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Lysimachos (Lysimachus)

Ancient| Coins| of Lysimachos| in the Forum| Ancient| Coins| shop|

Lysimachus (c. 361 BCE – 281 BCE) was a Macedonian officer and diadochus (i.e. "successor") of Alexander the Great, who became a basileus ("king") in 306, ruling Thrace, Asia Minor and Macedonia.

During Alexander's Persian campaigns he was one of his personal bodyguards and distinguished himself in India.

After Alexander's death he was appointed strategos in Thrace and the Chersonese, where he was chiefly occupied with fighting against the Odrysian king Seuthes. In 315 he joined Cassander, Ptolemy and Seleucus against Antigonus. Antigonus diverted his attention by stirring up Thracian and Scythian tribes against him. In 309, he founded his capital Lysimachia in a commanding situation on the neck connecting the Chersonese with the mainland. In 306, he followed the example of Antigonus in taking the title of king.

In 302, Lysimachus, reinforced by troops from Cassander, entered Asia Minor, where he met with little resistance. On the approach of Antigonus he retired into winter quarters near Heraclea, marrying its widowed queen Amastris, a Persian princess. Seleucus joined him in 301, and at the battle of Ipsus Antigonus was slain. His dominions were divided among the victors, Lysimachus receiving the greater part of Asia Minor.

Feeling that Seleucus was becoming dangerously great, he now allied himself with Ptolemy, marrying his daughter Arsinoe. Amastris, who had divorced herself from him, returned to Heraclea.

When Antigonus's son Demetrius renewed hostilities, during his absence in Greece in 297, Lysimachus seized his towns in Asia Minor, but in 294 concluded a peace whereby Demetrius was recognized as ruler of Macedonia. Lysimachos tried to carry his power beyond the Danube, but was defeated and taken prisoner by the Getae, who, however, set him free on amicable terms. Demetrius subsequently threatened Thrace, but had to retire in consequence of a rising in Boeotia, and an attack from Pyrrhus of Epirus. In 288 Lysimachus and Pyrrhus in turn invaded Macedonia, and drove Demetrius out of the country. Pyrrhus was at first allowed to remain in possession of Macedonia with the title of king, but in 285 he was expelled by Lysimachus.

Domestic troubles embittered the last years of Lysimachus's life. Amastris had been murdered by her two sons; Lysimachus put them to death. Arsinoe asked the gift of Heraclea, and he granted her request, though he had promised to free the city. In 284 Arsinoe, desirous of gaining the succession for her sons in preference to Agathocles (the eldest son of Lysimachus), intrigued against him with the help of her brother Ptolemy Ceraunus; they accused Agathocles of conspiring with Seleucus to seize the throne, and he was put to death. This atrocious deed of Lysimachus aroused great indignation. Many of the cities of Asia revolted, and his most trusted friends deserted him. The widow of Agathocles fled to Seleucus, who at once invaded the territory of Lysimachus in Asia. Lysimachus crossed the Hellespont, and in 281 a decisive battle took place at the plain of Corus (Corupedion) in Lydia. Lysimachus was killed; after some days his body, watched by a faithful dog, was found on the field, and given up to his son Alexander, by whom it was interred at Lysimachia.


