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Julian II
Flavius Claudius Iulianus was born in 331 or maybe 332 A.D. in Constantinople.  He ruled the Western Empire as Caesar from 355 to 360 and was hailed Augustus by his legions in Lutetia (Paris) in 360.  Julian was a gifted administrator and military strategist.  Famed as the last pagan emperor, his reinstatement of the pagan religion earned him the moniker "the Apostate."  As evidenced by his brilliant writing, some of which has survived to the present day, the title "the Philosopher" may have been more appropriate.  He died from wounds suffered during the Persian campaign of 363 A.D.








Paris,
Louvre





JULIAN II, The Apostate

|Caesar|, 6 November 355 - February 360 A.D.

|Augustus|, February 360 - 26 June or July 363 A.D.

by Federico Morando


Flavius Claudius Iulianus ,
know as Julian the Apostate, was born in 331 (or maybe 332) A.D. in
Constantinople. He ruled as Caesar the Western part of the Empire
between 355 and 360; he was hailed Augustus by his legions in
Lutetia (Paris) in 360. His death was caused by wounds he suffered
during the Persian campaign of 363.




The Youth and the First Exile

Julian was the son of Iulius Constantius, Constantine's
half-brother.  When he was six years old, in the fall of 337, Julian and
Constantius Gallus, his older brother, were the only two spared during the
massacre of the male heirs of Constantius I Chlorus. (Responsibility for this
carnage was attributed to Constantius II, the eastern Augustus at that time, and
Julian’s cousin.)  For Julian this was the beginning of a “golden” exile,
under the tutelage of the eunuch Mardonius and the philosopher Nicocles – the
latter secretly a pagan.







Constantius II, Augustus 22 May 337 - 3 November 361 A.D.










In 312 A.D., Constantine dreamed he saw a Christogram in the sky and heard
the words IN HOC SIGNO VICTOR ERIS, meaning in Latin "In this sign you will
be the victor." He ordered the sign of Christ on his legions standards and
shields. He won a great victory and later became the first Christian Roman
Emperor



Bronze AE3, RIC 286, 4.60g, 17.0mm, 0o, Siscia mint, 350-351
A.D.; obverse CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust
right; reverse HOC SIGNO VICTOR ERIS, Constantius II standing facing head
left, holding labarum (Chi Rho Christogram standard) and spear, Victory
right crowning him, A left





In his compulsory residence (in Nicomedia initially and then
in the imperial residence of Macellum in Cappadocia) he was prevented from
studying in the Neo-Platonist Academies and forced to deepen his knowledge of
Christianity, which the Fabian dynasty and especially Constantius was
establishing as the official State religion (in the last part of his rule,
Constantius – who was a rigid Arian – prohibited any public pagan cult and the
practice of any form of magic).  Julian became a sensible and sagacious
scholar and also an extraordinary dissimulator to survive in his very unsteady
situation.  He admired Julius Caesar as a politician, general and writer.

The Second Exile

Julian's first exile ended in 351, when his brother Gallus
was recalled to Constantinople to rule the East as Caesar during the western
campaign of Constantius (against Magnentius and others usurpers). Unfortunately,
the rule of Gallus was too harsh and many provinces were on the verge of revolt. 
In 354 Gallus was summoned to the imperial court in Milan, stripped of his title
and executed.  This was the beginning of a new exile for Julian.  He
did not suffer the same fate as his brother because of the intervention of the
Empress Eusebia.  She probably also influenced the selection of Athens as
the location for Julian's new compulsory residence.







Constantius Gallus, Caesar 28 September 351 - winter 354 A.D.







Ex Scott
Collection.



Bronze AE3, RIC
354, 2.54g, 19.3mm, 180o, Siscia mint, 28 Sep 351 - Winter 354
A.D.; obverse D N CONSTANTIVS IVN NOB C, draped and cuirassed bust right;
reverse FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier standing left spearing fallen horseman,
shield on the ground, horseman wears a pointed cap and falls on the horses
neck, BSIS in ex; scarce





The second “exile” of Julian lasted for a single year, but it
was sufficient to complete his classic and philosophical background. Julian was
able to turn his compulsory residence in Athens (still one of the melting pots
of the Greek and Hellenistic culture) into a very profitable period of study. 


Thanks to his studies, he also understood that the Flavian
choice of the Christianity as the State religion (a political choice, to prevent
divergence , especially in the East, where this
religion was conquering the urban masses and a relevant percent of the upper
class) wasn’t able to bring stability to the Empire.






