Previous Version
Current Version





















Caria


Ashton, R. “The Solar Disk Drachms of Caria” in NC 1990.
Ashton, R., et al. “The Pixodarus Hoard” in Coin Hoards IX (2002).
Göktürk, M.T. “A Hoard of Hellenistic Silver Coins of Myndos, Halikarnassos, and Knidos” in Studies in Ancient Coinage from Turkey (London, 1996).
Head, B.V. A Catalog of the Greek Coins in the British Museum, Caria, Cos, Rhodes, etc. (London, 1897).
Hurter. S. “Lions and lionesses, eagles and a few heads: a new uncertain mint in Caria” in Essays Hersh.
Imhoof-Blumer, F. Kleinasiatische Münzen. (Vienna, 1901-2).
Imhoof-Blumer, F. Zur griechischen und römischen Münkunde. (1908).
Klein, Dieter. Sammlung von griechischen Kleinsilbermünzen und Bronzen, Nomismata 3. (Milano, 1999).
Konuk, K. “Coin Legends in Carian” in I.J. Adiego, ed., The Carian Language (Leiden, 2007).
Konuk, K. “Influences et Eléments Achéménides dans le monnayage de la Carie” in MIMAA.
Konuk, K. “The Early Coinage of Kaunos” in Essays Price, pp. 197 - 224 and pls. 47 - 50.
Meadows, A.R. "Stratonikeia in Caria: the Hellenistic City and its Coinage" in NC 2002.
Numismatik Lanz, Auktion 13: Sammlung Karl, Münzen von Karien. (27 Nov 2006).
Price, M.J. & N. Waggoner. Archaic Greek Silver Coinage, The "Asyut" Hoard. (London, 1975).
Sear, D. Greek Coins and Their Values, Volume 2, Asia and Africa. (London, 1979).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Denmark, The Royal Collection of Coins and Medals, Danish National Museum, Vol. 5: Ionia, Caria and Lydia. (West Milford, NJ, 1982).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, Münzsammlung Universität Tübingen, Part 5: Karien und Lydien. (Berlin, 1994).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, Sammlung Hans Von Aulock, Vol. 2: Caria, Lydia, Phrygia, Lycia, Pamphylia. (Berlin, 1962).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Finland, The Erkki Keckman Collection in the Skopbank, Helsinki, Part 1: Karia. (Helsinki, 1994).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain VI, Corpus Christi College Cambridge, The Lewis Collection II: The Greek Imperial Coins. (1992).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Turkey I: The Muharrem Kayhan Collection. (Istanbul, 2002).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Turkey VIII: Mugla Museum, Vol. 1: Caria. (Istanbul, 2012).
Troxell, H.A. “Carians in Miniature” in Studies Mildenberg.
Troxell, H.A. “Winged Carians” in Essays Thompson.
Yarkin, U. “The Coinage of Syangela in Caria” in NC 1975.
Waggoner, N.M. Early Greek Coins from the Collection of Jonathan P. Rosen (ANS ACNAC 5). (New York, 1983).



In Caria, properly so called,—that is to say, in the inland districts,—
there was no coinage whatever before Alexander’s conquest; and, on the
coast, Cnidus and Chersonesus, Idyma, Termera, Astyra, and perhaps
Caunus, appear to have been the only mints before the commencement of
the fine series of coins of the Hecatomnid dynasty. In the Greek islands,
on the other hand (Calymna, Cos, Rhodes, &c.), silver coins were in general
use from very early times. The defeat of Antiochus by the Romans in

607

B.C. 190 marks the beginning of a new era, and of a rapid development of
commercial activity, accompanied by the introduction of autonomous
coinages at all the principal centres of population. The quasi-regal issues
of Alexandrine tetradrachms and of imitations of the gold Philippus were,
in the second and first centuries, superseded by autonomous municipal
silver coinages, some of which, e. g. those of Stratoniceia, Tabae, &c.,
survived into early Imperial times. As a rule, however, the coinage of
Caria, from Augustus to Gallienus, was restricted to bronze (B. M. C., Caria, Introd., p. xxv).


Alabanda (Arab-hissar), originally an old Carian town, was situate on
the river Marsyas, about twenty miles south of its confluence with the
Maeander. It is mentioned as one of the allies of Rome in the war
against Philip V of Macedon, circ. B.C. 197; and about this time it
appears to have struck tetradrachms and smaller divisions reading
ΑΛΑΒΑΝΔΕΩΝ with obv. Head of Apollo, rev. Pegasos and magistrate’s name in nominative case. After B.C. 197 Alabanda received
the name of Antiocheia, in honour of Antiochus, who was for a few
years master of the country, and, until his defeat (B.C. 190), its coins were
inscribed ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ. After the battle of Magnesia, Alabanda resumed its old name, and, either immediately or about twenty years later,
B.C. 168 (when Caria and Lycia were declared free by the Roman
Senate), began to strike tetradrachms of the Alexandrine type (Müller,
Num. d'Alex., 1144-50), also tridrachms, didrachms, and octobols of
the Rhodian standard (B. M. C., Caria, Pl. I. 7-9) with inscr., ΑΛΑΒΑΔΩΝ, and obv. Head of Apollo, rev. Pegasos or Tripod in laurel-wreath.
Bronze coins of various types are also assigned to this period (B. M. C., Caria, p. 3; Imh., Gr. M., 137; Kl. M., 104; and Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk.,
p. 80). After a long interval Alabanda began once more to strike coins,
quasi-autonomous and Imperial, in the time of Augustus, but its coinage
seems to have ceased altogether after the time of Caracalla. A few specimens only bear magistrates’ names in nominative case with title Ιππαρχης,
under Augustus, and later, with επι or επι αρχ[οντος]. The remarkable
inscription. ΑΤΕΛΕΙΑC and ΑΤΕΛΕΙΟC (B. M. C., Caria, Pl. II. 2) (immunitas a
tributis) may be connected with the fact that Alabanda had built a temple
to the goddess Roma before B.C. 170 (B. M. C., Caria, xxix). Chief types—
Heads or figures of ΘЄΑ ΡΩΜΗ; CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC; Demos(?); Tyche;
Apollo ΚΙCCΙΟC holding raven and bow, and with ram at his feet
(Z. f. N., viii. Pl. II. 5); Draped Apollo holding raven and laurel branch,
lyre on a cippus beside him; Large laurel bough with three branches,
filleted; Zeus ΕΠΙ ΚΟΥΡΟC (sic) Bust of Zeus Epikurios; Bust of
ΑΡΤΕΜΙC; &c. (Num. Zeit., 1884, 267).


»WW
»SNG B
»ANS


Alinda (Demirji-deresi) was situated on a rocky height commanding the
plain of the Karpuzli-ova, through which an affluent of the Marsyas flows
in an easterly direction towards Alabanda, about twelve miles distant.
The district called Hidrias, of which Alinda was the chief town and a
strong fortress, was ceded by Ada, the widow of Hidrieus, to Alexander
the Great. Its earliest coins (Æ) date from the second century B.C. Inscr.,
ΑΛΙΝΔΕΩΝ. Obv. Head of Herakles. Rev. Lion-skin hanging over club,
the whole in oak-wreath, imitated from contemporary half-cistophori; also
Club in oak-wreath; Winged fulmen; Bow in case; Bipennis; Pegasos;

608

&c. Other specimens, with obv. Head of Herakles, rev. Club, and obv.
Head of young Dionysos, rev. Sistrum, are described by Imhoof (Zur
gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 80). After an interval the coinage is resumed in
Imperial times, Augustus to Caracalla or later. Magistrate, sometimes
with title ΕΠΙ ΑΡΧΟ[τος]. Types—The Dioskuri; Sarapis and Isis;
Zeus(?) draped, with right arm raised; Apollo Kitharistes.; Herakles and
Keryneian stag; Herakles to front crowned by Nike; &c. (B. M. C., Caria, Pl. II. 9-12).


»SNG B
»ANS


Amyzon. This small town stood on a height (some ten miles northwest of Alinda) which is now called Mazyn Kalessi. It struck a few
coins in the first century B.C. Inscr., ΑΜΥΖΟΝΕΩΝ Types—Obv. Bust
of Artemis, rev. Lyre, Torch, or Stag; Magistrate’s name ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟC on
some specimens (Imh., Gr. M. 662, and Mon. gr., 304). There is also
a coin with the head of Augustus, as well as one or two quasi-autonomous
coins of Imperial times. Types—Obv. Zeus Labrandeus standing, with
inscr. ΧΩΜΑ ... ΟC(?), rev. Apollo standing (N. Z., 1884, 268); also
obv. Laureate head, rev. Female head with straight curls (B. M. C., Caria,
Pl. III. 1). For further list see Z. f. N., xxiv, p. 129 f.


Antiocheia ad Maeandrum stood on high ground overlooking the
plain of the Maeander at its confluence with the Morsynus. Its foundation dates from early Seleucid times. When Caria received the gift of
freedom from the Roman Senate, B.C. 168, Antiocheia began to strike
coins, Tetradrachms, obv. Head of Zeus, rev. ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ, Eagle on
fulmen and magistrate’s name in circular Maeander pattern (B. M. C., Caria, Pl. XLV. 10), also obv. Head of Apollo, rev. Humped bull in
circular Maeander pattern surmounted by pilei of Dioskuri (B. M. C., Caria, Pl. III. 3). On the contemporary drachms the bull is recumbent
(op. cit., Pl. III. 4), and on the bronze coins the humped bull or an eagle
are frequent reverse types (Pl. III. 6, with inscr. ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ ΤΩΝ
ΠΡΟΣ ΤΩ ΜΑΙΑΝΔΡΩ), heads of Mên and of Apollo being the ordinary
types of the obverses. For other types see Imh., Kl. M., 108. Some of
these autonomous bronze coins have magistrates’ names in genitive case.
There are also gold Philippi from a find at Aidin, with mint letters ΑΝ
(B. M. C., Caria, cviii), and Alexandrine tetradrachms (Müller, Num.
d'Alex., 1176-7) which were probably issued at Antiocheia in the second
century B.C.


»WW
»ANS


The subsequent coinage, quasi-autonomous and Imperial, ranges
from Augustus to Salonina, with heads and names of Emperors or of
ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC; ΙЄΡΑ ΒΟΥΛΗ; ΒΟΥΛΗ; ΔΗΜΟC; ΙЄΡΑ ΓΕΡΟΥCΙΑ; ΖЄΥC ΒΟΥΛΑΙΟC; ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟC (the founder); ΝΑΡΒΙC (city
goddess); and figures of ΖЄΥC ΒΟΥΛΑΙΟC standing (Imh., Kl. M., 110);
ΖЄΥC ΚΑΠЄΤΩΛΙΟC seated, or in temple; ΑΝΤΙΟΧЄΙΑ seated; ΡΩΜΗ
seated; ΗΡΑ standing; River-god ΜΟΡCΥΝΟC standing; CΩΖΩΝ
standing; River-god ΜΑΙΑΝΔΡΕ recumbent; ΚΤΙCΤΗC standing;
and many other conventional figures of various divinities. Also a Liknophoros supporting a basket (?) on his head (B. M. C., Caria, Pl. IV. 3);
Hekate triformis; Nemesis; Artemis Ephesia; Atys; a representation
of a bridge over the Maeander consisting of six arches and adorned with
statues of the River-god and two figures standing, &c. (Fig. 303).

609




FIG. 303.


From Augustus to Claudius coins were issued by a ΣΥΝΑΡΧΙΑ or
Collegium, under the presidency of a chief magistrate, e.g. ΙΑΣΟΝΟΣ
ΣΥΝΑΡΧΙΑ (Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 81), ΑΓΕΛΑΟΥ
ΣΥΝΑΡΧΙΑ (Imh. Kl. M., 110), and, under Domitian, the name of this
official or commissioner appointed to supervise the coinage is accompanied
by ЄΠΙΜЄΛΗΘЄΝΤΟC (see v. Fritze, Nomisma, i, p. 3).


Alliance coins with Aphrodisias (Commodus, Imh., Kl. M., 112),
and Laodiceia ad Lycum (Commodus, Mion. iii. 318, 87).


Aphrodisias stood on one of the western spurs of Mount Salbacus,
about 1,600 feet above the sources of the river Morsynus, some 20 miles
south-east of Antiocheia. The little river Timeles, one of the affluents
of the Harpasus, took its rise in the territory of the city, and personifications of both streams occur on the coins. The neighbouring town of
Plarasa was, during the latter part of the first century B.C., united with
Aphrodisias, and the two together formed a single community upon
which the rights of ελευθερια and ατελεια were conferred in the time of
M. Antony, B.C. 39-35.


»ANS


Both cities appear, however, to have struck independently a few
autonomous bronze coins before their union (B. M. C., Caria, p. xxxiii).


The coinage of silver drachms and bronze in their joint names
ΠΛΑΡΑΣΕΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΑΦΡΟΔΙΣΙΕΩΝ belongs probably to the end of
the first century B.C. The type of the drachm is a veiled head of
Aphrodite, rev. Eagle on fulmen. The types of the autonomous bronze
coins are more varied, e. g. Double-axe, rev. Cuirass; Bust of Eros, rev.
Rose or Double-axe; Bust of Aphrodite, rev. Double-axe; Head of Zeus,
rev. Cultus-statue of Aphrodite; Head of Aphrodite, rev. Ares standing, &c.


Magistrates’ names, one or more in nominative case, often accompanied
with patronymic, and, in one instance, with title ΙΕΡΕΥΣ ΔΗΜΟΥ
(B. M. C., Caria, p. 26, 6). The quasi-autonomous and Imperial coins
range from Augustus to Salonina. Inscr., ΑΦΡΟΔΕΙCΙЄΩΝ. Magistrates’ names with titles ΥΙΟC ΑΦΡΟΔΙCΙЄΩΝ or ΥΙΟC ΠΟΛЄΩC
Archiereus, Hiereus, Archineokoros, Archon, or the board of Archons
(ЄΠΙ ΑΡΧΟΝΤΩΝ ΤΩΝ ΠЄΡΙ ΜЄΝЄCΘЄΑ ΙCΟΒΟΥΝΟΝ). In many
instances the coins are so-called dedicatory issues, with ΑΝЄΘΗΚЄ,
e.g. by an Archiereus or Hiereus, to his native city, ΤΗ ΠΑΤΡΙΔΙ,
or on the occasion of an agonistic victory, ЄΠΙΝΙΚΙΟΝ or the
dedicator, while providing the means for the issue as a λειτουργια,
may also have supervised it, ЄΠΙΜЄΛΗΘЄΝΤΟC (see von Fritze,

610

Nomisma, i, p. 3). Games—ΚΑΠЄΤΩΑΙ Α, ΚΑΠЄΤΩΛΙΑ ΠΥΘΙΑ,
ΓΟΡΔΙΑΝΗΑ ΠΥΘΙΑ, ΓΟΡΔΙΑΝΗΑ ΑΤΤΑΛΗΑ, ΟΙΚΟΥΜЄΝΙΚΟC
ΓΟΡΔΙΑΝΗΑ ΟΥΑΛΕΡΙΑΝΑ ΟΙΚΟΥΜΕΝΙΚΑ. Types—Busts of ΙΕΡΑ
CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC, ΙЄΡΑ (or ЄΙЄΡΑ) ΒΟΥΛΗ ΒΟΥΛΗ, ΙЄΡΟC ΔΗΜΟC,
ЄΛЄΥΘΕΡΟC ΔΗΜΟC, ΔΗΜΟC, &c. River gods—MOPCYNOC and
ΤΙΜЄΛΗC. The reverse-types, as a rule, refer to the presiding goddess
of the city, Aphrodite, who is represented either in the form of an
archaic cultus-statue with a small seated priestess behind it and an
altar in front, or in Hellenic form often attended by Erotes or Eros and
Anteros (Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 82), and sometimes beside
Ares, or as Aphrodite Pelagia riding on a sea-goat (Imh., Kl. M.,
Pl. IV. 14). Temples of Aphrodite also occur, and among other types
are-Nemesis winged; Dionysos beside stele, with hand resting on his
head; the three Charites; Two naked athletes and γυμναστης (Imh.,
Kl. M., 118); Adonis charging wild boar; Hermes Agoraios; Hermes
dragging ram; Leafless tree on either side of which are two men, one of
whom strikes at it with an axe. (Cf. the myth of the birth of Adonis
(Apollod., iii. 14, 3; Hyginus, Fab. 58 and 161) and coins of Myra
Lyciae, where a similar, though not identical, type occurs.) For many
other less remarkable types see B. M. C., Caria, Imhoof, op. cit., &c.,
where other references will be found.


Alliance coins with Ephesus (S. Severus); with Antiocheia (Sev. Alex.);
cf. also Antiocheia with Aphrodisias (Commodus) and Hierapolis with
Aphrodisias (Commodus).


Apollonia Salbace. This town is placed at the modern village Medet,
about ten miles north-east of Tabae and south of the Salbacus mountains.
For coins of the first century B.C. formerly attributed to this city see
B. M. C., Lydia (Pl. XXXVIII. 1-5). These are now assigned to Tripolis on
the Maeander, which it would seem was originally called Apollonia. The
earliest undisputed coins of Apollonia Salbace are therefore quasi-autonomous and Imperial, Augustus to Salonina. Inscr., ΑΠΟΑΛΩΝΙΑΤΩΝ. Magistrate, sometimes with title Strategos, on earlier coins
in nominative case usually with patronymic (cf. Imhoof, Zur gr. u.
röm. Münzk., p. 84 sqq.); on later coins in genitive, occasionally with
δια or επι; Hiereus with ΑΝΕΘΗΚΕ. Types—Busts of ΑΠΟΛΑΩΝΙΑ
CΑΛΒΑΚΗ, ΙΕΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC, ΙΕΡΑ ΒΟΥΛΗ, ΙΕΡΟC ΔΗΜΟC,
ΔΗΜΟC, Athena, Apollo, Sarapis, &c. Reverses—Apollo draped, holding
raven and branch, or with lyre at his feet; Zeus Nikephoros seated;
Asklepios and Hygieia; Temple containing three statues (Imhoof, Kl. M.,
p. 121, No. 9); Daphne kneeling, clasping laurel tree and looking back at
Apollo, who follows her (Z. f. N., vii. 218); Helios in quadriga; Emperor
on horseback hunting wild beasts; Isis standing; Pan with goat;
Demeter; Zeus Laodikeus between city-goddess and Athena (Imh.,
Gr. M., 145); Zeus seated holding child (Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk.,
p. 85); &c.


Astyra, a town on the peninsula of Mount Phoenix opposite Rhodes,
described by Steph. Byz. as πολις Φοινικης κατα Ποδον.


»ANS

611

Silver of the Babylonic Standard.


Circ. B.C. 500-408.




Amphora. [B. M. C., Car., Pl. X. 1.]
ΑΣΤV Oenochoë and lyre (‘chelys’),
beneath which, tendril with bud.
AR Stater, 149.5 grs.

Oenochoë in circle. [Ibid., Pl. X. 2.]
Incuse square, diagonally quartered.
AR 9.8 grs.

Α, Vase with one handle.

[Ibid., Pl. X. 3.]
Α, Oenochoë without foot.
AR 16.8 grs.

Rose.
Α, in incuse square.
AR 3.2 grs.



Fourth century B.C.




Head of Helios, facing, as on coins of
Rhodes.
ΑΣΤΥ Amphora with small oenochoë
beside it.
Æ .8-.5

Head of Aphrodite (?).

[Ibid., Pl. X. 5-8.]
ΑΣΤΥ Similar.
Æ .5-.35



Attuda, on the borderland of Caria and Phrygia, was situated on the
northern slope of the Salbacus range. Its territory was bounded on the
north by the Maeander and on the east by that of Laodiceia. Its earliest
coins are silver drachms of the first century B.C., contemporary with those
of Aphrodisias and Plarasa.


»SNG B
»ANS





Head of Kybele, turreted.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. X. 9.]
ΑΤΤΟΥΔΔΕΩΝ Apollo naked, leaning on column. Three magistrates’
names in nominative case.
AR 53 grs.



The next issues are quasi-autonomous and Imperial, ranging from
Augustus(?) to Gallienus. Inscr., ΑΤΤΟVΔЄΩΝ. Magistrates’ names
usually with δια and titles, VΙΟC ΠΟΛЄΩC ΑCΙΑΡΧΗC, and ΙЄΡЄΙΑ.
On a coin of S. Severus ЄΠΙΜЄ[ληθεντος] takes the place of δια,
and coins with ΑΝЄΘΗΚЄ are also recorded, issued by a hereditary Priestess, Ulpia Claudiana, in the time of the Antonines, and
reading ЄΠΙ CΤЄΦ(ανηφορον) ΟVΛΠΙΑC ΚΛΑVΔΙΑΝΗC (Imhoof, Zur gr.
u. röm. Münzk., p. 87). Types—ΙЄΡΑ CVΝΚΛΗΤΟC, ΙЄΡΑ ΒΟVΛΗ,
ΒΟVΛΗ ΒΟVΛΗ and ΔΗΜΟC face to face, ΔΗΜΟC, ΑΤΤΟVΔΑ, ΠΟΛΙC,
Zeus, Athena, Asklepios, Helios, Sarapis, &c., and ΜΗΝ ΚΑΡΟV (B. M. C., Car., Pl. X. 15), in whose temple, near Attuda, Mên was worshipped
in Strabo’s time, (ob. c. A.D. 19); Altar of the god Mên, on which are
two pine-cones, &c.; Kybele standing or seated between lions, or in
temple; Leto carrying her children; Zeus naked, wielding fulmen;
Apollo naked; Dionysos; Asklepios and Hygieia; Rider-god (Sabazios)
with double-axe; Cultus-statue of draped goddess (Artemis Anaïtis ?);
Nemesis; Dioskuri standing; Tree with altar before it, &c. Attuda was
closely united with the neighbouring cities Aphrodisias and Trapezopolis
in the common worship of Kybele, under the name of Μητηρ ‘Αδραστος,
and of Mên Karou (Ramsay, C. and B. Phryg., 166).


Alliance coin with Trapezopolis (Ant. Pius) (Imh., Kl. M., 126) with
inscription ΔΙΑ Μ. ΟΥΛ. ΚΛΑΥΔΙΑΝΟΥ ΥΙΟΥ ΤΟΥ ΔΗΜΟΥ.

612

Bargasa. Site uncertain, but probably a few miles south of the
Maeander (B. M. C., Car., p. xlii). Quasi-autonomous and Imperial
coins, Nero to Gallienus. Inscr., ΒΑΡΓΑCΗΝΩΝ. Magistrates on
late coins with επι, but without title. Types—ΙЄΡΑ ΒΟΥΛΗ; Rev.
Herakles standing; Artemis Ephesia; Temple of Asklepios; Asklepios
and Hygieia; Telesphoros; Emperor on horseback; &c.


»ANS


Bargylia, on the south shore of the gulf called after it and nearly opposite Iasus. In the first century B.C. it struck drachms (wt. circ. 46 grs.)
and bronze coins,—obv. Veiled head of Artemis Kindyas, rev. ΒΑΡΓΥΛΙΗΤΩΝ Pegasos, or Bellerophon on Pegasos; obv. Cultus-statue of the same
goddess, rev. Stag; obv. Forepart of Pegasos, rev. Forepart of Stag; obv.
Head of Apollo, rev. Bow and Quiver, &c. Bargylia was said to have been
founded by Bellerophon in honour of his companion Bargylos, who had
been killed by a kick from Pegasos. The types refer to this legend and
to the cultus of Artemis Kindyas at the neighbouring temple open to the
sky, containing the cultus-statue of the goddess, upon which neither rain
nor snow ever fell (Polyb., xvi. 12; Strab., 658). Bargylia struck a few
Imperial coins, Augustus to Geta. Types—Cultus-statue of Artemis
Kindyas, with stag beside her; Asklepios; &c. They are without magistrates’ names.


»WW
»ANS


Callipolis. Arrian (Anab. ii. 5, 7) mentions Callipolis with Halicarnassus, Myndus, Caunus, and Thera, as a citadel held by Orontobates
against Ptolemy and Asander. An inscription found near Idyma, in
which δημος Καλλιπολιταν is mentioned, probably indicates its site (Imh.,
Kl. M., 138). Imhoof (Mon. gr., p. 307, and Kl. M., 138) attributes to this
town the following coins of the second century B.C. :—





Head of Apollo.
ΚΑΛΛΙΠΟΛΙΤΑΝ Quiver in shallow
incuse square.
Æ .65

Id.
ΚΑΛ Ram standing.
Æ .4



Caryanda. The site of this place has been fixed by Myres and Paton
at a few miles north of Telmessus. Imhoof (Mon. gr., 307) assigns to it
small bronze coins probably of the third century. B.C. or earlier.


»ANS





Female head wearing stephane.
ΚΑΡΥ Forepart of bull.
Æ .4



Caunus, which stood on the river Calbis about four miles from its
harbour, was an important naval station opposite Rhodes. In B. M. C., Caria, p. xliv, I have suggested that the following archaic staters may
have been struck there before the Persian Conquest.


»WW
»SNG B
»ANS





Forepart of lion with or Ο on shoulder.
Incuse square, divided into two oblong
halves, as on early coins of Camirus
and Lindus.
AR 172.2 grs.



To the latter half of the fourth century the following bronze coins may
belong :—





Rushing bull or forepart of bull (River
Calbis?).



KA
Sphinx, seated.
Æ .4
 Y



613


After Alexander’s death Caunus was successively possessed by the
satrap Asander, by Eumenes, by Antigonus (B.C. 313), and from 309 till
189 by the Ptolemies, when it was purchased by the Rhodians, from
whom it revolted in 167, when its freedom was recognized by the Roman
Senate.


To the period of Ptolemaic rule (B.C. 309-189) the following coins
seem to belong :—





Head of Alexander the Great.
Κ  ΑΥ Filleted cornucopiae; symbol ♀.
AR 14.1 grs.

Similar.
Same; no symbol.
Æ .45

Helmeted head.
Similar.
Æ .6



Under the Rhodian rule, B.C. 189-167, Caunus may have issued small
silver coins of the Rhodian type, but differentiated from the Rhodian
issues by the addition of an eagle in front of the cheek of the full-face
head of Helios (B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXIX. 12-14).


After 167 B.C.


To the short period of autonomy after 167 the following silver and
bronze coins probably belong :—





Head of Zeus.

[Z. f. N., xxiv, Pl. III. 16.]
Κ ΑΥ Winged fulmen; magistrate's
name; in shallow incuse square.
AR 40 grs.

Helmeted head of Athena.
Κ ΑΥ Sword in sheath. Magistrate's
name and symbol.
AR 17.4 grs.

Head of Apollo.
Id. Æ .4

Head of Apollo.

[Imh., Kl. M., Pl. V. 12.]
Κ ΑΥ Naked figure l., holding transverse sceptre with serpent twined
round lower end.
Æ .6



Ceramus, on the north coast of the Ceramic gulf about thirty miles west
of Halicarnassus, was one of the most important towns of the Chrysaorian confederacy (see Stratoniceia). Its earliest coinage may be compared with the contemporary issues of Stratoniceia.


»WW
»ANS


Second or first century B.C.




Head of Zeus.
ΚΕΡΑΜΙΗ ///////////// Eagle with head turned
back, in shallow incuse
square.
AR 38.6 grs.

Id.
ΚΕΡΑΜΙ Eagle r., in shallow incuse
square. Magistrate’s name.
Æ .5

Beardless head, with formal curls.
ΚΕΡΑΜΙΗ Bull’s head, facing. Magistrate’s name.
Æ .8

Similar head.
ΚΕΡΑΜΙΗΤΩΝ Female head. Magistrate’s name.
Æ .7

Head of Zeus, with formal curls.
ΚΕΡΑΜΙΗ Eagle with head turned
back. Magistrate’s name.
Æ .9



It is doubtful whether the bronze coin in B. M. C., Caria, Pl. XII. 11,
is rightly attributed to Ceramus. The Imperial coinage extends from

614

Nero to Caracalla. The types refer chiefly to the cultus of Zeus
Chrysaoreus and Zeus Labraundos or Stratios. They usually bear the
name of a magistrate in the nominative case with the title ΑΡΞΑC.
Whether this aoristic form of the title (αρξας instead of αρχον), peculiar
it would seem to coins of Ceramus, implies that ex-archons were the
monetary magistrates is rather doubtful, for in one instance (Trajan
Decius) we meet with a πρωτος αρχων το β. Among the ex-archons or
Archons who signed the coins more than one is distinguished personally
as Ο ΑΡΧΙΑΤΡΟC (Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 93).


