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Gaebler, Hugo. Die antiken Münzen von Makedonia und Paionia, Die antiken Münzen Nord-Griechenlands Vol. III. (Berlin, 1935).

The ancient coins of Macedonia and Paionia. The ancient coins northern Greece, Vol III.

Available online:




Macedonia under Philip V and Perseus
pp. 26 - 52, 1 - 153

Macedonia divided into four confederations
pp. 53 - 61, 154 - 188

Macedonia in rebellion under Andriskos
pp. 62 - 64, 189 - 196a

Macedonia as a Roman province
pp. 65 - 74, 197 - 228
     Lucius Fulcinnius, Quaestor, p. 65
     Gaius Publilius, Quaestor, p. 66
     Aesillas, Quaestor, p. 69
     Without the name of the Praetor, p. 70
     Q. Bruttius Sura, Legatus pro quaestore, p. 73

Macedonia in the Roman Empire
pp. 75 - 188, 229 -

I. Without the head of the emperor from the 1st century A.D.
pp. 75 - 76, 229 - 235

II. Roman provincial coins with the head of the emperor
pp. 76 - 93, 236 - 321
     Claudius, p. 76
     Vitellius, p. 78
     Vespasian, p. 79
     Domitian, p. 80
     Hadrian, p. 81
     Antoninus Pius, p. 82
     Marcus Aurelius, p. 83
     Faustina Jr., p. 86
     Commodus, p. 86
     Septimius Severus, p. 86
     Julia Domna, p. 87
     Caracalla, p. 87
     Macrinus, p. 88
     Diadumenian, p. 88
     Elagabalus, p. 89
     Severus Alexander, p. 89
     Gordian III, p. 92
     Philip I, p. 93

III. Autonomous provincial coins of the 3rd century (Koinon of Macedonia issues with Alexander the Great obverse)
pp. 94 - 188, 322 - 859

Severus Alexander
(231 A.D.)
pp. 94 - 97, 322 - 340

B. One neokoros (KOINON MAKEDONN NEKOPN, and abbreviations)
Severus Alexander (last issues, 231 - 235 A.D.)
pp. 97 - 119, 341 - 458
     Diademed head with long hair hanging down, p. 97, 341 - 361
     Diademed head with hair flying, p. 101, 361a - 401
     Head left, p. 108, 402 - 404
     Draped bust left with shield, p. 109, 405 - 407
     Head with lion skin headdress (as Herakles), p. 109, 408 - 437
     Head with helmet, p. 115, 438 - 453
     1/2 unit coins, p. 118, 454 - 458

C. Two neokoroi (KOINON MAKEDONN B NEKOPN, and abbreviations)

a. Elagabalus (218 - 222 A.D.)
pp. 119 - 125, 459 - 491
     Diademed head with hair hanging down, p. 119, 459 - 461
     Diademed head with hair flying, p. 120, 463 - 472
     Head left, p. 122, 473 - 475a
     Head with lion skin headdress (as Herakles), p. 123, 476 - 488
     1/2 unit coins with helmeted head, p. 124, 489 - 491

b. Severus Alexander (early issues, 222 - 231 A.D.)
pp. 125 - 130, 492 - 525
     Diademed head with long hair hanging down, p. 125, 492 - 510a
     Diademed head with hair flying, p. 128, 511 - 521
     Head with lion skin headdress (as Herakles), p. 130, 522 - 525

c. Gordian III (238 - 244 A.D)
pp. 131 - 182, 525 - 825
     Head with ram 's horn (horn of Ammon), p. 131, 526 - 529a
     Diademed head with hair hanging down, p. 132, 530 - 612
     Diademed head with hair flying, p. 146, 613 - 702
     Half-length portrait right, p. 160, 703 - 709
     Head with lion skin headdress (as Herakles), p. 161, 710 - 759
     Half-length portrait with lion skin headdress (as Herakles), p. 170, 760 - 764
     Head with helmet, p. 171, 764a - 794
     With the inscription OΛYMΠIA (Olympia), p. 177, 795 - 800
     With the inscription OΛYMΠIA AΛEΞANPIA (Olympia Alexandria), p. 178, 801
     2/3 unit coins, p. 179, 802 - 813
     1/2 unit coins, p. 181, 814 - 825

d. Philip I the Arab (244 - 249 A.D.)
pp. 183 - 188, 826 - 859
     Emission of 244 A.D. without date, p. 183, 826
     With the date EOC (year 275 = 244 A.D.), p. 183, 827 - 855
     Emission of 246 A.D., p. 188,  856 - 859

