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ERIC Table of Contents


Title Page

Introduction

About Roman Coins

Denominations

Coins of Other Ancient Cultures

Identifying Roman Coins

How To Use This Book

Mintmarks

Mint Map

Pricing And Grading

Bibliography

Reference Catalogs Cited

Coin Terms Used

Glossary

Rarity Tables

Index of Rulers

Photography Credits

Additional Web Resources

Imperial Catalog:

AUGUSTUS
LIVA
AGRIPPA
NERO CLAUDIUS DRUSUS
GERMANICUS
AGRIPPINA I
TIBERIUS
DRUSUS
ANTONIA
CALIGULA
CLAUDIUS I
BRITANNICUS
AGRIPPINA II
NERO
GALBA
CLODIUS MACER
OTHO
VITELLIUS
VESPASIAN
DOMITILLA
TITUS
DOMITIAN
DOMITIA
JULIA TITI
NERVA
TRAJAN
PLOTINA
MARCIANA
MATIDIA
HADRIAN
SABINA
AELIUS
ANTONINUS PIUS
FAUSTINA I
MARCUS AURELIUS
FAUSTINA II
LUCIUS VERUS
LUCILLA
COMMODUS
CRISPINA
PERTINAX
DIDIUS JULIANUS
MANLIA SCANTILLA
DIDIA CLARA
PESCENNIUS NIGER
CLODIUS ALBINUS
SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS
JULIA DOMNA
CARACALLA
PLAUTILLA
GETA
MACRINUS
DIADUMENIAN
ELAGABALUS
JULIA MAESA
JULIA SOAEMIAS
JULIA PAULA
AQUILIA SEVERA
ANNIA FAUSTINA
SEVERUS ALEXANDER
JULIA MAMAEA
ORBIANA
MAXIMINUS I
PAULINA
MAXIMUS
GORDIAN I
GORDIAN II
BALBINUS
PUPIENUS
GORDIAN III
TRANQUILLINA
PHILIP I
OTACILIA SEVERA
PHILIP II
PACATIAN
JOTAPIAN
TRAJAN DECIUS
HERENNIA ETRUSCILLA
HERENNIUS ETRUSCUS
HOSTILIAN
TREBONIANUS GALLUS
VOLUSIAN
AEMILIAN
CORNELIA SUPERA
SILBANNACUS
URANIUS ANTONINUS
VALERIAN I
MARINIANA
VALERIAN II
GALLIENUS
SALONINA
SALONINUS
REGALIANUS
DRYANTILLA
POSTUMUS
LAELIANUS
MARIUS
VICTORINUS
DOMITIAN II
TETRICUS I
TETRICUS II
QUIETUS
MACRIANUS
CLAUDIUS II
QUINTILLUS
AURELIAN
SEVERINA
ZENOBIA
VABALATHUS
TACITUS
FLORIAN
PROBUS
SATURNINUS
CARUS
CARINUS
MAGNIA URBICA
NIGRIAN
NUMERIAN
JULIAN I
DIOCLETIAN
MAXIMIAN
CARAUSIUS
ALLECTUS
DOMITIUS DOMITIANUS
CONSTANTIUS I
THEODORA
GALERIUS
GALERIA VALERIA
SEVERUS II
MAXENTIUS
ROMULUS
CONSTANTINE I
HELENA
FAUSTA
ALEXANDER
LICINIUS I
CONSTANTIA
MAXIMINUS II
LICINIUS II
CRISPUS
VALERIUS VALENS
MARTINIAN
CONSTANTINE II
DELMATIUS
HANNIBALLIANUS
CONSTANS
CONSTANTIUS II
MAGNENTIUS
DECENTIUS
NEPOTIAN
VETRANO
CONSTANTIUS GALLUS
JULIAN II
JOVIAN
VALENTINIAN I
VALENS
PROCOPIUS
GRATIAN
VALENTINIAN II
THEODOSIUS I
AELIA FLACCILLA
MAGNUS MAXIMINUS
FLAVIUS VICTOR
EUGENIUS
HONORIUS
CONSTANTINE III
CONSTANS II
MAXIMINUS
PRISCUS ATTALUS
JOVINUS
SABASTIANUS
CONSTANTIUS III
GALLA PLACIDIA
JOHANNES
VALENTINIAN III
LICINIA EUDOXIA
HONORIA
PETRONIUS MAXIMINUS
AVITUS
MAJORIAN
LIBIUS SEVERUS
ANTHEMIUS
EUPHEMIA
ANICIUS OLYBRIUS
GLYCERIUS
JULIUS NEPOS
ROMULUS AUGUSTUS
ARCADIUS
EUDOXIA
PULCHERIA
THEODOSIUS II
EUDOCIA
MARCIAN
LEO I
VERINA
LEO II
ZENO
ARIADNE
BASILISCUS
ZENONIS
LEONTIUS I
ANASTASIUS I
ANONYMOUS COINAGE

ERIC The Encyclopedia of Roman Imperial Coins
by Rasiel Suarez


Anonymous Coinage

During various periods of the Roman Imperial age a relatively small series of coins were issued without either the reigning emperor‟s portrait nor a legend that explicitly mentions him.