Chersonesus adjoining Cnidus was the chief of three independent
communities which continued to exist under the name of Κοινον Χερσονασιων down to the time of the Rhodian dominion in Caria. This Κοινον
was assessed separately from Cnidus in the Athenian Quota-Lists.
The coins of the Chersonesii, which seem to be all anterior to B.C. 500,
are of the Aeginetic standard, like the contemporary coins of Cnidus.


»ANS


Circ. B.C. 550-500.




Forepart of lion.

[B. M. C., Caria, Pl. XIII. 1.]

+ΕΡ (retrogr.) Forepart of bull in
incuse square.
AR 183.4 grs.

Id. [Ibid., Pl. XIII. 2.]
+ΕΡ Bull’s head, facing, in incuse
square.
AR 90.4 grs.

Lion’s head.
+ΕΡ Bull’s head r., in incuse square.
AR 13.5 grs.



See Paus. v. 24. 7; Strab. xiv. 2. 15; Köhler, Del.-Att. Bund, 195;
Six, Z. f. N., iii. 375; and B. M. C., Caria, xlvi.


Cidramus. This town is conjecturally placed between Antiocheia and
Attuda (J. H. S., xi. 120) south of the Maeander on the Caro-Phrygian
frontier. Its coins are quasi-auton. and Imp., Augustus to J. Maesa.
Inscr., ΚΙΔΡΑΜΗΝΩΝ. Down to Hadrian’s time the Magistrates’
names are in the nominative case with patronymic. From Hadrian to
M. Aurelius they are in the genitive preceded by δια, not επι. The only
magistrate’s title which occurs is ΠΡ[υτανις ?] on a coin of Augustus.
(Z. f. N., xv. 52). From the time of Claudius down to that of Ant.
Pius (circ. A.D. 50-150) the supervision of the coinage of Cidramus seems
to have been undertaken by, or entrusted to, members, in succession to
one another, of a single rich and locally influential family, e.g. ΠΟΛЄΜΩΝ CЄΛЄVΚΟV (Claudius); ΠΑΝΦΙΛΟC CЄΛЄVΚΟV (Vespasian);
ΔΙΑ ΠΑΝΦΙΛΟV and ΔΙΑ ΠΑΝΦΙΑΟV ΠΟΛЄΜΩΝΟC (Hadrian);
ΔΙ. CЄΛЄVΚΟ. ΠΟΛЄΜΩ. and ΔΙ. ΑΡΤЄΜΑ ΠΟΛЄΜΩΝΟC (Ant. Pius
and M. Aur. Caes.). See Ramsay, C. and B. Phryg., i. 185, and Imhoof,
Kl. M., 141. Chief types—ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC; ΒΟΥΛΗ; ΖЄΥC
ΛΥΔΙΟC; Helios; &c. Reverse types—Cultus-statue of Aphrodite or of
Artemis Anaïtis; Aphrodite draped, facing, with arms extended, around
her, two or more Erotes; Cultus-statue of another draped goddess with
a coiled serpent at her feet, standing in a distyle shrine; Draped goddess
veiled supporting with one hand a kalathos upon her head; Dionysos;
Mên; Hermes; &c.


»SNG B
»ANS


Cnidus, doubtless originally a Phoenician settlement, was afterwards
colonized by Dorians, and was a member of the Dorian Hexapolis (later

615

Pentapolis), consisting of Cnidus, Cos, Halicarnassus, Ialysus, Camirus, and
Lindus. The sanctuary of the Triopian Apollo, a sun-god whose symbol
was the Lion, was the meeting-place of the members of the Hexapolis.


»WW
»SNG B
»ANS


From the Phoenicians, however, the Cnidians would seem to have
received a still earlier worship, that of Aphrodite Ευπλοια. An extremely
archaic head of this goddess occurs on a seventh-century silver stater
with two incuse squares on the reverse (B. M. C., Caria, Pl. XIII. 7),
the attribution of which to Cnidus is conjectural. The earliest inscribed
coins, which are on the Aeginetic standard, are as follows :—


Circ. B.C. 650-480.




Forepart of lion.

[B. M. C., Caria, Pls. XIII, XIV.]
ΚΝΙΔΙΟΝ retrogr. or variously abbreviated. Head of Aphrodite of
archaic style, in incuse square.
AR Drachms 95 grs.
AR Diobols 27.3 grs.



Circ. B.C. 480-412.


During the period of the Athenian hegemony the coinage of Cnidus
appears to have ceased almost, if not entirely. Α similar diminution of
local currency while Athens was collecting her annual tribute is apparent
at several other cities besides Cnidus.


Circ. B.C. 412-400.


The Cnidian drachms and smaller coins of this period, of the same type
and standard as the preceding, are of fine transitional style (B. M. C., Caria, Pl. XIV. 5).


Circ. B.C. 400-390.


About B.C. 400 Cnidus, following the example of Rhodes, adopted the
so-called Rhodian standard. The head of Aphrodite henceforth occupies
the obverse side of the coin, and is distinguished as Aphrodite Euploia
by the addition of the Prow as an adjunct symbol.





FIG. 304.





ΚΝΙ Head of Aphrodite Euploia; behind, Prow. [Ibid., Pl. XIV. 6-8.]
Incuse square, within which forepart of
lion; beneath, magistrate’s name.

AR Tetradr. 234 grs. (Fig. 304.)

AR Didr. 110 grs.

AR Dr. 57.6 grs.



616


Between B.C. 394 and 390 must be placed the Federal Coinage of
Cnidus, Iasus, Rhodes, Samos, Ephesus, and Byzantium, of which the
following is the Cnidian example:—





ΣΥΝ Infant Herakles strangling serpents. [Ibid., Pl. XIV. 9.]
ΚΝΙΔΙΩΝ Head of Aphrodite Euploia;
symbol, Prow.
AR Tridrachm 164.8 grs.



Circ. B.C. 390-300.


Tetradrachms and smaller divisions. Obv. Head of Aphrodite Euploia;
Rev. ΚΝΙ Forepart of Lion, or, on some half-drachms, Bull’s head facing
(B. M. C., Caria, Pl. XV. 1-8). Magistrates’ names in nominative case.


Circ. B.C. 300-190.


The coinage of Cnidus in this period is plentiful. The heads of
Aphrodite on the tetradrachms and drachms are varied and beautiful
(see Montagu Sale Cat., Pl. VIII. 599, 600). On the tetrobols the head
of Aphrodite is replaced by that of Artemis, and the Lion by a Tripod.
Nearly all the smaller bronze coins of Cnidus also fall into this period.
The most frequent types are obv. Head of Aphrodite, rev. Prow; obv. Head
of Democracy with legend ΔΗΜΟΚΡΑΤΙΑΣ, rev. Prow (Imh., M. G.,
p. 310); or obv. Head of Artemis, rev. Tripod, or Bull’s head facing;
obv. Head of Helios radiate r., rev. Bull’s head r.; &c.


Circ. B.C. 190-167.


After the defeat of Antiochus and the extension of the Rhodian
dominion over Caria, the coinage of Cnidus was assimilated to that of
Rhodes.





Head of Helios, facing, as on coins of
Rhodes. [B. M. C., Caria, Pl. XVI. 1.]
ΚΝΙ Forepart of lion; behind, rose
(Rhodian symbol.)
AR 78 grs.

Similar. [B. M.]
Head of Aphrodite; behind, rose.
Æ .7



To this period may also be assigned the Alexandrine tetradrachms
(Müller, Nos. 1151-2), with a tripod in the field as mint-mark.


B.C. 167—Imperial times.


When Rhodes was deprived of her possessions on the mainland,
Cnidus ceased also to be of much importance. The coinage of silver
was discontinued, and the bronze money became less and less plentiful.





Head of Apollo, with stiff curls.

[B. M. C., Caria, Pl. XVI. 2.]
ΚΝΙΔΙΩΝ Head and neck of bull.
Magistrate’s name.
Æ .7



In the first century B.C. Dionysiac types prevail: obv. Head of young
Dionysos crowned with ivy, rev. ΚΝΙΔΙΩΝ Vine-branch with grapes,
Æ 1.1; or obv. Head of the Aphrodite of Praxiteles, rev. ΚΝΙΔΙWΝ
Dionysos standing, Æ 1.3-.95.

617

Imperial Coinage.


In Roman times Cnidus seems from its scanty coinage to have lost its
former importance. Only a few coins exist, Nero to Caracalla; but
among them is a copy of the famous statue of the Cnidian Aphrodite by
Praxiteles. She is represented as if about to enter the bath, naked, and
seen in front, but with her head in profile, and she holds in her extended
left hand a garment over an urn (Overbeck, Plastik, 3rd ed., ii. 30. Cf.
J. H. S., viii, p. 124 f.).


Cys. This place, called Κυον in Steph. Byz., and Κυς in inscriptions,
was probably situated at the modern Béli-Pouli, in the hilly country
between the upper valleys of the Marsyas and Harpasus. The very few
bronze coins which bear its name seem to belong to the first century B.C.
Inscr., ΚΥ., ΚΥΙ., ΚΥΙΤΩΝ, and [Κ]ΥΕΙΤΩΝ. Types—obv. Head of Artemis, rev. Quiver and Hunting-spear (or possibly Pedum) the whole in
wreath; obv. Quiver between vine-branches, rev. Cornucopiae; Thyrsos
in ivy-wreath. Imperial coinage, Domna. Inscr., ΚΥΙΤΩΝ Female
figure seated, facing (Cf. Z. f. N., xiii. 71).


Euippe, the site of which is still uncertain, is to be sought for in the
region between the rivers Marsyas and Harpasus. It struck a few
bronze coins in the second or first century B.C. Obv. Bust of Artemis,
rev. Quiver with strap; and obv. Bust of Artemis, rev. Pegasos; &c.
Inscr., ΕΥΙΠΠΕΩΝ. There are also Imperial coins, Trajan to Caracalla. Inscr., ЄΥΙΠΠЄΩΝ. Types—Hekate to front; Tyche; Hygieia;

&c. (cf. Imhoof, Kl. M., 127).


»ANS


Euromus, the modern Ayakly, about eight miles north-west of Mylasa,
issued autonomous bronze coins in the second and first centuries B.C.
Obv. Head of Zeus, rev. ΕΥΡΩΜΕΩΝ Double-axe; obv. Head of
Dionysos, rev. Cultus-statue of Zeus Labraundos, to front, with double-axe and spear, between pilei of Dioskuri; sometimes with abbreviated
magistrate’s name (B. M. C., Car., Pl. XVII. 5). The Zeus worshipped
at Euromus was doubtless the Zeus Labraundos of the neighbouring
sanctuary near Mylasa, although, if Vaillant (Num. Gr., 100) is to be
trusted, he is specially designated on a coin of Caracalla as ΖЄΥC
ЄΥΡΩΜЄΥC. The Imperial coins range from Augustus, rev. Stag
(Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 88), to Caracalla (?).


»ANS


Gordiuteichos was a small Carian town perhaps situated at the
modern Karasu on the left bank of the Morsynus, about ten miles below
Aphrodisias. The only coins known of this city belong to the second
century B.C. Inscr., ΓΟΡΔΙΟΤЄΙΧΙΤΩΝ Obv. Head of Zeus, rev.
Archaic cultus-statue of Aphrodite (B. M. C., Car., liii sq.).


Halicarnassus. Although this city rose to fame under the dynasts of
Caria, Mausolus and his successors, from B.C. 367 until its destruction
by Alexander, B.C. 334, it was never of great importance commercially
either before or after this short period.


»WW
»SNG B
»ANS


For the early history of the town see Newton, Halicarnassus, Cnidus,

618

and Branchidae, vol. ii, pt. i. It coined money intermittently in the
following periods :—


Before B.C. 480.




Forepart of Pegasos.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XVIII. 1.]
Head of goat in incuse square.
Obol AR 10.5



Circ. B.C. 400-367. Rhodian Standard.




Head of Apollo, facing.

[Ibid., Pl. XVIII. 3.]
ΑΛΙ Eagle (?) and olive spray in incuse
square.
Drachm AR 52.8

Forepart of Pegasos.

[Ibid., Pl. XVIII. 4, 5.]
Α or ΑΛΙ Forepart of goat in incuse
square.
Obol AR 10.3

ΑΛΙ Forepart of Pegasos.

[Ibid., Pl. XVIII. 6.]
Lyre between two laurel-branches.
Æ .35



From this time down to that of Alexander’s conquest, B.C. 334, Halicarnassus, as the capital of Caria, was the place of mintage of the splendid
series of coins struck by Mausolus, Hidrieus, Pixodarus, and Orontobates,
dynasts of Caria (see infra, pp. 629 ff). It appears, however, to have
continued to retain the right of issuing small Æ in its own name (Imhoof,
Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 88). From B.C. 334, the date of the destruction of the city by Alexander, until some time in the third century B.C.,
when it was rebuilt and included among the cities under Ptolemaic rule,
it struck few if any coins. The following seem to be somewhat later in
date. For other varieties see Imhoof, op. cit., p. 89.





Head of Poseidon.
ΑΛΙΚΑΡ ΝΑΣΣΕΩΝ Tripod.
Æ .7

Head of Apollo.

[Ibid., Pl. XVIII. 9, 10.]
ΑΛΙ Eagle; in front, lyre.
Æ .5

Head of Poseidon.

[Ibid., Pl. XVIII. 11, 12.]
ΑΛΙΚΑΡ Trident, and abbreviated
magistrates’ names.
Æ .7



Circ. B.C. 188-166 and later.


This is the period of the Rhodian supremacy, to which the following
coins belong :—





Head of Rhodian Helios, facing.

[Ibid., Pl. XVIII. 14, 15.]
ΑΛΙΚΑΡ ΝΑΣΣΕΩΝ variously abbreviated.
Bust of Athena, and magistrates’
names in nominative case.
AR Attic Drachms 65 grs.

Head of Apollo, r.

[Ibid., Pl. XVIII. 16.]
ΑΛΙΚΑΡ ΝΑΣΣΕΩΝ Lyre.
AR ½ Drachm 27. 1 grs.

Bust of Athena.
[Ibid., Pl. XVIII. 17, 18.]
ΑΛΙΚ Owl.
AR Trihemiobol 14.8 grs.



There are also bronze coins of various types which can only belong to
this period (see B. M. C., Car., pp. 107-9, and Pl. XVIII. 19-21), of
which the most noteworthy is a veiled goddess, to front, holding phiale
and cornucopiae (?).

619

Imperial Coinage.





FIG. 305.


The coinage of Halicarnassus under the Empire extends from
Augustus (? or Nero) to Gordian. Inscr., ΑΛΙΚΑΡΝΑCCЄΩΝ. Magistrate, Archon. Types—ΗΡΟΔΟΤΟC, Bald and bearded head of Herodotus; Draped male divinity bearded and radiate facing between two trees,
one each of which sits a bird (Fig. 305). This is supposed to represent Zeus
Ασκραιος, or Zeus of the oak trees, who was worshipped at Halicarnassus
(cf. Apollon. Dyscol., Hist. Mirab., ed. Ideler, § 13; Overbeck, Kunstmyth.
ii. 210); the two birds are clearly oracular. ΤЄΛΜΙCЄΥC, a draped
male figure holding a branch (Leake, Num. Hell. As. Gr., p. 64); Terminal statue of Athena, in temple.


Alliance coins with Cos and Samos.


Harpasa, on the river Harpasus, some twelve miles south of its junction
with the Maeander. Autonomous Æ of the second or first century B.C.;
obv. Head of Zeus, rev. ΑΡΠΑΣΗΝΩΝ Apollo Kitharistes with laurelbranch at his feet (B. M.), or Artemis Huntress with adjunct symbols,
Caduceus, or Crested helmet (Imh., Kl. M., 131). Harpasa also seems to
have issued some small silver coins resembling those of Stratoniceia, but
with Α Ρ one either side of the Eagle on the reverse.


»ANS


Quasi-autonomous and Imperial coins. Domitian to Gordian. Inscr.,
ΑΠΑCΗΝΩΝ. Types—Busts of Athena, Sarapis. ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC,
ΔΗΜΟC, &c. Magistrates’ names in, genitive case with or without επι,
and, under Caracalla, in nominative, with title ‘Αρχιατρος, which occurs
also on coins of Ceramus and Heracleia Salbace, and in inscriptions
of various Carian towns (Marquardt, Privatleben d. Römer, p. 753, 8;
755, 4). Among the magistrates’ names is that of Candidus Celsus, supposed by Waddington (Fastes, 209) to have been a Proconsul of Asia.
under Ant. Pius. Among the reverse types we meet with the River-god
Harpasos; Zeus Nikephoros; Athena in fighting attitude; Artemis
Ephesia; Dionysos; &c. Alliance coins with Neapolis Cariae.


Heracleia Salbace. The site of this city was first identified by Waddington (As. Min., 51) at the modern Makuf, at the foot of the Salbacus
range of mountains and at the north-eastern end of the plain of Tabae.
Its territory was separated by the little river Timeles from that of the
neighbouring city Aphrodisias, and the River-god ΤΙΜЄΛΗC is represented on imperial coins of both cities.


»SNG B
»ANS


The coinage of this Heracleia is quasi-autonomous and Imperial,
Augustus to Macrinus. Inscr., ΗΡΑΚΛЄΩΤΩΝ. Magistrates’ names in
nominative case, under Augustus with patronymic, under Nero with title

620

‘Ιερευς, and under Ant. Pius and M. Aurelius with that of ‘Αρχιατρος (cf.
Ceramus and Harpasa). Glykon, the Priest of Herakles in Nero’s time, is
mentioned in an inscription (C. I. G., 3953 c.) as Stephanephoros, Gymnasiarch, and προγραφει της Βουλης, and Statilios Attalos, αρχιατρος on

coins of the Antonines, is also mentioned in an inscription (Le Bas-Wadd., iii. 402). His issues of coins are dedicated (ανεθηκε understood)
to the gymnastic college of the Νεοι, and are inscribed CT. ΑΤΤΑΛΟC
ΑΡΧΙΑΤΡΟC ΝЄΟΙC. The chief types are busts of ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC;
ΙЄΡΑ ΒΟΥΛΗ; ΔΗΜΟC; ΗΡΑΚΛΙΑ (B. M. C., Car., Pl. XX. 2);
Bearded Herakles; Sarapis; &c. Reverse types—Herakles standing;
Goddess or Amazon (?) standing, carrying double-axe (Labrys); Artemis
Ephesia between stags, or in temple; Double-axe bound with fillet;
Asklepios seated with coiled serpent before him; Hygieia; Isis; Hermes;
Athena; Dionysos; Aphrodite draped with one arm extended behind
her and holding a mirror before her (B. M. C., Car., Pl. XX. 11). As
this type also occurs at Cidramus, it is probable that it is a copy of
a statue.


Hydisus. The site of this town is still uncertain. As it was a
member of the Athenian Confederacy, it was probably near the sea,
possibly somewhere near Bargylia. Autonomous Æ of the first century
B.C. Inscr., ΥΔΙΣΕΩΝ. Obv. Bearded helmeted head (Zeus Areios),
rev. Eagle on fulmen or Pegasos with caduceus beneath; obv. Bust of
Zeus Areios, rev. Zeus Areios standing; obv. Head of Zeus, rev. Zeus
Areios standing, with magistrate’s name in nominative case. Imperial—
Domitian, Hadrian, and Sev. Alexander. The rev. types are ΖЄVC
ΑΡЄΙΟC (Hadrian), Armed Zeus standing, hitherto wrongly attributed to
Iasus; Goddess standing; Bellerophon on Pegasos (Sev. Alex.), with
magistrate’s name and title, Archon. (Imhoof, Kl. M., 135, and Zur gr.
u. röm. Münzk., 90.)


»WW
»ANS


Hyllarima is conjecturally placed in the region between the rivers
Harpasus and Marsyas, some twelve miles north-west of Cys (J. H. S.,
xvi. 242), on the site where Kiepert placed Hydisus. Quasi-autonomous
and Imperial coins. Time of the Antonines and Gordian. Inscr.,
ΥΛΛΑΡΙΜЄΩΝ. Archon’s name with επι. Types—obv. Female bust, hair
rolled, rev. Athena standing; obv. Veiled female bust, rev. Youth in
quadriga (Rev. Num., 1892, Pl. IV. 14); obv. Bust of Ant. Pius, rev. Two
figures of Kybele enthroned, facing each other; obv. Bust of Gordian,
rev. Asklepios standing.


Iasus was an ancient Argive colony on the north side of the Bargylian
gulf. There are archaic drachms of Aeginetic weight, the obv. type of
which is a youth riding on a dolphin, which have been assigned to Iasus
(Babelon, Traité, Pl. XVIII. 1, 2), but which, according to Svoronos
(Journ. Int. d'Arch. Num., iii. 59), ought rather to be attributed to the
island of Syros (supra, p. 480). Another coin conjecturally attributed
to Iasus is the fine tetradrachm (B. M. C., Ion., p. 325, and supra, p. 597,
Fig. 301), obv. Head of Persian Satrap, rev. ΒΑΣΙΛ Lyre, wt. 236 grs.
The head on this remarkable coin is supposed to be that of Tissaphernes
(B. M. C., Car., p. lix). The earliest pieces which bear the name of Iasus
are specimens of the alliance coinage issued after circ. B.C. 394 by Cnidus,

621

Samos, Ephesus, Rhodes, Iasus, and Byzantium (Regling, Z. f. N., xxv,
Taf. vii. 5).


»WW
»SNG B
»ANS


Circ. B.C. 394-390.




Ι Α Head of Apollo.
ΣΥΝ Infant Herakles strangling serpents.
AR 166 grs.

Same head. [Imhoof, Mon. gr., Pl. F. 7.]
ΙΑΣΕ Lyre in incuse square.
AR 27 grs.



The next issues of Iasus belong to the latter half of the third
century :—


Circ. B.C. 250-190.




Head of Apollo.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXI. 1-4.]
ΙΑ or ΙΑΣΕΩΝ Youth Hermias, swimming with l. arm over dolphin’s back.
Magistrates’ names in nominative
case.
AR 82 and 42 grs.

Æ size .7

Head of Artemis.
Id.Æ size .45

Head of Apollo. [Ibid., Pl. XXI. 5.]
ΙΑΣΕΩΝ in ivy-wreath.
Æ .45

Lyre in laurel-wreath.

[Ibid., Pl. XXI. 6.]
ΙΑCЄΩΝ Hermias and dolphin.
Æ .5

Apollo standing with dolphin at his
feet. [Imh., Kl. M., Pl. V. 9.]
ΙΑΣΕΩΝ Artemis standing.
Æ .65



For other varieties, see Imh., Kl. M., p. 137. Most of the above coins
have magistrates’ names in nominative case, among which may be mentioned ΕΡΜΙΑΣ (not of course the dolphin-rider Hermias). The boy and
dolphin as a coin-type of the Iasians is mentioned by Aelian
(Hist. Anim., vi. 15), Plutarch (De solert. Anim., 36) and Pollux
(ix. 84). The story of the love of a dolphin for a youth of Iasus, who is
called Hermias by Plutarch and Pliny (N. H., ix. 8), and Dionysius by
Athenaeus (xiii. 606), may have had an historical basis, for Alexander
the Great is said to have ordered the boy to be sent to his court.


Quasi-autonomous and Imperial coins—Augustus (?) to Gordian.
Inscr., ΙΑCЄΩΝ. Types—Bearded head of the Founder ΙΑCΟC
ΚΤΙCΤΗC (B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXI. 7); ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC; Hermias
and dolphin; Sarapis and Kerberos; Isis Pharia; Artemis Ephesia.


Idyma, at the head of the Ceramic gulf, is mentioned several times in
the Athenian Quota-Lists. In B. M. C., Caria, p. lxi, some archaic
drachms of Aeginetic weight are conjecturally assigned to this town, but
its earliest inscribed coins are drachms and smaller silver coins of the
Phoenician standard which seem to range from about B.C. 450-400.


»ANS





Head of horned Pan to front.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXI. 8.]
ΙΔVΜΙΟΝ written round a fig-leaf in
incuse square.
AR 58.2 and 14 grs.



There are also a few small bronze coins which are of rather later style,
and which belong to the earlier half of the fourth century.





Youthful head of horned Pan to r.
Fig-leaf. [Imh. Mon. gr., Pl. F. 8.]
Æ .4

Female head, r.
ΝΟΙΜΥΔΙ Fig-leaf. [Z. f. N., xxiv,
p. 79]
Æ .35


622

Lydae (?), on the promontory of Ancon (J. H. S., ix, p. 83 f.).



Early fourth century B.C.




ΛΥ Head of Aphrodite as on coins of
Cnidus. [N. C., 1903, p. 399.]
Forepart of lion as on coins of Cnidus
[B. M.]AR 25 grs.



Mylasa, between the head of the Bargylian gulf and Stratoniceia,
became in the time of Hecatomnus the residence of the dynasts of Caria,
and remained so until Mausolus obtained possession of Halicarnassus.
With the exception of the money of Hecatomnus no coins were struck at
Mylasa until during or after the time of Alexander, when a certain
Eupolemus (Diod. xiv. 68 and 77) struck some bronze coins in his own
name, apparently at Mylasa (Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., 1908,
p. 260 note).


»WW
»ANS





Three Macedonian shields thrown together. [B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXI. 11.]
ΕΥΠΟΛΕΜΟΥ Sword in sheath. Symbol, double-axe (Labrys).
Æ .7



Second century B.C. and later.


Alexandrine tetradrachms with monogram and symbol of Mylasa,
Labrys and Trident combined (Müller, Num. d'Alex., Nos. 1141-3).
Also gold Philippi with the same symbol (B. M. C., Car., lxiii). The
bronze coins of this period have on the obverse, usually, a horse, and on
the reverse ΜΥΛΑΣΕΩΝ Trident and Labrys combined or separate.


Imperial.


Augustus to Tranquillina. Inscr., ΜΥΛΑCЄΩΝ. Magistrates’ names
in nominative under Augustus with ΑΝЄΘΗΚЄΝ, and under Domitian
with ΑΙΤΗCΑΜЄΝΟC ΑΝЄΘ, and in genitive under Augustus with
ΓΡΑΜΜΑΤΕΥΟΝΤΟΣ ΥΒΡΕΟΥ. This Hybreas is the orator concerning whom Strabo (659-60) gives some interesting details. Types—In
Strabo’s time there were two famous temples of Zeus within the territory
of Mylasa, one of Zeus Οσογωα in the city itself, and the other of Zeus
Λαβραυνδος or Στρατιος at the neighbouring village of Labranda. Zeus
Osogoa was a combination of Zeus and Poseidon (Ζηνοποσειδων). He is
represented on coins holding an eagle and resting on a trident; symbol,
sometimes, crab. The cultus-statue of Zeus Labraundos holds a labrys
and a spear. There is also, on a coin of Caracalla, a figure of Zeus with
a stag at his feet. Other types are, River-god (Kyberses ?); Hephaestos
forging shield of Achilles (Imh., Kl. M., Pl. V. 26). There are likewise
silver coins struck at Mylasa, one of C. Caesar (?), rev. Zeus Labraundos
(Imh., Kl. M., 144), and some so-called ‘Medallions of Asia’ of Hadrian,
with Latin legends and figures of Zeus Labraundos and Zeus Osogoa
(Pinder, Cistoph., Pl. VII. 2, 3, 7, 8).


Myndus was a Dorian coast-town about ten miles north-west of
Halicarnassus. Its coinage begins apparently in the second century B.C.
(B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXII).


»WW
»SNG B
»ANS

623




Head of Apollo, laureate.

[The Hague. Imh., Z. f. N., iii, Pl. IX. 1.]
ΜΙΝΔΙΩΝ Winged fulmen and
magistrates’ monograms; all in olivewreath. AR Tetradr. 263 grs.

Head of Zeus, laureate, with head-dress
of Osiris.
ΜΥΝΔΙΩΝ Head-dress of Isis and
magistrate’s name in nominative case.
AR Drachm 67 grs.

