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ADVENTVS AVGVSTI

Latin: Arrival of the emperor.


DICTIONARY OF ROMAN COINS



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   ADVENTUS AVGVSTI, - This memorial of an Emperor's progresses, is offered most frequently, as well as most interestingly, on the coins of Hadrian, always with the addition of the name of the province, or city, which that great prince had visited: viz., Africae, Alexandriae, Arabiae, Asiae, Bithyniae, Brittaniae, Ciliciae, Galliae, Hispaniae, Italiae, Judaeae, Macedoniae, Mauretaniae, Moesiae, Phrygiae, Siciliae, Thraciae.  These are all on the first brass, but seven of them (see Akerman's Descr. Cat, vol, i) are also to be found on second brass, and three on gold and silver.
   The solicitude of Hadrian to become acquainted, by ocular observation and personal inquiry, with the customs, manners, laws, and condition of the various peoples, comprehended within the limits of his vast empire, induced him to be continually travelling through its different provinces and colonies; to visit the chief cities, and to inspect the principal legionary masses of the Roman army. He made these excursions (of greater or less extent, and occupying more or less time) accompanied by only a few attendants, generally on foot and often bare headed, seeing everything, investigating everything, and every where establishing the greatest order.
   The accomplishment of numerous journeys and visitations were, by his direction and with the sanction of the Senate, chronologically recorded, in a series of coins, which are remarkable for their fine style of workmanship. It comprises, as already noticed, all the Roman provinces, and confirms what History tells us of this emperor's voyages. The number of these geographical coins is considerable, and with good reason sought for. Some are very rare, others sufficiently common. The first class of them includes the names of the provinces and towns through which Hadrian passed. On these the countries, cities, and rivers are represented by a figure and some attribute; as Egyptos, Alexandria, Nilus.
   The second expresses the satisfaction which the people experienced, or were supposed to have experienced at his arrival among them: an event which is indicated by the legend of the reverse - ADVENTVI AVG.; whilst the type (as in that of Africa, Judaea, Macedonia, &c.) exhibits the Emperor, and the Genius of the Province, standing opposite each other, and an altar (with its victim) between them, at which they are performing sacrifice. 
   The third class shows, through the medium of ingenious allegories, the benefits and reliefs which Hadrian bestowed on the oppressed provinces. In this branch of the series the Emperor is called RESTITUTOR, the restorer of the particular country, (as Achaia, Asia, Africa, Gallia, Hispania, &c.) and he raises up a kneeling figure.
   A fourth and last class refers to the military exercises, which he caused to be practiced, and to the discipline which he maintained amongst his legions, in their respective encampments and garrisons. The review of troops by the Emperor in person is usually figured by a type of allocution, with the name of the army, as in his EXERCITVS DACICVS, GERMANICVS, MAVRETANICUS, &c. on which are an equestrian figure, and four or five foot soldiers carrying military ensigns.

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