Magnentius, Augustus 18 January 350 - 10 August 353 A.D.










This reverse was meant to incite the Orthodox Christians of the west against
the Arian Constantius II, who intended to reclaim the western provinces. --
Coinage and History of the Roman Empire by David L. Vagi




Ex Aiello Collection.





Bronze centenionalis, RIC 320, 4.79g, 22.3mm, 180o, Trier mint,
352 A.D.; obverse N MAGNENTIVS P F AVG, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed
bust right; reverse SALVS DD NN AVG ET CAES, large Christogram (chi-rho),
flanked by alpha and omega, TRP in ex





Christianity as the State Religion

When the Christians were persecuted by the Roman State, the
contrasts and different tendencies of the various communities were not manifest.
The protection of the State and the rights connected to the status of official
religion of the Empire unleashed the contrasts between Orthodoxies, Arians,
Donatists, Meletians, and others.  This religious segregation was deeper
than any previous military and political division:  it could have
undermined the moral unity of the Empire.

The Church (unlike the Roman State) was intolerant – this is
a simple historical observation, and the paragon has to be performed with the
Roman religious tolerance and syncretism – and started a methodical and rational
policy of destruction (or, sometimes, forced assimilation) of any living
monument of the ancient and pagan world. The Fourth Century was a period of
extraordinary diffusion of Christianity, but also a Century of classical
renaissance, or – at least – neoclassicism, in reaction to the illiberal
tendencies of the new State religion.  The new interpretations of the
classical spirit were imbued of Neo-Platonist and mysteries concepts and
contaminated by oriental religions and Christian and Gnostic principals as
benevolence, equity, charity…

The appointment as Caesar

It is uncertain how Julian regained the confidence of
Constantius:  probably the capability to hide his real thoughts was central
in this process.  He appeared remissive and adulatory toward Constantius
and extremely diplomatic in general.  He was considered harmless, if not
stupid.

In any case, in the fall of 355 Constantius chose Julian as
Caesar and heir and sponsored his marriage with Elena (the Emperor's youngest
sister and Fausta and Constantine’s daughter).

It was in this period that Constantius promulgated his laws
against paganism, and Julian bore everything in silence.  Probably his
blood was boiling, because he associated the pagan religion with the classical
spirit of tolerance and freedom of thinking, but his ambition was stronger: 
to change something it was necessary to became the new Augustus, and to became
Emperor it was necessary to gain the respect of the legions.






Julian II, Caesar 6 November 355 - February 360 A.D.










Ex Aiello Collection.





Bronze half

centenionalis, about uncirculated, 1.60g, 17.6mm, 0o,
uncertain possibly unofficial mint, 355 - c. 361 A.D.; obverse D N CL
IVLIANVS N C, bare-headed cuirassed bust right; reverse FEL TEMP
REPARATIO, soldier left spearing fallen horseman, mintmark in ex off
flan; peculiar style and epigraphy suggest this coin might be an
ancient counterfeit.





Julian was charged with reestablishment of the imperial
control in Gaul, after the troubles caused by  Magnentius and Silvanus’ revolts
and the Frankish and Alamanni’s alarming invasions caused by the lack of the
garrisons on the western front due to the civil wars.
Despite the hostility of his commanders (some of them responsible for the
execution of Gallus), Julian repelled the invaders, pursued them into their
territories and secured the Rhine frontier (establishing a new and powerful
fleet on the waterway).

The military victories of Julian were accompanied by a broad
program to improve the quality of life of the population.  In addition to
improving security, he also reduced taxes and reformed the corrupted
bureaucracy.

Julian become Augustus

After control
in the Occident was re-established and Constantius had brought order on the
Danubian border, the emperor requested Julian transfer some legions to fight in
Orient against Persians.  Julian's soldiers refused (because this was
contrary to their enlistment pacts) and hailed the popular (at least in
Occident) Julian as Augustus in his quarters at Lutetia.  He accepted the
title.






Julian II, Augustus February 360 - 26 June or July 363 A.D.










Ex Aiello Collection.





Bronze AE3, RIC 329, 3.24g, 20.2mm, 180o,
Rome mint, 361-363 A.D.; obverse D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG,
pearl-diademed, helmeted and cuirassed bust left holding spear in right
and shield in left; reverse VOT / X / MV·LT / XX within wreath,
VRB·ROM·[ ], in ex.