Head of young Dionysos.
ΜΥΝΔΙΩΝ Winged fulmen and
magistrate’s name in nominative case.
AR ½ Drachm 33 grs.

Id.
ΜΥΝΔΙ, &c. Bunch of grapes and
magistrate’s name.
AR ¼ Drachm 16 grs.



There are also bronze coins with magistrates’ names in the nominative
case. Types—Head of Zeus, rev. Eagle on fulmen; Head of Apollo,
rev. Owl on olive-branch; Portable altar; &c.; Head of Artemis, rev.
Two dolphins.


Imperial Coinage.


Nero to Domna. Inscr., ΜΥΝΔΙΩΝ. Magistrate, Archon. Types—
Apollo Kitharoedos and Artemis Myndia, between them tripod with
serpent coiled round it, and beside Artemis, fire-altar (B. M. C., Car.,
Pl. XXII. 16); Small fire-altar with conical cover placed on the top of
a large square altar; &c.


Neapolis Myndiorum (?). A town mentioned only by Mela (i. 16) and
Pliny (N. H. v. 29) in the Dorian peninsula west of Halicarnassus.


Second or first century B.C.




Head of Apollo.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXIII. 1.]
ΝΕΑΠΟΛΙ ΜΥΝ(?) Lyre. Magistrate’s name (?) ΚΟΛΒΑ.
Æ .6



Neapolis ad Harpasum, the modern Ineboli in the lower valley of the
Harpasus.


»ANS


First century B.C.




Head of Zeus with stiff curls.

[N. C., 1903, p. 400.]
ΝЄΑΠΟΛΙΤWΝ Eagle with open
wings, on fulmen. [B. M.]
Æ .75

Head of Dionysos.

[Imh., Kl. M., 147.]
ΝЄΑΠΟΛΙΤWΝ Artemis huntress,
with stag.Æ .65



The quasi-autonomous and Imperial coins extend from the time of
the Flavians down to Treb. Gallus and Volusian. Inscr., ΝЄΑΠΟΛЄΙΤΩΝ. Magistrate, Grammateus with επι, under Gordian and Volusian.
Types—ΘЄΟC CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC; Athena standing; Dionysos standing;
Artemis Ephesia and Tyche; Draped Zeus and Boule (?) with altar
between them; Apollo standing beside column on which is his lyre;
Tyche; &c. There has been much confusion between the coins of
Neapolis ad Harpasum and those of Neapolis in Ionia, a few miles south
of Ephesus. The latter, however, bore the title Aurelia or Hadriana
Aurelia (B. M. C., Car., lxvi).

624

Alliance coins with Harpasa under Gordian, Treb. Gallus, and Volusian
(Imh., Kl. M., 149).


Orthosia (Ortas) stood on high ground overlooking the Maeander
valley towards Nysa, which occupied the opposite hills on the northern
side of the river at a distance of ten or twelve miles.


»ANS


Autonomous bronze of the second and first centuries B.C. Inscr.,
ΟΡΘΩΣΙΕΩΝ. Types—Heads of Zeus; Poseidon(?); Dionysos. Reverses—Athena fighting; Trident; Double-axe; Thyrsos; Panther
with Thyrsos. Magistrates’ names in nominative case on earliest
coins.


Quasi-autonomous and Imperial. Augustus to Maximinus. Inscr.,
ΟΡΘΩCΙΕΩΝ. No magistrates’ names. Types—ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC;
Zeus draped, standing, holding fulmen; The Dioskuri standing beside
their horses; Herakles leaning on club; Tyche, &c.


Plarasa: see Aphrodisias.


»SNG B
»ANS


Sebastopolis, the modern Kizilje, was a town on the road from Apollonia Salbace to Cibyra. Its coinage is quasi-autonomous and Imperial.
Vespasian to Mamaea. Inscr., CΕΒΑCΤΟΠΟΛΙΤΩΝ and CΕΒΑCΤΟΠΟΛЄΙΤΩΝ. Magistrates in nominative case under Vespasian. Types—
CЄΒΑCΤΟΠΟΛΙC ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC ΔΗΜΟC, &c. Heads of Zeus,
Dionysos, &c. Reverses—Artemis Ephesia; Thyrsos; Cista mystica;
Veiled goddess Artemis (?) to front; Two warriors joining hands before
cultus-statue of Artemis with stag or deer lying at foot of it; Hermes
radiate with purse and caduceus; Dionysos; &c.


»SNG B
»ANS


Stratoniceia, the modern Eski-Hissar, about thirty miles south of
Alabanda, near the sources of the Marsyas, was named after Stratonice,
wife of Antiochus I. Its earliest coins are later than B.C. 168, when
Caria was declared by the Romans free and independent of Rhodes. To
this period may perhaps be assigned a few coins of Alexander’s types
bearing the letters ΣΤΡΑ in monogram (Müller, Num. d'Alex., 1134-6).
Between B.C. 166 and Imperial times Stratoniceia issued silver coins
which probably had a wide circulation in central and southern Caria.
Imhoof (Kl. M., 153) enumerates no fewer than forty magistrates’ names
in the nominative case on these coins; and as some of them, e. g. Γαιος and
Κλαυδιος, are Roman, there can be little doubt that the coinage was prolonged down to Imperial times. When this silver coinage began is
doubtful, but according to Imhoof its starting-point can hardly have
been earlier than B.C. 81, when, by a decree of the Roman Senate,
Stratoniceia seems to have been made a civitas libera et immunis sine
foedere (B. M. C., Car., lxx). Within the territory of Stratoniceia there
were three famous temples, one of Hekate at Lagina, a few miles north
of the city, one of Zeus Chrysaoreus or Karios, the religious and political
centre of the Carian race, near the city itself, and one of Zeus Panamaros,
on a lofty height about twelve miles south-east of the town.


»WW
»SNG B
»ANS


The types of the Stratoniceian coins of pre-Imperial times are as
follows :—

625




Head of Zeus, laureate.

[Z. f. N., 1888, Pl. I. 2.]
ΣΤΡΑΤΟΝΙΚΕΩΝ Hekate standing
to front wearing polos surmounted
by crescent, and holding torch and
phiale. Magistrate’s name ΜΕΛΑΝΘΙΟΣ. AR 166 grs.

Id. [B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXIII. 17.]
ΣΤ ΡΑ Similar. Beside Hekate, altar.
Magistrates, ΛΕΩΝ and others.
AR 52.3 grs.

Id. [B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXIII. 11-12.]
Σ Τ Eagle with open wings. Magistrates’ names in nominative case; the
whole in shallow incuse square.
AR 22 grs.

Head of Hekate surmounted by crescent.
Magistrates’ names in nominative case.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXII. 13.]
CΤΡΑΤΟΝΙΚΕWΝ, or CΤΡΑ, &c. Nike
with wreath and palm; all in shallow
incuse square. AR 30 grs.



For varieties and lists of Magistrates’ names, cf. Imhoof, op. cit., and
Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 96.


The latest silver coins, which belong to early Imperial times, are the
following :—





Bust of Augustus (?) within laur. wreath

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXIV. 1).
ΣΑΒΕΙΝΙΑΝΟΣ ΠΥΘΕΑΣ, ΣΤΡΑΤΟ... Zeus Panamaros (?) on horse;
in front, lighted altar. AR 99 grs.

Bust of Hekate. Magistrate ΖΩΠΥ-ΡΟΣ (Vatican).
ΣΤΡΑ Similar; no altar. AR 53 grs.

Head of Augustus.

[Imh., Gr. M., 151, 449a.]
ΑΡΙCΤΕΑC [ΧΙΔ...(?)], CΤΡΑ Similar. AR 47 grs.



The small bronze coins which accompany the silver issues above
described, bear heads of Zeus and Hekate, and on the reverses, Eagle,
Torch, Flying Pegasos, or Nike. (See B. M. C., Car., 148 ff. )


The quasi-autonomous and Imperial coinage extends from Augustus
to Salonina. Inscr., CΤΡΑΤΟΝΙΚΕΩΝ, with addition, on a coin of Titus,
of ΦΙΛΟCΕΒΑCΤΩΝ (Imh., Kl. M., 156). Magistrates’ names usually
with επι and frequently with titles, Prytaneis, Archon, Grammateus, or
Strategos, also φηφισαμενου under Trajan or Hadrian, and, if correctly
read, επιμελη(θεντος) under Severus (Mion. S., vi. 538), also επι των περι τ.
β or δ (στρατηγον?) under Caracalla. Chief types—ΔΗΜΟC; Zeus
seated; Nike; Bellerophon holding Pegasos; Altar between torches;
Pegasos with inscr. ΒΕΛ; Head of Zeus; Artemis slaying stag; Zeus
Panamaros on horse; Hekate riding on radiate lion with dog’s tail
(B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXIV. 4); Hekate standing at altar or with dog at
her feet; Artemis Ephesia between two stags; Βουθυτης sacrificing bull
under tree; Helmeted figure seated holding statuette of Athena. On
a coin of Caracalla and Plautilla the latter bears the title NEA Θ. ΗΡ
(Νεα Θεα Ηρα), which is also met with on coins of Alabanda and Alinda.


Syangela (?), about twelve miles east of Halicarnassus. Imhoof
(Mon. gr., 323) has conjecturally assigned to this town a drachm
(obv. Head of bearded Dionysos, rev. ΣΥ Kantharos in incuse square, wt.
63 grs.) and a bronze coin. The drachm was attributed by Waddington

626

(As. Min., Pl. XI. 4) to Syme, but in B. M. C., Car., lxxiv it is, conjecturally, given to the island of Syros.


Tabae, the modern Davas, occupied the heights at the western end of
a plain extending in a north-easterly direction towards Mount Salbacus.
The population was a mixed one consisting of Carians, Phrygians, and
Pisidians, and it was probably not thoroughly hellenized until a comparatively late date, for there are no coins which can be safely attributed to a period much earlier than the latter half of the first century
B.C. The oldest are drachms and hemidrachms of reduced Attic or
Rhodian weight, and bronze coins :—


»WW
»SNG B
»ANS


SILVER.


First century B.C.




Veiled female head.

[Imhoof, Kl. M., Pl. V. 30.]
ΤΑΒ (in mon.) Forepart of humped
bull. AR 14.3 grs.





After 81 B.C.




Head of Dionysos with band across forehead and ivy-wreath.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXV. 1.]
ΤΑΒΗΝΩΝ Homonoia standing, wearing kalathos and holding phiale and
cornucopiae. AR 58 grs.



Imperial times (M. Antony to Nero ?).




Head of bearded Herakles.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXV. 6.]
ΤΑΒΗΝΩΝ Cultus-statue of Aphrodite
resembling Artemis Ephesia, but between crescent and star. Archon's
name in nominative with patronymic.
AR 31 grs.

Id., or Head of Zeus.

[Ibid., Pl. XXV. 7, 8.]
ΤΑΒΗΝΩΝ Artemis standing, holding
torch and bow. Magistrate’s name
as above. AR 37.5 grs.

Head of Zeus.
ΤΑΒΗΝΩΝ Zeus äetophoros, hurling
fulmen. Same magistrate.
AR 39.5 grs.

Bust of Athena. [Ibid., Pl. XXV. 9.]
ΤΑΒΗΝWΝ Nike advancing. Various
archons’ names. AR 30.4 grs.

Id. [Num. Chron., ix. 161.]
ΤΑΒΗΝWΝ Dionysos standing, holding kantharos and thyrsos.
AR 20 grs.

Head of bearded Herakles.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXV. 10.]
ΤΑΒΝWΝ Homonoia standing, as
on earlier coins. Magistrate’s name
with patronymic. AR 53.7 grs.

ΤΑΒΗΝΩΝ Bust of Dionysos in ivy-wreath. [Ibid., Pl. XXV. 11.]
Poseidon standing with one foot on prow,
resting on trident; dolphin behind
him. Magistrate’s name with patronymic. AR 54.3 grs.

Aequitas standing, with scales and
sceptre. [Imh., Gr. M., 677.]
ΤΑΒΗΝΩΝ Capricorn, with globe between feet; above, CΕΒΑCΤΟC.
AR 26 grs.


627


Among the earlier bronze coins of the pre-Imperial age are the following :—veiled head, rev. Forepart of humped bull; Head of Zeus, rev.
Pilei of the Dioskuri; Helmeted male bust, rev. Humped bull. The
later issues, which seem to be contemporary with the silver of early
Imperial times, above described, bear heads of young Dionysos on the
obverses, and on the reverses :—Two thyrsi crossed; the Pilei of the
Dioskuri, sometimes on an altar; Poseidon with foot on prow; &c.


Quasi-autonomous and Imperial coins. Augustus to Salonina.
Inscr. ΤΑΒΗΝΩΝ. Magistrates’ names without title or with that of
Archon, at first in nominative case, later in genitive, preceded, under
Domitian, by δια, and under Valerian and Gallienus usually by επι. Chief
types—Busts of ΔΗΜΟC; ΒΟΥΛΗ; ΙЄΡΟC ΔΗΜΟC; Zeus; Herakles; &c.
Reverse types—Capricorn; Nemesis standing; Nike; Tyche; Panther;
Stag; Pilei of Dioskuri on altar; Artemis huntress; Demeter standing;
Two identical figures of Artemis huntress, facing, side by side; Dionysos
standing, with panther; Artemis and Mên, face to face; Male pantheistic
divinity, radiate, holding torch, lotus-headed sceptre, caduceus and bow;
Poseidon standing (B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXVI. 9); Pan with goats’ legs,
dancing; Temple of Artemis; Agonistic crown on table, inscr. ΟΛΥΜΠΙΑ
ΠΥΘΙΑ.


Termera was an ancient city which occupied the southern part of the
peninsula west of Halicarnassus, facing the island of Cos. Herodotus
(v. 37) informs us that in the reign of Darius Hystaspis (B.C. 521-485)
it was governed by a tyrant named Tymnes, and it is probable that the
inscr. ΤVΜΝΟ on the Persic drachm described below may be the name
of this dynast, or possibly of some younger member of the same family. [1]
The Persic tetrobol (of doubtful attribution (Imhoof, Kl. M., p. 161)) is
evidently earlier, and appears to belong to the latter half of the sixth
century B.C. (see Babelon, Traité, ii. 1, p. 415).


Persic standard, circ. B.C. 550-480.




Herakles naked (?), kneeling r., holding
bow and wielding club.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXVII. 1.]
Lion’s head r. in incuse square.
AR Tetrob. 55.6 grs.

ΤVΜΝΟ Herakles in lion-skin, kneeling, with sword in scabbard at belt,
holding in raised r. hand a club, and
in extended l. bow.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXVII. 2.]
ΤΕDΜΕDΙΚΟΝ Lion’s head in incuse
square. AR Drachm 72.4 grs.



During the subsequent Athenian hegemony Termera is assessed in the
Quota-lists at a higher rate than its nearest neighbours, Myndus and
Halicarnassus, but it does not appear to have struck any coins after the
time of Tymnes. Under Mausolus Termera was destroyed and its
population removed to Halicarnassus, the citadel alone being maintained
as a prison.


Trapezopolis, on the northern side of the Salbacus range (J. H. S.,
xvii. 401), near the sources of the river Caprus, which appears to have





1 Cf. the Quota-Lists (I. G., i. 240, and Hill, Sources for Gk. Hist., p. 71) [Καρ]ες ον Τυ[μνες
αρχει], circ. 440 B.C.

628

separated its territory from that of Laodiceia, was included in the
Conventus of Alabanda. Its coins, quasi-autonomous and Imperial,
range from Augustus to Domna. Inscr., ΤΡΑΠΕΖΟΠΟΛΕΙΤΩΝ,
ΤΑΡΑΠΕΖΟΠΟΛΙΤΩΝ, &c. Magistrates’ names under Augustus in
nominative case. From the time of Domitian to that of M. Aurelius the
name is in the genitive preceded by δια instead of επι. This usage is
peculiar to a group of cities in the same district, Cidramus. Attuda,
Apollonia Salbace, Tabae, and Laodiceia ad Lycum. Imhoof (Kl. M., 162)
suggests that the use of δια, like that of παρα at Ceretape, Metropolis, and
Siblia in Phrygia, means that the coinage was provided for special
occasions at the private cost of the persons whose names it precedes, while
επι, on the other hand, appears to be simply equivalent to a date indicating that the issue took place during the term of office of such and
such a magistrate. (But see Class. Rev., 1907, p. 58.) At Trapezopolis
it is noteworthy that the names preceded by δια are not followed by
any distinctive title, whereas those with επι, which supersedes δια under
S. Severus, are accompanied by the title Archon. In one instance
επι precedes the names of two archons, one of whom, on another
coin, is further distinguished as ΑΡΧΙ(ερεως) ΥΙΟΥ (Imh., Kl. M., 163).
Chief types—ΙΕΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC ΙΕΡΑ ΒΟΥΛΗ; ΒΟΥΛΗ; ΔΗΜΟC
Dionysos; Mên; Kybele; Demeter; Apollo; Aphrodite; Winged Nemesis; Asklepios; Tyche; &c., most of which occur also at the neighbouring
city of Attuda.


»ANS


Alliance coin with Attuda, Ant. Pius, struck at the latter place (Imh.,
Kl. M., 126).


Tymnessus. This Carian town, the site of which has not been
identified, is mentioned only by Steph. Byz., s. v. It would seem however that, in early Imperial times, it possessed a mint and issued small
bronze coins. Obv. Head of Zeus; rev. ΤVΜΝΗCΕΩΝ Head of
Emperor (?) resembling Vespasian (Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk.,
p. 99).



SATRAPS OF CARIA


When Athens, after her Sicilian defeat during the Peloponnesian War,
lost her command of the sea, the coast towns of Caria, &c., which since
B.C. 469 had been tributary allies, fell again under Persian rule, and were
assigned by the Great King to the Satrapy of Tissaphernes; and it is to
his time that the remarkable tetradrachm described above (p. 597), obv.
Head of Satrap, rev. ΒΑΣΙΛ and Lyre, is generally ascribed. On the
death of Tissaphernes, Hecatomnus of Mylasa became Satrap of Caria
circ. B.C. 395.


Hecatomnus, B.C. 395-377. The earliest coins of this ruler are
drachms, &c. of Attic weight, and bronze coins probably struck at Mylasa,
the types of which may be compared with the coins of Miletus :—


»WW
»ANS





ΕΚΑ Lion’s head and foreleg.

[B. M. C., Ion., Pl. XXI. 5.]
Star in incuse circle. AR 65.7 grs.

Lion’s head l.
Similar.Æ Size .3


629


It is to a somewhat later date, probably after the Peace of Antalcidas,
B.C. 387, that the following tetradrachms belong :—





Zeus Labraundos, armed with spear and
double-axe, walking to r.


[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXVIII. 1.]
ΕΚΑΤΟΜ Lion r., in incuse circle.
AR 221 grs.

Id. [Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk.,
Pl. V. 17.]
Persian king standing, drawing bow.
AR 232 grs.



In B.C. 386 Hecatomnus assigned the city of Halicarnassus to his
eldest son Mausolus, whose earliest coinage, like that of his father
Hecatomnus, resembles that of Miletus :—





ΜΑ Lion’s head and foreleg.

[B. M. C., Ion., Pl. XXI. 6.]
Star in incuse circle. AR 195.8 grs.



On the attributions of the above-mentioned coins see Imhoof, Zur gr.
u. röm. Münzk., pp. 100 sqq.


Mausolus, B.C. 377-353. Although Mausolus succeeded his father as
Satrap of Caria in B.C. 377, it would seem that the tetradrachms and
drachms of the Rhodian standard which bear his name were not struck
before the removal of the satrapal residence from Mylasa to Halicarnassus, which then became the capital of Caria, B.C. 367 (?).


»WW
»SNG B
»ANS


Circ. B.C. 366-351.




FIG. 306.





Head of Apollo, laureate, facing.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXVIII. 2.]
ΜΑΥΣΣΩΛΛΟ Zeus Labraundos,
armed with spear and double-axe,
walking to r.
Tetradrachm AR 233 grs. (Fig. 306)

Drachm AR 56.6 grs.



On the death of Mausolus in B.C. 353 his widow Artemisia succeeded
him, and erected to his memory the famous Mausoleum. She died in
B.C. 351, but struck no coins in her own name.


Hidrieus, B.C. 351-344. This dynast was the second son of Hecatomnus, and on the death of Artemisia he succeeded to the Satrapy of
Caria, marrying, at the same time, his young sister Ada. His coins are
tetradrachms, didrachms, and drachms, similar to those of his brother
Mausolus, inscr. ΙΔΡΙΕΩΣ (B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXVIII. 5-7), also
quarter-drachms, obv. Head of Apollo facing, rev. ΙΔΡΙΕΩΣ or ΙΔΡΙ
between the rays of a star, as on the coins of Miletus (B. M. C., Car.,
Pl. XXVIII. 8). On the death of Hidrieus, B.C. 344, his widow Ada

630

retained possession of the Satrapy for four years, but struck no coins in
her own name.


»WW
»SNG B
»ANS


Pixodarus, B.C. 340-334, the youngest of the three sons of Hecatomnus,
obtained possession of the satrapy in B.C. 340, his sister Ada retiring to
the inland fortress of Alinda, which she continued to hold until Alexander’s invasion. Pixodarus struck didrachms, drachms, and quarter-drachms similar to those of Hidrieus. On some specimens his name is
written ΠΙΞΩΔΑΡΟΥ. This marks the date of the introduction of the
spelling, in full, of the diphthong ΟΥ in Caria.


»WW
»SNG B
»ANS


Pixodarus seems also to have been compelled, on pressure, to strike a
few gold coins in his own name, which is a sign of a relaxation of direct
Persian control, for the coinage of gold money was one of the cherished
prerogatives of the Great King, never formally delegated to a Satrap.


The smaller gold coins of Pixodarus, which are of undoubted authenticity, are the following :—





Head of Apollo l., laureate.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXVIII. 11.]
ΠΙΞΩΔΑ Zeus Labraundos standing
r., as on silver coins.
AV Hemihekton, 10.8 grs.

Similar.
Π Ι Double-axe. AV 1/24 Stater 5.2 grs.
[Ibid., Pl. XXVIII. 12.]



The specimens of the larger denominations, Hemistater and Hecte
(similar in type to the Hemihekton, except that the head of Apollo faces
to the right), in the British Museum collection (B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXVIII.
9, 10), are not altogether beyond suspicion.


Orontobates or Rhoontopates, B.C. 334-333. This Satrap married
Ada, the daughter of Pixodarus, whose hand had been successively
offered to Philip Arrhidaeus and to Alexander. The account of his defence
of Halicarnassus against Alexander is given by Arrian (Anab. i. 23;
ii. 5, 7), who calls him Orontobates. His coins are rare, and tetradrachms
only are known. They resemble those of his predecessor, but bear
apparently the inscription ΡΟΟΝΤΟΠΑΤΟ (Babelon, Perses Achém.,
lxxxviii. Pl. X. 17).


»ANS


Uncertain Satrapal Coins of Caria (?).


For the staters of Rhodian (?) weight, obv. King of Persia half kneeling,
rev. Galloping Satrap, see infra, under Persia.






ISLANDS OFF CARIA



Astypalaea, midway between Cos and Amorgos, was a port on the
trade-route between Phoenicia, Cyprus, Rhodes, Cnidus, Cos, and European Greece on the west. Its name occurs in the Athenian quota-lists,
B.C. 447-436, and in the latter year the annual sum at which it was
assessed amounted to 12,000 drachms (about £480). Astypalaea struck
small bronze coins in the third, second, and first centuries B.C. Inscr.,

631

ΑΣ, ΑΣΤΥ &c. The types point to a special cultus of Perseus, e. g.
Head of Perseus, Harpa, Gorgon-head, &c., and some pieces closely
resemble coins of Seriphos, where Perseus was also worshipped. On the
later issues heads of Dionysos, Athena, and Asklepios supersede those of
Perseus and Medusa, and it was in the temple of Athena and Asklepios
at Astypalaea that a copy of the Senatus consultum was deposited which
conferred upon the city the privileges of a Civitas foederata (I. G., xii. (iii)
173). Another type is that of a veiled female head, rev. Head of Dionysos. Gold staters and tetradrachms of Alexander’s types (symbol,
harpa) are also attributed to Astypalaea (Müller, Num. d'Alex., 1170-1172). Imperial coins are known of Livia and Tiberius. Inscr.,
ΑΣΤΥΠΑΛΑΕΩΝ. Types—Nike advancing, &c.


»ANS


Calymna. To this island, which lay off the coast of Caria, some ten
miles west of Myndus and north of Cos, are usually attributed the very
archaic silver staters of the Babylonian standard.


»SNG B
»ANS





Rude archaic head of bearded hero, in
crested helmet, with vizor and cheek piece. [B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXIX. 8.]
Lyre (chelys) with seven strings and
tortoise-shell bowl, within an incuse
adapted to the form of the lyre.
AR 162.2 grs.



In the Greenwell collection was a specimen with the letter Α on the
helmet and Λ (?) behind the head (N. C., 1890, Pl. III. 24). These remarkable coins can hardly be later than circ. B.C. 600, and their attribution to Calymna is somewhat doubtful. It may be that they are o f
Euboean or Macedonian origin, possibly of Aeneia in Chalcidice. It has
been pointed out by Babelon (Traité, ii. 1, p. 437) that in fabric they
differ from all other archaic coins struck in any of the Aegaean islands
or in Asia Minor.


Third century B.C.





Young male head in crested helmet,
with cheek-piece.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXIX. 9-11.]
ΚΑΛΥΜΝΙΟΝ Lyre (kithara) in
dotted square.
AR Rhodian didr. 100 grs.

AR Dr. 50 grs.

AR ½ Dr. 23 grs.



There are also small bronze coins of similar types.


Carpathos. This island appears to have been of some importance in
early times. Its chief city, Poseidium, struck silver staters in the sixth
century B.C. resembling in fabric those of the ancient Rhodian cities,
Lindus, Ialysus, and Camirus. All these places ceased to coin money
when Rhodus was founded, B.C. 408. Poseidium was probably the chief
city of the ‘Ετεοκαρπαθιοι εκ Καρπαθου, who appear separately in the
Athenian Quota-Lists as paying 1,000 drachms, the same amount at
which the people of ‘Αρκεσεια Καρπαθου are rated in contemporary lists.


»SNG B
»ANS


Sixth century B.C. Phoenician standard.




ΠΟΣ Two dolphins in opposite directions, and a third small fish beneath
them; all in dotted and linear square.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXIX. 14, 15.]
Incuse square, divided by broad band
into two oblong parts, with rough
surface. AR Stater 215 grs.

AR Third 70 grs.


632

The legend ΠΟΣ is usually wanting, and the fish beneath the dolphins
is sometimes not visible (Imhoof, Z. f. N., i. 153).


Cos. Concerning the history, epigraphy, and numismatics of this important island, see Paton and Hicks (Inscr. of Cos, 1891). According to
tradition the earliest Greek inhabitants of Cos came from Epidaurus,
bringing with them the worship of Asklepios, for which the island was
afterwards celebrated. Herakles is also an appropriate type on the coins
of a city which was a member of the Dorian Pentapolis. The origin of
the Crab as the special emblem of Cos is unexplained. The fact that it
is frequently accompanied, on coins, with the Heraklean club, while on
certain coins of Imperial times (B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXIII. 4, 5) it is
seen at the feet of Herakles himself, has been cited to prove its connexion with the cultus of Herakles. This is, however, very doubtful
(see Babelon, Traité, ii. 1, 441).


»WW
»SNG B
»ANS


The coinage of Cos falls into the following periods :—


Seventh century B.C. Aeginetic standard.



Crab. [B. M. C., Ion., p. 6, No. 29.]
Incuse square, quartered.
EL. 1.9 grs. = 1/96 Stater

Crab. [B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXX. 1.]
Rough incuse square, beside which (as
countermark) a small incuse square.
AR Stater 189.5 grs.

Crab. [Ibid., Pl. XXX. 2.]
Rough incuse square.
AR Diobol 25 grs.

AR Obol(?) 10.7 grs.



After a long interval of perhaps nearly a hundred years coins were
once more struck in the island, and it is remarkable that, while the Crab
is still the distinctive local emblem, the Aeginetic stater is now replaced
by a tetradrachm of Attic weight.


