20, R105, T125 RIC IVi 283c, C 367 
167) B05, O20, R105, T126 
168) B05, O20, R105, T127 RIC IVi 274a 
169) B05, O20, R105, T171 RIC IVi 280c, C 348 
170) B05, O20, R105, T173 RIC IVi 282f 
171) B05, O20, R105, T175 RIC IVi 281b, C 359 
172) B05, O20, R106, T108 RIC IVi 287a 
173) B05, O20, R106, T112 RIC IVi 285a 
174) B05, O20, R106, T127 RIC IVi 284d 
175) B05, O20, R106, T170 RIC IVi 289c, C 382 
176) B05, O20, R106, T173 RIC IVi 294c, C 391a 
177) B05, O20, R106, T176 RIC IVi 293d, S 6848 
178) B05, O20, R106, T200 RIC IVi 297e 
179) B05, O20, R162, T183 RIC IVi 311b, S 6890, C 606 
180) B05, O20, R162, T184 RIC IVi 312d, C 613 
181) B05, O26, R072, T129 RIC IVi 235, S 6815 
182) B05, O26, R076, T141 RIC IVi 236, C 166 
183) B05, O26, R098, T104 RIC IVi 206b, C 221 
184) B06, O15, R156, T044 
185) B07, O15, R149, T162  
186) B08, O15, R007, T166 RIC IVi 32b 
187) B08, O15, R011, T101 RIC IVi 33, C 19 
188) B08, O15, R030, T083 RIC IVi 35 
189) B08, O15, R087, T182 RIC IVi 346, C 177a 
190) B08, O15, R111, T174 RIC IVi 30a, S 6857, C 413 
191) B08, O15, R112, T174 RIC IVi 55a 
192) B08, O15, R139, T174 RIC IVi 39a, C 542 
193) B08, O15, R146, T160 RIC IVi 42c, S 6883, C 558a 
194) B08, O15, R149, T162 RIC 351b 
195) B08, O15, R149, T162 RIC IVi 43d, C 572 
196) B08, O15, R156, T044 RIC IVi 45d, C 590 
197) B08, O15, R164, T188 RIC IVi 47a 
198) B08, O15, R184, T212 RIC IVi 354, S 6902, C 664 
199) B08, O18, R087, T182 
200) B08, O18, R185, T212 RIC IVi 149b, S 6903, C 667 
201) B08, O31, R151, T161 RIC IVi 332, C 568 
202) B08, O33, R036, T089 RIC IVi 24a, C 82 
203) B08, O33, R036, T090 RIC IVi 334, C 82 
204) B08, O33, R075, T138 RIC IVi 336b, C 159 
205) B08, O33, R075, T139 RIC IVi 25d, C 159 
206) B08, O33, R077, T141 RIC IVi 337b, C 168 
207) B08, O33, R159, T177 RIC IVi 26a, C 599 
208) B08, O34, R159, T177 RIC IVi 28, C 600a 
209) B08, O35, R124, T044 RIC IVi 27a 
210) B08, O35, R149, T165 RIC IVi 22a 
211) B10, O15, R030, T083  
212) B10, O18, R001, T097 RIC IVi 120, C 3 
213) B10, O18, R003, T097 RIC IVi 121 
214) B10, O18, R015, T034 RIC IVi 124a, S 6794 
215) B10, O18, R017, T167 RIC IVi 125a, C 5a 
216) B10, O18, R025, T118 RIC IVi 74a 
217) B10, O18, R030, T083 RIC IVi 127, S 6799 
218) B10, O18, R045, T076 RIC IVi 130a, S 6806, C 97 
219) B10, O18, R057, T121 RIC IVi 135, C 122 
220) B10, O18, R062, T121 RIC IVi 134a, C 121 
221) B10, O18, R065, T121 RIC IVi 136b, C 124 
222) B10, O18, R087, T182 RIC IVi 54b, S 6853, C 175 
223) B10, O18, R088, T182 RIC IVi 63, C 178 
224) B10, O18, R109, T155 RIC IVi 69, S 6856, C 499 
225) B10, O18, R115, T132 RIC IVi 81, S 6859, C 421 
226) B10, O18, R115, T133 RIC IVi 80, S 6858, C 420 
227) B10, O18, R115, T158 RIC IVi 82, S 6860, C 422 
228) B10, O18, R139, T174 RIC IVi 141 
229) B10, O18, R167, T190 RIC IVi 144b, C 658 
230) B10, O18, R175, T190 RIC IVi 145, S 6898, C 661 
231) B10, O18, R179, T188 
232) B10, O18, R185, T212 RIC IVi 149a, C 667 
233) B10, O18, R190, T047 RIC IVi 68, S 6908 
234) B10, O33, R159, T177 RIC IVi 338b, C 599 
235) B10, O34, R030, T083 RIC IVi 339, S 6798, C 62 

 
AR Denarius (Posthumous) Reference(s) 
 
236) B01, O27, R019, T078 RIC 717 (IVii, S. Alexander), C 32 

 
 
237) B05, O18, R078, T143 RIC IVi 162, C 169 
238) B05, O19, R022, T190 RIC IVi 202b, C 42 
239) B08, O20, R023, T190 RIC IVi 317a, C 45a 

 
 
240) B05, O43, R122, T128 RIC IVi 450b, C 474 
241) B05, O43, R181, T208 Exe: SC RIC IVi 464, C 639 
242) B05, O44, R018, T056 Exe: SC RIC IVi 508c, C 29 
243) B05, O44, R138, T148 RIC IVi 511a, C 532 
244) B05, O44, R154, T165 Exe: SC RIC IVi 512d, C 577 
245) B06, O42, R102, T062 Exe: SC  
246) B06, O44, R138, T148  
247) B06, O44, R154, T165 Exe: SC RIC IVi 512a 
248) B08, O39, R158, T177 RIC IVi 401, C 595 
249) B08, O42, R102, T062 Exe: SC RIC IVi 525c 
250) B08, O44, R098, T124 RIC IVi 498a, C 229 
251) B08, O44, R098, T131 RIC IVi 496b 
252) B08, O44, R099, T073 Exe: COS IIII PP / SC RIC IVi 500a, C 236 
253) B08, O45, R104, T035 Exe: SC  RIC IVi 544, C 334 
254) B08, O45, R154, T165 Exe: SC RIC IVi 573a, C 580 

 
 
255) B11, O18, R181, T209 RIC IVi 467, C 637 

 
AE As 
 
256) B03, O39, R155, T157 Exe: SC RIC IVi 404, C 586 
257) B05, O18, R122, T213 Exe: SC RIC IVi 458, C 479 
258) B05, O18, R122, T213 Exe: SC RIC IVi 458b 
259) B05, O19, R181, T209 
260) B05, O20, R102, T204 RIC IVi 534, C 268 
261) B05, O20, R103, T002 RIC IVi 554a, C 309 
262) B08, O20, R103, T002  
263) B08, O20, R103, T002 RIC IVi 554b 
264) B08, O25, R025, T118 Exe: SC RIC IVi 421 

 
 

Caracalla Busts 

Caracalla Types