Constantius recalled Julian to Constantinople but he refused
(remembering the fate of his brother Gallus) and moved his troops toward the
Balkans.  Constantius did the same, but he fell ill and died enroute to
battle near Tarsus.  On his deathbed, he named Julian as his successor and
avoided a new civil war. 

Julian entered Constantinople as new dominus at the
end of 361 A.D..
The Apostate

Julian was never cristianus, he was simply obliged by
his father’s tormentors to become Christian and acted as a Christian to avoid
death.  He earned the moniker of “Apostate” as a result of his reforms
aimed at reducing the privileges of the Christian religion.  He strongly
opposed but did not persecute the church and restored the rights and possessions
of the pagan worshippers.  He also wrote a polemic libellus “Against
the Galileans” to show his ideas.  His only discriminatory act against
Christians was to prohibit them from teaching rhetoric and grammar (this was an
illiberal decision, but probably aimed at avoiding the Christianisation of some
ancient Greek and Latin authors and the censure of others in the schools…). 
All the others measures were aimed at re-establishing a real freedom of
religion.  For instance, Julian extended a complete amnesty to the exiled
Orthodoxies (that caused new problems between Christian factions, but this was
inessential in the liberal view of Julian).






Julian II, Augustus February 360 - 26 June or July 363 A.D.








Research indicates the common belief which identifies
the bull as the Apis bull is wrong. An interesting passage from Dio
Crhysostom compares a good ruler to a bull. Also, Julian was most likely
born in May, in the in the sign of Taurus. The stars above probably
represent the two important star clusters in Taurus, Pleiades and Hyades. 
Taurus or Apis, this bull is pagan and this coin was the last pagan coin
type issued by the Empire.





Bronze AE1, RIC 163, 8.65g, 28.4mm, 180o,
Constantinople mint, 361-363 A.D.; obverse D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG,
diademed draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SECVRITAS REIPVB, Apis
bull right, two stars above horns, branch CONSPB branch in ex.





In reality, Julian worked to promote culture and philosophy
in any manifestation.  He tried to reduce taxes and the public debts of
municipalities; he augmented administrative decentralisation; he promoted a
campaign of austerity to reduce public expenditure (setting himself as the
example).  He reformed the postal service and eliminated the powerful
secret police.






Julian II, Augustus February 360 - 26 June or July 363 A.D.








 





Copper AE3, S 4080, C 53, 1.30g, 16.3mm, 180o,
Antioch mint, obverse IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter seated left on throne
holding globe in right hand and scepter in left; reverse VICTORIA AVGG,
Victory standing left holding wreath and palm, ANT in ex.





A Currency Reform

In the monetary field, Julian made an important step toward
the normalisation of the market: he adjusted the silver/gold ratio in the coins
to a level nearer the ratio of the intrinsic value of two metals.  This
reduced private hoarding and generated a revival of the private economy.

The Persian Campaign and the Death

Like many of his predecessors, Julian tried to solve the
“Persian problem” with a military expedition; he launched in the Spring of 363
A.D.  His plan was ambitious, because he split his army in a “pincers” to
attach the enemy on two fronts.  He remained victorious until June but on
26 June 363 (or July according to some sources) he
was injured in a battle along the banks of the Tigris river.  His two
forces would never reunite to execute his plan.  He died in his tent from
the wounds received in battle, at 31 or 32 years of age. 






Julian II, Augustus February 360 - 26 June or July 363 A.D.








 





Bronze AE3, RIC 220, 2.69g, 18.6mm, 0o, Antioch
mint, 361-363 A.D.; obverse D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed,
helmeted and cuirassed bust left holding spear in right and shield in
left; reverse VOT / X / MVLT / XX within wreath, branch SMANTG
branch in
ex; scarce





Jovian, the Praetorian Prefect of Julian, was proclaimed
emperor.  Jovian quickly made peace with the Persians and ended religious
freedom for pagans.  It was the end of the projects of “the Apostate”, or
“the Philosopher” (as some would suggest as a better title) Emperor and the
beginning of a new period of instability for the Empire.

