ERIC Table of Contents


|Title Page|

|Introduction|

|About| |Roman| |Coins|

|Denominations|

|Coins| of |Other| |Ancient| |Cultures|

|Identifying| |Roman| |Coins|

|How| |To| |Use| |This| |Book|

|Mintmarks|

|Mint| |Map|

|Pricing| And |Grading|

|Bibliography|

|Reference| |Catalogs| |Cited|

|Coin| |Terms| |Used|

|Glossary|

|Rarity Tables|

|Index| of |Rulers|

|Photography| |Credits|

|Additional| |Web| |Resources|

Imperial Catalog:

|AUGUSTUS|
|LIVA|
|AGRIPPA|
|NERO| |CLAUDIUS| |DRUSUS|
|GERMANICUS|
|AGRIPPINA I|
|TIBERIUS|
|DRUSUS|
|ANTONIA|
|CALIGULA|
|CLAUDIUS I|
|BRITANNICUS|
|AGRIPPINA II|
|NERO|
|GALBA|
|CLODIUS| |MACER|
|OTHO|
|VITELLIUS|
|VESPASIAN|
|DOMITILLA|
|TITUS|
|DOMITIAN|
|DOMITIA|
|JULIA| |TITI|
|NERVA|
|TRAJAN|
|PLOTINA|
|MARCIANA|
|MATIDIA|
|HADRIAN|
|SABINA|
|AELIUS|
|ANTONINUS| |PIUS|
|FAUSTINA I|
|MARCUS| |AURELIUS|
|FAUSTINA| |II|
|LUCIUS| |VERUS|
|LUCILLA|
|COMMODUS|
|CRISPINA|
|PERTINAX|
|DIDIUS| |JULIANUS|
|MANLIA| |SCANTILLA|
|DIDIA CLARA|
|PESCENNIUS| |NIGER|
|CLODIUS| |ALBINUS|
|SEPTIMIUS| |SEVERUS|
|JULIA| |DOMNA|
|CARACALLA|
|PLAUTILLA|
|GETA|
|MACRINUS|
|DIADUMENIAN|
|ELAGABALUS|
|JULIA| |MAESA|
|JULIA| |SOAEMIAS|
|JULIA| |PAULA|
|AQUILIA| |SEVERA|
|ANNIA| |FAUSTINA|
|SEVERUS| |ALEXANDER|
|JULIA| |MAMAEA|
|ORBIANA|
|MAXIMINUS I|
|PAULINA|
|MAXIMUS|
|GORDIAN I|
|GORDIAN II|
|BALBINUS|
|PUPIENUS|
|GORDIAN III|
|TRANQUILLINA|
|PHILIP I|
|OTACILIA| |SEVERA|
|PHILIP II|
|PACATIAN|
|JOTAPIAN|
|TRAJAN| |DECIUS|
|HERENNIA| |ETRUSCILLA|
|HERENNIUS| |ETRUSCUS|
|HOSTILIAN|
|TREBONIANUS| |GALLUS|
|VOLUSIAN|
|AEMILIAN|
|CORNELIA| |SUPERA|
|SILBANNACUS|
|URANIUS| |ANTONINUS|
|VALERIAN I|
|MARINIANA|
|VALERIAN II|
|GALLIENUS|
|SALONINA|
|SALONINUS|
|REGALIANUS|
|DRYANTILLA|
|POSTUMUS|
|LAELIANUS|
|MARIUS|
|VICTORINUS|
|DOMITIAN II|
|TETRICUS I|
|TETRICUS II|
|QUIETUS|
|MACRIANUS|
|CLAUDIUS II|
|QUINTILLUS|
|AURELIAN|
|SEVERINA|
|ZENOBIA|
|VABALATHUS|
|TACITUS|
|FLORIAN|
|PROBUS|
|SATURNINUS|
|CARUS|
|CARINUS|
|MAGNIA| |URBICA|
|NIGRIAN|
|NUMERIAN|
|JULIAN I|
|DIOCLETIAN|
|MAXIMIAN|
|CARAUSIUS|
|ALLECTUS|
|DOMITIUS| |DOMITIANUS|
|CONSTANTIUS I|
|THEODORA|
|GALERIUS|
|GALERIA| |VALERIA|
|SEVERUS II|
|MAXENTIUS|
|ROMULUS|
|CONSTANTINE I|
|HELENA|
|FAUSTA|
|ALEXANDER|
|LICINIUS I|
|CONSTANTIA|
|MAXIMINUS II|
|LICINIUS II|
|CRISPUS|
|VALERIUS| |VALENS|
|MARTINIAN|
|CONSTANTINE II|
|DELMATIUS|
|HANNIBALLIANUS|
|CONSTANS|
|CONSTANTIUS II|
|MAGNENTIUS|
|DECENTIUS|
|NEPOTIAN|
|VETRANO|
|CONSTANTIUS| |GALLUS|
|JULIAN II|
|JOVIAN|
|VALENTINIAN I|
|VALENS|
|PROCOPIUS|
|GRATIAN|
|VALENTINIAN II|
|THEODOSIUS I|
|AELIA| |FLACCILLA|
|MAGNUS| |MAXIMINUS|
|FLAVIUS| |VICTOR|
|EUGENIUS|
|HONORIUS|
|CONSTANTINE III|
|CONSTANS II|
|MAXIMINUS|
|PRISCUS| |ATTALUS|
|JOVINUS|
|SABASTIANUS|
|CONSTANTIUS III|
|GALLA PLACIDIA|
|JOHANNES|
|VALENTINIAN III|
|LICINIA| |EUDOXIA|
|HONORIA|
|PETRONIUS| |MAXIMINUS|
|AVITUS|
|MAJORIAN|
|LIBIUS| |SEVERUS|
|ANTHEMIUS|
|EUPHEMIA|
|ANICIUS| |OLYBRIUS|
|GLYCERIUS|
|JULIUS NEPOS|
|ROMULUS| |AUGUSTUS|
|ARCADIUS|
|EUDOXIA|
|PULCHERIA|
|THEODOSIUS II|
|EUDOCIA|
|MARCIAN|
|LEO I|
|VERINA|
|LEO II|
|ZENO|
|ARIADNE|
|BASILISCUS|
|ZENONIS|
|LEONTIUS I|
|ANASTASIUS I|
|ANONYMOUS| |COINAGE|