Fifth century B.C. Attic standard.




FIG. 307.





ΚΟΣ, ΚΩΣ or ΚΩΙΟΝ Naked Diskobolos, with tripod behind him (Fig.
307). [B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXX. 3-5.]
Crab in incuse square.
AR Tetr. 253 grs.



The agonistic type of these coins clearly refers to the games held in
honour of the Triopian Apollo in which the cities of the Dorian Pentapolis all took part, the first prize being a brazen tripod which the victor
dedicated to the god (Herod. i. 144).


After these fifth century issues of Euboic-Attic tetradrachms there
follows another long interval during which no coins seem to have been

633

struck in Cos. The foundation of a new capital at the eastern end of the
island (B.C. 366) marks the commencement of silver coinage on the
Rhodian standard with corresponding bronze.


Circ. B.C. 366-300. Rhodian standard.




Head of bearded or young Herakles in
lion-skin.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXX. 6.]
ΚΩΙΟΝ Crab and club in dotted
square. Magistrate’s name in nominative case. AR Tetradr. 240 grs.

Id. [Ibid., Pl. XXX. 9.]
AR Didrachm 105 grs.

Id. [Ibid., Pl. XXX. 10, 12.]
ΚΩΙΟΝ Veiled female head and magistrate’s name. AR Didr. and Dr.

Head of bearded Herakles, or Female
head veiled.

[Ibid., Pl. XXX. 13-15.]
ΚΩΙΟΝ Crab, club, and magistrate's
name. Æ .55



Circ. B.C. 300-190. Rhodian standard.


During this period Tetradrachms, Didrachms, Drachms, Hemidrachms,
and bronze coins are plentiful, and a head of the youthful Herakles, of
unmistakeable Lysippean style, supersedes (except on the drachms) the
bearded head prevalent on the earlier coins. On the tetradrachms the
bow in its case replaces the club under the crab. For a list of the
magistrates’ names see Paton and Hicks (Inscr. of Cos) and Imhoof
(Kl. M., 165).


Circ. B.C. 190-166.


To this period belong the Attic tetradrachms of Alexander’s types;
symbols, Crab and club, and magistrates’ names or monograms (Paton
and Hicks, Inscr. of Cos, p. 311, and Müller, Num. d'Alex., 1153). The
Coan or Rhodian weight was, however, retained for the didrachms and
smaller coins.





Head of young Herakles in lion-skin,
facing. [B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXI. 13.]
ΚΩΙΟΝ Crab, club, and magistrate's
name in dotted square. AR 105 grs.

Head of bearded Herakles r., in lion-skin. [Ibid., Pl. XXXI. 15.]
Id., but no dotted square. AR 50 grs.



On the smaller silver and bronze coins the rev. type is a Bow in case
and a club (Ibid., Pl. XXXI. 16-18).


Circ. B.C. 166-88.


A complete change in the type and fabric of the coinage took place
both at Cos and Rhodus about B.C. 166. At Cos the ancient Herakleian
types are now generally abandoned in favour of those relating to Asklepios, whose cult had gradually eclipsed that of Herakles, and who had
come to be the representative divinity of the island. The most remarkable coin of this age is, however, the unique tetradrachm in the Hunter
Collection :—





Head of Aphrodite, wearing myrtlewreath bound with diadem, and necklace. [Maonald, Hunter Cat., II.,
Pl. LIV. 18.]
ΚΩΙΩΝ Asklepios leaning on serpent
staff. Magistrate’s name ΝΙΚΟΣΤΡΑΤΟΣ. AR Tetr. 255.2 grs.


634

The head on this coin reminds us that the most famous among the
works of Apelles was the Aphrodite which he painted for the Coans,
and that Praxiteles also executed for Cos a half-draped statue of the
same goddess, which ranked with his widely renowned naked Aphrodite which was purchased by the Cnidians (Pliny, H. N., xxxvi. 5. 4).


The smaller silver coins of this period are as follows :—





Head of young Herakles in lion-skin r.
[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXII. 1.]
ΚΩΙΩΝ Shallow incuse square containing crab and club and magistrate’s name. AR Drachm 47 grs.

Head of Asklepios r.
[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXII. 2-5.]
ΚΩΙΩΝ ΚΩΙ, ΚΩ, or ΚΩΝ Shallow
incuse square containing coiled serpent and one or two magistrates’
names, sometimes with title ΠΡΟCΤΑ[της]AR Drachms of reduced wt.

or Tetrobols 34 grs.



The bronze coins resemble those of the previous period.


Circ. B.C. 88-50.


The coins of this period, which extends from the time of Sulla to the
tyranny of Nikias, are not numerous. The silver pieces are small.
Types—Head of Apollo, rev. Lyre; Head of Asklepios, rev. Serpent
staff or Coiled serpent. The corresponding bronze coins of the same
time are of larger dimensions (B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXII. 7-12).


Circ. B.C. 50 to Augustus.


During this period the island was governed for a time by a tyrant
named Nikias, concerning whom very little is known (Strab. xiv. 658).
His portrait, however, has been handed down to us on his bronze coins.





ΝΙΚΙΑΣ Beardless head r., diademed.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXII. 13.]
ΚΩΙΩΝ Head of Asklepios and magistrate’s name.Æ 1.25



Quasi-autonomous and Imperial Coins.
Augustus to Philip Jun. Inscr., ΚΩΙΩΝ. Chief types—Heads of
ΑΣΚΛΑΠΙΟΣ; Poseidon; Herakles; Ο ΔΑΜΟC; A ΒΟΥΛΑ; ΞΕΝΟΦΩΝ (Xenophon the Physician, who practised in Rome in the reign of
Claudius); ΞΕΝΟΦΟWΝ ΙΕΡΕΥC (the same as Priest of Asklepios (?));
ΙΠΠΟΚΡΑΤΗC (the Physician) seated; Tyche, &c. Reverse types—
ΕΡΡΑΝΑ Bust of Eirene; Lyre (B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXIII. 1); Two
doves drinking, perched on the rim of a vase (see Blanchet, in Rev. Num.,
1907, p. lxxxiii); Herakles holding infant Telephos (?), at his feet, crab
(B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXIII. 4, 5); Hygieia; City Tyche (?) to front.
Magistrates’ names are not uncommon, and are in the nominative,
sometimes accompanied by a patronymic.


Alliance coins with Halicarnassus (Caracalla and Geta) struck at the
latter place (B. M. C., Car., Pl. XLIV. 4), and Miletus (Ant. Pius) (N. C.,
1904, Pl. XVI. 12).


Megiste (?). Megiste was a small island almost united to the mainland of Lycia some twenty miles east of Patara. A few inscriptions in

635

the Doric dialect have been copied in the island (C. I. G., 4301; Le Bas-Wadd., 1268; B. C. H., XVI. 304); and from the types of some rare
silver drachms resembling but differentiated from those of Rhodes, and
inscribed ΜΕ, the inference has been drawn that Megiste, although an
autonomous city, was a colony of Rhodus. Imhoof (Kl. M., 166) has,
however, pointed out that the inscriptions ΝΙ and ΕΥ also occur on coins
of the same class, and that it is therefore possible that the coins in
question may have been struck at Rhodus itself, in which case ΜΕ, ΝΙ,
and ΕΥ would stand for magistrates’ names, or that some other colony
of Rhodus, not necessarily Megiste, may have been their place of issue.


»SNG B
»ANS


Fourth century B.C.




Head of Helios with short hair l., on
radiate disk.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXIV. 1-3.]
Μ Ε Rose with bud on either side.
AR Dr. 48 grs.

Similar head r.
Μ Ε Rose. Æ .4



Nisyros was a small volcanic island lying midway between the
Triopian promontory and the southern point of Cos, from which it was
said to have been torn off by Poseidon with his trident, and hurled upon
the giant Polybotes (Apollod., i. 6. 2).


»ANS


Fourth century B.C.




Head of Helios with short hair l., on
radiate disk.

[Millingen, Syll., Pl. II. 50.]
Ν Ι Rose with bud on either side.
AR Dr. 47 grs.



This coin may be Rhodian, see supra, under Megiste (?).





Head of Artemis(?) r., wearing stephane.
[Z. f. N., i., Pl. IV. 18.]
ΝΙΣΥΡΙΟΝ Poseidon, seated to front
on rock, his r. resting on trident.
AR Dr. (?) 35 grs.

Head of Poseidon.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXIV. 4.]
ΝΙ Dolphin and trident. Æ .5

Head of Zeus Ammon.
Id.Æ .4

Female head, with stephane.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXIV. 5.]
ΝΙΣΥ Similar. Æ .5



There was a temple of Poseidon in the town of Nisyros (Strab. x. 489).


Müller (Num. d'Alex., nos. 1168-9) ascribes to Nisyros some second
century tetradrachms of the Alexandrine types with a bucranium as
adjunct symbol. As this symbol is no longer accepted as one of the
coin-types of Nisyros, Müller’s attribution of the Alexandrine tetradrachms in question is certainly erroneous.


Rhodes. The admirable situation and climate of Rhodes doubtless
contributed to make the island a great maritime power, and the
commercial activity of the Rhodian merchants soon raised it to a
position of wealth and influence unsurpassed by that of any other state
in Greece.


»WW
»SNG B
»ANS


The Rhodian coinage falls into two main divisions: (i) that of the
three ancient towns, Camirus, Ialysus, and Lindus, down to B.C. 408,

636

when these cities combined to found the new capital, Rhodus; (ii) the long
series of the currency of Rhodus from B.C. 408 onwards.


Camirus Rhodi, on the western coast of the island, was the most
important of the three independent cities. The fact that its coins follow
the Aeginetic standard indicates that it traded chiefly with the Aegaean
islands, Crete, and Peloponnesus, where the Aeginetic standard prevailed.


»SNG B
»ANS


There are also small electrum coins of Camirus, as well as of Ialysus and
Lindus, which show that they had dealings with the Ionian coast-towns,
where, in the sixth century B.C., electrum was the standard currency.


Electrum and Silver. Sixth century B.C. Aeginetic standard.




Fig-leaf.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXIV. 6.]
Incuse square, within which a deeper
small incuse depression.
EL. 1/24 Stater 8.1 grs.

Fig-leaf.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXIV. 7.]
Two oblong incuses, separated by broad
band. AR Stater 189.6 grs.

Id. [Ibid., Pl. XXXIV. 10, 11.]
Id. AR Drachm 93.1 grs.

Id.
Incuse square. AR Tritemorion 9.1 grs.

Id.
Id. AR Hemiobol 7.6 grs.



Silver and Bronze. Circ. B.C. 500-408. Persic (?) standard.




Fig-leaf.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXIV. 12.]
ΚΑΜΙ ΡΕΩΝ in two oblong incuses,
separated by broad band.
AR Stater 175.2 grs.

Id. [Ibid., Pl. XXXIV. 13.]
Κ Α in two oblong incuses.
AR Trihemiobol 18.3 grs.

Rose. [Ibid., Pl. XXXIV. 14.]
Κ Α Griffin’s head in incuse square.
AR Obol 14.2 grs.

Fig-leaf. [Ibid., Pl. XXXIV. 15.]
Κ Α in two quarters of a wheel. Æ .4



The fig-leaf may have been chosen as a coin-type as the chief product
of the island, but it may also have been originally a religious symbol
(cf. Dionysos συκιτης or συκατης at Lacedaemon (Ath. 78 c.) and Zeus
συκασιος (Eust. 1572, 58)).


Ialysus Rhodi, in the north of the island, about ten miles west of the
later city of Rhodus, does not seem to have issued money before the
early part of the fifth century B.C., although there are some small
electrum pieces (wts. 15, 7.3, and 3.7 grs.), resembling the silver coins,
which may be somewhat earlier. (See Hirsch, Auct. Cat. xiii., Nos. 3997-4000.) Its first silver coins are of the Phoenician standard, suggesting
that its commercial relations must have been rather with the mainland
of Asia Minor than with the Aegaean islands.


»SNG B
»ANS


Silver. Circ. B.C. 500-408. Phoenician standard.




Forepart of winged boar.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXV. 1, 2.]
ΙΕΛΥΣΙΟΝ and ΙΑΛΥΣΙΟΝ Eagle's
head in dotted and incuse square, in
one corner of which is a floral ornament. AR Tetradr. 229.4 grs.


637




ΙΑΛΥΣΙΟΝ Forepart of winged boar;
beneath, helmet.

[Ibid., Pl. XXXV. 3.]
ΙΑΛΥΣΙΟΝ Eagle’s head in dotted and
incuse square. AR Tetradr. 223.4 grs.

Id.
Id. AR 16.1 grs. and 7.8 grs.



Persic standard.




Forepart of winged boar.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXV. 4.]
No inscr. Eagle’s head in dotted and
incuse square, in one corner of which
is a floral ornament.
AR Drachm 75.9 grs.

Id. [Ibid., Pl. XXXV. 5.]
Id.AR ½ Dr. 3 1.6 grs.

Forepart of winged horse.

[Ibid., Pl. XXXV. 6.]
Α Ι Rose in dotted and incuse square.
AR ½ Obol 6.5 grs.



The types and the fabric of the coins of Ialysus have something in
common with those of Clazomenae, Lycia, Cyprus, and Cyrene, and they
differ remarkably from those of the two other Rhodian cities, Camirus
and Lindus (B. M. C., Car., ci).


Lindus Rhodi. The city of Lindus, on the east coast of Rhodes, struck,
like Camirus and Ialysus, a few small electrum coins, resembling the
silver money, which seem to be as early as the sixth century B.C., wts.
14.3 and 11.8 grs. (Hirsch, Auct. Cat. xiii., nos. 4002-3). The silver coins
of Lindus, like those of Ialysus, follow the Phoenician standard. The
Lion’s head, the prevailing type of the Lindian coinage, may be merely a
copy of the widely-circulating Cnidian coins, in which case it possesses no
local significance. The peculiar form of the incuse reverses of the coins of
both Lindus and Camirus, consisting of a square divided into two oblong
halves by a broad band, is original and hardly ever met with outside
Rhodes except at Poseidium in the neighbouring island of Carpathos:—


»SNG B
»ANS


Silver. Circ. B.C. 600-500. Phoenician standard.




Lion’s head, with open jaws and tuft of
hair on forehead.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXV. 7-9]
Incuse square, divided into two oblong
halves by broad band, on which
ΛΙΝΔΙ is sometimes legible.
AR Tetradr. 213 grs.

AR Diobol 16.1 grs.



Circ. B.C. 500-408.




Forepart of horse.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXV. 10.]
Incuse square, containing lion’s head
with open jaws.
AR Tetrobol 33.2 grs.

AR Obol 7.9 grs.



Some specimens show a faint inscription, apparently ΛΙΝΔΙ, in front
of the horse.


Rhodus. In or about the year B.C. 408 the three independent Rhodian
towns, Camirus, Ialysus, and Lindus, combined to found the new city of
Rhodus near the extreme northern point of the island. As the people
of all three towns claimed descent from Helios, to whom indeed the
whole island was sacred (Pindar, Ol. vii. 54), the head of the Sun-god

638

and his emblem, the Rose, ροδον, the flower from which the island took
its name, were naturally chosen as the coin-types of the new capital.
In the year of the foundation of Rhodus, B.C. 408, full-face heads on
coins were a novelty. The engraver of the new Rhodian coin-dies,
inspired perhaps by the exquisite full-face head of Arethusa, the chef
d'oeuvre of the Syracusan artist, Kimon (circ. B.C. 409), betrays also his
own individuality by his adoption of the broader and bolder style of treatment which henceforth characterized Rhodian art, and which, a century
later, culminated in the erection of the world-renowned colossal statue of
Helios by the Rhodian sculptor, Chares, a pupil of Lysippus. The
Rhodian coins of the fourth century B.C. give a splendid rendering of the
head of the Sun-god in his noon-day glory, with rounded face and ample
locks of hair, wind-blown and suggestive of his rapid course. The crown
of rays which the artists of the next century preferred to emphasize in
a more materialistic form is, on these earlier coins, merely hinted at by
a skilful adaptation of the locks of the hair (cf. B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXVI.
5, with Pl. XXXVIII. 1). For a possible engraver’s name see Hunter
Cat. ii, p. 437.


The coinage of Rhodus falls into the following classes :—


Silver. Circ. B.C. 408-400. Attic standard.




Head of Helios, facing (rough work).

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXVI. 1.]
ΡΟΔΙΟΝ Rose between two bunches
of grapes, in incuse square.
AR Tetradr. 258.8 grs.

Id.
Id. AR ½ Dr.

Id.
Ρ Ο Rose in incuse square. AR ½ Dr.

Id.
 „  Head of nymph, Rhodos, to r., in
incuse square. AR ½ Dr.



Next in order follows the Federal coinage of the ‘Symmachy’, common
to Rhodus, Cnidus, Iasus, Samos, Ephesus, and Byzantium, which dates
from Conon’s victory at Cnidus, B.C. 394. In weight the coins of this
alliance consist of Aeginetic didrachms of very light weight (178 grs.),
which may also be regarded as tridrachms of the reduced Attic standard
(drachm 60 grs.) adopted by Rhodus about this time. The types of the
Federal coin of Rhodus are as follows :—





ΣΥΝ Infant Herakles strangling serpents.
Ρ Ο Rose in incuse square. [B. M. C., Car., Pl. XLV. 2.]AR 175 grs.



Gold. Circ. B.C. 400-333.


Of the numerous full-face coins of bold and sculpturesque style issued
from the Rhodian mint during the greater part of the fourth century the
most perfect specimen is the unrivalled gold stater in the British Museum
(B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXVI. 5).





FIG. 308.

639




Head of Helios, facing.
ΡΟΔΙΟΝ Rose with bud to r., and
grapes to l.; in field, Ε; all in
incuse square (Fig. 308)
AV Stater 132.6 grs.



This is not only one of the most beautiful but it is also one of the
earliest pure gold staters struck at any Greek town. A few only of
the Lampsacene staters can claim priority in date.


Silver. B.C. 400-333. Rhodian standard.


Tetradrachms, didrachms, and drachms, resembling the gold stater in
type, but of coarser work, together with didrachms and diobols with
a head of Helios in profile, belong also to this period. All these coins
have various symbols and letters beside the Rose on the reverses
(B. M. C., Car., pp. 231-4).


Circ. B.C. 333-304.


In this period the radiate type of the head of Helios makes its first
appearance on some of the full-face didrachms and on quarter-drachms
with the head in profile; and small bronze coins occur for the first time,
the obv. type of which is a female head, probably that of the nymph
Rhodos. The magistrates’ names on the larger coins are at full length
in the nominative case.


Circ. B.C. 304-189 and later.




FIG. 309.


The coinage of Rhodes seems to have been unaffected by the campaign
of Alexander, and it was not until after the famous siege of the city by
Demetrius Poliorcetes that any great modification of the types was
introduced. It can, however, hardly be questioned that the next series
of Rhodian coins, which exhibits the head of Helios radiate (Fig. 309) on
both tetradrachms and didrachms, falls into the period of the greatest
prosperity of Rhodes (B.C. 304-166). This radiate head may serve to
give us some idea of the style and general aspect of the features of the
colossal statue by Chares set up in B.C. 283 beside the harbour of Rhodus,
and not, according to a fanciful modern notion, astride across its
entrance (Overbeck, Plastik, 3rd ed., ii. 137 sqq.).


The unradiate head is retained during this period on the drachms and
smaller coins. The inscr. on the reverses is either ΡΟΔΙΟΝ or Ρ Ο, and
there are magistrates’ names, each with a separate symbol beside the
rose. The Rhodian drachms appear to have circulated widely also on
the mainland, and some without the letters Ρ Ο were certainly struck
on the continent; cf. a specimen with the mint-mark of Miletus (B. M. C.,

640

Car., Pl. XXXIX. 8) and others with an eagle superposed on the right
cheek of the Sun-god.


The bronze coins of this period have a head of Zeus or a veiled female
head in place of that of Helios on the obv. (B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXIX.
15-18).


Circ. B.C. 189-166.


At the conclusion of the peace, B.C. 189, after the battle of Magnesia,
Rhodes obtained a large accession of territory on the mainland, including
Lycia (exclusive of Telmessus) and the greater part of Caria. With the
exception of the magnificent gold stater above described (circ. B.C. 400)
all the other known gold coins of Rhodes belong to the second
century B.C.


GOLD COINAGE.




Head of Helios, radiate, facing, without
neck. [B. M. From Montagu Coll.,
Sale Cat., ii. 283, Pl. III.]
Ρ Ο Rose and bud, above [ΑΓΗ]ΣΙΔΑΜΟΣ; symbol, Artemis running
with torch: all in dotted circle.
AV Stater 131.5 grs.



The magistrate’s name and symbol on this unique stater are identical
with those on the didrachm (B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXVIII. 4) and drachm
(Hunter Cat., ii. 439, 21).





Head of Helios, radiate, facing.
[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXIX. 19.]
Ρ Ο Rose and bud in shallow incuse
square; above, magistrate’s name;
changing symbol in field.
AV Stater 131.2 grs

Id. [Ibid., p. 272.]
Id. AV ½ Stater 65.6 grs.

Head of Rhodos r., radiate, wearing
stephane, ear-ring and necklace.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXIX. 20.]
Ρ Ο Rose and bud; above, magistrate's
name; changing symbol; all in dotted
circle. AV ¼ Stater 33.4 grs.



GOLD AND SILVER OF REGAL TYPES.


Rhodes, after B.C. 189, also struck some gold Philippi with Ρ Ο and
adjunct symbol, rose (Müller, 308); and Lysimachian gold staters
(Müller, Lysim., 450, 451), together with Alexandrine tetradrachms
(Müller, 1154-67). The magistrates’ names on these coins are identical
with those on the coins of the Rhodian type.


Circ. B.C. 166-88.


In B.C. 167 the Romans deprived Rhodes of her territory on the mainland. All the cities hitherto tributary to Rhodes were declared free, and
the Rhodian merchants suffered in consequence a severe loss. The erection
of Delos at this time into a free port was also greatly detrimental to
Rhodian commerce. It is probable that the cessation of the issue of
tetradrachms from the Rhodian mint is coincident with these political
and commercial reverses, and that, driven to abandon the issue of large
coins, Rhodes strove to maintain her credit by restoring her drachms more
nearly to their original weight, and for the sake of distinguishing the
new drachms of heavier weight from the debased drachms, still current,

641

a new type was adopted. A head of Helios in profile was substituted
for the full-face head, and the obsolete incuse square was reintroduced
with the deliberate intention of marking the fact that the new drachms
were equivalent to those which had prevailed in former times before the
incuse square had been abandoned. The types of the coins of this period
are as follows :—





Head of Helios r., radiate.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XL. 1-11.]
Shallow incuse square containing Ρ Ο,
Rose with bud, magistrate’s name
and changing symbol.
AR Dr. 50.4 grs.

Head of Helios, radiate, facing.

[Ibid., Pl. XL. 12-15.]
Similar. AR ½ Dr. 22.5 grs.

Head of Helios r., radiate.

[Ibid., Pl. XL. 16.]
Ρ Ο Rose with bud and changing
symbol; all in dotted circle.
AR ¼ Dr. 12.7 grs.

Head of Helios r., radiate.

[Ibid., Pl. XL. 17, 18.]
Ρ Ο Rose with bud and changing symbols; all in dotted circle.
Æ 1.15 and .5

Head of Rhodos r., radiate.

[Ibid., Pl. XL. 19, 20.]
Shallow incuse square containing Ρ Ο
and Rose. Æ .5



Circ. B.C. 88-43.


During the revolt of Asia from Roman rule, B.C. 88-84, Rhodes was
one of the few states which refused to join Mithradates, and when Sulla
with the help of the Rhodian fleet passed over into Asia and quelled the
revolt, the Rhodians were rewarded for their loyalty to Rome by the gift
of freedom and by the restoration of a portion of their possessions on
the mainland. It is to this period of renewed prosperity that I would
attribute the last issue of Rhodian silver coins. These pieces are
drachms ranging in weight from 68.4 to 61.7 grs. They are thus slightly
heavier than the Attic drachms, and the heavier specimens might be
accepted as thirds of the contemporary Ptolemaic tetradrachms of about
210 grs.





Head of Helios, three-quarter face towards r., with winged diadem, ends
tied under chin.

[Paris; B. M. C., Car., Pl. XLV. 3.]
Ρ Ο Rose with bud; above. ΓΟΡΓΟΣ;
symbol, star; all in dotted circle.
AR 68.25 grs.

Head of Helios, radiate, three-quarter
face towards l.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XLI. 1.]
Ρ Ο Full-blown rose to front; below,
palm; all in dotted circle.
AR 68.4 grs.

Head of Helios, radiate, three-quarter
face towards r.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XLI. 2.]
Ρ Ο Full-blown rose to front; magistrates’ names and varying symbols.
AR 66.7 grs.



As these heavy drachms are rare, it would seem that Rhodes ceased to
coin silver before the middle of the first century B.C., while the unusually
large size and heavy weight of the bronze pieces which succeed them
indicate that these latter were intended to take the place of silver money,
and that they can hardly have been tokens of merely nominal value.

642




Head of Helios, radiate, facing.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XLI. 3, 4.]
Ρ Ο Full-blown rose to front, within
an oak-wreath. Magistrates’ names.
Æ 1.4

Head of Helios r., radiate.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XLI. 5-7.]
Ρ Ο or ΡΟΔΙΩΝ Full-blown rose to
front; magistrates’ names and symbols; all in dotted circle. Æ .8-.5



Quasi-autonomous and Imperial Coins, 43 B.C. to COMMODUS.


The wavering policy of Rhodes during the civil war between Pompey
and Caesar led to the final ruin of her commerce in B.C. 42, when Cassius
Parmensis destroyed the greater part of her fleet and struck a fatal
blow at her maritime supremacy. Although the Rhodian silver money
continued to be current long after it had ceased to be issued, bronze
gradually took its place as the chief medium of circulation, and the
large bronze coins superseded the silver drachms. Somewhat later,
under one or other of the earlier emperors, one of those reductions in
the value of the current coins took place which I have elsewhere
noticed (B. M. C., Car., p. cxvii), and the large bronze coin which, from
its types, I have assumed to have been at first equivalent to the drachm
was now distinguished as a didrachm and denominated as such by its
inscription ΡΟΔΙΩΝ ΔΙΔΡΑΧΜΟΝ or ΡΟΔΙΟΙ ΥΠΕΡ ΤΩΝ CΕΒΑCΤΩΝ ΔΙΔΡΑΧΜΟΝ.


The chief types on the large bronze coins are heads of Dionysos
unradiate or radiate, and heads of Helios radiate, in profile. The reverse
type is usually Nike. Magistrates’ names in the genitive case with επι
and often with title Ταμιας, the Financial Treasurer and not the Roman
Provincial Quaestor. On a coin of Ant. Pius is a figure of ΠΟCΕΙΔΩΝ
ΑCΦΑΛΕΙΟC standing before altar (Eckhel, D. N., ii. 605). Poseidon
Asphaleios was the god who presided over the safety of ships and ports
(cf. Strab. 59).


Syme (?). Concerning the coins assigned by Waddington to this
island and by Imhoof to Syangela see Syangela, supra, p. 625.


Telos, a small island between Rhodes and Nisyros.


Fourth century B.C.




Head of Zeus.

[Mion. iii. 430, 289.]
ΤΗΛΙ Crab. Æ .5

Head of Athena, r. [Z. f. N., i. 151.]
  „   „Æ .4

ΔΑΜΟΚΡΑΤΙΑΣ Head of Athena,
facing, with aegis outspread behind it.
  „   „    and magistrate’s name.
[Imh., Gr. M., 154, Pl. X. 17.]Æ .5

Head of Athena, facing, in helmet with
three crests.
ΤΗΛΙ Crab. [Ibid.]Æ .55



The inscription ΔΑΜΟΚΡΑΤΙΑΣ occurs also on contemporary coins
of Cnidus (see supra, p. 616). The heads of Zeus and Athena are probably
those of the Zeus Πολιευς and Athena Πολιας mentioned in Telian
inscriptions (C. I. G. xii. (iii) 40).
































 




















CariaCoins from Caria for sale in Forum Ancient Coins.