The Literary Works of Julian

Julian was a refined scholar and writer.  A significant
part of his literary works survived to the Middle Ages.  The polemic
Against the Galileans is lost, but we can reconstruct something of it from
the Christian replies. Unfortunately we lost everything of the Commentari
of the Gaul campaign, which he wrote following the example of Caesar. 
If we ignore the encomiastic and adulatory orations (To Constantius and
To Eusebia) and the philosophical works (To Eraclios, the Cinic),
the style of Julian (in his Letters and in the Misopogon, a book
against his detractors) is described as concise, nervous, caustic and brilliant,
rich in Classic and Greek reminiscences and quotations.

Mints

The following mints
were used during Julian’s reign: Lugdunum, Arelate, Aquileia, Rome, Siscia,
Sirmium, Thessalonica, Heraclea, Constantinople, Nicomedia, Cyzicus, Antioch,
Alexandria.

Bibliography



“Grande Dizionario Enciclopedico UTET”, IX, p.
186-188,Unione Tipografico-Editrice Torinese, 1969.


“The Handbook of Roman Imperial Coins”, p. 289 &
304-305, David Van Meter, Laurion Press, 1991.


“New Advent” Internet site,

http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08558b.htm.


“Ancient Coin Collecting III: The Roman World–Politics
and Propaganda” Wayne G. Sayles, Krause Publications, 1997.


“Handbook of Ancient Greek and Roman Coins”, Zander
H. Klawans , Whitman, 2003.


Note by the author:

To assemble this short paper I just
gathered some of the information contained in the sources I quoted above. If you
have any suggestions or corrections, please let me know at

federico.muras@tiscali.it.  

Federico Morando


 

|Obverse| legends
DNCLIVLANVSAVG
DNCLIVLIANVSNC
DNCLIVLIANVSNOBCAES
DNFLCLIVLIANVSPFAVG
DNIVLIANVSNOBC
DNIVLIANVSNOBCAES
DNIVLIANVSPFAVG
FLCLIVLIANVSPFAVG
FLCLIVLIANVSAVG
FLCLIVLIANVSNOBC
FLCLIVLIANVSNOBCAES
FLCLIVLIANVSPERPAVG
FLCLIVLIANVSPFAVG
FLCLIVLIANVSPPAVG
IVLIANVSAVG
ANONYMOUS COINS ATTRIBUTED TO THE REIGN OF JULIAN
DEOSERAPIDI
DEOSARAPIDI
ISISFARIA
IOVICONSERVATORI

Dates
Caesar, 6 November 355 - February 360 A.D.
Augustus, February 360 - 26 June or July 363 A.D.


Rarity of Denominations, Average Weights of Well Preserved Coins,
Mints, and Other Information
Gold multiple solidus - Greatest rarity
Gold solidus - Rare
Silver heavy miliarense - Exceedingly rare
Silver miliarense - Very rare
Siliqua - Scarce
Bronze AE1 - Somewhat scarce
Bronze AE3/4 - Common (but not as common as most Constantine dynasty rulers)

Links
FORVM's Catalog
Members' Gallery
Fake Coin Reports
De Imperatoribus Romanis
Google
Discussion Board Search
WildWinds
Coin Archives
 
References
Please add references here.
  

|Dictionary of Roman Coins|












Please add updates or make corrections to the NumisWiki text version as appropriate.
Julianus II, Julianus (Flavius Claudius) [Julian II], usually called Julian the Apostate, because he, at an early age, abandoned the Christian faith, and, as soon as he had the power, retored the worship of idols, which he pretended to reform, but which he in fact enforced in all the bigoted extravagance and blind absurdity of Pagan superstition.





He was the son of Julis Consantnius, nephew of Constantine the Great, and brother of Constantiu Gallus, born at Constantinople A.D. 331. He was created Caesar A.D. 355, and married Helena, sister of Constantius II. The government of Gaul, Spain, and Britain was committed to his charge.

He repulsed the Germans from Gaul, and established himself at Lutetia, now Paris, in 358. Proclaimed emperor by the troops in 360; the death of Constantius soon after left him sole master of the empire. Julian II was a great general, a man of learning, a fine writer, possesing many qualities of a wise, energetic, and excellent prince; but in matters of religion one of the weakest, most fantastic, and mischievous of mankind.

This declared and inveterate enemy of Christianity made war upon Persia, with decided success; but was slain in an engagment on the banks of the Tigris, at the age of 31, A.D. 362, in the fourth year of his reign.

His second brass and third brass coins are, with certain exceptions, common; his silver ofthe usual size, are by no means scarce; but his gold are rare: On these he is styled D N IVIANVS NOB CAES - IMP FL CL JVLIANVS PERP or PF AVG.