References

Arnold-Biucchi, C. "The Pergamene Mint under Lysimachos" in Studies Price.
Arslan, M. and C. Lightfoot. Greek Coin Hoards in Turkey. (Ankara, 1999).
Ashton, R., et al. “The Pixodarus Hoard” in Coin Hoards IX (2002).
Babelon, E. Traité des Monnaies Grecques et Romaines. (Paris, 1901-1932).
Bloesch, H. Griechische Münzen In Winterthur, Volume 1: Spain, Gaul, Italy, Sicily, Moesia, Dacia, Sarmatia, Thrace, and Macedonia. (Winterthur, 1987).
Brett, A.B. Catalogue of Greek Coins, Boston Museum of Fine Arts. (Boston, 1955).
Davesne, A. & G. Le Rider. Le trésor de Meydancikkale. (Paris, 1989).
Forrer, L. Descriptive Catalogue of the Collection of Greek Coins formed by Sir Hermann Weber, Vol. II: Macedon, Thrace, Thessaly, NW, central & S. Greece. (London, 1924).
Grose, S. W. Catalogue of the McClean Collection of Greek Coins, Fizwilliam Museum, Vol. II: The Greek mainland, the Aegaean islands, Crete. (Cambridge, 1926).
Hoover, O. Handbook of Coins of the Islands: Adriatic, Ionian, Thracian, Aegean, & Carpathian Seas, 6th to 1st Centuries BC. HGC 6. (Lancaster, PA, 2010).
Imhoof-Blumer, F. Monnaies grecques. (Paris, 1883).
Kraay, C. Archaic and Classical Greek Coins. (London, 1976).
Le Rider, G. “L’Atelier séleucide de Lysimachie” in Quaderni Ticinesi XVII (1988).
Lindgren, H. Ancient Greek Bronze Coins. (Quarryville, 1993).
Lindgren, H. Ancient Greek Bronze Coins: European Mints. (San Mateo, 1989).
Mac|Donald, G. Catalogue of Greek Coins in the Hunterian Collection, University of Glascow. (Glascow, 1899).
Marinescu, C. and C. Lorber. “The “Black Sea” Tetradrachm Hoard” in Studies Prokopov.
Mildenberg, L. and S. Hurter, eds. The Dewing Collection of Greek Coins. ACNAC 6. (New York, 1985).
Müller, L. Die Münzen Des Thracishen Konigs Lysimacus. (Copenhagen, 1858).
Müller, L. Numismatique d’Alexandre le Grand; Appendice les monnaies de Philippe II et III, et Lysimaque. (Copenhagen, 1855-58).
Mionnet, T. E. Description de Médailles antiques grecques et romaines. (Paris, 1807-1837).
Mørkholm, O. Early Hellenistic Coinage. From the Accession of Alexander to the Peace of Apamea (336-188 BC). (Cambridge, 1991).
Müller, L. Die Münzen des thrakischen Königs Lysimachus. (Copenhagen, 1858).
Müller, L. Numismatique d’Alexandre le Grand; Appendice les monnaies de Philippe II et III, et Lysimaque. (Copenhagen, 1855-58).
Münzer, F. & M. L. Strack. Die antiken Münzen von Thrakien, Die antiken Münzen Nord-Griechenlands Vol. II. (Berlin, 1912).
Naville Co. Monnaies grecques antiques S. Pozzi. Auction 1. (4 April 1921, Geneva).
Peter, U. Die Münzen der Thrakischen Dynasten (5-3. Jahrhundert v. Chr.). (Berlin, 1997).
Pick, B. & K. Regling. Die antiken Münzen von Dacien und Moesien. Die antiken Münzen Nord-Griechenlands Vol. I. (Berlin, 1898 - 1910).
Poole, R.S. ed. A Catalog of the Greek Coins in the British Museum, Thrace, etc. (London, 1877).
Price, M. J. The Coinage in the name of Alexander the Great and Philip Arrhidaeus. (Zurich - London, 1991).
Prokopov, I. Coin Collections and Coin Hoards From Bulgaria, Vol. I: Numismatic Collections of the Historical Museum Lovech & the Historical Museum Razgrad. (Sofia, 2007).
Sear, D. Greek Coins and Their Values, Volume 1: Europe. (London, 1978).
Seyrig, H. “Monnaies Hellénistiques de Byzance et de Calcédoine” in Essays Robinson.
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Austria, Klagenfurt, Landesmuseum für Kärnten, Sammlung Dreer, Part 3: Thracien-Macedonien-Päonien. (Klagenfurt, 1990).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Denmark, The Royal Collection of Coins and Medals, Danish National Museum, Vol. 2: Macedonia and Thrace. (West Milford, NJ, 1982).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, München Staatlische Münzsammlung, Part 7: Taurische Chersonesos, Sarmatien, Dacia, Moesia superior, Moesia inferior. (Berlin, 1985).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, Sammlung Hans Von Aulock, Vol. 3: Pisidia, Lycaonia, Cilicia, Galatia...Posthumous Lysimachus, Alexander tetradrachms. (Berlin, 1964).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain III, R.C. Lockett Collection, Part 2: Sicily - Thrace (gold and silver). (London, 1939).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain IV, Fitzwilliam Museum, Leake and General Collections, Part 2: Sicily-Thrace. (London, 1947).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain V, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, Part 9: Bosporus - Aeolis. (London. 2008).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain IX, British Museum, Part 1: The Black Sea. (London, 1993).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain XI, The William Stancomb Collection of Coins of the Black Sea Region. (Oxford, 2000).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain XII, The Hunterian Museum, University of Glasgow, Part 1: Roman Provincial Coins: Spain - Kingdoms of Asia Minor. (Oxford, 2004).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Grèce, Collection Réna H. Evelpidis, Pt. 1: Italie. Sicile - Thrace. (Athens, 1970).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Hungary, Budapest, Magyar Nemzeti Múzeum, III: Moesia inferior. (Milan, 2000).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Italy, Milano, Civiche Raccolte Numismatiche VI: Macedonia-Thracia, Part 3: ...Thracia, Chersonesus Thraciae, Isole della Thracia. (Milan, 2000).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Russia, State Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts: Coins of the Black Sea Region. (Leuven, Belgium, 2011).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Schweiz II, Münzen der Antike. Katalog der Sammlung Jean-Pierre Righetti im Bernischen Historischen Museum. (Bern, 1993).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Sweden II, The Collection of the Royal Coin Cabinet, National Museum of Monetary History, Part 2: Thrace-Euboia. (Stockholm, 1980).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, United States, Burton Y. Part 1: Macedonia to Attica. (New York, 1961).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, United States, The Collection of the ANS, Part 7: Macedonia 1 (Cities, Thraco-Macedonian Tribes, Paeonian kings). (New York, 1997).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, United States, The Collection of the ANS, Part 8: Macedonia 2 (Alexander I - Philip II). (New York, 1994).
Thompson, M. “The Armenak Hoard (IGCH 1423)” in ANSMN 31 (1986).
Thompson, M. “The Mints of Lysimachus,” in Essays Robinson.
Waggoner, N.M. Early Greek Coins from the Collection of Jonathan P. Rosen (ANS ACNAC 5). (New York, 1983).
Wartenberg, U. and J.H. Kagan, "Some Comments on a New Hoard from the Balkan Sea" in Travaux Le Rider.
Youroukova, Y. The Coins of the Ancient Thracians. (Oxford, 1976).
Zograph, A.N. Ancient Coinage. BAR Supplementary Series 33. (Oxford, 1977).
Zograph, A.N. Ancient Coinage, Part II: Ancient Coins of the Northern Black Sea Littoral. (Oxford, 1977).


