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Apex

The apex was a leather skull-cap worn by Flamen (Roman priests), with a chin-strap and a point of olive wood on its top, like a spindle, with a little fluff of wool at the base of the spindle.  


DICTIONARY OF ROMAN COINS


Please add updates or make corrections to the NumisWiki text version as appropriate.
APEX, a covering for the head, somewhat resembling a bishop's mitre, for which its form probably, after ages, furnished a pattern.  On the top was a pointed piece of wood, the base of which was surrounded by a little woollen tuft. Two fillaments of the same material, hanging from the bottom of it, served to fasten it under the chin. The derivation of this word is not satisfactorily explained by learned writers. But its sometimes round —Sometimes conical shape— and the pointed tassel on the top (Apex) most probably gave the name to the cap itself. It seems to have been firt used by the Salian priests, and was afterwards worn by the Pontifex Maximus and the Flamines generally. [The various forms of the Apex, and its appearance on the head of one of the Roman priests, are shewn and explained in the Dictionary of G. and R. Antiquities, edited by Dr. W. Smith.]
The Apex is found on a denarius of the Quinctia gens, as indicating the connection of Quinctius Flaminius with the priesthood of Jupiter. As a symbol of Valerius Flaccus being a Salian, or priest of Mars, it appears on a coin of the Valeria gens. The same is also seen between two ANCILIA, on a silver coin of P. STOLO, of the Licinia family, a monetary triumvir of Augustus. These apices, or head gear, worn by the members of the sacerdotal order, whilst performing religious ceremonies, are to be seen on other family and consular coins, especially on those of the Julia gens. On many of these it is also exhibited, in combination with the securis (or slaughtering axe), the praefericulum (vase for wine, &c.), and the aspergillum (water-sprinkler), all of which sacrificial instruments serve to mark the Pontificate of Julius Caesar —See ANCILIA, p. 45 of this work.

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