Ashton, R. “The Solar Disk Drachms of Caria” in NC 1990.
Ashton, R., et al. “The Pixodarus Hoard” in Coin Hoards IX (2002).
Göktürk, M.T. “A Hoard of Hellenistic Silver Coins of Myndos, Halikarnassos, and Knidos” in Studies in Ancient Coinage from Turkey (London, 1996).
Head, B.V. A Catalog of the Greek Coins in the British Museum, Caria, Cos, Rhodes, etc. (London, 1897).
Hurter. S. “Lions and lionesses, eagles and a few heads: a new uncertain mint in Caria” in Essays Hersh.
Imhoof-Blumer, F. Kleinasiatische Münzen. (Vienna, 1901-2).
Imhoof-Blumer, F. Zur griechischen und römischen Münkunde. (Vienna, 1908).
Klein, Dieter. Sammlung von griechischen Kleinsilbermünzen und Bronzen, Nomismata 3. (Milano, 1999).
Konuk, K. “Coin Legends in Carian” in I.J. Adiego, ed., The Carian Language (Leiden, 2007).
Konuk, K. “Influences et Eléments Achéménides dans le monnayage de la Carie” in MIMAA.
Konuk, K. “The Early Coinage of Kaunos” in Essays Price, pp. 197 - 224 and pls. 47 - 50.
Meadows, A.R. "Stratonikeia in Caria: the Hellenistic City and its Coinage" in NC 2002.
Numismatik Lanz, Auktion 13: Sammlung Karl, Münzen von Karien. (27 Nov 2006).
Price, M.J. & N. Waggoner. Archaic Greek Silver Coinage, The "Asyut" Hoard. (London, 1975).
Sear, D. Greek Coins and Their Values, Volume 2, Asia and Africa. (London, 1979).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Denmark, The Royal Collection of Coins and Medals, Danish National Museum, Vol. 5: Ionia, Caria and Lydia. (West Milford, NJ, 1982).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, Münzsammlung Universität Tübingen, Part 5: Karien und Lydien. (Berlin, 1994).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, Sammlung Hans Von Aulock, Vol. 2: Caria, Lydia, Phrygia, Lycia, Pamphylia. (Berlin, 1962).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Finland, The Erkki Keckman Collection in the Skopbank, Helsinki, Part 1: Karia. (Helsinki, 1994).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain VI, Corpus Christi College Cambridge, The Lewis Collection II: The Greek Imperial Coins. (1992).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Turkey I: The Muharrem Kayhan Collection. (Istanbul, 2002).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Turkey VIII: Mugla Museum, Vol. 1: Caria. (Istanbul, 2012).
Troxell, H.A. “Carians in Miniature” in Studies Mildenberg.
Troxell, H.A. “Winged Carians” in Essays Thompson.
Yarkin, U. “The Coinage of Syangela in Caria” in NC 1975.
Waggoner, N.M. Early Greek Coins from the Collection of Jonathan P. Rosen (ANS ACNAC 5). (New York, 1983).


In Caria, properly so called,—that is to say, in the inland districts,—
there was no coinage whatever before Alexander’s conquest; and, on the
coast, Cnidus and Chersonesus, Idyma, Termera, Astyra, and perhaps
Caunus, appear to have been the only mints before the commencement of
the fine series of coins of the Hecatomnid dynasty. In the Greek islands,
on the other hand (Calymna, Cos, Rhodes, &c.), silver coins were in general
use from very early times. The defeat of Antiochus by the Romans in

607

B.C. 190 marks the beginning of a new era, and of a rapid development of
commercial activity, accompanied by the introduction of autonomous
coinages at all the principal centres of population. The quasi-regal issues
of Alexandrine tetradrachms and of imitations of the gold Philippus were,
in the second and first centuries, superseded by autonomous municipal
silver coinages, some of which, e. g. those of Stratoniceia, Tabae, &c.,
survived into early Imperial times. As a rule, however, the coinage of
Caria, from Augustus to Gallienus, was restricted to bronze (B. M. C., Caria, Introd., p. xxv).


Alabanda (Arab-hissar), originally an old Carian town, was situate on
the river Marsyas, about twenty miles south of its confluence with the
Maeander. It is mentioned as one of the allies of Rome in the war
against Philip V of Macedon, circ. B.C. 197; and about this time it
appears to have struck tetradrachms and smaller divisions reading
ΑΛΑΒΑΝΔΕΩΝ with obv. Head of Apollo, rev. Pegasos and magistrate’s name in nominative case. After B.C. 197 Alabanda received
the name of Antiocheia, in honour of Antiochus, who was for a few
years master of the country, and, until his defeat (B.C. 190), its coins were
inscribed ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ. After the battle of Magnesia, Alabanda resumed its old name, and, either immediately or about twenty years later,
B.C. 168 (when Caria and Lycia were declared free by the Roman
Senate), began to strike tetradrachms of the Alexandrine type (Müller,
Num. d'Alex., 1144-50), also tridrachms, didrachms, and octobols of
the Rhodian standard (B. M. C., Caria, Pl. I. 7-9) with inscr., ΑΛΑΒΑΔΩΝ, and obv. Head of Apollo, rev. Pegasos or Tripod in laurel-wreath.
Bronze coins of various types are also assigned to this period (B. M. C., Caria, p. 3; Imh., Gr. M., 137; Kl. M., 104; and Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk.,
p. 80). After a long interval Alabanda began once more to strike coins,
quasi-autonomous and Imperial, in the time of Augustus, but its coinage
seems to have ceased altogether after the time of Caracalla. A few specimens only bear magistrates’ names in nominative case with title Ιππαρχης,
under Augustus, and later, with επι or επι αρχ[οντος]. The remarkable
inscription. ΑΤΕΛΕΙΑC and ΑΤΕΛΕΙΟC (B. M. C., Caria, Pl. II. 2) (immunitas a
tributis) may be connected with the fact that Alabanda had built a temple
to the goddess Roma before B.C. 170 (B. M. C., Caria, xxix). Chief types—
Heads or figures of ΘЄΑ ΡΩΜΗ; CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC; Demos(?); Tyche;
Apollo ΚΙCCΙΟC holding raven and bow, and with ram at his feet
(Z. f. N., viii. Pl. II. 5); Draped Apollo holding raven and laurel branch,
lyre on a cippus beside him; Large laurel bough with three branches,
filleted; Zeus ΕΠΙ ΚΟΥΡΟC (sic) Bust of Zeus Epikurios; Bust of
ΑΡΤΕΜΙC; &c. (Num. Zeit., 1884, 267).


»WW
»SNG B
»ANS


Alinda (Demirji-deresi) was situated on a rocky height commanding the
plain of the Karpuzli-ova, through which an affluent of the Marsyas flows
in an easterly direction towards Alabanda, about twelve miles distant.
The district called Hidrias, of which Alinda was the chief town and a
strong fortress, was ceded by Ada, the widow of Hidrieus, to Alexander
the Great. Its earliest coins (Æ) date from the second century B.C. Inscr.,
ΑΛΙΝΔΕΩΝ. Obv. Head of Herakles. Rev. Lion-skin hanging over club,
the whole in oak-wreath, imitated from contemporary half-cistophori; also
Club in oak-wreath; Winged fulmen; Bow in case; Bipennis; Pegasos;

608

&c. Other specimens, with obv. Head of Herakles, rev. Club, and obv.
Head of young Dionysos, rev. Sistrum, are described by Imhoof (Zur
gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 80). After an interval the coinage is resumed in
Imperial times, Augustus to Caracalla or later. Magistrate, sometimes
with title ΕΠΙ ΑΡΧΟ[τος]. Types—The Dioskuri; Sarapis and Isis;
Zeus(?) draped, with right arm raised; Apollo Kitharistes.; Herakles and
Keryneian stag; Herakles to front crowned by Nike; &c. (B. M. C., Caria, Pl. II. 9-12).


»SNG B
»ANS


Amyzon. This small town stood on a height (some ten miles northwest of Alinda) which is now called Mazyn Kalessi. It struck a few
coins in the first century B.C. Inscr., ΑΜΥΖΟΝΕΩΝ Types—Obv. Bust
of Artemis, rev. Lyre, Torch, or Stag; Magistrate’s name ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟC on
some specimens (Imh., Gr. M. 662, and Mon. gr., 304). There is also
a coin with the head of Augustus, as well as one or two quasi-autonomous
coins of Imperial times. Types—Obv. Zeus Labrandeus standing, with
inscr. ΧΩΜΑ ... ΟC(?), rev. Apollo standing (N. Z., 1884, 268); also
obv. Laureate head, rev. Female head with straight curls (B. M. C., Caria,
Pl. III. 1). For further list see Z. f. N., xxiv, p. 129 f.


Antiocheia ad Maeandrum stood on high ground overlooking the
plain of the Maeander at its confluence with the Morsynus. Its foundation dates from early Seleucid times. When Caria received the gift of
freedom from the Roman Senate, B.C. 168, Antiocheia began to strike
coins, Tetradrachms, obv. Head of Zeus, rev. ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ, Eagle on
fulmen and magistrate’s name in circular Maeander pattern (B. M. C., Caria, Pl. XLV. 10), also obv. Head of Apollo, rev. Humped bull in
circular Maeander pattern surmounted by pilei of Dioskuri (B. M. C., Caria, Pl. III. 3). On the contemporary drachms the bull is recumbent
(op. cit., Pl. III. 4), and on the bronze coins the humped bull or an eagle
are frequent reverse types (Pl. III. 6, with inscr. ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ ΤΩΝ
ΠΡΟΣ ΤΩ ΜΑΙΑΝΔΡΩ), heads of Mên and of Apollo being the ordinary
types of the obverses. For other types see Imh., Kl. M., 108. Some of
these autonomous bronze coins have magistrates’ names in genitive case.
There are also gold Philippi from a find at Aidin, with mint letters ΑΝ
(B. M. C., Caria, cviii), and Alexandrine tetradrachms (Müller, Num.
d'Alex., 1176-7) which were probably issued at Antiocheia in the second
century B.C.


»WW
»ANS


The subsequent coinage, quasi-autonomous and Imperial, ranges
from Augustus to Salonina, with heads and names of Emperors or of
ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC; ΙЄΡΑ ΒΟΥΛΗ; ΒΟΥΛΗ; ΔΗΜΟC; ΙЄΡΑ ΓΕΡΟΥCΙΑ; ΖЄΥC ΒΟΥΛΑΙΟC; ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟC (the founder); ΝΑΡΒΙC (city
goddess); and figures of ΖЄΥC ΒΟΥΛΑΙΟC standing (Imh., Kl. M., 110);
ΖЄΥC ΚΑΠЄΤΩΛΙΟC seated, or in temple; ΑΝΤΙΟΧЄΙΑ seated; ΡΩΜΗ
seated; ΗΡΑ standing; River-god ΜΟΡCΥΝΟC standing; CΩΖΩΝ
standing; River-god ΜΑΙΑΝΔΡΕ recumbent; ΚΤΙCΤΗC standing;
and many other conventional figures of various divinities. Also a Liknophoros supporting a basket (?) on his head (B. M. C., Caria, Pl. IV. 3);
Hekate triformis; Nemesis; Artemis Ephesia; Atys; a representation
of a bridge over the Maeander consisting of six arches and adorned with
statues of the River-god and two figures standing, &c. (Fig. 303).

609




FIG. 303.


From Augustus to Claudius coins were issued by a ΣΥΝΑΡΧΙΑ or
Collegium, under the presidency of a chief magistrate, e.g. ΙΑΣΟΝΟΣ
ΣΥΝΑΡΧΙΑ (Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 81), ΑΓΕΛΑΟΥ
ΣΥΝΑΡΧΙΑ (Imh. Kl. M., 110), and, under Domitian, the name of this
official or commissioner appointed to supervise the coinage is accompanied
by ЄΠΙΜЄΛΗΘЄΝΤΟC (see v. Fritze, Nomisma, i, p. 3).


Alliance coins with Aphrodisias (Commodus, Imh., Kl. M., 112),
and Laodiceia ad Lycum (Commodus, Mion. iii. 318, 87).


Aphrodisias stood on one of the western spurs of Mount Salbacus,
about 1,600 feet above the sources of the river Morsynus, some 20 miles
south-east of Antiocheia. The little river Timeles, one of the effluents
of the Harpasus, took its rise in the territory of the city, and personifications of both streams occur on the coins. The neighbouring town of
Plarasa was, during the latter part of the first century B.C., united with
Aphrodisias, and the two together formed a single community upon
which the rights of ελευθερια and ατελεια were conferred in the time of
M. Antony, B.C. 39-35.


»ANS


Both cities appear, however, to have struck independently a few
autonomous bronze coins before their union (B. M. C., Caria, p. xxxiii).


The coinage of silver drachms and bronze in their joint names
ΠΛΑΡΑΣΕΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΑΦΡΟΔΙΣΙΕΩΝ belongs probably to the end of
the first century B.C. The type of the drachm is a veiled head of
Aphrodite, rev. Eagle on fulmen. The types of the autonomous bronze
coins are more varied, e. g. Double-axe, rev. Cuirass; Bust of Eros, rev.
Rose or Double-axe; Bust of Aphrodite, rev. Double-axe; Head of Zeus,
rev. Cultus-statue of Aphrodite; Head of Aphrodite, rev. Ares standing, &c.


Magistrates’ names, one or more in nominative case, often accompanied
with patronymic, and, in one instance, with title ΙΕΡΕΥΣ ΔΗΜΟΥ
(B. M. C., Caria, p. 26, 6). The quasi-autonomous and Imperial coins
range from Augustus to Salonina. Inscr., ΑΦΡΟΔΕΙCΙЄΩΝ. Magistrates’ names with titles ΥΙΟC ΑΦΡΟΔΙCΙЄΩΝ or ΥΙΟC ΠΟΛЄΩC
Archiereus, Hiereus, Archineokoros, Archon, or the board of Archons
(ЄΠΙ ΑΡΧΟΝΤΩΝ ΤΩΝ ΠЄΡΙ ΜЄΝЄCΘЄΑ ΙCΟΒΟΥΝΟΝ). In many
instances the coins are so-called dedicatory issues, with ΑΝЄΘΗΚЄ,
e.g. by an Archiereus or Hiereus, to his native city, ΤΗ ΠΑΤΡΙΔΙ,
or on the occasion of an agonistic victory, ЄΠΙΝΙΚΙΟΝ or the
dedicator, while providing the means for the issue as a λειτουργια,
may also have supervised it, ЄΠΙΜЄΛΗΘЄΝΤΟC (see von Fritze,

610

Nomisma, i, p. 3). Games—ΚΑΠЄΤΩΑΙ Α, ΚΑΠЄΤΩΛΙΑ ΠΥΘΙΑ,
ΓΟΡΔΙΑΝΗΑ ΠΥΘΙΑ, ΓΟΡΔΙΑΝΗΑ ΑΤΤΑΛΗΑ, ΟΙΚΟΥΜЄΝΙΚΟC
ΓΟΡΔΙΑΝΗΑ ΟΥΑΛΕΡΙΑΝΑ ΟΙΚΟΥΜΕΝΙΚΑ. Types—Busts of ΙΕΡΑ
CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC, ΙЄΡΑ (or ЄΙЄΡΑ) ΒΟΥΛΗ ΒΟΥΛΗ, ΙЄΡΟC ΔΗΜΟC,
ЄΛЄΥΘΕΡΟC ΔΗΜΟC, ΔΗΜΟC, &c. River gods—MOPCYNOC and
ΤΙΜЄΛΗC. The reverse-types, as a rule, refer to the presiding goddess
of the city, Aphrodite, who is represented either in the form of an
archaic cultus-statue with a small seated priestess behind it and an
altar in front, or in Hellenic form often attended by Erotes or Eros and
Anteros (Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 82), and sometimes beside
Ares, or as Aphrodite Pelagia riding on a sea-goat (Imh., Kl. M.,
Pl. IV. 14). Temples of Aphrodite also occur, and among other types
are-Nemesis winged; Dionysos beside stele, with hand resting on his
head; the three Charites; Two naked athletes and γυμναστης (Imh.,
Kl. M., 118); Adonis charging wild boar; Hermes Agoraios; Hermes
dragging ram; Leaf-less tree on either side of which are two men, one of
whom strikes at it with an axe. (Cf. the myth of the birth of Adonis
(Apollod., iii. 14, 3; Hyginus, Fab. 58 and 161) and coins of Myra
Lyciae, where a similar, though not identical, type occurs.) For many
other less remarkable types see B. M. C., Caria, Imhoof, op. cit., &c.,
where other references will be found.


Alliance coins with Ephesus (S. Severus); with Antiocheia (Sev. Alex.);
cf. also Antiocheia with Aphrodisias (Commodus) and Hierapolis with
Aphrodisias (Commodus).


Apollonia Salbace. This town is placed at the modern village Medet,
about ten miles north-east of Tabae and south of the Salbacus mountains.
For coins of the first century B.C. formerly attributed to this city see
B. M. C., Lydia (Pl. XXXVIII. 1-5). These are now assigned to Tripolis on
the Maeander, which it would seem was originally called Apollonia. The
earliest undisputed coins of Apollonia Salbace are therefore quasi-autonomous and Imperial, Augustus to Salonina. Inscr., ΑΠΟΑΛΩΝΙΑΤΩΝ. Magistrate, sometimes with title Strategos, on earlier coins
in nominative case usually with patronymic (cf. Imhoof, Zur gr. u.
röm. Münzk., p. 84 sqq.); on later coins in genitive, occasionally with
δια or επι; Hiereus with ΑΝΕΘΗΚΕ. Types—Busts of ΑΠΟΛΑΩΝΙΑ
CΑΛΒΑΚΗ, ΙΕΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC, ΙΕΡΑ ΒΟΥΛΗ, ΙΕΡΟC ΔΗΜΟC,
ΔΗΜΟC, Athena, Apollo, Sarapis, &c. Reverses—Apollo draped, holding
raven and branch, or with lyre at his feet; Zeus Nikephoros seated;
Asklepios and Hygieia; Temple containing three statues (Imhoof, Kl. M.,
p. 121, No. 9); Daphne kneeling, clasping laurel tree and looking back at
Apollo, who follows her (Z. f. N., vii. 218); Helios in quadriga; Emperor
on horseback hunting wild beasts; Isis standing; Pan with goat;
Demeter; Zeus Laodikeus between city-goddess and Athena (Imh.,
Gr. M., 145); Zeus seated holding child (Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk.,
p. 85); &c.


Astyra, a town on the peninsula of Mount Phoenix opposite Rhodes,
described by Steph. Byz. as πολις Φοινικης κατα Ποδον.


»ANS

611

Silver of the Babylonic Standard.


Circ. B.C. 500-408.


Amphora. [B. M. C., Car., Pl. X. 1.]
ΑΣΤV Oenochoë and lyre (‘chelys’),
beneath which, tendril with bud.
AR Stater, 149.5 grs.

Oenochoë in circle. [Ibid., Pl. X. 2.]
Incuse square, diagonally quartered.
AR 9.8 grs.

Α, Vase with one handle.

[Ibid., Pl. X. 3.]
Α, Oenochoë without foot.
AR 16.8 grs.

Rose.
Α, in incuse square.
AR 3.2 grs.



Fourth century B.C.




Head of Helios, facing, as on coins of
Rhodes.
ΑΣΤΥ Amphora with small oenochoë
beside it.
Æ .8-.5

Head of Aphrodite (?).

[Ibid., Pl. X. 5-8.]
ΑΣΤΥ Similar.
Æ .5-.35



Attuda, on the borderland of Caria and Phrygia, was situated on the
northern slope of the Salbacus range. Its territory was bounded on the
north by the Maeander and on the east by that of Laodiceia. Its earliest
coins are silver drachms of the first century B.C., contemporary with those
of Aphrodisias and Plarasa.


»SNG B
»ANS





Head of Kybele, turreted.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. X. 9.]
ΑΤΤΟΥΔΔΕΩΝ Apollo naked, leaning on column. Three magistrates’
names in nominative case.
AR 53 grs.



The next issues are quasi-autonomous and Imperial, ranging from
Augustus(?) to Gallienus. Inscr., ΑΤΤΟVΔЄΩΝ. Magistrates’ names
usually with δια and titles, VΙΟC ΠΟΛЄΩC ΑCΙΑΡΧΗC, and ΙЄΡЄΙΑ.
On a coin of S. Severus ЄΠΙΜЄ [ληθεντος] takes the place of δια,
and coins with ΑΝЄΘΗΚЄ are also recorded, issued by a hereditary Priestess, Ulpia Claudiana, in the time of the Antonines, and
reading ЄΠΙ CΤЄΦ(ανηφορον) ΟVΛΠΙΑC ΚΛΑVΔΙΑΝΗC (Imhoof, Zur gr.
u. röm. Münzk., p. 87). Types—ΙЄΡΑ CVΝΚΛΗΤΟC, ΙЄΡΑ ΒΟVΛΗ,
ΒΟVΛΗ ΒΟVΛΗ and ΔΗΜΟC face to face, ΔΗΜΟC, ΑΤΤΟVΔΑ, ΠΟΛΙC,
Zeus, Athena, Asklepios, Helios, Sarapis, &c., and ΜΗΝ ΚΑΡΟV (B. M. C., Car., Pl. X. 15), in whose temple, near Attuda, Mên was worshipped
in Strabo’s time, (ob. c. A.D. 19); Altar of the god Mên, on which are
two pine-cones, &c.; Kybele standing or seated between lions, or in
temple; Leto carrying her children; Zeus naked, wielding fulmen;
Apollo naked; Dionysos; Asklepios and Hygieia; Rider-god (Sabazios)
with double-axe; Cultus-statue of draped goddess (Artemis Anaïtis ?);
Nemesis; Dioskuri standing; Tree with altar before it, &c. Attuda was
closely united with the neighbouring cities Aphrodisias and Trapezopolis
in the common worship of Kybele, under the name of Μητηρ ‘Αδραστος,
and of Mên Karou (Ramsay, C. and B. Phryg., 166).


Alliance coin with Trapezopolis (Ant. Pius) (Imh., Kl. M., 126) with
inscription ΔΙΑ Μ. ΟΥΛ. ΚΛΑΥΔΙΑΝΟΥ ΥΙΟΥ ΤΟΥ ΔΗΜΟΥ.

612

Bargasa. Site uncertain, but probably a few miles south of the
Maeander (B. M. C., Car., p. xlii). Quasi-autonomous and Imperial
coins, Nero to Gallienus. Inscr., ΒΑΡΓΑCΗΝΩΝ. Magistrates on
late coins with επι, but without title. Types—ΙЄΡΑ ΒΟΥΛΗ; Rev.
Herakles standing; Artemis Ephesia; Temple of Asklepios; Asklepios
and Hygieia; Telesphoros; Emperor on horseback; &c.


»ANS


Bargylia, on the south shore of the gulf called after it and nearly opposite Iasus. In the first century B.C. it struck drachms (wt. circ. 46 grs.)
and bronze coins,—obv. Veiled head of Artemis Kindyas, rev. ΒΑΡΓΥΛΙΗΤΩΝ Pegasos, or Bellerophon on Pegasos; obv. Cultus-statue of the same
goddess, rev. Stag; obv. Forepart of Pegasos, rev. Forepart of Stag; obv.
Head of Apollo, rev. Bow and Quiver, &c. Bargylia was said to have been
founded by Bellerophon in honour of his companion Bargylos, who had
been killed by a kick from Pegasos. The types refer to this legend and
to the cultus of Artemis Kindyas at the neighbouring temple open to the
sky, containing the cultus-statue of the goddess, upon which neither rain
nor snow ever fell (Polyb., xvi. 12; Strab., 658). Bargylia struck a few
Imperial coins, Augustus to Geta. Types—Cultus-statue of Artemis
Kindyas, with stag beside her; Asklepios; &c. They are without magistrates’ names.


»WW
»ANS


Callipolis. Arrian (Anab. ii. 5, 7) mentions Callipolis with Halicarnassus, Myndus, Caunus, and Thera, as a citadel held by Orontobates
against Ptolemy and Asander. An inscription found near Idyma, in
which δημος Καλλιπολιταν is mentioned, probably indicates its site (Imh.,
Kl. M., 138). Imhoof (Mon. gr., p. 307, and Kl. M., 138) attributes to this
town the following coins of the second century B.C. :—





Head of Apollo.
ΚΑΛΛΙΠΟΛΙΤΑΝ Quiver in shallow
incuse square.
Æ .65

Id.
ΚΑΛ Ram standing.
Æ .4



Caryanda. The site of this place has been fixed by Myres and Paton
at a few miles north of Telmessus. Imhoof (Mon. gr., 307) assigns to it
small bronze coins probably of the third century. B.C. or earlier.


»ANS





Female head wearing stephane.
ΚΑΡΥ Forepart of bull.
Æ .4



Caunus, which stood on the river Calbis about four miles from its
harbour, was an important naval station opposite Rhodes. In B. M. C., Caria, p. xliv, I have suggested that the following archaic staters may
have been struck there before the Persian Conquest.


»WW
»SNG B
»ANS





Forepart of lion with or Ο on shoulder.
Incuse square, divided into two oblong
halves, as on early coins of Camirus
and Lindus.
AR 172.2 grs.



To the latter half of the fourth century the following bronze coins may
belong :—





Rushing bull or forepart of bull (River
Calbis?).



KA
Sphinx, seated.
Æ .4
 Y



613


After Alexander’s death Caunus was successively possessed by the
satrap Asander, by Eumenes, by Antigonus (B.C. 313), and from 309 till
189 by the Ptolemies, when it was purchased by the Rhodians, from
whom it revolted in 167, when its freedom was recognized by the Roman
Senate.


To the period of Ptolemaic rule (B.C. 309-189) the following coins
seem to belong :—





Head of Alexander the Great.
Κ  ΑΥ Filleted cornucopiae; symbol ♀.
AR 14.1 grs.

Similar.
Same; no symbol.
Æ .45

Helmeted head.
Similar.
Æ .6



Under the Rhodian rule, B.C. 189-167, Caunus may have issued small
silver coins of the Rhodian type, but differentiated from the Rhodian
issues by the addition of an eagle in front of the cheek of the full-face
head of Helios (B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXIX. 12-14).


After 167 B.C.


To the short period of autonomy after 167 the following silver and
bronze coins probably belong :—





Head of Zeus.

[Z. f. N., xxiv, Pl. III. 16.]
Κ ΑΥ Winged fulmen; magistrate's
name; in shallow incuse square.
AR 40 grs.

Helmeted head of Athena.
Κ ΑΥ Sword in sheath. Magistrate's
name and symbol.
AR 17.4 grs.

Head of Apollo.
Id. Æ .4

Head of Apollo.

[Imh., Kl. M., Pl. V. 12.]
Κ ΑΥ Naked figure l., holding transverse sceptre with serpent twined
round lower end.
Æ .6



Ceramus, on the north coast of the Ceramic gulf about thirty miles west
of Halicarnassus, was one of the most important towns of the Chrysaorian confederacy (see Stratoniceia). Its earliest coinage may be compared with the contemporary issues of Stratoniceia.


»WW
»ANS


Second or first century B.C.




Head of Zeus.
ΚΕΡΑΜΙΗ ///////////// Eagle with head turned
back, in shallow incuse
square.
AR 38.6 grs.

Id.
ΚΕΡΑΜΙ Eagle r., in shallow incuse
square. Magistrate’s name.
Æ .5

Beardless head, with formal curls.
ΚΕΡΑΜΙΗ Bull’s head, facing. Magistrate’s name.
Æ .8

Similar head.
ΚΕΡΑΜΙΗΤΩΝ Female head. Magistrate’s name.
Æ .7

Head of Zeus, with formal curls.
ΚΕΡΑΜΙΗ Eagle with head turned
back. Magistrate’s name.
Æ .9



It is doubtful whether the bronze coin in B. M. C., Caria, Pl. XII. 11,
is rightly attributed to Ceramus. The Imperial coinage extends from

614

Nero to Caracalla. The types refer chiefly to the cultus of Zeus
Chrysaoreus and Zeus Labraundos or Stratios. They usually bear the
name of a magistrate in the nominative case with the title ΑΡΞΑC.
Whether this aoristic form of the title (αρξας instead of αρχον), peculiar
it would seem to coins of Ceramus, implies that ex-archons were the
monetary magistrates is rather doubtful, for in one instance (Trajan
Decius) we meet with a πρωτος αρχων το β. Among the ex-archons or
Archons who signed the coins more than one is distinguished personally
as Ο ΑΡΧΙΑΤΡΟC (Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 93).