Historia Numorum

Lysimachus, King of Thrace, etc., B.C. 323-281.

The money of this king is more plentiful than that of any other of the successors of Alexander. His reign may be divided into three periods. I. B.C. 323-311, from the death of Alexander to that of the young Alexander (the son of Roxana). In this period Lysimachus, as Regent in Thrace, struck money in the name of Alexander the Great and of Philip Aridaeus with Alexandrine types. II. B.C. 311-306, from the death of the son of Roxana to the date of the adoption by Lysimachus of the title Βασιλευς. The coins of this period still bear the name of Alexander, though the letters ΛΥ are frequently added. III. B.C. 306-281, coins inscribed ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΛΥΣΙΜΑΧΟΥ, at first with types of Alexander, and later with Lysimachus’ own types, as follows :—

coin image
FIG. 170.

285

Head of the deified Alexander with horn of Ammon (Fig. 170). Athena Nikephoros seated.
AV, AR Attic wt.
[B. M. Guide, Pl. XXVIII. 18, 19; XXXI. 19, 20.]
Young head (Ares ?) in close-fitting helmet. Lion. Half lion, or lion’s head.
Æ Various sizes.
Helmeted head. Trophy.
Æ Various sizes.
Head of young Herakles. Corn-wreath.
Æ Various sizes.