IV. Parallel Coin Emissions of the Metropolis Beroia (inscriptions include BEPOIE, BEPOIEA, BEPOIEN, BEPAIN, or BEPOAIN)
pp. 189 - 191, 860 - 871

V. Other coins struck in the 3rd century
pp. 192 - 196, 872 - 902


Macedonia from 187 to 148 B.C.
pp. 1 - 7

Macedonia in Roman Times
pp. 8 - 18

Aigai, Aineia, Akanthos, Amphipolis, Aphytis, Apollonia
pp. 18 - 47

Beroia, Biasalten, Bottike, Colonie Cassandrea
pp. 47 - 55

Derronen, Dikaia, Colonie Dium, Edessa
pp. 55 -  63

Heracleia Sintike, Ichnai (with the dynast Litas), Kapsa
pp. 63 - 67

Lete, Mende, Methone, Neapolis
pp. 67 - 83

Olophyxos, Olynthos (with Chalkidic Covenant), Orreskier
pp. 83 - 92

pp. 92 - 93

Pella, Philippoi, Poteidaia, Pydna
pp. 93 - 106

Sermylia, Skione, Skithai, Stagira, Municipium Stobi
pp. 106 - 114

Terone, Therma(?), Thessalonica, Tragilos, Uranopolis
pp. 114 - 133

Uncertain Macedonian
pp. 133 - 144

Thraco-Macedonian Dynasty (arranged chronologically)
pp. 144 - 148

The Macedonian Kings
pp. 148 - 197

T. Quinctius Flamininus
pp. 197 - 198

The Paeonian kings (Lykkeios, Patraos, Audoleon, Leon)
pp. 199 - 206

pp. 207 - 218

Bust Types

Dahmen, K. "The Alexander busts of the Macedonian Koinon - New Evidence for Sequence and Chronology" in Numismatic Chronicle 165 (2005), pp. 179-181.

The Koinon of Macedonia struck a remarkably varied and numerous obverse and reverse representations of Alexander the Great between 218 and 246 A.D. Alexander 's portrait on the obverse is identified by name. Karsten Dahmen provided a correction to Hugo Gaebler 's AMNG III, proving that bust type K (see below) was used under Severus Alexander and Gordian III in addition to Philip I the Arab.

Under Elagablus
A. Diademed head right, long hair falling on to neck
B. Diademed head right, windblown hair
C. Diademed head left, windblown hair
D. Head right in lion 's scalp
E. Head right in Attic Helmet

Under Severus Alexander
F. Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust left, seen from back, with windblown hair, spear in right hand, round shield in left
K. Diademed bust right, seen from the front, long hair, scale armor decorated with a gorgoneion, shield just visible behind left shoulder

Under Gordian III
G. Diademed head right with long hair and ram 's horn
H. Diademed and cuirassed bust right, sometimes also draped, seen from the front, long hair, pteryges on left arm
J. Bust in lion 's scalp, bare shoulders seen from behind
K. Diademed bust right, seen from the front, long hair, scale armor decorated with a gorgoneion, shield just visible behind left shoulder

Under Philip I the Arab
K. Diademed bust right, seen from the front, long hair, scale armor decorated with a gorgoneion, shield just visible behind left shoulder

Bust terms and abbreviations

bärtigen - bearded
beiden - two
Brust - bust
Br. - bust (Brustbild)
die - the
ebenso - ditto
Gewand - draped (garment)
l. - left (links)
Kopf - head
K. - head (Kopf)
Krone - radiate (crown)
L. - laurel wreath (Lorbeerkranz)
Löwenfell - lion fur
m. - with (mit)
M. - draped (Mantel)
r. - right (rechts)
Schlange - snake

P. - cuirass (Panzer)
und - and

Br. m. L. P. M. r. - laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Kopf. m. L. r. - laureate head right.
K. m. L. r. - laureate head right.
Brust mit Gerwand r. - bare-headed, draped bust right.
Kopf r. - bare head right.
Kopf mit Löwenfell - head with lion fur (as Herakles)


AMNG III/1 569 identified as bust A, but it is bust K.

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