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ERIC Table of Contents


Title Page

Introduction

About Roman Coins

Denominations

Coins of Other Ancient Cultures

Identifying Roman Coins

How To Use This Book

Mintmarks

Mint Map

Pricing And Grading

Bibliography

Reference Catalogs Cited

Coin Terms Used

Glossary

Rarity Tables

Index of Rulers

Photography Credits

Additional Web Resources

Imperial Catalog:

AUGUSTUS
LIVA
AGRIPPA
NERO CLAUDIUS DRUSUS
GERMANICUS
AGRIPPINA I
TIBERIUS
DRUSUS
ANTONIA
CALIGULA
CLAUDIUS I
BRITANNICUS
AGRIPPINA II
NERO
GALBA
CLODIUS MACER
OTHO
VITELLIUS
VESPASIAN
DOMITILLA
TITUS
DOMITIAN
DOMITIA
JULIA TITI
NERVA
TRAJAN
PLOTINA
MARCIANA
MATIDIA
HADRIAN
SABINA
AELIUS
ANTONINUS PIUS
FAUSTINA I
MARCUS AURELIUS
FAUSTINA II
LUCIUS VERUS
LUCILLA
COMMODUS
CRISPINA
PERTINAX
DIDIUS JULIANUS
MANLIA SCANTILLA
DIDIA CLARA
PESCENNIUS NIGER
CLODIUS ALBINUS
SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS
JULIA DOMNA
CARACALLA
PLAUTILLA
GETA
MACRINUS
DIADUMENIAN
ELAGABALUS
JULIA MAESA
JULIA SOAEMIAS
JULIA PAULA
AQUILIA SEVERA
ANNIA FAUSTINA
SEVERUS ALEXANDER
JULIA MAMAEA
ORBIANA
MAXIMINUS I
PAULINA
MAXIMUS
GORDIAN I
GORDIAN II
BALBINUS
PUPIENUS
GORDIAN III
TRANQUILLINA
PHILIP I
OTACILIA SEVERA
PHILIP II
PACATIAN
JOTAPIAN
TRAJAN DECIUS
HERENNIA ETRUSCILLA
HERENNIUS ETRUSCUS
HOSTILIAN
TREBONIANUS GALLUS
VOLUSIAN
AEMILIAN
CORNELIA SUPERA
SILBANNACUS
URANIUS ANTONINUS
VALERIAN I
MARINIANA
VALERIAN II
GALLIENUS
SALONINA
SALONINUS
REGALIANUS
DRYANTILLA
POSTUMUS
LAELIANUS
MARIUS
VICTORINUS
DOMITIAN II
TETRICUS I
TETRICUS II
QUIETUS
MACRIANUS
CLAUDIUS II
QUINTILLUS
AURELIAN
SEVERINA
ZENOBIA
VABALATHUS
TACITUS
FLORIAN
PROBUS
SATURNINUS
CARUS
CARINUS
MAGNIA URBICA
NIGRIAN
NUMERIAN
JULIAN I
DIOCLETIAN
MAXIMIAN
CARAUSIUS
ALLECTUS
DOMITIUS DOMITIANUS
CONSTANTIUS I
THEODORA
GALERIUS
GALERIA VALERIA
SEVERUS II
MAXENTIUS
ROMULUS
CONSTANTINE I
HELENA
FAUSTA
ALEXANDER
LICINIUS I
CONSTANTIA
MAXIMINUS II
LICINIUS II
CRISPUS
VALERIUS VALENS
MARTINIAN
CONSTANTINE II
DELMATIUS
HANNIBALLIANUS
CONSTANS
CONSTANTIUS II
MAGNENTIUS
DECENTIUS
NEPOTIAN
VETRANO
CONSTANTIUS GALLUS
JULIAN II
JOVIAN
VALENTINIAN I
VALENS
PROCOPIUS
GRATIAN
VALENTINIAN II
THEODOSIUS I
AELIA FLACCILLA
MAGNUS MAXIMINUS
FLAVIUS VICTOR
EUGENIUS
HONORIUS
CONSTANTINE III
CONSTANS II
MAXIMINUS
PRISCUS ATTALUS
JOVINUS
SABASTIANUS
CONSTANTIUS III
GALLA PLACIDIA
JOHANNES
VALENTINIAN III
LICINIA EUDOXIA
HONORIA
PETRONIUS MAXIMINUS
AVITUS
MAJORIAN
LIBIUS SEVERUS
ANTHEMIUS
EUPHEMIA
ANICIUS OLYBRIUS
GLYCERIUS
JULIUS NEPOS
ROMULUS AUGUSTUS
ARCADIUS
EUDOXIA
PULCHERIA
THEODOSIUS II
EUDOCIA
MARCIAN
LEO I
VERINA
LEO II
ZENO
ARIADNE
BASILISCUS
ZENONIS
LEONTIUS I
ANASTASIUS I
ANONYMOUS COINAGE

ERIC The Encyclopedia of Roman Imperial Coins
by Rasiel Suarez


Caligula

    Augustus 37-41


Caligula's real name was Gaius Caesar but earned the nickname with which he is known by from the type of army boots he wore during childhood. One of the most enigmatic Roman emperors, the early part of his career had him start out as an ordinary and modest man. His granduncle Tiberius had wished Caligula along with Gemellus (Caligula's cousin) to be joint emperors. Instead, Caligula adopted him but never gave him any official role. At some point Caligula underwent a transformation, supposedly after an illness that transformed him into a maniacal and cruel person. As seen on the erotic movie of the same name, Caligula would take joy in perverse and sadistic acts that often ended in the murder of innocent people. He also made no subtleties for his hatred of the Senate, the members of which were objects of his ridicule (or worse). It was only a matter of time before a conspiracy was hatched and he was murdered.
 