Some of these were minted during civil wars at a time when no clear successor had yet been found. At others, the coins seem to been minted in honor of a particularly important event that transcended even the ephemeral position of the current emperor. And yet others seem to have served a very specific role within a closed community such as miners‟ scrip money.

The most famous and available of these coins are those struck in commemoration of the founding of Constantinople. As the old city of Byzantium was renamed after Constantine it assumed an importance that, politically and culturally, would rival Rome itself. To leave no doubt as to its new status, millions of bronze coins were made in roughly equal quantities of two main types. The first featured on the obverse personification of Rome while the second that of Constantinopolis. Both types may be found today as among the most commonly available of late Roman coinage and were minted in every operational mint at the time of issue; roughly the years 330-340.


AR Types:


 1. Denarius 

Obv: No legend - Wreath, SPQR within
Rev: SALVS GENERIS HVMANI – Victory standing right on globe, holding palm and wreath
 
Issued during the civil war following Nero's death. RIC 73b, C 421
 Obv: FIDES / EXERCITVVM – Hands, in handshake
Rev: FIDES / PRAETORIANORVM – Hands, in handshake
 
Also issued during the civil war of 68-69.  RIC 121, BMC 65, C 363
 

3. Half Siliqua (Approx. 1.3g)
Obv: No legend – Star
Rev: No legend - Wreath
 
Presumably struck shortly after the death of Helena c.326 in memoriam.  
 

4. Half Siliqua (Approx. 1.3g)
Obv: No legend – Helmeted, draped and cuirassed bust of Roma right
Rev: No legend – Large K
 
The obverse most likely represents the personification of Rome and, this being the case, the coin would have been a commemorative associated with the founding of Constantinopolis. The large K on the reverse remains somewhat of a mystery. David Vagi asserts it stands for Constantinopolis though it was usually spelled with a “C” during the fourth century. C.330
 

5. Third of Siliqua (Approx. 1.15g)
Obv: No legend – Helena diademed, draped bust right, wearing necklace
Rev: No legend – Large K
 
Another posthumous coin of Helena, easily identifiable by her portrait despite the lack of an affirming legend. c.330.
 
Vagi 3052
 

6. Third of Siliqua 
Obv: No legend – Helmeted, draped and cuirassed bust of Roma right
Rev: No legend – Large R
 
In this case the R in reverse can more easily be explained as standing for Rome.
c.330
 




AE Types:  


7. Tessera (Approx. 4 - 7g) 

Obv: No legend – Couple in erotic embrace, lying down.
Rev: No legend – Wreath, V within
 
An erotic token of extra-official provenance and uncertain value. Probably used outside of mainstream commerce and rare within its own time.
c.14-34
 



8. Semis (Approx. 3 - 4g) 
Obv: No legend – Woman, draped bust right
Rev: METAL / AVRELIA / NIS
 
Throughout the empire there were many mines that contracted a large labor force along with the slave labor pressed into duty. These coins were likely used for their limited purchasing needs inside of their communities. c.161-180
 



9. Quadrans (Approx. 2.5 - 3.5g) 
Obv: No legend – Mars helmeted, cuirassed bust right
Rev: Cuirass
 
c.81-161  RIC II, 21
 
 
10. Quadrans (Approx. 2.5 - 3.5g) 
Obv: No legend – Rhinoceros advancing left
Rev: Laurel branch, S C across fields
 
c.81-161  RIC II, 36
 
 
11. Quadrans (Approx. 2.5 - 3.5g) 
Obv: ROMA – Helmeted, draped bust of Roma right
Rev: DARDANICI – Dardania standing left, holding wheat ears and raising skirt.
 
Another issue associated with mine use. c.100-140  RIC 1016 (II, Hadrian)
 
  
12. Quadrans (Approx. 2.5 - 3.5g) 
Obv: No legend – Pegasus seated left, wheel to left.
Rev: No legend – Altar; S C across fields
 
Ca. 70-100 
 

13. AE3 Constantinople Commemorative  Type I
Obv: VRBS ROMA – Roma, helmeted, draped and cuirassed bust left
Rev: Wreath, VOT / XX / MVLT / XXX within
 
See catalog at end of section
 
 
 

14. AE3 Constantinople Commemorative Type II
Obv: CONSTANTINOPOLI – Constantinopolis helmeted, draped and cuirassed bust left, holding scepter
Rev: GLORIA EXERCITVS – Two soldiers standing either side of a standard, each holding a spear and resting hand on a shield.
 