Chersonesus adjoining Cnidus was the chief of three independent
communities which continued to exist under the name of Κοινον Χερσονασιων down to the time of the Rhodian dominion in Caria. This Κοινον
was assessed separately from Cnidus in the Athenian Quota-Lists.
The coins of the Chersonesii, which seem to be all anterior to B.C. 500,
are of the Aeginetic standard, like the contemporary coins of Cnidus.


»ANS


Circ. B.C. 550-500.




Forepart of lion.

[B. M. C., Caria, Pl. XIII. 1.]

+ΕΡ (retrogr.) Forepart of bull in
incuse square.
AR 183.4 grs.

Id. [Ibid., Pl. XIII. 2.]
+ΕΡ Bull’s head, facing, in incuse
square.
AR 90.4 grs.

Lion’s head.
+ΕΡ Bull’s head r., in incuse square.
AR 13.5 grs.



See Paus. v. 24. 7; Strab. xiv. 2. 15; Köhler, Del.-Att. Bund, 195;
Six, Z. f. N., iii. 375; and B. M. C., Caria, xlvi.


Cidramus. This town is conjecturally placed between Antiocheia and
Attuda (J. H. S., xi. 120) south of the Maeander on the Caro-Phrygian
frontier. Its coins are quasi-auton. and Imp., Augustus to J. Maesa.
Inscr., ΚΙΔΡΑΜΗΝΩΝ. Down to Hadrian’s time the Magistrates’
names are in the nominative case with patronymic. From Hadrian to
M. Aurelius they are in the genitive preceded by δια, not επι. The only
magistrate’s title which occurs is ΠΡ[υτανις ?] on a coin of Augustus.
(Z. f. N., xv. 52). From the time of Claudius down to that of Ant.
Pius (circ. A.D. 50-150) the supervision of the coinage of Cidramus seems
to have been undertaken by, or entrusted to, members, in succession to
one another, of a single rich and locally influential family, e.g. ΠΟΛЄΜΩΝ CЄΛЄVΚΟV (Claudius); ΠΑΝΦΙΛΟC CЄΛЄVΚΟV (Vespasian);
ΔΙΑ ΠΑΝΦΙΛΟV and ΔΙΑ ΠΑΝΦΙΑΟV ΠΟΛЄΜΩΝΟC (Hadrian);
ΔΙ. CЄΛЄVΚΟ. ΠΟΛЄΜΩ. and ΔΙ. ΑΡΤЄΜΑ ΠΟΛЄΜΩΝΟC (Ant. Pius
and M. Aur. Caes.). See Ramsay, C. and B. Phryg., i. 185, and Imhoof,
Kl. M., 141. Chief types—ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC; ΒΟΥΛΗ; ΖЄΥC
ΛΥΔΙΟC; Helios; &c. Reverse types—Cultus-statue of Aphrodite or of
Artemis Anaïtis; Aphrodite draped, facing, with arms extended, around
her, two or more Erotes; Cultus-statue of another draped goddess with
a coiled serpent at her feet, standing in a distyle shrine; Draped goddess
veiled supporting with one hand a kalathos upon her head; Dionysos;
Mên; Hermes; &c.


»SNG B
»ANS


Cnidus, doubtless originally a Phoenician settlement, was afterwards
colonized by Dorians, and was a member of the Dorian Hexapolis (later

615

Pentapolis), consisting of Cnidus, Cos, Halicarnassus, Ialysus, Camirus, and
Lindus. The sanctuary of the Triopian Apollo, a sun-god whose symbol
was the Lion, was the meeting-place of the members of the Hexapolis.


»WW
»SNG B
»ANS


From the Phoenicians, however, the Cnidians would seem to have
received a still earlier worship, that of Aphrodite Ευπλοια. An extremely
archaic head of this goddess occurs on a seventh-century silver stater
with two incuse squares on the reverse (B. M. C., Caria, Pl. XIII. 7),
the attribution of which to Cnidus is conjectural. The earliest inscribed
coins, which are on the Aeginetic standard, are as follows :—


Circ. B.C. 650-480.




Forepart of lion.

[B. M. C., Caria, Pls. XIII, XIV.]
ΚΝΙΔΙΟΝ retrogr. or variously abbreviated. Head of Aphrodite of
archaic style, in incuse square.
AR Drachms 95 grs.
AR Diobols 27.3 grs.



Circ. B.C. 480-412.


During the period of the Athenian hegemony the coinage of Cnidus
appears to have ceased almost, if not entirely. Α similar diminution of
local currency while Athens was collecting her annual tribute is apparent
at several other cities besides Cnidus.


Circ. B.C. 412-400.


The Cnidian drachms and smaller coins of this period, of the same type
and standard as the preceding, are of fine transitional style (B. M. C., Caria, Pl. XIV. 5).


Circ. B.C. 400-390.


About B.C. 400 Cnidus, following the example of Rhodes, adopted the
so-called Rhodian standard. The head of Aphrodite henceforth occupies
the obverse side of the coin, and is distinguished as Aphrodite Euploia
by the addition of the Prow as an adjunct symbol.





FIG. 304.





ΚΝΙ Head of Aphrodite Euploia; behind, Prow. [Ibid., Pl. XIV. 6-8.]
Incuse square, within which forepart of
lion; beneath, magistrate’s name.

AR Tetradr. 234 grs. (Fig. 304.)

AR Didr. 110 grs.

AR Dr. 57.6 grs.



616


Between B.C. 394 and 390 must be placed the Federal Coinage of
Cnidus, Iasus, Rhodes, Samos, Ephesus, and Byzantium, of which the
following is the Cnidian example:—





ΣΥΝ Infant Herakles strangling serpents. [Ibid., Pl. XIV. 9.]
ΚΝΙΔΙΩΝ Head of Aphrodite Euploia;
symbol, Prow.
AR Tridrachm 164.8 grs.



Circ. B.C. 390-300.


Tetradrachms and smaller divisions. Obv. Head of Aphrodite Euploia;
Rev. ΚΝΙ Forepart of Lion, or, on some half-drachms, Bull’s head facing
(B. M. C., Caria, Pl. XV. 1-8). Magistrates’ names in nominative case.


Circ. B.C. 300-190.


The coinage of Cnidus in this period is plentiful. The heads of
Aphrodite on the tetradrachms and drachms are varied and beautiful
(see Montagu Sale Cat., Pl. VIII. 599, 600). On the tetrobols the head
of Aphrodite is replaced by that of Artemis, and the Lion by a Tripod.
Nearly all the smaller bronze coins of Cnidus also fall into this period.
The most frequent types are obv. Head of Aphrodite, rev. Prow; obv. Head
of Democracy with legend ΔΗΜΟΚΡΑΤΙΑΣ, rev. Prow (Imh., M. G.,
p. 310); or obv. Head of Artemis, rev. Tripod, or Bull’s head facing;
obv. Head of Helios radiate r., rev. Bull’s head r.; &c.


Circ. B.C. 190-167.


After the defeat of Antiochus and the extension of the Rhodian
dominion over Caria, the coinage of Cnidus was assimilated to that of
Rhodes.





Head of Helios, facing, as on coins of
Rhodes. [B. M. C., Caria, Pl. XVI. 1.]
ΚΝΙ Forepart of lion; behind, rose
(Rhodian symbol.)
AR 78 grs.

Similar. [B. M.]
Head of Aphrodite; behind, rose.
Æ .7



To this period may also be assigned the Alexandrine tetradrachms
(Müller, Nos. 1151-2), with a tripod in the field as mint-mark.


B.C. 167—Imperial times.


When Rhodes was deprived of her possessions on the mainland,
Cnidus ceased also to be of much importance. The coinage of silver
was discontinued, and the bronze money became less and less plentiful.





Head of Apollo, with stiff curls.

[B. M. C., Caria, Pl. XVI. 2.]
ΚΝΙΔΙΩΝ Head and neck of bull.
Magistrate’s name.
Æ .7



In the first century B.C. Dionysiac types prevail: obv. Head of young
Dionysos crowned with ivy, rev. ΚΝΙΔΙΩΝ Vine-branch with grapes,
Æ 1.1; or obv. Head of the Aphrodite of Praxiteles, rev. ΚΝΙΔΙWΝ
Dionysos standing, Æ 1.3-.95.

617

Imperial Coinage.


In Roman times Cnidus seems from its scanty coinage to have lost its
former importance. Only a few coins exist, Nero to Caracalla; but
among them is a copy of the famous statue of the Cnidian Aphrodite by
Praxiteles. She is represented as if about to enter the bath, naked, and
seen in front, but with her head in profile, and she holds in her extended
left hand a garment over an urn (Overbeck, Plastik, 3rd ed., ii. 30. Cf.
J. H. S., viii, p. 124 f.).


Cys. This place, called Κυον in Steph. Byz., and Κυς in inscriptions,
was probably situated at the modern Béli-Pouli, in the hilly country
between the upper valleys of the Marsyas and Harpasus. The very few
bronze coins which bear its name seem to belong to the first century B.C.
Inscr., ΚΥ., ΚΥΙ., ΚΥΙΤΩΝ, and [Κ]ΥΕΙΤΩΝ. Types—obv. Head of Artemis, rev. Quiver and Hunting-spear (or possibly Pedum) the whole in
wreath; obv. Quiver between vine-branches, rev. Cornucopiae; Thyrsos
in ivy-wreath. Imperial coinage, Domna. Inscr., ΚΥΙΤΩΝ Female
figure seated, facing (Cf. Z. f. N., xiii. 71).


Euippe, the site of which is still uncertain, is to be sought for in the
region between the rivers Marsyas and Harpasus. It struck a few
bronze coins in the second or first century B.C. Obv. Bust of Artemis,
rev. Quiver with strap; and obv. Bust of Artemis, rev. Pegasos; &c.
Inscr., ΕΥΙΠΠΕΩΝ. There are also Imperial coins, Trajan to Caracalla. Inscr., ЄΥΙΠΠЄΩΝ. Types—Hekate to front; Tyche; Hygieia;

&c. (cf. Imhoof, Kl. M., 127).


»ANS


Euromus, the modern Ayakly, about eight miles north-west of Mylasa,
issued autonomous bronze coins in the second and first centuries B.C.
Obv. Head of Zeus, rev. ΕΥΡΩΜΕΩΝ Double-axe; obv. Head of
Dionysos, rev. Cultus-statue of Zeus Labraundos, to front, with double-axe and spear, between pilei of Dioskuri; sometimes with abbreviated
magistrate’s name (B. M. C., Car., Pl. XVII. 5). The Zeus worshipped
at Euromus was doubtless the Zeus Labraundos of the neighbouring
sanctuary near Mylasa, although, if Vaillant (Num. Gr., 100) is to be
trusted, he is specially designated on a coin of Caracalla as ΖЄΥC
ЄΥΡΩΜЄΥC. The Imperial coins range from Augustus, rev. Stag
(Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 88), to Caracalla (?).


»ANS


Gordiuteichos was a small Carian town perhaps situated at the
modern Karasu on the left bank of the Morsynus, about ten miles below
Aphrodisias. The only coins known of this city belong to the second
century B.C. Inscr., ΓΟΡΔΙΟΤЄΙΧΙΤΩΝ Obv. Head of Zeus, rev.
Archaic cultus-statue of Aphrodite (B. M. C., Car., liii sq.).


Halicarnassus. Although this city rose to fame under the dynasts of
Caria, Mausolus and his successors, from B.C. 367 until its destruction
by Alexander, B.C. 334, it was never of great importance commercially
either before or after this short period.


»WW
»SNG B
»ANS


For the early history of the town see Newton, Halicarnassus, Cnidus,

618

and Branchidae, vol. ii, pt. i. It coined money intermittently in the
following periods :—


Before B.C. 480.




Forepart of Pegasos.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XVIII. 1.]
Head of goat in incuse square.
Obol AR 10.5



Circ. B.C. 400-367. Rhodian Standard.




Head of Apollo, facing.

[Ibid., Pl. XVIII. 3.]
ΑΛΙ Eagle (?) and olive spray in incuse
square.
Drachm AR 52.8

Forepart of Pegasos.

[Ibid., Pl. XVIII. 4, 5.]
Α or ΑΛΙ Forepart of goat in incuse
square.
Obol AR 10.3

ΑΛΙ Forepart of Pegasos.

[Ibid., Pl. XVIII. 6.]
Lyre between two laurel-branches.
Æ .35



From this time down to that of Alexander’s conquest, B.C. 334, Halicarnassus, as the capital of Caria, was the place of mintage of the splendid
series of coins struck by Mausolus, Hidrieus, Pixodarus, and Orontobates,
dynasts of Caria (see infra, pp. 629 ff). It appears, however, to have
continued to retain the right of issuing small Æ in its own name (Imhoof,
Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 88). From B.C. 334, the date of the destruction of the city by Alexander, until some time in the third century B.C.,
when it was rebuilt and included among the cities under Ptolemaic rule,
it struck few if any coins. The following seem to be somewhat later in
date. For other varieties see Imhoof, op. cit., p. 89.





Head of Poseidon.
ΑΛΙΚΑΡ ΝΑΣΣΕΩΝ Tripod.
Æ .7

Head of Apollo.

[Ibid., Pl. XVIII. 9, 10.]
ΑΛΙ Eagle; in front, lyre.
Æ .5

Head of Poseidon.

[Ibid., Pl. XVIII. 11, 12.]
ΑΛΙΚΑΡ Trident, and abbreviated
magistrates’ names.
Æ .7



Circ. B.C. 188-166 and later.


This is the period of the Rhodian supremacy, to which the following
coins belong :—





Head of Rhodian Helios, facing.

[Ibid., Pl. XVIII. 14, 15.]
ΑΛΙΚΑΡ ΝΑΣΣΕΩΝ variously abbreviated.
Bust of Athena, and magistrates’
names in nominative case.
AR Attic Drachms 65 grs.

Head of Apollo, r.

[Ibid., Pl. XVIII. 16.]
ΑΛΙΚΑΡ ΝΑΣΣΕΩΝ Lyre.
AR ½ Drachm 27. 1 grs.

Bust of Athena.
[Ibid., Pl. XVIII. 17, 18.]
ΑΛΙΚ Owl.
AR Trihemiobol 14.8 grs.



There are also bronze coins of various types which can only belong to
this period (see B. M. C., Car., pp. 107-9, and Pl. XVIII. 19-21), of
which the most noteworthy is a veiled goddess, to front, holding phiale
and cornucopiae (?).

619

Imperial Coinage.





FIG. 305.


The coinage of Halicarnassus under the Empire extends from
Augustus (? or Nero) to Gordian. Inscr., ΑΛΙΚΑΡΝΑCCЄΩΝ. Magistrate, Archon. Types—ΗΡΟΔΟΤΟC, Bald and bearded head of Herodotus; Draped male divinity bearded and radiate facing between two trees,
one each of which sits a bird (Fig. 305). This is supposed to represent Zeus
Ασκραιος, or Zeus of the oak trees, who was worshipped at Halicarnassus
(cf. Apollon. Dyscol., Hist. Mirab., ed. Ideler, § 13; Overbeck, Kunstmyth.
ii. 210); the two birds are clearly oracular. ΤЄΛΜΙCЄΥC, a draped
male figure holding a branch (Leake, Num. Hell. As. Gr., p. 64); Terminal statue of Athena, in temple.


Alliance coins with Cos and Samos.


Harpasa, on the river Harpasus, some twelve miles south of its junction
with the Maeander. Autonomous Æ of the second or first century B.C.;
obv. Head of Zeus, rev. ΑΡΠΑΣΗΝΩΝ Apollo Kitharistes with laurelbranch at his feet (B. M.), or Artemis Huntress with adjunct symbols,
Caduceus, or Crested helmet (Imh., Kl. M., 131). Harpasa also seems to
have issued some small silver coins resembling those of Stratoniceia, but
with Α Ρ one either side of the Eagle on the reverse.


»ANS


Quasi-autonomous and Imperial coins. Domitian to Gordian. Inscr.,
ΑΠΑCΗΝΩΝ. Types—Busts of Athena, Sarapis. ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC,
ΔΗΜΟC, &c. Magistrates’ names in, genitive case with or without επι,
and, under Caracalla, in nominative, with title ‘Αρχιατρος, which occurs
also on coins of Ceramus and Heracleia Salbace, and in inscriptions
of various Carian towns (Marquardt, Privatleben d. Römer, p. 753, 8;
755, 4). Among the magistrates’ names is that of Candidus Celsus, supposed by Waddington (Fastes, 209) to have been a Proconsul of Asia.
under Ant. Pius. Among the reverse types we meet with the River-god
Harpasos; Zeus Nikephoros; Athena in fighting attitude; Artemis
Ephesia; Dionysos; &c. Alliance coins with Neapolis Cariae.


Heracleia Salbace. The site of this city was first identified by Waddington (As. Min., 51) at the modern Makuf, at the foot of the Salbacus
range of mountains and at the north-eastern end of the plain of Tabae.
Its territory was separated by the little river Timeles from that of the
neighbouring city Aphrodisias, and the River-god ΤΙΜЄΛΗC is represented on imperial coins of both cities.


»SNG B
»ANS


The coinage of this Heracleia is quasi-autonomous and Imperial,
Augustus to Macrinus. Inscr., ΗΡΑΚΛЄΩΤΩΝ. Magistrates’ names in
nominative case, under Augustus with patronymic, under Nero with title

620

‘Ιερευς, and under Ant. Pius and M. Aurelius with that of ‘Αρχιατρος (cf.
Ceramus and Harpasa). Glykon, the Priest of Herakles in Nero’s time, is
mentioned in an inscription (C. I. G., 3953 c.) as Stephanephoros, Gymnasiarch, and προγραφει της Βουλης, and Statilios Attalos, αρχιατρος on

coins of the Antonines, is also mentioned in an inscription (Le Bas-Wadd., iii. 402). His issues of coins are dedicated (ανεθηκε understood)
to the gymnastic college of the Νεοι, and are inscribed CT. ΑΤΤΑΛΟC
ΑΡΧΙΑΤΡΟC ΝЄΟΙC. The chief types are busts of ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC;
ΙЄΡΑ ΒΟΥΛΗ; ΔΗΜΟC; ΗΡΑΚΛΙΑ (B. M. C., Car., Pl. XX. 2);
Bearded Herakles; Sarapis; &c. Reverse types—Herakles standing;
Goddess or Amazon (?) standing, carrying double-axe (Labrys); Artemis
Ephesia between stags, or in temple; Double-axe bound with fillet;
Asklepios seated with coiled serpent before him; Hygieia; Isis; Hermes;
Athena; Dionysos; Aphrodite draped with one arm extended behind
her and holding a mirror before her (B. M. C., Car., Pl. XX. 11). As
this type also occurs at Cidramus, it is probable that it is a copy of
a statue.


Hydisus. The site of this town is still uncertain. As it was a
member of the Athenian Confederacy, it was probably near the sea,
possibly somewhere near Bargylia. Autonomous Æ of the first century
B.C. Inscr., ΥΔΙΣΕΩΝ. Obv. Bearded helmeted head (Zeus Areios),
rev. Eagle on fulmen or Pegasos with caduceus beneath; obv. Bust of
Zeus Areios, rev. Zeus Areios standing; obv. Head of Zeus, rev. Zeus
Areios standing, with magistrate’s name in nominative case. Imperial—
Domitian, Hadrian, and Sev. Alexander. The rev. types are ΖЄVC
ΑΡЄΙΟC (Hadrian), Armed Zeus standing, hitherto wrongly attributed to
Iasus; Goddess standing; Bellerophon on Pegasos (Sev. Alex.), with
magistrate’s name and title, Archon. (Imhoof, Kl. M., 135, and Zur gr.
u. röm. Münzk., 90.)


»WW
»ANS


Hyllarima is conjecturally placed in the region between the rivers
Harpasus and Marsyas, some twelve miles north-west of Cys (J. H. S.,
xvi. 242), on the site where Kiepert placed Hydisus. Quasi-autonomous
and Imperial coins. Time of the Antonines and Gordian. Inscr.,
ΥΛΛΑΡΙΜЄΩΝ. Archon’s name with επι. Types—obv. Female bust, hair
rolled, rev. Athena standing; obv. Veiled female bust, rev. Youth in
quadriga (Rev. Num., 1892, Pl. IV. 14); obv. Bust of Ant. Pius, rev. Two
figures of Kybele enthroned, facing each other; obv. Bust of Gordian,
rev. Asklepios standing.


Iasus was an ancient Argive colony on the north side of the Bargylian
gulf. There are archaic drachms of Aeginetic weight, the obv. type of
which is a youth riding on a dolphin, which have been assigned to Iasus
(Babelon, Traité, Pl. XVIII. 1, 2), but which, according to Svoronos
(Journ. Int. d'Arch. Num., iii. 59), ought rather to be attributed to the
island of Syros (supra, p. 480). Another coin conjecturally attributed
to Iasus is the fine tetradrachm (B. M. C., Ion., p. 325, and supra, p. 597,
Fig. 301), obv. Head of Persian Satrap, rev. ΒΑΣΙΛ Lyre, wt. 236 grs.
The head on this remarkable coin is supposed to be that of Tissaphernes
(B. M. C., Car., p. lix). The earliest pieces which bear the name of Iasus
are specimens of the alliance coinage issued after circ. B.C. 394 by Cnidus,

621

Samos, Ephesus, Rhodes, Iasus, and Byzantium (Regling, Z. f. N., xxv,
Taf. vii. 5).


»WW
»SNG B
»ANS


Circ. B.C. 394-390.




Ι Α Head of Apollo.
ΣΥΝ Infant Herakles strangling serpents.
AR 166 grs.

Same head. [Imhoof, Mon. gr., Pl. F. 7.]
ΙΑΣΕ Lyre in incuse square.
AR 27 grs.



The next issues of Iasus belong to the latter half of the third
century :—


Circ. B.C. 250-190.




Head of Apollo.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXI. 1-4.]
ΙΑ or ΙΑΣΕΩΝ Youth Hermias, swimming with l. arm over dolphin’s back.
Magistrates’ names in nominative
case.
AR 82 and 42 grs.

Æ size .7

Head of Artemis.
Id.Æ size .45

Head of Apollo. [Ibid., Pl. XXI. 5.]
ΙΑΣΕΩΝ in ivy-wreath.
Æ .45

Lyre in laurel-wreath.

[Ibid., Pl. XXI. 6.]
ΙΑCЄΩΝ Hermias and dolphin.
Æ .5

Apollo standing with dolphin at his
feet. [Imh., Kl. M., Pl. V. 9.]
ΙΑΣΕΩΝ Artemis standing.
Æ .65



For other varieties, see Imh., Kl. M., p. 137. Most of the above coins
have magistrates’ names in nominative case, among which may be mentioned ΕΡΜΙΑΣ (not of course the dolphin-rider Hermias). The boy and
dolphin as a coin-type of the Iasians is mentioned by Aelian
(Hist. Anim., vi. 15), Plutarch (De solert. Anim., 36) and Pollux
(ix. 84). The story of the love of a dolphin for a youth of Iasus, who is
called Hermias by Plutarch and Pliny (N. H., ix. 8), and Dionysius by
Athenaeus (xiii. 606), may have had an historical basis, for Alexander
the Great is said to have ordered the boy to be sent to his court.


Quasi-autonomous and Imperial coins—Augustus (?) to Gordian.
Inscr., ΙΑCЄΩΝ. Types—Bearded head of the Founder ΙΑCΟC
ΚΤΙCΤΗC (B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXI. 7); ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC; Hermias
and dolphin; Sarapis and Kerberos; Isis Pharia; Artemis Ephesia.


Idyma, at the head of the Ceramic gulf, is mentioned several times in
the Athenian Quota-Lists. In B. M. C., Caria, p. lxi, some archaic
drachms of Aeginetic weight are conjecturally assigned to this town, but
its earliest inscribed coins are drachms and smaller silver coins of the
Phoenician standard which seem to range from about B.C. 450-400.


»ANS





Head of horned Pan to front.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXI. 8.]
ΙΔVΜΙΟΝ written round a fig-leaf in
incuse square.
AR 58.2 and 14 grs.



There are also a few small bronze coins which are of rather later style,
and which belong to the earlier half of the fourth century.





Youthful head of horned Pan to r.
Fig-leaf. [Imh. Mon. gr., Pl. F. 8.]
Æ .4

Female head, r.
ΝΟΙΜΥΔΙ Fig-leaf. [Z. f. N., xxiv,
p. 79]
Æ .35


622

Lydae (?), on the promontory of Ancon (J. H. S., ix, p. 83 f.).



Early fourth century B.C.




ΛΥ Head of Aphrodite as on coins of
Cnidus. [N. C., 1903, p. 399.]
Forepart of lion as on coins of Cnidus
[B. M.]AR 25 grs.



Mylasa, between the head of the Bargylian gulf and Stratoniceia,
became in the time of Hecatomnus the residence of the dynasts of Caria,
and remained so until Mausolus obtained possession of Halicarnassus.
With the exception of the money of Hecatomnus no coins were struck at
Mylasa until during or after the time of Alexander, when a certain
Eupolemus (Diod. xiv. 68 and 77) struck some bronze coins in his own
name, apparently at Mylasa (Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., 1908,
p. 260 note).


»WW
»ANS





Three Macedonian shields thrown together. [B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXI. 11.]
ΕΥΠΟΛΕΜΟΥ Sword in sheath. Symbol, double-axe (Labrys).
Æ .7



Second century B.C. and later.


Alexandrine tetradrachms with monogram and symbol of Mylasa,
Labrys and Trident combined (Müller, Num. d'Alex., Nos. 1141-3).
Also gold Philippi with the same symbol (B. M. C., Car., lxiii). The
bronze coins of this period have on the obverse, usually, a horse, and on
the reverse ΜΥΛΑΣΕΩΝ Trident and Labrys combined or separate.


Imperial.


Augustus to Tranquillina. Inscr., ΜΥΛΑCЄΩΝ. Magistrates’ names
in nominative under Augustus with ΑΝЄΘΗΚЄΝ, and under Domitian
with ΑΙΤΗCΑΜЄΝΟC ΑΝЄΘ, and in genitive under Augustus with
ΓΡΑΜΜΑΤΕΥΟΝΤΟΣ ΥΒΡΕΟΥ. This Hybreas is the orator concerning whom Strabo (659-60) gives some interesting details. Types—In
Strabo’s time there were two famous temples of Zeus within the territory
of Mylasa, one of Zeus Οσογωα in the city itself, and the other of Zeus
Λαβραυνδος or Στρατιος at the neighbouring village of Labranda. Zeus
Osogoa was a combination of Zeus and Poseidon (Ζηνοποσειδων). He is
represented on coins holding an eagle and resting on a trident; symbol,
sometimes, crab. The cultus-statue of Zeus Labraundos holds a labrys
and a spear. There is also, on a coin of Caracalla, a figure of Zeus with
a stag at his feet. Other types are, River-god (Kyberses ?); Hephaestos
forging shield of Achilles (Imh., Kl. M., Pl. V. 26). There are likewise
silver coins struck at Mylasa, one of C. Caesar (?), rev. Zeus Labraundos
(Imh., Kl. M., 144), and some so-called ‘Medallions of Asia’ of Hadrian,
with Latin legends and figures of Zeus Labraundos and Zeus Osogoa
(Pinder, Cistoph., Pl. VII. 2, 3, 7, 8).


Myndus was a Dorian coast-town about ten miles north-west of
Halicarnassus. Its coinage begins apparently in the second century B.C.
(B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXII).


»WW
»SNG B
»ANS

623




Head of Apollo, laureate.

[The Hague. Imh., Z. f. N., iii, Pl. IX. 1.]
ΜΙΝΔΙΩΝ Winged fulmen and
magistrates’ monograms; all in olivewreath. AR Tetradr. 263 grs.

Head of Zeus, laureate, with head-dress
of Osiris.
ΜΥΝΔΙΩΝ Head-dress of Isis and
magistrate’s name in nominative case.
AR Drachm 67 grs.

