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Babelon, E. Traité des Monnaies Grecques et Romaines. (Paris, 1901-1932).
Burnett, A., M. Amandry, et al. Roman Provincial Coinage. (London, 1992 - )
Calciati, R. Pegasi II. (Mortara, 1990).
Forrer, L. Descriptive Catalogue of the Collection of Greek Coins formed by Sir Hermann Weber. (1922 - 1929).
Gardner, P.A Catalogue of Greek Coins in the British Museum, Thessaly to Aetolia. (London, 1883).
Grose, S. W. Catalogue of the McClean Collection of Greek Coins, Fizwilliam Museum, Volume II - The Greek mainland, the Aegaean islands, Crete. (Cambridge, 1926).
Head, B. Catalogue of Greek Coins in the British Museum, Corinth, Colonies of Corinth, Etc. (London, 1889).
Imhoof-Blumer, F. “Zur Münzen Akarnaniens” in NZ X (1878).
Mildenberg, L. and S. Hurter, eds. The Dewing Collection of Greek Coins. ACNAC 6. (New York, 1985).
Münzen & Medaillen. Sammlung BCD: Akarnanien und Aetolien, Auction 23. (18 October 2007, Stuttgart).
Numismatik Lanz. Münzen von Korinth: Sammlung B, Auction 105. (Munich, 26 November 2001).
Ravel, O. E. Les "Poulains" de Corinthe, I - II. (Basel, 1936; London, 1948).
Sear, D. Greek Coins and Their Values, Volume 1: Europe. (London, 1978).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Denmark, The Royal Collection of Coins and Medals, Danish National Museum, Vol. 3: Greece: Thessaly to Aegean Islands. (West Milford, NJ, 1982).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, France, Bibliothèque National, Collection Jean et Marie Delepierre. (Paris, 1983).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Greece 6, The Alpha Bank Numismatic Collection, From Thessaly to Euboea. (Athens, 2011).
Acarnania, the country between the Achelous on the east, and the sea on the west, derived its coin-standard from the two flourishing commercial colonies of Corinth—Anactorium and Leucas. Before the close of the fifth century the towns of Acarnania formed themselves into a Confederacy, of which Stratus on the Achelous was the chief city.
At all the Acarnanian coast-towns staters of the Corinthian type, obv. Head of Athena, rev. Pegasos, now began to be issued, mainly for commerce with Italy and Sicily, where they are still chiefly found. The cities of the interior, Stratus, Oeniadae, etc., took very little part in this Corinthian coinage, but struck small silver coins with their own types. About B.C. 300 Stratus fell into the hands of the Aetolians, and Leucas took its place as the chief city of the Acarnanian League. Thyrrheium likewise rose to importance after this date.
At what precise period the Pegasos staters ceased to be issued it is hard to determine, but it is certain that in the latter part of the third century (circ. 220) they had already been superseded by a regularly organized Federal currency, the coins having on the obverse the head of the national river-god Acheloös, and on the reverse a seated figure of the
Alyzia. Corinthian staters, B.C. 350-250. Inscr. ΑΛΥ or ΑΛΥΖΑΙΩΝ (BMC Corinth, Pl. XXX. 9-12), and contemporary bronze coins with types relating to the cult of Herakles, of whom there was a temple in the neighborhood (Imhoof, Num. Zeit., x. 46, and Z. f. N., xv. 40).
|Head of Zeus.||ΑΝ (monogram) in laurel-wreath.
AR 35 grs.
|Head of Apollo.||ΑΝΑΚΤΟΡΙΕΩΝ Lyre [BMC Thessaly, Pl. XXVII. 10, 11].
|Young male head with short hair.||ΑΡΓΕΙΩΝ Dog.
|Head of Athena.|| „ Owl facing [BMC Thessaly, Pl. XXVII. 14, 15].
For the coin of Argos, which may have been struck by Amynander, king of the Athamanes, circ. B.C. 205, see Z. f. N., vii. 127.
|ΑΡΓΕΙΩΝ Helmeted bust; Ares (?).||ΑΜΥΝΑΝΔΡΟΣ Greyhound.