ERIC The Encyclopedia of Roman Imperial Coins
by Rasiel Suarez


Philip I 

   Augustus 244-249 

Gordian III was a fairly popular ruler when Philip, a Romanized Arabian, was selected as Praetorian Prefect. This was a highly influential post and one of Philip's duties under Gordian was the control of military supply logistics. Because he was ambitious and longed to be emperor himself he manipulated and purposefully mismanaged the soldiers' food supply in hopes of pinning the blame on the emperor. This worked quite well and the hungry soldiers mutinied and killed Gordian. Before the treasonous conspiracy could be investigated, Philip finished the game plan by proclaiming himself emperor and the Senate went along.  
Philip turned out to be a successful leader on the battlefield. He negotiated a peace treaty with the Persians and headed back to Rome. When new revolts sprouted along the Danube, he sent off Trajan Decius to take care of them. This was poor judgment on his part because Decius would wind up doing such a good job that his soldiers arbitrarily promoted him to Augustus. Philip mustered an army to take on Decius but was beaten and killed in the battle. 
 
Philip I is another very common emperor. The bulk of his coins are represented in the Antoniniani of which there are many reverse types. Larger bronzes are also relatively common but choice specimens are very rare. 
 
Philip is also the last emperor to mint the legendary Denarius. The denomination had been run out of the economy slowly over the past couple of decades and essentially stopped under Gordian III. For old times’ sakes Philip made a few more which today are extreme rarities, probably even rarer than his Aurei but no less expensive. 
 
But for “the people’s coins” you will find that a well preserved Antoninianus can usually be found for less than fifty dollars. For what it’s worth, a look on Ebay on any given day is bound to show over 100 coins of Philip I on auction.  

Busts: 

 
1) Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right 
2) Radiate, cuirassed bust left 
3) Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust left 
4) Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right 

 

Obverses: 

 
1) CONCORDIA AVGVSTORVM 
2) IMP C M IVL PHILIPPVS PF AVG PM 
3) IMP CAES M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG 
4) IMP IVL PHILIPPVS PIVS FEL AVG PM 
5) IMP IVL PHILIPPVS PIVS FELIX AVG PM 
6) IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG 
7) IMP PHILIPPVS AVG 
8) M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG M IVL PHILIPPVS N C 

 

Reverses: 