   

15. AE3 Constantinople Commemorative Type III
Obv: CONSTANTINOPOLIS – Constantinopolis helmeted, draped and cuirassed bust left, holding scepter.
Rev: No legend – Victory standing left, stepping on galley prow, cradling scepter and resting hand on shield.
 
See catalog at end of section
 
  

16. AE3 Constantinople Commemorative  Type IV
Obv: VRBS ROMA – Roma, helmeted, draped and cuirassed bust left
Rev: GLORIA EXERCITVS – Two soldiers standing either side of a standard, each holding a spear and resting hand on a shield.
 
See catalog at end of section
 
 
17. AE3 Constantinople Commemorative  Type V
Obv: ROMA – Roma, helmeted, draped and cuirassed bust left
Rev: No legend – Wolf standing left, suckling Romulus and Remus.
 
See catalog at end of section
 
  

18. AE1
Obv: CONSTANTINOPOLIS – Constantinopolis helmeted, cuirassed bust right, holding scepter over shoulder.
Rev: VICTORIA AVG – Victory seated left, stepping on galley prow, holding branch and cornucopia.
 
RIC 303 (VII, Rome)
 
 
19. AE4
Obv: GENIO ANTOCHENI - Genius of Antioch seated, facing; Orontes swimming below.
Rev: APOLLONI SANCTO Exe: ʘ/SMA - Apollo standing left, holding patera and lyre
 
Semi-autonomous issue under Maximinus II, 'The last civic coinages and the religious policy of Maximinus Daza', J. van Heesch. c.310 (Antioch).
 



20. AE4

Obv: IOVI CONSERVATORI – Jupiter seated left, holding globe and scepter.
Rev: VICTORIA AVGG Exe: ʘ/ANT – Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm.
 
    

21. AE4
Obv: DEO SANCTO SARAPIDI - Serapis head right.
Rev: DEO SANCTO NILO - Nilus laying left, holding reed and cornucopia.
 
 

22. AE1
Obv: Isis diademed, draped bust right
Rev: VOTA P PVBLICA – Isis riding chariot with two mules left, holding sistrum.
 
 

23. AE3
Obv: ISIS FARIA – Isis draped bust left, holding sistrum and fruit dish
Rev: VOTA PVBLICA – Isis seated, facing, holding Horus
 
 
24. AE4
Obv: DEO SERAPI – Serapis draped bust left
Rev: VOTA PVBLICA – Sphinx poised right
 
 

25. AE4
Obv: POP ROMANVS - Roma laureate, draped bust left, holding cornucopia 
Rev: Bridge
Var. (a) mintmark CONS`, (b) mintmark CONS over `
 
RIC 21 (VIII, Rome), L 1066
 


26. AE4
Obv: POP ROMANVS - Roma laureate, draped bust left, holding cornucopia 
Rev: No legend  Exe: CONS` – Wreath, star within.
Var. (a) mintmark above star, (b) mintmark below star
 
RIC 22 (VIII, Rome), L 1067



27. AE4
Obv: Roma - Roma helmeted, cuirassed bust right.
Rev: No legend – Roma standing left, holding spear and resting hand on shield; P R across fields
 
RIC 104 (VIII, Rome), L 611
 

 

28. AE4
Obv: Constantinopolis diademed, draped bust right
Rev: No legend – Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter; P R across fields
 
RIC 106 (VIII, Rome)
 



AE3 Constantinople Commemorative Type I Reference(s)
 
24) Exe: •SMH` (Heraclea) RIC 56 (VIII, Heraclea), L 960
25) Exe: SMN` (Nicomedia) RIC 53 (VIII, Nicomedia), L 1151

 

