- The Collaborative Numismatics Project
  Welcome Guest. Please login or register. The column on the left includes the "Best of NumisWiki" menu. If you are new to collecting, start with Ancient Coin Collecting 101. All blue text is linked. Keep clicking to endlessly explore. Welcome Guest. Please login or register. The column on the left includes the "Best of NumisWiki" menu. All blue text is linked. Keep clicking to endlessly explore. If you have written a numismatic article, please add it to NumisWiki.

Resources Home
Home
New Articles
Most Popular
Recent Changes
Current Projects
Admin Discussions
Guidelines
How to

Index Of All Titles


BEST OF

AEQVITI
Aes Grave
Aes Rude
The Age of Gallienus
Alexander Tetradrachms
Ancient Coin Collecting 101
Ancient Coin Prices 101
Ancient Coin Dates
Ancient Coin Lesson Plans
Ancient Coins & Modern Fakes
Ancient Counterfeits
Ancient Glass
Ancient Oil Lamps
Ancient Weapons
Ancient Wages and Prices
Ancient Weights and Scales
Anonymous Folles
Anonymous Follis
Anonymous Class A Folles
Antioch Officinae
Aphlaston
Armenian Numismatics Page
Brockage
Byzantine
Byzantine Denominations
A Cabinet of Greek Coins
Caesarean and Actian Eras
Campgates of Constantine
Carausius
A Case of Counterfeits
Byzantine Christian Themes
Clashed Dies
Codewords
Coins of Pontius Pilate
Conditions of Manufacture
Corinth Coins and Cults
Countermarked in Late Antiquity
Danubian Celts
Damnatio Coinage
Damnatio Memoriae
Denomination
Denarii of Otho
Diameter 101
Die Alignment 101
Dictionary of Roman Coins
Doug Smith's Ancient Coins
Draco
Edict on Prices
ERIC
ERIC - Rarity Tables
Etruscan Alphabet
The Evolving Ancient Coin Market
EQVITI
Facing Portrait of Augustus
Fel Temp Reparatio
Fertility Pregnancy and Childbirth
Fibula
Flavian
Fourree
Friend or Foe
The Gallic Empire
Gallienus Zoo
Greek Alphabet
Greek Coins
Greek Dates
Greek Coin Denominations
Greek Mythology Link
Greek Numismatic Dictionary
Hellenistic Names & their Meanings
Hasmoneans
Hasmonean Dynasty
Helvetica's ID Help Page
The Hexastyle Temple of Caligula
Historia Numorum
Horse Harnesses
Identifying Ancient Metal Arrowheads
Illustrated Ancient Coin Glossary
Important Collection Auctions
Islamic Rulers and Dynasties
Julian II: The Beard and the Bull
Koson
Kushan Coins
People in the Bible Who Issued Coins
Imperial Mints of Philip the Arab
Later Roman Coinage
Latin Plurals
Latin Pronunciation
Library of Ancient Coinage
Life in Ancient Rome
List of Kings of Judea
Malloy Weapons
Maps of the Ancient World
Military Belts
Mint Marks
Monogram
Museum Collections Available Online
Nabataean Alphabet
Nabataean Numerals
The [Not] Cuirassed Elephant
Not in RIC
Numismatic Bulgarian
Numismatic Excellence Award
Numismatic French
Numismatic German
Numismatic Italian
Numismatic Spanish
Parthian Coins
Patina 101
Paleo-Hebrew Alphabet
Phoenician Alphabet
Pi-Style Athens Tetradrachms
Pricing and Grading Roman Coins
Reading Judean Coins
Representations of Alexander the Great
Roman Coin Attribution 101
Roman Militaria
Roman Mints
Roman Names
romancoin.info
Rome and China
Satyrs and Nymphs
Scarabs
Serdi Celts
Serrated
Siglos
The Sign that Changed the World
Silver Content of Parthian Drachms
Star of Bethlehem Coins
Statuary Coins
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum
Syracusian Folles
Taras Drachms with Owl Left
The Temple Tax
The Temple Tax Hoard
Test Cut
Travels of Paul
Tribute Penny
Tribute Penny Debate Continued (2015)
Tribute Penny Debate Revisited (2006)
Tyrian Shekels
Uncleaned Ancient Coins 101
Vabalathus
Venus Cloacina
What I Like About Ancient Coins
Who was Trajan Decius
Widow's Mite
XXI

   View Menu
 

Bos




Please add updates or make corrections to the NumisWiki text version as appropriate.
Bos - Bull, Ox, or Heifer. - This animal is figured on numerous coins, in various postures, and with various indications: for exampe, sometimes standing, walking, butting with his horns, or rushing forward - sometimes adorned in preparation for sacrifice; sometimes on his kness, about to be ommolated at the altar of a deity. The bull or ox, the usual monetary type of colonies and municipal towns, bore reference to the culture of the soil, as well as to the security afforded by the protection of the emperor. The well known type of a man ploughing with two oxen symbolizes the Roman ceremony of founding a city or a colony. Bulls' heads sometimes have allusion to sacrificies, at other times to games.

The bull, like the horse Pegasus, was consecrated to the Sun. The figure of a bull forms the reverse type of silver, and third brass, of Gallienus; bearing the legend of SOLI CONS AVG (Soli Conservatori Avgusti).

Bos Vittetus - a bull whose head is ornamented with an infuia, or flock of white and red wool, forming a king of mitre or turban of triangular shape, and dressed with the vitta (a sort of garland), between its horns, in honour of some religious ceremony, as the animalis led to the sacrificial altar.


In family denarii this figure is frequently exhibited; because the consuls, in according to the Capitol, were accustomed there to immolate young unyoked steers to Jupiter. On a coin of Julius Caesar, having for its legend of reverse IOV OPT MAX SACT (Iovi Optimo Maximo Sacrum), the accompanying type exhibits the Bos vittatus et infulatus, wearing the dorsuale, or ornamented cloth for the back, standing before an altar which has flame on it. The bull, or rather the juvencus, in this example represents a victim about to be sacrificed to Jupiter. Thus Virgil, instructively to us on this point, puts to mouth of Ascanius:

Jupiter omnipotens, audacibus annue coeptis,
Ipse tibi ad tua templa feram solennia dona,
Et statuam ante aras aurata fronte juvencum
Candentem, pariterque caput cum matre ferentem. (Aeneid, I ix)

My first attempt, great Jupiter, succeed;
An annual offering in thy grove shall bleed;
A snow white steer before thy altar led,
Who like his mother bears aloft his head. (Dryden's translation)

On a denarius of the Postumia gens, a bull stands as a victim, on a rock (supposed to be meant for Mount Aventine), close to a lighted altar; over the horns of the beast a priest extends his right hand.

The Romans were accustomed at triuphal sacrifices to adorn the horns of the victim with gold, whilst its back was clothed with the richest and most brilliant silks. Amidst such luxury and magnificence, the poor bedizened animals (on some grand occasions paying the tribute of their bloodat the shrines of superstition, by the hundred at a time), marched along in procession with gay 'blindness to the future kindly given" - some so tame and quiet as perhaps to "lick the hand" of the victimarius who led them - all unconscious of being near the securis, so soon afterwards raised to fell them, and equally inaware of the culter just whetted to cut their decorated throats!


View whole page from the Dictionary Of Roman Coins