Astacus. Corinthian staters (circ. B.C. 350), inscr. ΑΣ, and symbol crayfish (αστακος) (Imhoof, l. c., p. 97, and BMC Corinth, lxx. 123, Pl. XXXIII. 10).
Echinus (?). To this place, on the south shore of the Ambracian Gulf, a Pegasos-stater is conjecturally attributed, c. B.C. 300-250, with Ε and fish-hook behind the head of Athena (BMC Corinth, Pl. XXXIII. 12).
After the fall of Stratus it appears also to have been the place of mintage of a series of Corinthian staters distinguished by the letters ΑΚ (in monogram) (ibid., Pl. XXX. 5, 6). The bronze coins of Leucas (B.C. 350-250) are of the following types :—
|Λ Head of Athena.||Chimaera [BMC Thessaly, Pl. XXVIII. 1].
(Usually restruck on Æ of Philip of Macedon.)
|ΑΚ Head of man-headed bull (Acheloös).||ΛΕ Chimaera.
|Id. or Head of Aphrodite.|| „ Trident [BMC Thessaly, Pl. XXVIII. 4].
|Bellerophon on Pegasos.||ΛΕΥ Chimaera [BMC Thessaly, Pl. XXVIII. 6].
|Λ Head of Pegasos.||Dolphin and trident.
|Head of Apollo.||ΛΕΥ Prow [BMC Thessaly, Pl. XXVIII. 11].
From about B.C. 250 to 167 Leucas was probably the chief mint of the Federal coinage of the Acarnanian League. See Federal coinage (p. 333).
In B.C. 167 Leucas was separated by the Romans from the Acarnanian Confederacy, but it continued to be a place of importance, and, like Corcyra, appears to have retained its autonomy under Roman protection. To this period may be ascribed the long series of silver coins with magistrates’ names (Prytaneis ?), of which more than forty are known.
|Statue of goddess, ‘Αφροδιτη Αινειας, with attributes—crescent, aplustre, owl, stag, and sceptre surmounted by dove; the whole in a wreath.||ΛΕΥΚΑΔΙΩΝ Prow, and name of magistrate (Fig. 187)
AR Attic Didr.
|Head of young Herakles.||ΛΕΥΚΑΔΙΩΝ Club in wreath, and magistrate’s name [BMC Thessaly, Pl. XXVIII. 17].
AR 77, 67, and 59 grs.
The figure on these Leucadian coins has been identified by E. Curtius (Hermes, x. 243) as a statue of Aphrodite Aineias, whose sanctuary stood
|ΜΕ Head of Apollo, hair short.||Α or Μ in laurel-wreath.
|Head of Apollo; hair long.||Μ Ε Tripod.
|Head of Athena.|| „ Id. or owl [BMC Thessaly, Pl. XXIX. 9, 10].
|Head of Zeus.
[BMC Thessaly, Pl. XXIX. 14.]
|ΟΙΝΙΑΔΑΝ Head of man-headed bull, Acheloös, and ΑΚΑΡ. in monogram.
|Female head, and monogram ΠΑΛΑΙΡ (?).||Pegasos.
AR 25 grs.
|Head of Apollo; hair long.||Φ Υ Tripod.
Stratus, down to the early part of the third century, was the chief town of the Acarnanian Confederacy. It then passed into the hands of the Aetolians, and Leucas became the capital of the country. The coins of Stratus fall into the following classes :—
|Bearded head of Acheloös, facing.
[BMC Thessaly, Pl. XXIX. 15.]
|Σ Τ R Α (retrogr.). Incuse square in which head of Kallirrhoë, facing.
AR 36 grs.
|Id. [Num. Zeit., x. Pl. I. 22.]||Σ Τ R Α (retrogr.) Young head in profile.
AR 15 grs.
|Barley-corn and (?).|| in incuse square.
AR 6.6 grs.
|Head of Acheloös in profile.||F in incuse square, around ΚΑΛΛΙΡΟΑ.
AR 34 grs.
|Id.||Τ between oak-boughs ΚΑΛ.
AR 16 grs.
|Id.||ΣΤΡ in concave field.
AR 18 grs.
|Id.||ΚΤΟ in concave field.
AR 17 grs.
|Id.||ΟTΤ in concave field.