Caligula is a tough emperor to score. Silver and gold coins are quite rare and expensive. The picture improves considerably for bronzes of which there are many and abundance keeps prices in check. But, and this is a big but, these bronzes, the affordable ones, are usually pretty rottenly preserved. 
 
Far and away the most common of these are the copper Asses featuring a Vesta reverse with the goddess seated left and holding a patera. Typically, they are found with a million little potmarks and other blights of corrosion. Those that look especially horrible, yet still undeniably attributable, can be had for maybe just $20 or so. A hundred dollars buys you the same thing but significantly more presentable. And then a jewel of a bronze will set you back, say, $500 which is still only entry-level territory for a Denarius.      

Busts:

 
1) Bare head left
2) Bare head right
3) Laureate head left
4) Laureate head right

 
a) Large SC
b) Pietas seated left, holding patera
c) Pileus; S C across fields

 

Obverses:

 
1) C CAESAR AVG GERM PM TR POT
2) C CAESAR AVG GERM PM TR POT COS
3) C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS
4) C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PM TR POT
5) C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT
6) C CAESAR AVG PON M TR POT III COS III
7) C CAESAR AVG PON M TR POT IIII COS IIII
8) C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG
9) C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG PM TR P III PP
10) C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG PM TR P IIII PP

 

Reverses:

 
1) ADLOCVT / COH
2) AGRIPPINA DRVSILLA IVLIA
3) AGRIPPINA MAT C CAES AVG GERM
4) DIVVS AVG PATER PATRIAE
5) GERMANICVS CAES P C CAES AVG GERM
6) IMPERATOR PONT MAX AVG TR POT
7) NERO ET DRVSVS CAESARES
8) PM TR POT COS
9) PM TR POT IIII
10) PON M TR P III PP COS DES III
11) PON M TR P IIII PP COS QVAT
12) PON M TR P IIII PP COS TERT
13) SPQR / PP / OB CIVES / SERVATOS
14) SPQR / PP / OB CS
15) VESTA
16) No legend

Types:

 
1) Agrippina I draped bust right
2) Augustus radiate head right
3) Augustus radiate head right; star on either side.
4) Caligula standing left on platform, raising hand, facing five soldiers to left
5) Caligula standing left, sacrificing over altar; attendant with sacrificial bull to left, another to right, holding patera. Temple with six columns in background.
6) Caligulas sisters Agrippina, Drusilla and Julia standing, facing, each holding a cornucopia; Drusilla also holding patera.
7) Germanicus bare head right
8) Large RCC
9) Nero and Drusus each riding a horse right
10) Simpulum and lituus
11) Vesta seated left, holding patera and scepter.
12) Wreath, SPQR / PP / OBCIVES / SERVATOS
13) Wreath, SPQR / PP / OBCS

 

Mints:

 
1) Caesarea Cappadociae
2) Lugdunum
3) Roma

 
AU Aureus Reference(s)

 
1) B2, O02, R16, T03 RIC I 1, C 10
2) B4, O06, R05, T07 RIC I 25, C 6 

AU Quinarius with ref.

 

Caligula (AD 37-41), Gold Quinarius, 3.9 gms., mint of Lugdunum, struck c. AD 37-38, C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS, laureate head right, rev. PM TR POT ITER, Victory seated right on globe holding wreath in both hands (RIC 5 Rarity 3),  Joe Geranio- Julio Claudian Iconographic Association Archive- Very Rare.

Also see: 
A 'new' gold quinarius of Caligula
by Bendall, Simon .
Type: Article
Description: ill .
Subject(s): Quinarius (Coin) Rome -- Caligula -- 37-41 
In: Numismatic Fine Arts quarterly journal Mar. 1985, no. 29, p. 1-2.

Portraits of Caligula : the seated figure? / 
by Geranio, Joe .
Type: Article
In: Celator Vol. 21, no. 9 (Sep 2007),

 
AR Denarius

 
3) B2, O01, R03, T01 RIC I 8, C 4
4) B2, O01, R05, T07 RIC I 12
5) B2, O02, R16, T03 RIC I 2, C 11
6) B4, O01, R03, T01 RIC I 14
7) B4, O01, R04, T02 RIC I 16
8) B4, O06, R03, T01 RIC I 22
9) B4, O06, R04, T02 RIC I 24, C 7
10) B4, O06, R16, T13 RIC I 28, C 21

 
AE Sestertius

 
11) B3, O03, R16, T12 RIC I 37, C 24
12) B3, O05, R01, T04 RIC I 32, C 1
13) B3, O05, R02, T06 Exe: SC RIC I 33
14) B3, O09, R16, T12 RIC I 46, C 25
15) B3, O10, R16, T12 RIC I 53, C 26
16) Bb, O04, R16, T05 DIVO AVG and S C across fields; Obv. Exe: PIETAS RIC I 36, C 9
17) Bb, O09, R16, T05 DIVO AVG and S C across fields; Obv. Exe: PIETAS RIC I 44, C 2
18) Bb, O10, R16, T05 DIVO AVG and S C across fields; Obv. Exe: PIETAS RIC I 51, C 11

 
AE Dupondius

 
19) Ba, O05, R07, T09 RIC I 34

 
AE As
 
20) B1, O05, R15, T11 Large S C across fields RIC I 38, C 27
21) B1, O09, R15, T11 Large S C across fields RIC I 47, C 28
22) B1, O10, R15, T11 Large S C across fields RIC I 54, C 29

 
AE Quadrans
 
23) Bc, O08, R11, T08 RIC I 41 (1923 ed.), C 8
24) Bc, O08, R12, T08 RIC I 52, C 7

 
 

Caligula Busts



 

Caligula Types




Gaius Caligula- Photo by Joe Geranio- Getty Villa, Calif.