 
1) ADLOCVTIO AVGVSTORVM 
2) ADVENTVS AVGG 
3) AEQVITAS AVG 
4) AEQVITAS AVGG 
5) AEQVITAS AVGVSTI 
6) AEQVITAS PVBLICA 
7) AETERNIT IMPERI 
8) AETERNITAS AVGG 
9) AETERNITATI AVGG 
10) ANNONA AVGG 
11) CONCORDIA AVGG 
12) COS II PP 
13) DE PIA MATRE PIVS FILIVS 
14) FELICIT TEMPOR 
15) FELICITAS TEMP 
16) FID EXERCIT 
17) FIDES EXERCITVS 
18) FIDES MILIT 
19) FIDES MILITVM 
20) FORTVNA REDVX 
21) IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG 
22) IMP PHILIPPVS AVG 
23) IOVI STATORI 
24) LAET FVNDATA 
25) LAETIT FVNDAT 
26) LAETITIA AVG N 
27) LIBERALITAS AVG 
28) LIBERALITAS AVG II 
29) LIBERALITAS AVG III 
30) LIBERALITAS AVGG II 
31) MARCIA OTACIL SEVERA AVG 
32) MILIARIVM SAECVLVM 
33) NOBILITAS AVGG 
34) PACE FVNDATA 
35) PAX AETERN 
36) PAX AETERNA 
37) PAX AVG 
38) PAX AVGVSTI 
39) PAX FVNDATA 
40) PIETAS AVGG 
41) PM TR P COS PP 
42) PM TR P II COS PP 
43) PM TR P III COS II PP 
44) PM TR P III COS PP 
45) PM TR P IIII COS II PP 
46) PM TR P IIII COS PP 
47) PM TR P V COS II PP 
48) PM TR P V COS III PP 
49) PM TR P VI COS PP 
50) PONTIFEX MAX TR P V COS III PP 
51) PROVIDENT AVG 
52) PROVIDENTIA AVG 
53) ROMAE AETERNAE 
54) SACVLVM NOVVM 
55) SAECVLARES AVGG 
56) SALVS AVG 
57) SALVS AVGG 
58) SECVRIT ORBIS 
59) SECVRITAS ORBIS 
60) SPES FELICTATIS ORBIS 
61) SPES PVBLICA 
62) TRANQVILLITAS AVGG 
63) VICTORIA AVG 
64) VICTORIA AVGG 
65) VICTORIA CARPICA 
66) VIRTVS AVG 
67) VIRTVS AVGG 
68) VIRTVS EXERCITVS 
69) No legend 

 

Types: 

 
1) Aequitas standing left, holding scale and cornucopia. 
2) Annona standing left, holding grain ears over galley prow and cornucopia. 
3) Annona standing left, holding grain ears over modius and cornucopia. 
4) Antelope advancing left. 
5) Antelope advancing right 
6) Apollo seated left, holding branch and resting arm on lyre. 
7) Cippus reading COS / III 
8) Concordia seated left, holding patera and cornucopia. 
9) Concordia seated left, holding scale and cornucopia. 
10) Concordia seated left, sacrificing over altar and holding cornucopia. 
11) Concordia standing left, holding patera and scepter. 
12) Deer advancing left. 
13) Deer advancing right. 
14) Elephant (with rider) advancing left 
15) Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia 
16) Fides standing left, holding a standard in each hand. 
17) Fides standing left, holding scepter and standard. 
18) Fides standing left, holding vexillum and standard. 
19) Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia; wheel under chair. 
20) Goat advancing left. 
21) Hippopotamus standing right 
22) Jupiter standing, facing, holding scepter and thunderbolt 
23) Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and anchor. 
24) Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and rudder 
25) Laetitia standing left, stepping on galley prow, holding patera and rudder 
26) Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopia. 
27) Lion advancing left 
28) Lion advancing right 
29) Mars standing left, holding branch and resting hand on shield. 
30) Minerva standing left, stepping on helmet, holding branch 
31) Nobilitas standing left, holding scepter and globe. 
32) Nobilitas standing right, holding scepter and globe 
33) Otacilia Severa diademed, draped bust right on crescent. 
34) Otacilia Severa diademed, draped bust right. 
35) Pax advancing left, holding branch and scepter. 
36) Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter. 
37) Philip I advancing left, among three soldiers; two standards in background. 
38) Philip I and Philip II each riding a horse right, raising hand and one holding a spear. 
39) Philip I and Philip II riding oncoming quadriga; one holding branch and being crowned by Victory and the other raising hand; soldier on each side. 
40) Philip I and Philip II seated left on platform accompanied by Liberalitas, holding coin counter and cornucopia; citizen on steps to lower left. 
41) Philip I riding horse left, raising hand and holding spear. 
42) Philip I seated left, holding globe and scepter. 
43) Philip I standing left, sacrificing over altar. 
44) Philip I standing left, raising hand and holding scepter; three soldiers standing by and two standards in background. 
45) Philip II laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, facing Otacilia Severa diademed, draped bust left. 
46) Philip II laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right. 
47) Roma seated left, holding Victory and scepter. 
48) Roma seated left, holding Victory and scepter; altar to left. 
49) Salus standing left, feeding snake on altar and holding rudder. 
50) Salus standing right, holding and feeding snake. 
51) Securitas seated left, holding scepter and resting head on hand. 
52) Sol advancing left, raising hand and holding whip. 
53) Sol standing, facing, raising hand and holding globe. 
54) Spes advancing left, holding spear and raising skirt. 
55) Standards (4) 
56) Temple with (6) columns; Roma standing within. 
57) Temple with (8) columns, Roma standing within. 
58) Tranquillitas standing left, holding Capricornus and scepter. 
59) Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm. 
60) Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm. 
61) Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm. 
62) Virtus seated left, holding branch and spear. 
63) Virtus standing left, stepping on helmet, holding branch and spear. 
64) Virtus standing right, holding spear and resting hand on shield. 
65) Wolf standing left, suckling Romulus and Remus 
66) Wolf standing right, right, suckling Romulus and Remus 
67) Wreath, FELI / CITAS / IMPP within. 
68) Wreath, VOTIS DECENNALIBVS within. 