The money of Lysimachus was issued from numerous mints, in Thrace B.C. 311-281, in Macedon B.C. 286-281, and in Asia Minor B.C. 302-281. After the death of Lysimachus his coins were imitated, indiscriminately with those of Alexander, by numerous autonomous cities, by no means exclusively in Thrace (see Müller, Münzen des Königs Lysimachos, and B. M. Guide, Pl. XLI. 1; LIII. 3, 4; LXIV. 3, 4).

 

Lysimachos (Lysimachus)

Ancient| Coins| of Lysimachos| in the Forum| Ancient| Coins| shop|

Lysimachus (c. 361 BCE – 281 BCE) was a Macedonian officer and diadochus (i.e. "successor") of Alexander the Great, who became a basileus ("king") in 306, ruling Thrace, Asia Minor and Macedonia.

During Alexander's Persian campaigns he was one of his personal bodyguards and distinguished himself in India.

After Alexander's death he was appointed strategos in Thrace and the Chersonese, where he was chiefly occupied with fighting against the Odrysian king Seuthes. In 315 he joined Cassander, Ptolemy and Seleucus against Antigonus. Antigonus diverted his attention by stirring up Thracian and Scythian tribes against him. In 309, he founded his capital Lysimachia in a commanding situation on the neck connecting the Chersonese with the mainland. In 306, he followed the example of Antigonus in taking the title of king.

In 302, Lysimachus, reinforced by troops from Cassander, entered Asia Minor, where he met with little resistance. On the approach of Antigonus he retired into winter quarters near Heraclea, marrying its widowed queen Amastris, a Persian princess. Seleucus joined him in 301, and at the battle of Ipsus Antigonus was slain. His dominions were divided among the victors, Lysimachus receiving the greater part of Asia Minor.

Feeling that Seleucus was becoming dangerously great, he now allied himself with Ptolemy, marrying his daughter Arsinoe. Amastris, who had divorced herself from him, returned to Heraclea.

When Antigonus's son Demetrius renewed hostilities, during his absence in Greece in 297, Lysimachus seized his towns in Asia Minor, but in 294 concluded a peace whereby Demetrius was recognized as ruler of Macedonia. Lysimachos tried to carry his power beyond the Danube, but was defeated and taken prisoner by the Getae, who, however, set him free on amicable terms. Demetrius subsequently threatened Thrace, but had to retire in consequence of a rising in Boeotia, and an attack from Pyrrhus of Epirus. In 288 Lysimachus and Pyrrhus in turn invaded Macedonia, and drove Demetrius out of the country. Pyrrhus was at first allowed to remain in possession of Macedonia with the title of king, but in 285 he was expelled by Lysimachus.

Domestic troubles embittered the last years of Lysimachus's life. Amastris had been murdered by her two sons; Lysimachus put them to death. Arsinoe asked the gift of Heraclea, and he granted her request, though he had promised to free the city. In 284 Arsinoe, desirous of gaining the succession for her sons in preference to Agathocles (the eldest son of Lysimachus), intrigued against him with the help of her brother Ptolemy Ceraunus; they accused Agathocles of conspiring with Seleucus to seize the throne, and he was put to death. This atrocious deed of Lysimachus aroused great indignation. Many of the cities of Asia revolted, and his most trusted friends deserted him. The widow of Agathocles fled to Seleucus, who at once invaded the territory of Lysimachus in Asia. Lysimachus crossed the Hellespont, and in 281 a decisive battle took place at the plain of Corus (Corupedion) in Lydia. Lysimachus was killed; after some days his body, watched by a faithful dog, was found on the field, and given up to his son Alexander, by whom it was interred at Lysimachia.