Head of young Dionysos.
ΜΥΝΔΙΩΝ Winged fulmen and
magistrate’s name in nominative case.
AR ½ Drachm 33 grs.

Id.
ΜΥΝΔΙ, &c. Bunch of grapes and
magistrate’s name.
AR ¼ Drachm 16 grs.



There are also bronze coins with magistrates’ names in the nominative
case. Types—Head of Zeus, rev. Eagle on fulmen; Head of Apollo,
rev. Owl on olive-branch; Portable altar; &c.; Head of Artemis, rev.
Two dolphins.


Imperial Coinage.


Nero to Domna. Inscr., ΜΥΝΔΙΩΝ. Magistrate, Archon. Types—
Apollo Kitharoedos and Artemis Myndia, between them tripod with
serpent coiled round it, and beside Artemis, fire-altar (B. M. C., Car.,
Pl. XXII. 16); Small fire-altar with conical cover placed on the top of
a large square altar; &c.


Neapolis Myndiorum (?). A town mentioned only by Mela (i. 16) and
Pliny (N. H. v. 29) in the Dorian peninsula west of Halicarnassus.


Second or first century B.C.




Head of Apollo.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXIII. 1.]
ΝΕΑΠΟΛΙ ΜΥΝ(?) Lyre. Magistrate’s name (?) ΚΟΛΒΑ.
Æ .6



Neapolis ad Harpasum, the modern Ineboli in the lower valley of the
Harpasus.


»ANS


First century B.C.




Head of Zeus with stiff curls.

[N. C., 1903, p. 400.]
ΝЄΑΠΟΛΙΤWΝ Eagle with open
wings, on fulmen. [B. M.]
Æ .75

Head of Dionysos.

[Imh., Kl. M., 147.]
ΝЄΑΠΟΛΙΤWΝ Artemis huntress,
with stag.Æ .65



The quasi-autonomous and Imperial coins extend from the time of
the Flavians down to Treb. Gallus and Volusian. Inscr., ΝЄΑΠΟΛЄΙΤΩΝ. Magistrate, Grammateus with επι, under Gordian and Volusian.
Types—ΘЄΟC CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC; Athena standing; Dionysos standing;
Artemis Ephesia and Tyche; Draped Zeus and Boule (?) with altar
between them; Apollo standing beside column on which is his lyre;
Tyche; &c. There has been much confusion between the coins of
Neapolis ad Harpasum and those of Neapolis in Ionia, a few miles south
of Ephesus. The latter, however, bore the title Aurelia or Hadriana
Aurelia (B. M. C., Car., lxvi).

624

Alliance coins with Harpasa under Gordian, Treb. Gallus, and Volusian
(Imh., Kl. M., 149).


Orthosia (Ortas) stood on high ground overlooking the Maeander
valley towards Nysa, which occupied the opposite hills on the northern
side of the river at a distance of ten or twelve miles.


»ANS


Autonomous bronze of the second and first centuries B.C. Inscr.,
ΟΡΘΩΣΙΕΩΝ. Types—Heads of Zeus; Poseidon(?); Dionysos. Reverses—Athena fighting; Trident; Double-axe; Thyrsos; Panther
with Thyrsos. Magistrates’ names in nominative case on earliest
coins.


Quasi-autonomous and Imperial. Augustus to Maximinus. Inscr.,
ΟΡΘΩCΙΕΩΝ. No magistrates’ names. Types—ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC;
Zeus draped, standing, holding fulmen; The Dioskuri standing beside
their horses; Herakles leaning on club; Tyche, &c.


Plarasa: see Aphrodisias.


»SNG B
»ANS


Sebastopolis, the modern Kizilje, was a town on the road from Apollonia Salbace to Cibyra. Its coinage is quasi-autonomous and Imperial.
Vespasian to Mamaea. Inscr., CΕΒΑCΤΟΠΟΛΙΤΩΝ and CΕΒΑCΤΟΠΟΛЄΙΤΩΝ. Magistrates in nominative case under Vespasian. Types—
CЄΒΑCΤΟΠΟΛΙC ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC ΔΗΜΟC, &c. Heads of Zeus,
Dionysos, &c. Reverses—Artemis Ephesia; Thyrsos; Cista mystica;
Veiled goddess Artemis (?) to front; Two warriors joining hands before
cultus-statue of Artemis with stag or deer lying at foot of it; Hermes
radiate with purse and caduceus; Dionysos; &c.


»SNG B
»ANS


Stratoniceia, the modern Eski-Hissar, about thirty miles south of
Alabanda, near the sources of the Marsyas, was named after Stratonice,
wife of Antiochus I. Its earliest coins are later than B.C. 168, when
Caria was declared by the Romans free and independent of Rhodes. To
this period may perhaps be assigned a few coins of Alexander’s types
bearing the letters ΣΤΡΑ in monogram (Müller, Num. d'Alex., 1134-6).
Between B.C. 166 and Imperial times Stratoniceia issued silver coins
which probably had a wide circulation in central and southern Caria.
Imhoof (Kl. M., 153) enumerates no fewer than forty magistrates’ names
in the nominative case on these coins; and as some of them, e. g. Γαιος and
Κλαυδιος, are Roman, there can be little doubt that the coinage was prolonged down to Imperial times. When this silver coinage began is
doubtful, but according to Imhoof its starting-point can hardly have
been earlier than B.C. 81, when, by a decree of the Roman Senate,
Stratoniceia seems to have been made a civitas libera et immunis sine
foedere (B. M. C., Car., lxx). Within the territory of Stratoniceia there
were three famous temples, one of Hekate at Lagina, a few miles north
of the city, one of Zeus Chrysaoreus or Karios, the religious and political
centre of the Carian race, near the city itself, and one of Zeus Panamaros,
on a lofty height about twelve miles south-east of the town.


»WW
»SNG B
»ANS


The types of the Stratoniceian coins of pre-Imperial times are as
follows :—

625




Head of Zeus, laureate.

[Z. f. N., 1888, Pl. I. 2.]
ΣΤΡΑΤΟΝΙΚΕΩΝ Hekate standing
to front wearing polos surmounted
by crescent, and holding torch and
phiale. Magistrate’s name ΜΕΛΑΝΘΙΟΣ. AR 166 grs.

Id. [B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXIII. 17.]
ΣΤ ΡΑ Similar. Beside Hekate, altar.
Magistrates, ΛΕΩΝ and others.
AR 52.3 grs.

Id. [B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXIII. 11-12.]
Σ Τ Eagle with open wings. Magistrates’ names in nominative case; the
whole in shallow incuse square.
AR 22 grs.

Head of Hekate surmounted by crescent.
Magistrates’ names in nominative case.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXII. 13.]
CΤΡΑΤΟΝΙΚΕWΝ, or CΤΡΑ, &c. Nike
with wreath and palm; all in shallow
incuse square. AR 30 grs.



For varieties and lists of Magistrates’ names, cf. Imhoof, op. cit., and
Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 96.


The latest silver coins, which belong to early Imperial times, are the
following :—





Bust of Augustus (?) within laur. wreath

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXIV. 1).
ΣΑΒΕΙΝΙΑΝΟΣ ΠΥΘΕΑΣ, ΣΤΡΑΤΟ... Zeus Panamaros (?) on horse;
in front, lighted altar. AR 99 grs.

Bust of Hekate. Magistrate ΖΩΠΥ-ΡΟΣ (Vatican).
ΣΤΡΑ Similar; no altar. AR 53 grs.

Head of Augustus.

[Imh., Gr. M., 151, 449a.]
ΑΡΙCΤΕΑC [ΧΙΔ...(?)], CΤΡΑ Similar. AR 47 grs.



The small bronze coins which accompany the silver issues above
described, bear heads of Zeus and Hekate, and on the reverses, Eagle,
Torch, Flying Pegasos, or Nike. (See B. M. C., Car., 148 ff. )


The quasi-autonomous and Imperial coinage extends from Augustus
to Salonina. Inscr., CΤΡΑΤΟΝΙΚΕΩΝ, with addition, on a coin of Titus,
of ΦΙΛΟCΕΒΑCΤΩΝ (Imh., Kl. M., 156). Magistrates’ names usually
with επι and frequently with titles, Prytaneis, Archon, Grammateus, or
Strategos, also φηφισαμενου under Trajan or Hadrian, and, if correctly
read, επιμελη(θεντος) under Severus (Mion. S., vi. 538), also επι των περι τ.
β or δ (στρατηγον?) under Caracalla. Chief types—ΔΗΜΟC; Zeus
seated; Nike; Bellerophon holding Pegasos; Altar between torches;
Pegasos with inscr. ΒΕΛ; Head of Zeus; Artemis slaying stag; Zeus
Panamaros on horse; Hekate riding on radiate lion with dog’s tail
(B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXIV. 4); Hekate standing at altar or with dog at
her feet; Artemis Ephesia between two stags; Βουθυτης sacrificing bull
under tree; Helmeted figure seated holding statuette of Athena. On
a coin of Caracalla and Plautilla the latter bears the title NEA Θ. ΗΡ
(Νεα Θεα Ηρα), which is also met with on coins of Alabanda and Alinda.


Syangela (?), about twelve miles east of Halicarnassus. Imhoof
(Mon. gr., 323) has conjecturally assigned to this town a drachm
(obv. Head of bearded Dionysos, rev. ΣΥ Kantharos in incuse square, wt.
63 grs.) and a bronze coin. The drachm was attributed by Waddington

626

(As. Min., Pl. XI. 4) to Syme, but in B. M. C., Car., lxxiv it is, conjecturally, given to the island of Syros.


Tabae, the modern Davas, occupied the heights at the western end of
a plain extending in a north-easterly direction towards Mount Salbacus.
The population was a mixed one consisting of Carians, Phrygians, and
Pisidians, and it was probably not thoroughly hellenized until a comparatively late date, for there are no coins which can be safely attributed to a period much earlier than the latter half of the first century
B.C. The oldest are drachms and hemidrachms of reduced Attic or
Rhodian weight, and bronze coins :—


»WW
»SNG B
»ANS


SILVER.


First century B.C.




Veiled female head.

[Imhoof, Kl. M., Pl. V. 30.]
ΤΑΒ (in mon.) Forepart of humped
bull. AR 14.3 grs.





After 81 B.C.




Head of Dionysos with band across forehead and ivy-wreath.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXV. 1.]
ΤΑΒΗΝΩΝ Homonoia standing, wearing kalathos and holding phiale and
cornucopiae. AR 58 grs.



Imperial times (M. Antony to Nero ?).




Head of bearded Herakles.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXV. 6.]
ΤΑΒΗΝΩΝ Cultus-statue of Aphrodite
resembling Artemis Ephesia, but between crescent and star. Archon's
name in nominative with patronymic.
AR 31 grs.

Id., or Head of Zeus.

[Ibid., Pl. XXV. 7, 8.]
ΤΑΒΗΝΩΝ Artemis standing, holding
torch and bow. Magistrate’s name
as above. AR 37.5 grs.

Head of Zeus.
ΤΑΒΗΝΩΝ Zeus äetophoros, hurling
fulmen. Same magistrate.
AR 39.5 grs.

Bust of Athena. [Ibid., Pl. XXV. 9.]
ΤΑΒΗΝWΝ Nike advancing. Various
archons’ names. AR 30.4 grs.

Id. [Num. Chron., ix. 161.]
ΤΑΒΗΝWΝ Dionysos standing, holding kantharos and thyrsos.
AR 20 grs.

Head of bearded Herakles.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXV. 10.]
ΤΑΒΝWΝ Homonoia standing, as
on earlier coins. Magistrate’s name
with patronymic. AR 53.7 grs.

ΤΑΒΗΝΩΝ Bust of Dionysos in ivy-wreath. [Ibid., Pl. XXV. 11.]
Poseidon standing with one foot on prow,
resting on trident; dolphin behind
him. Magistrate’s name with patronymic. AR 54.3 grs.

Aequitas standing, with scales and
sceptre. [Imh., Gr. M., 677.]
ΤΑΒΗΝΩΝ Capricorn, with globe between feet; above, CΕΒΑCΤΟC.
AR 26 grs.


627


Among the earlier bronze coins of the pre-Imperial age are the following :—veiled head, rev. Forepart of humped bull; Head of Zeus, rev.
Pilei of the Dioskuri; Helmeted male bust, rev. Humped bull. The
later issues, which seem to be contemporary with the silver of early
Imperial times, above described, bear heads of young Dionysos on the
obverses, and on the reverses :—Two thyrsi crossed; the Pilei of the
Dioskuri, sometimes on an altar; Poseidon with foot on prow; &c.


Quasi-autonomous and Imperial coins. Augustus to Salonina.
Inscr. ΤΑΒΗΝΩΝ. Magistrates’ names without title or with that of
Archon, at first in nominative case, later in genitive, preceded, under
Domitian, by δια, and under Valerian and Gallienus usually by επι. Chief
types—Busts of ΔΗΜΟC; ΒΟΥΛΗ; ΙЄΡΟC ΔΗΜΟC; Zeus; Herakles; &c.
Reverse types—Capricorn; Nemesis standing; Nike; Tyche; Panther;
Stag; Pilei of Dioskuri on altar; Artemis huntress; Demeter standing;
Two identical figures of Artemis huntress, facing, side by side; Dionysos
standing, with panther; Artemis and Mên, face to face; Male pantheistic
divinity, radiate, holding torch, lotus-headed sceptre, caduceus and bow;
Poseidon standing (B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXVI. 9); Pan with goats’ legs,
dancing; Temple of Artemis; Agonistic crown on table, inscr. ΟΛΥΜΠΙΑ
ΠΥΘΙΑ.


Termera was an ancient city which occupied the southern part of the
peninsula west of Halicarnassus, facing the island of Cos. Herodotus
(v. 37) informs us that in the reign of Darius Hystaspis (B.C. 521-485)
it was governed by a tyrant named Tymnes, and it is probable that the
inscr. ΤVΜΝΟ on the Persic drachm described below may be the name
of this dynast, or possibly of some younger member of the same family. [1]
The Persic tetrobol (of doubtful attribution (Imhoof, Kl. M., p. 161)) is
evidently earlier, and appears to belong to the latter half of the sixth
century B.C. (see Babelon, Traité, ii. 1, p. 415).


Persic standard, circ. B.C. 550-480.




Herakles naked (?), kneeling r., holding
bow and wielding club.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXVII. 1.]
Lion’s head r. in incuse square.
AR Tetrob. 55.6 grs.

ΤVΜΝΟ Herakles in lion-skin, kneeling, with sword in scabbard at belt,
holding in raised r. hand a club, and
in extended l. bow.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXVII. 2.]
ΤΕDΜΕDΙΚΟΝ Lion’s head in incuse
square. AR Drachm 72.4 grs.



During the subsequent Athenian hegemony Termera is assessed in the
Quota-lists at a higher rate than its nearest neighbours, Myndus and
Halicarnassus, but it does not appear to have struck any coins after the
time of Tymnes. Under Mausolus Termera was destroyed and its
population removed to Halicarnassus, the citadel alone being maintained
as a prison.


Trapezopolis, on the northern side of the Salbacus range (J. H. S.,
xvii. 401), near the sources of the river Caprus, which appears to have





1 Cf. the Quota-Lists (I. G., i. 240, and Hill, Sources for Gk. Hist., p. 71) [Καρ]ες ον Τυ[μνες
αρχει], circ. 440 B.C.

628

separated its territory from that of Laodiceia, was included in the
Conventus of Alabanda. Its coins, quasi-autonomous and Imperial,
range from Augustus to Domna. Inscr., ΤΡΑΠΕΖΟΠΟΛΕΙΤΩΝ,
ΤΑΡΑΠΕΖΟΠΟΛΙΤΩΝ, &c. Magistrates’ names under Augustus in
nominative case. From the time of Domitian to that of M. Aurelius the
name is in the genitive preceded by δια instead of επι. This usage is
peculiar to a group of cities in the same district, Cidramus. Attuda,
Apollonia Salbace, Tabae, and Laodiceia ad Lycum. Imhoof (Kl. M., 162)
suggests that the use of δια, like that of παρα at Ceretape, Metropolis, and
Siblia in Phrygia, means that the coinage was provided for special
occasions at the private cost of the persons whose names it precedes, while
επι, on the other hand, appears to be simply equivalent to a date indicating that the issue took place during the term of office of such and
such a magistrate. (But see Class. Rev., 1907, p. 58.) At Trapezopolis
it is noteworthy that the names preceded by δια are not followed by
any distinctive title, whereas those with επι, which supersedes δια under
S. Severus, are accompanied by the title Archon. In one instance
επι precedes the names of two archons, one of whom, on another
coin, is further distinguished as ΑΡΧΙ(ερεως) ΥΙΟΥ (Imh., Kl. M., 163).
Chief types—ΙΕΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC ΙΕΡΑ ΒΟΥΛΗ; ΒΟΥΛΗ; ΔΗΜΟC
Dionysos; Mên; Kybele; Demeter; Apollo; Aphrodite; Winged Nemesis; Asklepios; Tyche; &c., most of which occur also at the neighbouring
city of Attuda.


»ANS


Alliance coin with Attuda, Ant. Pius, struck at the latter place (Imh.,
Kl. M., 126).


Tymnessus. This Carian town, the site of which has not been
identified, is mentioned only by Steph. Byz., s. v. It would seem however that, in early Imperial times, it possessed a mint and issued small
bronze coins. Obv. Head of Zeus; rev. ΤVΜΝΗCΕΩΝ Head of
Emperor (?) resembling Vespasian (Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk.,
p. 99).



SATRAPS OF CARIA


When Athens, after her Sicilian defeat during the Peloponnesian War,
lost her command of the sea, the coast towns of Caria, &c., which since
B.C. 469 had been tributary allies, fell again under Persian rule, and were
assigned by the Great King to the Satrapy of Tissaphernes; and it is to
his time that the remarkable tetradrachm described above (p. 597), obv.
Head of Satrap, rev. ΒΑΣΙΛ and Lyre, is generally ascribed. On the
death of Tissaphernes, Hecatomnus of Mylasa became Satrap of Caria
circ. B.C. 395.


Hecatomnus, B.C. 395-377. The earliest coins of this ruler are
drachms, &c. of Attic weight, and bronze coins probably struck at Mylasa,
the types of which may be compared with the coins of Miletus :—


»WW
»ANS





ΕΚΑ Lion’s head and foreleg.

[B. M. C., Ion., Pl. XXI. 5.]
Star in incuse circle. AR 65.7 grs.

Lion’s head l.
Similar.Æ Size .3


629


It is to a somewhat later date, probably after the Peace of Antalcidas,
B.C. 387, that the following tetradrachms belong :—





Zeus Labraundos, armed with spear and
double-axe, walking to r.


[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXVIII. 1.]
ΕΚΑΤΟΜ Lion r., in incuse circle.
AR 221 grs.

Id. [Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk.,
Pl. V. 17.]
Persian king standing, drawing bow.
AR 232 grs.



In B.C. 386 Hecatomnus assigned the city of Halicarnassus to his
eldest son Mausolus, whose earliest coinage, like that of his father
Hecatomnus, resembles that of Miletus :—





ΜΑ Lion’s head and foreleg.

[B. M. C., Ion., Pl. XXI. 6.]
Star in incuse circle. AR 195.8 grs.



On the attributions of the above-mentioned coins see Imhoof, Zur gr.
u. röm. Münzk., pp. 100 sqq.


Mausolus, B.C. 377-353. Although Mausolus succeeded his father as
Satrap of Caria in B.C. 377, it would seem that the tetradrachms and
drachms of the Rhodian standard which bear his name were not struck
before the removal of the satrapal residence from Mylasa to Halicarnassus, which then became the capital of Caria, B.C. 367 (?).


»WW
»SNG B
»ANS


Circ. B.C. 366-351.




FIG. 306.





Head of Apollo, laureate, facing.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXVIII. 2.]
ΜΑΥΣΣΩΛΛΟ Zeus Labraundos,
armed with spear and double-axe,
walking to r.
Tetradrachm AR 233 grs. (Fig. 306)

Drachm AR 56.6 grs.



On the death of Mausolus in B.C. 353 his widow Artemisia succeeded
him, and erected to his memory the famous Mausoleum. She died in
B.C. 351, but struck no coins in her own name.


Hidrieus, B.C. 351-344. This dynast was the second son of Hecatomnus, and on the death of Artemisia he succeeded to the Satrapy of
Caria, marrying, at the same time, his young sister Ada. His coins are
tetradrachms, didrachms, and drachms, similar to those of his brother
Mausolus, inscr. ΙΔΡΙΕΩΣ (B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXVIII. 5-7), also
quarter-drachms, obv. Head of Apollo facing, rev. ΙΔΡΙΕΩΣ or ΙΔΡΙ
between the rays of a star, as on the coins of Miletus (B. M. C., Car.,
Pl. XXVIII. 8). On the death of Hidrieus, B.C. 344, his widow Ada

630

retained possession of the Satrapy for four years, but struck no coins in
her own name.


»WW
»SNG B
»ANS


Pixodarus, B.C. 340-334, the youngest of the three sons of Hecatomnus,
obtained possession of the satrapy in B.C. 340, his sister Ada retiring to
the inland fortress of Alinda, which she continued to hold until Alexander’s invasion. Pixodarus struck didrachms, drachms, and quarter-drachms similar to those of Hidrieus. On some specimens his name is
written ΠΙΞΩΔΑΡΟΥ. This marks the date of the introduction of the
spelling, in full, of the diphthong ΟΥ in Caria.


»WW
»SNG B
»ANS


Pixodarus seems also to have been compelled, on pressure, to strike a
few gold coins in his own name, which is a sign of a relaxation of direct
Persian control, for the coinage of gold money was one of the cherished
prerogatives of the Great King, never formally delegated to a Satrap.


The smaller gold coins of Pixodarus, which are of undoubted authenticity, are the following :—





Head of Apollo l., laureate.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXVIII. 11.]
ΠΙΞΩΔΑ Zeus Labraundos standing
r., as on silver coins.
AV Hemihekton, 10.8 grs.

Similar.
Π Ι Double-axe. AV 1/24 Stater 5.2 grs.
[Ibid., Pl. XXVIII. 12.]



The specimens of the larger denominations, Hemistater and Hecte
(similar in type to the Hemihekton, except that the head of Apollo faces
to the right), in the British Museum collection (B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXVIII.
9, 10), are not altogether beyond suspicion.


Orontobates or Rhoontopates, B.C. 334-333. This Satrap married
Ada, the daughter of Pixodarus, whose hand had been successively
offered to Philip Arrhidaeus and to Alexander. The account of his defence
of Halicarnassus against Alexander is given by Arrian (Anab. i. 23;
ii. 5, 7), who calls him Orontobates. His coins are rare, and tetradrachms
only are known. They resemble those of his predecessor, but bear
apparently the inscription ΡΟΟΝΤΟΠΑΤΟ (Babelon, Perses Achém.,
lxxxviii. Pl. X. 17).


»ANS


Uncertain Satrapal Coins of Caria (?).


For the staters of Rhodian (?) weight, obv. King of Persia half kneeling,
rev. Galloping Satrap, see infra, under Persia.






ISLANDS OFF CARIA



Astypalaea, midway between Cos and Amorgos, was a port on the
trade-route between Phoenicia, Cyprus, Rhodes, Cnidus, Cos, and European Greece on the west. Its name occurs in the Athenian quota-lists,
B.C. 447-436, and in the latter year the annual sum at which it was
assessed amounted to 12,000 drachms (about £480). Astypalaea struck
small bronze coins in the third, second, and first centuries B.C. Inscr.,

631

ΑΣ, ΑΣΤΥ &c. The types point to a special cultus of Perseus, e. g.
Head of Perseus, Harpa, Gorgon-head, &c., and some pieces closely
resemble coins of Seriphos, where Perseus was also worshipped. On the
later issues heads of Dionysos, Athena, and Asklepios supersede those of
Perseus and Medusa, and it was in the temple of Athena and Asklepios
at Astypalaea that a copy of the Senatus consultum was deposited which
conferred upon the city the privileges of a Civitas foederata (I. G., xii. (iii)
173). Another type is that of a veiled female head, rev. Head of Dionysos. Gold staters and tetradrachms of Alexander’s types (symbol,
harpa) are also attributed to Astypalaea (Müller, Num. d'Alex., 1170-1172). Imperial coins are known of Livia and Tiberius. Inscr.,
ΑΣΤΥΠΑΛΑΕΩΝ. Types—Nike advancing, &c.


»ANS


Calymna. To this island, which lay off the coast of Caria, some ten
miles west of Myndus and north of Cos, are usually attributed the very
archaic silver staters of the Babylonian standard.


»SNG B
»ANS





Rude archaic head of bearded hero, in
crested helmet, with vizor and cheek piece. [B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXIX. 8.]
Lyre (chelys) with seven strings and
tortoise-shell bowl, within an incuse
adapted to the form of the lyre.
AR 162.2 grs.



In the Greenwell collection was a specimen with the letter Α on the
helmet and Λ (?) behind the head (N. C., 1890, Pl. III. 24). These remarkable coins can hardly be later than circ. B.C. 600, and their attribution to Calymna is somewhat doubtful. It may be that they are o f
Euboean or Macedonian origin, possibly of Aeneia in Chalcidice. It has
been pointed out by Babelon (Traité, ii. 1, p. 437) that in fabric they
differ from all other archaic coins struck in any of the Aegaean islands
or in Asia Minor.


Third century B.C.





Young male head in crested helmet,
with cheek-piece.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXIX. 9-11.]
ΚΑΛΥΜΝΙΟΝ Lyre (kithara) in
dotted square.
AR Rhodian didr. 100 grs.

AR Dr. 50 grs.

AR ½ Dr. 23 grs.



There are also small bronze coins of similar types.


Carpathos. This island appears to have been of some importance in
early times. Its chief city, Poseidium, struck silver staters in the sixth
century B.C. resembling in fabric those of the ancient Rhodian cities,
Lindus, Ialysus, and Camirus. All these places ceased to coin money
when Rhodus was founded, B.C. 408. Poseidium was probably the chief
city of the ‘Ετεοκαρπαθιοι εκ Καρπαθου, who appear separately in the
Athenian Quota-Lists as paying 1,000 drachms, the same amount at
which the people of ‘Αρκεσεια Καρπαθου are rated in contemporary lists.


»SNG B
»ANS


Sixth century B.C. Phoenician standard.




ΠΟΣ Two dolphins in opposite directions, and a third small fish beneath
them; all in dotted and linear square.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXIX. 14, 15.]
Incuse square, divided by broad band
into two oblong parts, with rough
surface. AR Stater 215 grs.

AR Third 70 grs.


632

The legend ΠΟΣ is usually wanting, and the fish beneath the dolphins
is sometimes not visible (Imhoof, Z. f. N., i. 153).


Cos. Concerning the history, epigraphy, and numismatics of this important island, see Paton and Hicks (Inscr. of Cos, 1891). According to
tradition the earliest Greek inhabitants of Cos came from Epidaurus,
bringing with them the worship of Asklepios, for which the island was
afterwards celebrated. Herakles is also an appropriate type on the coins
of a city which was a member of the Dorian Pentapolis. The origin of
the Crab as the special emblem of Cos is unexplained. The fact that it
is frequently accompanied, on coins, with the Heraklean club, while on
certain coins of Imperial times (B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXIII. 4, 5) it is
seen at the feet of Herakles himself, has been cited to prove its connexion with the cultus of Herakles. This is, however, very doubtful
(see Babelon, Traité, ii. 1, 441).


»WW
»SNG B
»ANS


The coinage of Cos falls into the following periods :—


Seventh century B.C. Aeginetic standard.



Crab. [B. M. C., Ion., p. 6, No. 29.]
Incuse square, quartered.
EL. 1.9 grs. = 1/96 Stater

Crab. [B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXX. 1.]
Rough incuse square, beside which (as
countermark) a small incuse square.
AR Stater 189.5 grs.

Crab. [Ibid., Pl. XXX. 2.]
Rough incuse square.
AR Diobol 25 grs.

AR Obol(?) 10.7 grs.



After a long interval of perhaps nearly a hundred years coins were
once more struck in the island, and it is remarkable that, while the Crab
is still the distinctive local emblem, the Aeginetic stater is now replaced
by a tetradrachm of Attic weight.