AE3 Constantinople Commemorative Type III 
 
26) Exe: */AQ` (Aquileia) RIC 129 (VII, Aquileia)
27) Exe: *SMK` (Cyzicus) RIC 120 (VII, Cyzicus)
28) Exe: ¨`LG (Lugdunum) RIC 251 (VII, Lyons)
29) Exe: >/`CONST (Arelate) RIC 380 (VII, Arelate)
30) Exe: `/`CONST (Arelate) RIC 386 (VII, Arelate)
31) Exe: `/`CONST (Arelate) RIC 369 (VII, Arelate)
32) Exe: O/`CONST (Arelate) RIC 416 (VII, Arelate)
33) Exe: •/•SMH`• (Heraclea) RIC 135 (VII, Heraclea)
34) Exe: •`LG (Lugdunum) RIC 246 (VII, Lyons)
35) Exe: •`SIS• (Siscia) RIC 241 (VII, Siscia)
36) Exe: •CONS`• (Constantinopolis) RIC 86 (VII, Constantinople)
37) Exe: •SMHΓ (Heraclea) RIC 120 (VII, Heraclea)
38) Exe: •SMHΔ (Heraclea) RIC 120 (VII, Heraclea)
39) Exe: •SMH`• (Heraclea) RIC 125 (VII, Heraclea)
40) Exe: •SMK` (Cyzicus) RIC 107 (VII, Cyzicus)
41) Exe: CONS` (Constantinopolis) RIC 63 (VII, Constantinople)
42) Exe: CONS`• (Constantinopolis) RIC 79 (VII, Constantinople)
43) Exe: F/AQ` (Aquileia) RIC 137 (VII, Aquileia)
44) Exe: RB` (Roma) RIC 339 (VII, Rome)
45) Exe: RF` (Roma) RIC 332 (VII, Rome)
46) Exe: SMAL` (Alexandria) RIC 17 (VIII, Alexandria), L 1441
47) Exe: SMAL`• (Alexandria) RIC 27 (VIII, Alexandria), L 1444
48) Exe: SMAN` (Antioch) RIC 92 (VII, Antioch)
49) Exe: SMH` (Heraclea) RIC 115 (VII, Heraclea)
50) Exe: SMK` (Cyzicus) RIC 93 (VII, Cyzicus)
51) Exe: SMN` (Nicomedia) RIC 196 (VII, Nicomedia)
52) Exe: SMTS` (Thessalonica) RIC 188 (VII, Thessalonica)
53) Exe: TR`* (Treveri) RIC 548 (VII, Trier)
54) Exe: TR`` (Treveri) RIC 563 (VII, Trier)
55) Exe: TR`• (Treveri) RIC 530 (VII, Trier)

 

AE3 Constantinople Commemorative Type IV 
 
56) Exe: CONS`• (Constantinopolis) RIC 154 (VII, Constantinople)
57) Exe: SMH` (Heraclea) RIC 156 (VII, Heraclea)

 

AE1 Constantinople Commemorative Type
 
58) [No marks in exergue] RIC 349 (VII, Rome)

 

AE3 Constantinople Commemorative Type
 
59) Exe: *SMK` (Cyzicus) RIC 72 (VII, Cyzicus)
60) Exe: '/SMH` (Heraclea) RIC 129 (VII, Heraclea)
61) Exe: '/SMN` (Nicomedia) RIC 195 (VII, Nicomedia)
62) Exe: `SIS (Siscia) RIC 222 (VII, Siscia), L 745
63) Exe: ¨`LG (Lugdunum) RIC 252 (VII, Lyons)
64) Exe: ―/`CONST (Arelate) RIC 368 (VII, Arles)
65) Exe: '/`CONST (Arelate) RIC 373 (VII, Arles)
66) Exe: `/`CONST (Arelate) RIC 385 (VII, Arles)
67) Exe: `/`CONST (Arelate) RIC 400 (VII, Arles)
68) Exe: •`SIS• (Siscia) RIC 240 (VII, Siscia), L 750
69) Exe: ••SMH`• (Heraclea) RIC 134 (VII, Heraclea)
70) Exe: •CONS`• (Constantinopolis) RIC 85 (VII, Constantinople)
71) Exe: •SMH` (Heraclea) RIC 119 (VII, Heraclea)
72) Exe: •SMH`• (Heraclea) RIC 124 (VII, Heraclea)
73) Exe: •SMK` (Cyzicus) RIC 105 (VII, Cyzicus)
74) Exe: •SMN` (Nicomedia) RIC 119 (VII, Nicomedia)
75) Exe: CONS` (Constantinopolis) RIC 62 (VII, Constantinople)
76) Exe: CONS`• (Constantinopolis) RIC 78 (VII, Constantinople)
77) Exe: F/AQ` (Aquileia) RIC 336 (VII, Aquileia)
78) Exe: R` (Roma) RIC 354 (VII, Rome)
79) Exe: RF` (Roma) RIC 331 (VII, Rome)
80) Exe: SMAL` (Alexandria) RIC 63 (VII, Alexandria)
81) Exe: SMAN` (Antioch) RIC 113 (VII, Antioch)
82) Exe: SMAN` (Antioch) RIC 91 (VII, Antioch)
83) Exe: SMH` (Heraclea) RIC 143 (VII, Heraclea)
84) Exe: SMK` (Cyzicus) Only one star above wolf 
85) Exe: SMK` (Cyzicus) RIC 90 (VII, Cyzicus)
86) Exe: SMN` (Nicomedia) RIC 205 (VII, Nicomedia)
87) Exe: SMTS` (Thessalonica) RIC 229 (VII, Thessalonica)
88) Exe: TR•` (Treveri) RIC 542 (VII, Trier)