References

Arnold-Biucchi, C. "The Pergamene Mint under Lysimachos" in Studies Price.
Arslan, M. & C. Lightfoot. Greek Coin Hoards in Turkey. (Ankara, 1999).
Babelon, E. Traité des Monnaies Grecques et Romaines. (Paris, 1901-1932).
Bloesch, H. Griechische Münzen In Winterthur, Volume 1: Spain, Gaul, Italy, Sicily, Moesia, Dacia, Sarmatia, Thrace, and Macedonia. (Winterthur, 1987).
Brett, A.B. Catalogue of Greek Coins, Boston Museum of Fine Arts. (Boston, 1955).
Davesne, A. & G. Le Rider. Le trésor de Meydancikkale. (Paris, 1989).
Forrer, L. Descriptive Catalogue of the Collection of Greek Coins formed by Sir Hermann Weber, Vol. II: Macedon, Thrace, Thessaly, NW, central & S. Greece. (London, 1924).
Grose, S. W. Catalogue of the McClean Collection of Greek Coins, Fizwilliam Museum, Vol. II: The Greek mainland, the Aegaean islands, Crete. (Cambridge, 1926).
Hoover, O. Handbook of Coins of the Islands: Adriatic, Ionian, Thracian, Aegean, & Carpathian Seas, 6th to 1st Centuries BC. HGC 6. (Lancaster, PA, 2010).
Imhoof-Blumer, F. Monnaies grecques. (Paris, 1883).
Kraay, C. Archaic and Classical Greek Coins. (London, 1976).
Le Rider, G. “L’Atelier séleucide de Lysimachie” in Quaderni Ticinesi XVII (1988).
Lindgren, H. Ancient Greek Bronze Coins. (Quarryville, 1993).
Lindgren, H. Ancient Greek Bronze Coins: European Mints. (San Mateo, 1989).
Mac|Donald, G. Catalogue of Greek Coins in the Hunterian Collection, University of Glascow. (Glascow, 1899).
Marinescu, C. and C. Lorber. “The “Black Sea” Tetradrachm Hoard” in Studies Prokopov.
Mildenberg, L. and S. Hurter, eds. The Dewing Collection of Greek Coins. ACNAC 6. (New York, 1985).
Müller, L. Die Münzen Des Thracishen Konigs Lysimacus. (Copenhagen, 1858).
Müller, L. Numismatique d’Alexandre le Grand; Appendice les monnaies de Philippe II et III, et Lysimaque. (Copenhagen, 1855-58).
Mionnet, T. E. Description de Médailles antiques grecques et romaines. (Paris, 1807-1837).
Mørkholm, O. Early Hellenistic Coinage. From the Accession of Alexander to the Peace of Apamea (336-188 BC). (Cambridge, 1991).
Müller, L. Die Münzen des thrakischen Königs Lysimachus. (Copenhagen, 1858).
Müller, L. Numismatique d’Alexandre le Grand; Appendice les monnaies de Philippe II et III, et Lysimaque. (Copenhagen, 1855-58).
Münzer, F. & M. L. Strack. Die antiken Münzen von Thrakien, Die antiken Münzen Nord-Griechenlands Vol. II. (Berlin, 1912).
Naville Co. Monnaies grecques antiques S. Pozzi. Auction 1. (4 April 1921, Geneva).
Peter, U. Die Münzen der Thrakischen Dynasten (5-3. Jahrhundert v. Chr.). (Berlin, 1997).
Pick, B. & K. Regling. Die antiken Münzen von Dacien und Moesien. Die antiken Münzen Nord-Griechenlands Vol. I. (Berlin, 1898 - 1910).
Poole, R.S. ed. A Catalog of the Greek Coins in the British Museum, Thrace, etc. (London, 1877).
Price, M. J. The Coinage in the name of Alexander the Great and Philip Arrhidaeus. (Zurich - London, 1991).
Sear, D. Greek Coins and Their Values, Volume 1: Europe. (London, 1978).
Seyrig, H. “Monnaies Hellénistiques de Byzance et de Calcédoine” in Essays Robinson.
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Denmark, The Royal Collection of Coins and Medals, Danish National Museum, Vol. 2: Macedonia and Thrace. (West Milford, NJ, 1982).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, München Staatlische Münzsammlung, Part 7: Taurische Chersonesos, Sarmatien, Dacia, Moesia superior, Moesia inferior. (Berlin, 1985).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, Sammlung Hans Von Aulock, Vol. 3: Pisidia, Lycaonia, Cilicia, Galatia...Posthumous Lysimachus, Alexander tetradrachms. (Berlin, 1964).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain III, R.C. Lockett Collection, Part 2: Sicily - Thrace (gold and silver). (London, 1939).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain IV, Fitzwilliam Museum, Leake and General Collections, Part 2: Sicily-Thrace. (London, 1947).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain V, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, Part 9: Bosporus - Aeolis. (London. 2008).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain IX, British Museum, Part 1: The Black Sea. (London, 1993).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain XI, The William Stancomb Collection of Coins of the Black Sea Region. (Oxford, 2000).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain XII, The Hunterian Museum, University of Glasgow, Part 1: Roman Provincial Coins: Spain - Kingdoms of Asia Minor. (Oxford, 2004).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Grèce, Collection Réna H. Evelpidis, Pt. 1: Italie. Sicile - Thrace. (Athens, 1970).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Schweiz II, Münzen der Antike. Katalog der Sammlung Jean-Pierre Righetti im Bernischen Historischen Museum. (Bern, 1993).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, United States, The Collection of the ANS, Part 7: Macedonia 1 (Cities, Thraco-Macedonian Tribes, Paeonian kings). (New York, 1997).
Thompson, M. “The Armenak Hoard (IGCH 1423)” in ANSMN 31 (1986).
Thompson, M. “The Mints of Lysimachus,” in Essays Robinson.
Waggoner, N.M. Early Greek Coins from the Collection of Jonathan P. Rosen (ANS ACNAC 5). (New York, 1983).
Youroukova, Y. The Coins of the Ancient Thracians. (Oxford, 1976).
Zograph, A.N. Ancient Coinage. BAR Supplementary Series 33. (Oxford, 1977).
Zograph, A.N. Ancient Coinage, Part II: Ancient Coins of the Northern Black Sea Littoral. (Oxford, 1977).