 

Mints: 

 
1) Antioch 
2) Asia, locality uncertain 
3) Roma 
4) Viminacium 

 
 
AU Aureus Reference(s) 
 
1) B1, O6, R10, T03 RIC IViii 28a, C 23 
2) B1, O6, R18, T17 RIC IViii 32a, C 56 
3) B1, O6, R54, T46 RIC IViii 44a, C 168 
4) B1, O7, R34, T01 
5) B1, O7, R56, T07 RIC IViii 24a, C 191 

AU Quinarius Reference(s) 
 
6) B1, O6, R18, T17 RIC IViii 32a, C 56 

 
AR Antoninianus 
 
7) B2, O6, R02, T41 RIC IViii 81, C 4 
8) B2, O6, R11, T08 RIC IViii 83 
9) B2, O6, R46, T15 RIC IViii 76, C 135 
10) B3, O6, R53, T47 RIC IViii 85, C 167 
11) B4, O2, R39, T36 RIC IViii 69, C 113 
12) B4, O2, R60, T54 RIC IViii 70, C 221 
13) B4, O2, R68, T64 RIC IViii 71, C 243 
14) B4, O6, R02, T41 RIC IViii 26b, C 3 
15) B4, O6, R03, T01 
16) B4, O6, R04, T01 RIC IViii 27b, C 9 
17) B4, O6, R10, T02 RIC IViii 29, C 32 
18) B4, O6, R10, T03 RIC IViii 28c, C 25 
19) B4, O6, R15, T15 RIC IViii 31, C 43 
20) B4, O6, R18, T16 RIC IViii 32b, C 55 
21) B4, O6, R18, T17 RIC IViii 33b, C 54 
22) B4, O6, R19, T16 RIC IViii 34b, C 58 
23) B4, O6, R24, T24 RIC IViii 35b, C 72 
24) B4, O6, R28, T26 RIC IViii 38b, C 87 
25) B4, O6, R28, T26 RIC IViii 38b, C 87 
26) B4, O6, R35, T35 RIC IViii 41, C 102 
27) B4, O6, R35, T36 RIC IViii 40b, C 103 
28) B4, O6, R42, T42 RIC IViii 2b 
29) B4, O6, R44, T15 RIC IViii 3, C 124 
30) B4, O6, R45, T15 RIC IViii 4, C 136 
31) B4, O6, R46, T15 RIC IViii 75a, C 130 
32) B4, O6, R49, T15 RIC IViii 78, C 155 
33) B4, O6, R49, T27 
34) B4, O6, R53, T47 RIC IViii 44b, C 169 
35) B4, O6, R53, T48 RIC IViii 45, C 170 
36) B4, O6, R56, T49 RIC IViii 47b, C 205 
37) B4, O6, R58, T51 RIC IViii 48b, C 215 
38) B4, O6, R60, T54 RIC IViii 73, C 220 
39) B4, O6, R62, T59 RIC IViii 50, C 231 
40) B4, O6, R62, T60 RIC IViii 49b, C 227 
41) B4, O6, R62, T61 RIC IViii 51, C 235 
42) B4, O6, R66, T62 RIC IViii 53, C 240 
43) B4, O6, R66, T63 RIC IViii 52, C 239 
44) B4, O6, R68, T64 RIC IViii 74, C 245 
45) B4, O7, R04, T01 RIC IViii 57, C 12 
46) B4, O7, R08, T14 RIC IViii 58, C 17 
47) B4, O7, R10, T03 RIC IViii 59, C 33 
48) B4, O7, R17, T18 RIC IViii 61, C 49 
49) B4, O7, R17, T54 RIC IViii 62, C 50 
50) B4, O7, R17, T54 RIC IViii 84a 
51) B4, O7, R20, T18 RIC IViii 63b, C 65 
52) B4, O7, R33, T32 RIC IViii 8, C 98 
53) B4, O7, R32, T32 ¿ in left field RIC IViii 8, C 98 
54) B4, O7, R45, T15 RIC IViii 5, C 137 
55) B4, O7, R47, T29 A in left field RIC IViii 7, C 145 
56) B4, O7, R53, T48 RIC IViii 65, C 171 
57) B4, O7, R54, T56 RIC IViii 25b, C 198 
58) B4, O7, R54, T56 RIC IViii 86b 
59) B4, O7, R55, T04 Exe: UI RIC IViii 21, C 189 
60) B4, O7, R55, T07 RIC IViii 24c, C 193 
61) B4, O7, R55, T12 Exe: III RIC IViii 17, C 186 
62) B4, O7, R55, T13 Exe: U RIC IViii 19, C 182 
63) B4, O7, R55, T28 Exe: I RIC IViii 12 
64) B4, O7, R55, T65 Exe: II RIC IViii 15, C 178 
65) B4, O7, R62, T58 B in left field RIC IViii 9, C 223 
66) B4, O7, R67, T38 RIC IViii 10, C 241 
67) B4, O7, R69, T67 RIC IViii 60, C 39 