AR 18 grs.
|Head of bearded Herakles. [BMC Thessaly, Pl. XXIX. 11-13].||ΙΤR between two bunches of grapes, incuse square.
AR 17 grs.
The digamma on the largest of the above described coins is probably the initial letter of the word Ϝακαρνανες. The letter Ε may stand for Hemiobol and Τ for Trihemiobol. The signification of some of the small letters between which the larger ones are placed is doubtful. ΣΤΡ might stand for Stratus (Num. Zeit., x. 163 ff.).
The following silver and bronze coins of Stratus belong also to the fourth century :—
|ΣΤΡΑΤΙΩΝ Head of Athena; symbol, head of Acheloös.||Pegasos [Z. f. N., xv. Pl. III. 6].
AR Corinthian Stater.
|Head of Kallirrhoë (?).||ΣΤΡΑΤΙΩΝ Head of Acheloös [BMC Thessaly, Pl. XXIX. 16].
Thyrrheium was in late times a place of some importance, and after the separation of Leucas from Acarnania in B.C. 167, it became the chief place of mintage for silver in Acarnania. It struck Corinthian staters (circ. B.C. 350-250?) with inscr. Θ, ΘΥ, ΘΥΡ, ΘΥΡΡ (BMC Corinth, Pl. XXXVIII. 2-13), and perhaps also certain pieces weighing about 106 grs., with Corinthian types and the Acheloös head as an adjunct symbol behind the head of Athena (B.C. 250-167, Ibid., Pl. XXX. 7, 8).
There are also bronze coins :—
|Head of Athena in Attic helmet.||ΘΥΡΡΕΩΝ or ΘΥΡ Owl.
Cf. similar coins with Attic types of Argos and Medeon.
When Leucas was separated from Acarnania, Thyrrheium appears to have adopted the types of the Federal coinage, which ceased to be issued at that time.
|Head of beardless Acheloös, and magistrate’s name.
[BMC Thessaly, Pl. XXX. 1.]
|ΘΥΡΡΕΙΩΝ Apollo Aktios seated, naked, holding bow.
AR 165-132 grs., and 73 grs.
|ΘΥΡΡΕ Head of Athena.||Magistrate’s name in wreath.
AR 45 grs., and 20 grs.
Among the names of magistrates we meet with one ΞΕΝΟΜΕΝΗΣ, who may be an ancestor of the Xenomenes of Thyrrheium, who entertained Cicero when he passed through the town in B.C. 51 and 50.
|Head of Acheloös, facing.||Α Κ Head of Kallirrhoë, facing. [BMC Thessaly, Pl. XXVII. 1].
AR 29 grs.
|Id. [Num. Zeit., x. 14.]||Same type. ΑΓΗΜΩΝ (Strategos?)
AR 30 grs.
Series of silver drachms marked F (initial of Ϝακαρνανες) and Triobols marked Τ described above; see Stratus.
|ΑΚ Head of Acheloös.
[Num. Zeit., x. 20.]
|Head of beardless Acheloös (Fig. 188).||Apollo Aktios seated with bow. AV 66 grs. [Hunter, Pl. XXXII. 9].
AR 156 grs., and 78 grs.
|Id. [BMC Thessaly, Pl. XXVII. 4.]||Artemis running with torch.
AR 65 grs.
|Id. [N. C., 1892, Pl. I. 15.]||Apollo Kitharoedos standing; symbols, Seleucid (?) elephant or anchor.
AR 100 grs., and 45 grs.
|Id.||Zeus hurling fulmen.
AR 49 grs.
|Head of Apollo.
[Brit. Mus. Guide, Pl. LV. 20.]
|Artemis with bow, quiver, and torch, running; symbol, Seleucid (?) anchor.
AR 113 grs.
The Seleucid emblems, Elephant and Anchor, point to the year B.C. 192-191 as the date of issue, when Antiochus III visited Greece and was welcomed by the Acarnanians among other peoples (Livy xxxvi. 11. 12).
|Head of Zeus.||ΑΚ or Α Head of bearded Acheloös.
|Head of young Herakles.||Similar.
|Head of Athena.||Similar [BMC Thessaly, Pl. XXVII. 6-8].