Historia Numorum

Lysimachus, King of Thrace, etc., B.C. 323-281.

The money of this king is more plentiful than that of any other of the successors of Alexander. His reign may be divided into three periods. I. B.C. 323-311, from the death of Alexander to that of the young Alexander (the son of Roxana). In this period Lysimachus, as Regent in Thrace, struck money in the name of Alexander the Great and of Philip Aridaeus with Alexandrine types. II. B.C. 311-306, from the death of the son of Roxana to the date of the adoption by Lysimachus of the title Βασιλευς. The coins of this period still bear the name of Alexander, though the letters ΛΥ are frequently added. III. B.C. 306-281, coins inscribed ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΛΥΣΙΜΑΧΟΥ, at first with types of Alexander, and later with Lysimachus’ own types, as follows :—

coin image
FIG. 170.

285

Head of the deified Alexander with horn of Ammon (Fig. 170). Athena Nikephoros seated.
AV, AR Attic wt.
[B. M. Guide, Pl. XXVIII. 18, 19; XXXI. 19, 20.]
Young head (Ares ?) in close-fitting helmet. Lion. Half lion, or lion’s head.
Æ Various sizes.
Helmeted head. Trophy.
Æ Various sizes.
Head of young Herakles. Corn-wreath.
Æ Various sizes.

The money of Lysimachus was issued from numerous mints, in Thrace B.C. 311-281, in Macedon B.C. 286-281, and in Asia Minor B.C. 302-281. After the death of Lysimachus his coins were imitated, indiscriminately with those of Alexander, by numerous autonomous cities, by no means exclusively in Thrace (see Müller, Münzen des Königs Lysimachos, and B. M. Guide, Pl. XLI. 1; LIII. 3, 4; LXIV. 3, 4).