 
AR Denarius 
 
68) B1, O6, R28, T26 
69) B1, O6, R40, T45 C 5 

 
AE Medallion 
 
70) B1, O3, R41, T44 Gnecchi 4, C 115 

 
AE Sestertius 
 
71) B1, O6, R04, T01 RIC IViii 166a, C 10 
72) B1, O6, R08, T14 Exe: SC RIC IViii 167a, C 18 
73) B1, O6, R10, T03 RIC IViii 168a, C 26 
74) B1, O6, R15, T15 RIC IViii 169a, C 44 
75) B1, O6, R17, T55 Exe: SC RIC IViii 171a, C 51 
76) B1, O6, R19, T16 RIC IViii 172a, C 59 
77) B1, O6, R20, T19 Exe: SC RIC IViii 174a, C 67 
78) B1, O6, R24, T25 RIC IViii 176a, C 76 
79) B1, O6, R28, T26 RIC IViii 180a, C 88 
80) B1, O6, R39, T36 RIC IViii 184a, C 105 
81) B1, O6, R42, T42 Exe: SC RIC IViii 148a, C 121 
82) B1, O6, R44, T15 RIC IViii 149a, C 123 
83) B1, O6, R54, T57 Exe: SC  RIC IViii 164, C 201 
84) B1, O6, R55, T04 Exe: SC RIC IViii 161, C 190 
85) B1, O6, R55, T05 Exe: SC RIC IViii 160a, C 183 
86) B1, O6, R55, T28 Exe: SC RIC IViii 158, C 176 
87) B1, O6, R55, T65 Exe: SC RIC IViii 159, C 248 
88) B1, O6, R58, T51 Exe: SC RIC IViii 190, C 216 
89) B1, O7, R45, T15 RIC IViii 150c, C 140 
90) B1, O7, R48, T42 Exe: SC RIC IViii 154a, C 151 

 
AE Dupondius Reference(s) 
 
91) B4, O6, R19, T16 RIC IViii 172c, C 61 
92) B4, O6, R33, T32 RIC IViii 155, C 99 

 
AE As 
 
93) B1, O6, R19, T16 RIC IViii 172b, C 60 
94) B1, O6, R28, T26 RIC IViii 180b, C 89 
95) B1, O6, R55, T05 Exe: SC RIC IViii 160b,C 184 
96) B1, O6, R55, T07 RIC IViii 162b, C 196 

 

Philip I Busts 

Philip I Types