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A Study of the Mintmark Frequency of Constantine I Campgates

by Gavignano (username at Forvm)

Hello. This is a study of 640 campgates of Constantine I, with the focal point of study being the exergue. The coins were observed for sale in either eBay or Vcoins from 12-6-08 through 10-12-09. Considerable care was taken not to list the same coin more than once. If I could not read all of the exergue clearly, the coin was not listed. Below is the listings of mint offerings, approximately, from least common mint to most common. The number of coins with that exact exergue is listed after description of the exergue, and any appropriate marks in the left or right fields. All coins have Providentiae Avgg reverse except for issues of Ticnium and at times Arles, and some rare early issues of Rome.

Note: for ease in typing, I used r for gamma, and e for epsilon.

Type Set: For those interested in collecting a campgate of Constantine from each mint, 14 mints will be represented: London, Lugdunum, Trier, Arles, Rome, Ticinum, Siscia, Thessalonica, Heracula, Constantinople, Nicomedia, Cyzicus, Antioch, and Alexandria. The other three mints in operation during the time of Constantine: Aquileia, Sirmium, and Serdica respectively, did not strike coins with the campgate reverse.

Current Study, by Mint:

Ticinim - 2 coins

Year 326:

P u T - 0

S u T - 1

T u T - 1

Q u T - 0

Note: the coin from the 3rd officina recently appeared in May 09 on eBay as an "uncleaned campgate", not noting the rare exergue. If you want this mint for a type set, buy it as soon as you see it, or you will wait awhile! The only other offering was on Vcoins and is now gone (8-17-09).

Constantinople - 5 coins:

Years 326-7:

CONS, with A in left field -4

CONS, with B in left field - 1

Note: 4 of the 5 coins sold for under 30 USD! Quite underrated!

Lugdunum - 9 coins:

Years 324-5:

PLG - 9

Note: 2 were for sale on Forvm in 2009, both sold.  Another 2 were/are for sale on VCoins. 3 examples on eBay  this year. it is quite scarce.

London - 3 coins:

Years 324-5:


Note: Forvm is one of the few dealers to have recently stocked these. Very underrated!

Rome - 14 coins:

Years 318-9:

R Q, with P in left field and R in right field - 1

Year 324-5:

R P - 4

R S - 0

R Q - 0

Year 326:

R Wreath P - 4

R Wreath S - 5

Note: the 1st coin (with field marks) is the very rare VIRTVS AVGG reverse.

Heracula - 11 coins:

Year 317:

MHTB - 7

MHTe - 0

SMHB  - 3

Years 318-320:

SMHB with dot in right field - 0

SMHB with 2 dots in right field - 0

dot SMHB - 1

Later years very underrated.

Alexandria - 12 coins:



SMAL, with wreath in left field - 0

SMAL, with wreath in left field and A in right field - 1

SMAL, with wreath in left field and B in right field - 1

SMAL, with wreath in left field and I in right field - 1

SMAL, with wreath in left field and II in right field - 0

SMAL dot, with wreath in left field and I in right field - 0

SMAL dot, with wreath in left field and II in right field - 0

Trier - 31 coins:

dot then PTRe - 1

PTR - 5

PTR then crescent - 1

PTR, then dot over crescent - 11

PTRe - 7

dot then STRe - 2

STR - 2

STR then crescent - 0

STR then dot over crescent - 1

STRe - 1

Arles - 31 coins:

Arles section is under construction :) - this is by far the most confusing array of offerings.

ARLP, with S in left field and F in right field - 4

ARLS - 1

ARLS, with S in left field and F in right field - 1

PAuRL - 3

PCONST, with S in left field and F in right field - 9

P (star) AR - 1

SAuRL - 6

SCONST, with S in left field and F in right field - 7

Nicomedia - 65 coins:

MNA - 2

MNB - 1

MNr - 2

MN delta - 0

MNe - 3

NA - 0

NB - 0

NB delta - 0

NE -2

SMNA - 17

SMNB - 7

SMNB dot - 1

SMNr - 11

SMN delta - 2

SMN delta dot - 1

SMNe - 9

SMNS - 7

Siscia - 77 coins:

ASIS crescent - 2

ASIS dot over crescent - 1

ASIS double crescents - 22

dot ASIS dot - 5

BSIS - 0

BSIS dot over crescent - 4

BSIS double crescents - 16

dot BSIS dot - 12

rSIS - 2

rSIS dot over crescent - 2

rSIS double crescents -6

dot rSIS dot - 5

dot delta SIS dot - 0

delta SIS double crescents - 0

dot eSIS dot - 0

Antioch - 67 coins

SMANT with delta in left field and e in right - 8



SMANTr - 12

SMANT delta - 2

SMANTe - 6

SMANT delta e - 0




Note: I have not separated these into varieties with the dot in the doorway, either laureate or some version of diademed. I probably should have. I also have not differentiated between the common laureate bust and the much less common diademed for the standard SMANT_ series.  I have yet to find a dot SMANT_ coin, with any of these marks: A,B,S, delta e, or I.

Thessalonica - 149 coins

SMTS with A in right field - 3

SMTS with dot in right field - 1 (not in RIC)

SMTS with r in right field - 0

SMTS with e in right field - 2


SMTSA with dot in right field - 32

SMTSB with dot in right field - 11

SMTS delta with dot in right field - 6

SMTSe - 2

SMTSe with dot in right field - 35

SMTSr - 2

SMTSr with dot in right field - 53

Czyicus - 164 coins

SMKA - 12

dot SMKA - 12

dot SMKA dot - 7

SMKA dot - 32

SMKA with dot in left field - 6

SMKB - 10

SMKB dot - 18

SMKB with dot in left field - 0

SMKr -6

dot SMKr dot - 10

dot SMKr dot, with dot in left field also - 1

SMKr dot - 7

SMKr with dot in left field - 3

SMK delta - 9

dot SMK delta - 1

dot SMK delta dot - 1

SMK delta dot - 3

SMK delta with dot in left field - 2

SMKe -1

SMKe dot  -14

SMKe with dot in left field - 1

SMKS - 1

SMKS dot - 3

dot SMKS - 4

General Observations and Conclusions:

1. In order of rarity (top 5) : Ticnium (rarest), London, Constantinople, Lugdunum, Alexandria.

2. Heracula and Rome are also scarce.

3. Most common mints by far: Thessalonica and Cyzicus.









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