Fifth century B.C. Attic standard.




FIG. 307.





ΚΟΣ, ΚΩΣ or ΚΩΙΟΝ Naked Diskobolos, with tripod behind him (Fig.
307). [B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXX. 3-5.]
Crab in incuse square.
AR Tetr. 253 grs.



The agonistic type of these coins clearly refers to the games held in
honour of the Triopian Apollo in which the cities of the Dorian Pentapolis all took part, the first prize being a brazen tripod which the victor
dedicated to the god (Herod. i. 144).


After these fifth century issues of Euboic-Attic tetradrachms there
follows another long interval during which no coins seem to have been

633

struck in Cos. The foundation of a new capital at the eastern end of the
island (B.C. 366) marks the commencement of silver coinage on the
Rhodian standard with corresponding bronze.


Circ. B.C. 366-300. Rhodian standard.




Head of bearded or young Herakles in
lion-skin.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXX. 6.]
ΚΩΙΟΝ Crab and club in dotted
square. Magistrate’s name in nominative case. AR Tetradr. 240 grs.

Id. [Ibid., Pl. XXX. 9.]
AR Didrachm 105 grs.

Id. [Ibid., Pl. XXX. 10, 12.]
ΚΩΙΟΝ Veiled female head and magistrate’s name. AR Didr. and Dr.

Head of bearded Herakles, or Female
head veiled.

[Ibid., Pl. XXX. 13-15.]
ΚΩΙΟΝ Crab, club, and magistrate's
name. Æ .55



Circ. B.C. 300-190. Rhodian standard.


During this period Tetradrachms, Didrachms, Drachms, Hemidrachms,
and bronze coins are plentiful, and a head of the youthful Herakles, of
unmistakeable Lysippean style, supersedes (except on the drachms) the
bearded head prevalent on the earlier coins. On the tetradrachms the
bow in its case replaces the club under the crab. For a list of the
magistrates’ names see Paton and Hicks (Inscr. of Cos) and Imhoof
(Kl. M., 165).


Circ. B.C. 190-166.


To this period belong the Attic tetradrachms of Alexander’s types;
symbols, Crab and club, and magistrates’ names or monograms (Paton
and Hicks, Inscr. of Cos, p. 311, and Müller, Num. d'Alex., 1153). The
Coan or Rhodian weight was, however, retained for the didrachms and
smaller coins.





Head of young Herakles in lion-skin,
facing. [B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXI. 13.]
ΚΩΙΟΝ Crab, club, and magistrate's
name in dotted square. AR 105 grs.

Head of bearded Herakles r., in lion-skin. [Ibid., Pl. XXXI. 15.]
Id., but no dotted square. AR 50 grs.



On the smaller silver and bronze coins the rev. type is a Bow in case
and a club (Ibid., Pl. XXXI. 16-18).


Circ. B.C. 166-88.


A complete change in the type and fabric of the coinage took place
both at Cos and Rhodus about B.C. 166. At Cos the ancient Herakleian
types are now generally abandoned in favour of those relating to Asklepios, whose cult had gradually eclipsed that of Herakles, and who had
come to be the representative divinity of the island. The most remarkable coin of this age is, however, the unique tetradrachm in the Hunter
Collection :—





Head of Aphrodite, wearing myrtlewreath bound with diadem, and necklace. [Maonald, Hunter Cat., II.,
Pl. LIV. 18.]
ΚΩΙΩΝ Asklepios leaning on serpent
staff. Magistrate’s name ΝΙΚΟΣΤΡΑΤΟΣ. AR Tetr. 255.2 grs.


634

The head on this coin reminds us that the most famous among the
works of Apelles was the Aphrodite which he painted for the Coans,
and that Praxiteles also executed for Cos a half-draped statue of the
same goddess, which ranked with his widely renowned naked Aphrodite which was purchased by the Cnidians (Pliny, H. N., xxxvi. 5. 4).


The smaller silver coins of this period are as follows :—





Head of young Herakles in lion-skin r.
[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXII. 1.]
ΚΩΙΩΝ Shallow incuse square containing crab and club and magistrate’s name. AR Drachm 47 grs.

Head of Asklepios r.
[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXII. 2-5.]
ΚΩΙΩΝ ΚΩΙ, ΚΩ, or ΚΩΝ Shallow
incuse square containing coiled serpent and one or two magistrates’
names, sometimes with title ΠΡΟCΤΑ[της]AR Drachms of reduced wt.

or Tetrobols 34 grs.



The bronze coins resemble those of the previous period.


Circ. B.C. 88-50.


The coins of this period, which extends from the time of Sulla to the
tyranny of Nikias, are not numerous. The silver pieces are small.
Types—Head of Apollo, rev. Lyre; Head of Asklepios, rev. Serpent
staff or Coiled serpent. The corresponding bronze coins of the same
time are of larger dimensions (B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXII. 7-12).


Circ. B.C. 50 to Augustus.


During this period the island was governed for a time by a tyrant
named Nikias, concerning whom very little is known (Strab. xiv. 658).
His portrait, however, has been handed down to us on his bronze coins.





ΝΙΚΙΑΣ Beardless head r., diademed.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXII. 13.]
ΚΩΙΩΝ Head of Asklepios and magistrate’s name.Æ 1.25



Quasi-autonomous and Imperial Coins.
Augustus to Philip Jun. Inscr., ΚΩΙΩΝ. Chief types—Heads of
ΑΣΚΛΑΠΙΟΣ; Poseidon; Herakles; Ο ΔΑΜΟC; A ΒΟΥΛΑ; ΞΕΝΟΦΩΝ (Xenophon the Physician, who practised in Rome in the reign of
Claudius); ΞΕΝΟΦΟWΝ ΙΕΡΕΥC (the same as Priest of Asklepios (?));
ΙΠΠΟΚΡΑΤΗC (the Physician) seated; Tyche, &c. Reverse types—
ΕΡΡΑΝΑ Bust of Eirene; Lyre (B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXIII. 1); Two
doves drinking, perched on the rim of a vase (see Blanchet, in Rev. Num.,
1907, p. lxxxiii); Herakles holding infant Telephos (?), at his feet, crab
(B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXIII. 4, 5); Hygieia; City Tyche (?) to front.
Magistrates’ names are not uncommon, and are in the nominative,
sometimes accompanied by a patronymic.


Alliance coins with Halicarnassus (Caracalla and Geta) struck at the
latter place (B. M. C., Car., Pl. XLIV. 4), and Miletus (Ant. Pius) (N. C.,
1904, Pl. XVI. 12).


Megiste (?). Megiste was a small island almost united to the mainland of Lycia some twenty miles east of Patara. A few inscriptions in

635

the Doric dialect have been copied in the island (C. I. G., 4301; Le Bas-Wadd., 1268; B. C. H., XVI. 304); and from the types of some rare
silver drachms resembling but differentiated from those of Rhodes, and
inscribed ΜΕ, the inference has been drawn that Megiste, although an
autonomous city, was a colony of Rhodus. Imhoof (Kl. M., 166) has,
however, pointed out that the inscriptions ΝΙ and ΕΥ also occur on coins
of the same class, and that it is therefore possible that the coins in
question may have been struck at Rhodus itself, in which case ΜΕ, ΝΙ,
and ΕΥ would stand for magistrates’ names, or that some other colony
of Rhodus, not necessarily Megiste, may have been their place of issue.


»SNG B
»ANS


Fourth century B.C.




Head of Helios with short hair l., on
radiate disk.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXIV. 1-3.]
Μ Ε Rose with bud on either side.
AR Dr. 48 grs.

Similar head r.
Μ Ε Rose. Æ .4



Nisyros was a small volcanic island lying midway between the
Triopian promontory and the southern point of Cos, from which it was
said to have been torn off by Poseidon with his trident, and hurled upon
the giant Polybotes (Apollod., i. 6. 2).


»ANS


Fourth century B.C.




Head of Helios with short hair l., on
radiate disk.

[Millingen, Syll., Pl. II. 50.]
Ν Ι Rose with bud on either side.
AR Dr. 47 grs.



This coin may be Rhodian, see supra, under Megiste (?).





Head of Artemis(?) r., wearing stephane.
[Z. f. N., i., Pl. IV. 18.]
ΝΙΣΥΡΙΟΝ Poseidon, seated to front
on rock, his r. resting on trident.
AR Dr. (?) 35 grs.

Head of Poseidon.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXIV. 4.]
ΝΙ Dolphin and trident. Æ .5

Head of Zeus Ammon.
Id.Æ .4

Female head, with stephane.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXIV. 5.]
ΝΙΣΥ Similar. Æ .5



There was a temple of Poseidon in the town of Nisyros (Strab. x. 489).


Müller (Num. d'Alex., nos. 1168-9) ascribes to Nisyros some second
century tetradrachms of the Alexandrine types with a bucranium as
adjunct symbol. As this symbol is no longer accepted as one of the
coin-types of Nisyros, Müller’s attribution of the Alexandrine tetradrachms in question is certainly erroneous.


Rhodes. The admirable situation and climate of Rhodes doubtless
contributed to make the island a great maritime power, and the
commercial activity of the Rhodian merchants soon raised it to a
position of wealth and influence unsurpassed by that of any other state
in Greece.


»WW
»SNG B
»ANS


The Rhodian coinage falls into two main divisions: (i) that of the
three ancient towns, Camirus, Ialysus, and Lindus, down to B.C. 408,

636

when these cities combined to found the new capital, Rhodus; (ii) the long
series of the currency of Rhodus from B.C. 408 onwards.


Camirus Rhodi, on the western coast of the island, was the most
important of the three independent cities. The fact that its coins follow
the Aeginetic standard indicates that it traded chiefly with the Aegaean
islands, Crete, and Peloponnesus, where the Aeginetic standard prevailed.


»SNG B
»ANS


There are also small electrum coins of Camirus, as well as of Ialysus and
Lindus, which show that they had dealings with the Ionian coast-towns,
where, in the sixth century B.C., electrum was the standard currency.


Electrum and Silver. Sixth century B.C. Aeginetic standard.




Fig-leaf.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXIV. 6.]
Incuse square, within which a deeper
small incuse depression.
EL. 1/24 Stater 8.1 grs.

Fig-leaf.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXIV. 7.]
Two oblong incuses, separated by broad
band. AR Stater 189.6 grs.

Id. [Ibid., Pl. XXXIV. 10, 11.]
Id. AR Drachm 93.1 grs.

Id.
Incuse square. AR Tritemorion 9.1 grs.

Id.
Id. AR Hemiobol 7.6 grs.



Silver and Bronze. Circ. B.C. 500-408. Persic (?) standard.




Fig-leaf.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXIV. 12.]
ΚΑΜΙ ΡΕΩΝ in two oblong incuses,
separated by broad band.
AR Stater 175.2 grs.

Id. [Ibid., Pl. XXXIV. 13.]
Κ Α in two oblong incuses.
AR Trihemiobol 18.3 grs.

Rose. [Ibid., Pl. XXXIV. 14.]
Κ Α Griffin’s head in incuse square.
AR Obol 14.2 grs.

Fig-leaf. [Ibid., Pl. XXXIV. 15.]
Κ Α in two quarters of a wheel. Æ .4



The fig-leaf may have been chosen as a coin-type as the chief product
of the island, but it may also have been originally a religious symbol
(cf. Dionysos συκιτης or συκατης at Lacedaemon (Ath. 78 c.) and Zeus
συκασιος (Eust. 1572, 58)).


Ialysus Rhodi, in the north of the island, about ten miles west of the
later city of Rhodus, does not seem to have issued money before the
early part of the fifth century B.C., although there are some small
electrum pieces (wts. 15, 7.3, and 3.7 grs.), resembling the silver coins,
which may be somewhat earlier. (See Hirsch, Auct. Cat. xiii., Nos. 3997-4000.) Its first silver coins are of the Phoenician standard, suggesting
that its commercial relations must have been rather with the mainland
of Asia Minor than with the Aegaean islands.


»SNG B
»ANS


Silver. Circ. B.C. 500-408. Phoenician standard.




Forepart of winged boar.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXV. 1, 2.]
ΙΕΛΥΣΙΟΝ and ΙΑΛΥΣΙΟΝ Eagle's
head in dotted and incuse square, in
one corner of which is a floral ornament. AR Tetradr. 229.4 grs.


637




ΙΑΛΥΣΙΟΝ Forepart of winged boar;
beneath, helmet.

[Ibid., Pl. XXXV. 3.]
ΙΑΛΥΣΙΟΝ Eagle’s head in dotted and
incuse square. AR Tetradr. 223.4 grs.

Id.
Id. AR 16.1 grs. and 7.8 grs.



Persic standard.




Forepart of winged boar.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXV. 4.]
No inscr. Eagle’s head in dotted and
incuse square, in one corner of which
is a floral ornament.
AR Drachm 75.9 grs.

Id. [Ibid., Pl. XXXV. 5.]
Id.AR ½ Dr. 3 1.6 grs.

Forepart of winged horse.

[Ibid., Pl. XXXV. 6.]
Α Ι Rose in dotted and incuse square.
AR ½ Obol 6.5 grs.



The types and the fabric of the coins of Ialysus have something in
common with those of Clazomenae, Lycia, Cyprus, and Cyrene, and they
differ remarkably from those of the two other Rhodian cities, Camirus
and Lindus (B. M. C., Car., ci).


Lindus Rhodi. The city of Lindus, on the east coast of Rhodes, struck,
like Camirus and Ialysus, a few small electrum coins, resembling the
silver money, which seem to be as early as the sixth century B.C., wts.
14.3 and 11.8 grs. (Hirsch, Auct. Cat. xiii., nos. 4002-3). The silver coins
of Lindus, like those of Ialysus, follow the Phoenician standard. The
Lion’s head, the prevailing type of the Lindian coinage, may be merely a
copy of the widely-circulating Cnidian coins, in which case it possesses no
local significance. The peculiar form of the incuse reverses of the coins of
both Lindus and Camirus, consisting of a square divided into two oblong
halves by a broad band, is original and hardly ever met with outside
Rhodes except at Poseidium in the neighbouring island of Carpathos:—


»SNG B
»ANS


Silver. Circ. B.C. 600-500. Phoenician standard.




Lion’s head, with open jaws and tuft of
hair on forehead.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXV. 7-9]
Incuse square, divided into two oblong
halves by broad band, on which
ΛΙΝΔΙ is sometimes legible.
AR Tetradr. 213 grs.

AR Diobol 16.1 grs.



Circ. B.C. 500-408.




Forepart of horse.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXV. 10.]
Incuse square, containing lion’s head
with open jaws.
AR Tetrobol 33.2 grs.

AR Obol 7.9 grs.



Some specimens show a faint inscription, apparently ΛΙΝΔΙ, in front
of the horse.


Rhodus. In or about the year B.C. 408 the three independent Rhodian
towns, Camirus, Ialysus, and Lindus, combined to found the new city of
Rhodus near the extreme northern point of the island. As the people
of all three towns claimed descent from Helios, to whom indeed the
whole island was sacred (Pindar, Ol. vii. 54), the head of the Sun-god

638

and his emblem, the Rose, ροδον, the flower from which the island took
its name, were naturally chosen as the coin-types of the new capital.
In the year of the foundation of Rhodus, B.C. 408, full-face heads on
coins were a novelty. The engraver of the new Rhodian coin-dies,
inspired perhaps by the exquisite full-face head of Arethusa, the chef
d'oeuvre of the Syracusan artist, Kimon (circ. B.C. 409), betrays also his
own individuality by his adoption of the broader and bolder style of treatment which henceforth characterized Rhodian art, and which, a century
later, culminated in the erection of the world-renowned colossal statue of
Helios by the Rhodian sculptor, Chares, a pupil of Lysippus. The
Rhodian coins of the fourth century B.C. give a splendid rendering of the
head of the Sun-god in his noon-day glory, with rounded face and ample
locks of hair, wind-blown and suggestive of his rapid course. The crown
of rays which the artists of the next century preferred to emphasize in
a more materialistic form is, on these earlier coins, merely hinted at by
a skilful adaptation of the locks of the hair (cf. B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXVI.
5, with Pl. XXXVIII. 1). For a possible engraver’s name see Hunter
Cat. ii, p. 437.


The coinage of Rhodus falls into the following classes :—


Silver. Circ. B.C. 408-400. Attic standard.




Head of Helios, facing (rough work).

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXVI. 1.]
ΡΟΔΙΟΝ Rose between two bunches
of grapes, in incuse square.
AR Tetradr. 258.8 grs.

Id.
Id. AR ½ Dr.

Id.
Ρ Ο Rose in incuse square. AR ½ Dr.

Id.
 „  Head of nymph, Rhodos, to r., in
incuse square. AR ½ Dr.



Next in order follows the Federal coinage of the ‘Symmachy’, common
to Rhodus, Cnidus, Iasus, Samos, Ephesus, and Byzantium, which dates
from Conon’s victory at Cnidus, B.C. 394. In weight the coins of this
alliance consist of Aeginetic didrachms of very light weight (178 grs.),
which may also be regarded as tridrachms of the reduced Attic standard
(drachm 60 grs.) adopted by Rhodus about this time. The types of the
Federal coin of Rhodus are as follows :—





ΣΥΝ Infant Herakles strangling serpents.
Ρ Ο Rose in incuse square. [B. M. C., Car., Pl. XLV. 2.]AR 175 grs.



Gold. Circ. B.C. 400-333.


Of the numerous full-face coins of bold and sculpturesque style issued
from the Rhodian mint during the greater part of the fourth century the
most perfect specimen is the unrivalled gold stater in the British Museum
(B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXVI. 5).





FIG. 308.

639




Head of Helios, facing.
ΡΟΔΙΟΝ Rose with bud to r., and
grapes to l.; in field, Ε; all in
incuse square (Fig. 308)
AV Stater 132.6 grs.



This is not only one of the most beautiful but it is also one of the
earliest pure gold staters struck at any Greek town. A few only of
the Lampsacene staters can claim priority in date.


Silver. B.C. 400-333. Rhodian standard.


Tetradrachms, didrachms, and drachms, resembling the gold stater in
type, but of coarser work, together with didrachms and diobols with
a head of Helios in profile, belong also to this period. All these coins
have various symbols and letters beside the Rose on the reverses
(B. M. C., Car., pp. 231-4).


Circ. B.C. 333-304.


In this period the radiate type of the head of Helios makes its first
appearance on some of the full-face didrachms and on quarter-drachms
with the head in profile; and small bronze coins occur for the first time,
the obv. type of which is a female head, probably that of the nymph
Rhodos. The magistrates’ names on the larger coins are at full length
in the nominative case.


Circ. B.C. 304-189 and later.




FIG. 309.


The coinage of Rhodes seems to have been unaffected by the campaign
of Alexander, and it was not until after the famous siege of the city by
Demetrius Poliorcetes that any great modification of the types was
introduced. It can, however, hardly be questioned that the next series
of Rhodian coins, which exhibits the head of Helios radiate (Fig. 309) on
both tetradrachms and didrachms, falls into the period of the greatest
prosperity of Rhodes (B.C. 304-166). This radiate head may serve to
give us some idea of the style and general aspect of the features of the
colossal statue by Chares set up in B.C. 283 beside the harbour of Rhodus,
and not, according to a fanciful modern notion, astride across its
entrance (Overbeck, Plastik, 3rd ed., ii. 137 sqq.).


The unradiate head is retained during this period on the drachms and
smaller coins. The inscr. on the reverses is either ΡΟΔΙΟΝ or Ρ Ο, and
there are magistrates’ names, each with a separate symbol beside the
rose. The Rhodian drachms appear to have circulated widely also on
the mainland, and some without the letters Ρ Ο were certainly struck
on the continent; cf. a specimen with the mint-mark of Miletus (B. M. C.,

640

Car., Pl. XXXIX. 8) and others with an eagle superposed on the right
cheek of the Sun-god.


The bronze coins of this period have a head of Zeus or a veiled female
head in place of that of Helios on the obv. (B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXIX.
15-18).


Circ. B.C. 189-166.


At the conclusion of the peace, B.C. 189, after the battle of Magnesia,
Rhodes obtained a large accession of territory on the mainland, including
Lycia (exclusive of Telmessus) and the greater part of Caria. With the
exception of the magnificent gold stater above described (circ. B.C. 400)
all the other known gold coins of Rhodes belong to the second
century B.C.


GOLD COINAGE.




Head of Helios, radiate, facing, without
neck. [B. M. From Montagu Coll.,
Sale Cat., ii. 283, Pl. III.]
Ρ Ο Rose and bud, above [ΑΓΗ]ΣΙΔΑΜΟΣ; symbol, Artemis running
with torch: all in dotted circle.
AV Stater 131.5 grs.



The magistrate’s name and symbol on this unique stater are identical
with those on the didrachm (B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXVIII. 4) and drachm
(Hunter Cat., ii. 439, 21).





Head of Helios, radiate, facing.
[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXIX. 19.]
Ρ Ο Rose and bud in shallow incuse
square; above, magistrate’s name;
changing symbol in field.
AV Stater 131.2 grs

Id. [Ibid., p. 272.]
Id. AV ½ Stater 65.6 grs.

Head of Rhodos r., radiate, wearing
stephane, ear-ring and necklace.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XXXIX. 20.]
Ρ Ο Rose and bud; above, magistrate's
name; changing symbol; all in dotted
circle. AV ¼ Stater 33.4 grs.



GOLD AND SILVER OF REGAL TYPES.


Rhodes, after B.C. 189, also struck some gold Philippi with Ρ Ο and
adjunct symbol, rose (Müller, 308); and Lysimachian gold staters
(Müller, Lysim., 450, 451), together with Alexandrine tetradrachms
(Müller, 1154-67). The magistrates’ names on these coins are identical
with those on the coins of the Rhodian type.


Circ. B.C. 166-88.


In B.C. 167 the Romans deprived Rhodes of her territory on the mainland. All the cities hitherto tributary to Rhodes were declared free, and
the Rhodian merchants suffered in consequence a severe loss. The erection
of Delos at this time into a free port was also greatly detrimental to
Rhodian commerce. It is probable that the cessation of the issue of
tetradrachms from the Rhodian mint is coincident with these political
and commercial reverses, and that, driven to abandon the issue of large
coins, Rhodes strove to maintain her credit by restoring her drachms more
nearly to their original weight, and for the sake of distinguishing the
new drachms of heavier weight from the debased drachms, still current,

641

a new type was adopted. A head of Helios in profile was substituted
for the full-face head, and the obsolete incuse square was reintroduced
with the deliberate intention of marking the fact that the new drachms
were equivalent to those which had prevailed in former times before the
incuse square had been abandoned. The types of the coins of this period
are as follows :—





Head of Helios r., radiate.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XL. 1-11.]
Shallow incuse square containing Ρ Ο,
Rose with bud, magistrate’s name
and changing symbol.
AR Dr. 50.4 grs.

Head of Helios, radiate, facing.

[Ibid., Pl. XL. 12-15.]
Similar. AR ½ Dr. 22.5 grs.

Head of Helios r., radiate.

[Ibid., Pl. XL. 16.]
Ρ Ο Rose with bud and changing
symbol; all in dotted circle.
AR ¼ Dr. 12.7 grs.

Head of Helios r., radiate.

[Ibid., Pl. XL. 17, 18.]
Ρ Ο Rose with bud and changing symbols; all in dotted circle.
Æ 1.15 and .5

Head of Rhodos r., radiate.

[Ibid., Pl. XL. 19, 20.]
Shallow incuse square containing Ρ Ο
and Rose. Æ .5



Circ. B.C. 88-43.


During the revolt of Asia from Roman rule, B.C. 88-84, Rhodes was
one of the few states which refused to join Mithradates, and when Sulla
with the help of the Rhodian fleet passed over into Asia and quelled the
revolt, the Rhodians were rewarded for their loyalty to Rome by the gift
of freedom and by the restoration of a portion of their possessions on
the mainland. It is to this period of renewed prosperity that I would
attribute the last issue of Rhodian silver coins. These pieces are
drachms ranging in weight from 68.4 to 61.7 grs. They are thus slightly
heavier than the Attic drachms, and the heavier specimens might be
accepted as thirds of the contemporary Ptolemaic tetradrachms of about
210 grs.





Head of Helios, three-quarter face towards r., with winged diadem, ends
tied under chin.

[Paris; B. M. C., Car., Pl. XLV. 3.]
Ρ Ο Rose with bud; above. ΓΟΡΓΟΣ;
symbol, star; all in dotted circle.
AR 68.25 grs.

Head of Helios, radiate, three-quarter
face towards l.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XLI. 1.]
Ρ Ο Full-blown rose to front; below,
palm; all in dotted circle.
AR 68.4 grs.

Head of Helios, radiate, three-quarter
face towards r.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XLI. 2.]
Ρ Ο Full-blown rose to front; magistrates’ names and varying symbols.
AR 66.7 grs.



As these heavy drachms are rare, it would seem that Rhodes ceased to
coin silver before the middle of the first century B.C., while the unusually
large size and heavy weight of the bronze pieces which succeed them
indicate that these latter were intended to take the place of silver money,
and that they can hardly have been tokens of merely nominal value.

642




Head of Helios, radiate, facing.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XLI. 3, 4.]
Ρ Ο Full-blown rose to front, within
an oak-wreath. Magistrates’ names.
Æ 1.4

Head of Helios r., radiate.

[B. M. C., Car., Pl. XLI. 5-7.]
Ρ Ο or ΡΟΔΙΩΝ Full-blown rose to
front; magistrates’ names and symbols; all in dotted circle. Æ .8-.5



Quasi-autonomous and Imperial Coins, 43 B.C. to COMMODUS.


The wavering policy of Rhodes during the civil war between Pompey
and Caesar led to the final ruin of her commerce in B.C. 42, when Cassius
Parmensis destroyed the greater part of her fleet and struck a fatal
blow at her maritime supremacy. Although the Rhodian silver money
continued to be current long after it had ceased to be issued, bronze
gradually took its place as the chief medium of circulation, and the
large bronze coins superseded the silver drachms. Somewhat later,
under one or other of the earlier emperors, one of those reductions in
the value of the current coins took place which I have elsewhere
noticed (B. M. C., Car., p. cxvii), and the large bronze coin which, from
its types, I have assumed to have been at first equivalent to the drachm
was now distinguished as a didrachm and denominated as such by its
inscription ΡΟΔΙΩΝ ΔΙΔΡΑΧΜΟΝ or ΡΟΔΙΟΙ ΥΠΕΡ ΤΩΝ CΕΒΑCΤΩΝ ΔΙΔΡΑΧΜΟΝ.


The chief types on the large bronze coins are heads of Dionysos
unradiate or radiate, and heads of Helios radiate, in profile. The reverse
type is usually Nike. Magistrates’ names in the genitive case with επι
and often with title Ταμιας, the Financial Treasurer and not the Roman
Provincial Quaestor. On a coin of Ant. Pius is a figure of ΠΟCΕΙΔΩΝ
ΑCΦΑΛΕΙΟC standing before altar (Eckhel, D. N., ii. 605). Poseidon
Asphaleios was the god who presided over the safety of ships and ports
(cf. Strab. 59).


Syme (?). Concerning the coins assigned by Waddington to this
island and by Imhoof to Syangela see Syangela, supra, p. 625.


Telos, a small island between Rhodes and Nisyros.


Fourth century B.C.




Head of Zeus.

[Mion. iii. 430, 289.]
ΤΗΛΙ Crab. Æ .5

Head of Athena, r. [Z. f. N., i. 151.]
  „   „Æ .4

ΔΑΜΟΚΡΑΤΙΑΣ Head of Athena,
facing, with aegis outspread behind it.
  „   „    and magistrate’s name.
[Imh., Gr. M., 154, Pl. X. 17.]Æ .5

Head of Athena, facing, in helmet with
three crests.
ΤΗΛΙ Crab. [Ibid.]Æ .55



The inscription ΔΑΜΟΚΡΑΤΙΑΣ occurs also on contemporary coins
of Cnidus (see supra, p. 616). The heads of Zeus and Athena are probably
those of the Zeus Πολιευς and Athena Πολιας mentioned in Telian
inscriptions (C. I. G. xii. (iii) 40).