"The Caesars" of Julian, a work which that emperor wrote in Greek, is a remarkable proof no less of his scholarship than of his talent for raillery and satire. The translation of that extraordinary production by Ezech. Spanheim., illustrrated by the most learned remarks, mythological, historical, and numismatical, enriched by a profusion of medals and other ancient monuments, is one of the most interesting as well as instructive volumes which can be persued by the student of the medallic science.
Julian II is noted, by Ammianus his pagan admirer, but by no means indiscriminate panegyrist, for having made himself very conspicuous in wearing a long and bushy beard, which amongst courtiers of Contantius procured for him the derisive appleation of a goat (capellam non hominem). In confirmation of this alleged peculiarity we find him on many of his coins "bearded like a pard:" as Caesar he appears with naked head; but as emperor he wears a diadem ornamented with precious stones.

Under the reign of Julian II coins were struck, which Banduri exhibits, and which Eckhel comments upon, inscribed DEO SERAPIDI (see the words), and VOTA PVBLICA, shewing that his philosophic contemner of the Christian mysteries was not ahamed to stamp his imperial coinage with representations of Serapis, Isis, and Anubis, and to revive the monstrous Egyptian idolatry.




View whole page from the |Dictionary Of Roman Coins|
Julian II
Flavius Claudius Iulianus was born in 331 or maybe 332 A.D. in Constantinople.  He ruled the Western Empire as Caesar from 355 to 360 and was hailed Augustus by his legions in Lutetia (Paris) in 360.  Julian was a gifted administrator and military strategist.  Famed as the last pagan emperor, his reinstatement of the pagan religion earned him the moniker "the Apostate."  As evidenced by his brilliant writing, some of which has survived to the present day, the title "the Philosopher" may have been more appropriate.  He died from wounds suffered during the Persian campaign of 363 A.D.








Paris,
Louvre





JULIAN II The Apostate

|Caesar|, 6 November 355 - February 360 A.D.

|Augustus|, February 360 - 26 June or July 363 A.D.

by Federico Morando


Flavius Claudius Iulianus ,
know as Julian the Apostate, was born in 331 (or maybe 332) A.D. in
Constantinople. He ruled as Caesar the Western part of the Empire
between 355 and 360; he was hailed Augustus by his legions in
Lutetia (Paris) in 360. His death was caused by wounds he suffered
during the Persian campaign of 363.




The Youth and the First Exile

Julian was the son of Iulius Constantius, Constantine's
half-brother.  When he was six years old, in the fall of 337, Julian and
Constantius Gallus, his older brother, were the only two spared during the
massacre of the male heirs of Constantius I Chlorus. (Responsibility for this
carnage was attributed to Constantius II, the eastern Augustus at that time, and
Julian’s cousin.)  For Julian this was the beginning of a “golden” exile,
under the tutelage of the eunuch Mardonius and the philosopher Nicocles – the
latter secretly a pagan.







Constantius II, Augustus 22 May 337 - 3 November 361 A.D.










In 312 A.D., Constantine dreamed he saw a Christogram in the sky and heard
the words IN HOC SIGNO VICTOR ERIS, meaning in Latin "In this sign you will
be the victor." He ordered the sign of Christ on his legions standards and
shields. He won a great victory and later became the first Christian Roman
Emperor



Bronze AE3, RIC 286, 4.60g, 17.0mm, 0o, Siscia mint, 350-351
A.D.; obverse CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust
right; reverse HOC SIGNO VICTOR ERIS, Constantius II standing facing head
left, holding labarum (Chi Rho Christogram standard) and spear, Victory
right crowning him, A left





In his compulsory residence (in Nicomedia initially and then
in the imperial residence of Macellum in Cappadocia) he was prevented from
studying in the Neo-Platonist Academies and forced to deepen his knowledge of
Christianity, which the Fabian dynasty and especially Constantius was
establishing as the official State religion (in the last part of his rule,
Constantius – who was a rigid Arian – prohibited any public pagan cult and the
practice of any form of magic).  Julian became a sensible and sagacious
scholar and also an extraordinary dissimulator to survive in his very unsteady
situation.  He admired Julius Caesar as a politician, general and writer.

The Second Exile

Julian's first exile ended in 351, when his brother Gallus
was recalled to Constantinople to rule the East as Caesar during the western
campaign of Constantius (against Magnentius and others usurpers). Unfortunately,
the rule of Gallus was too harsh and many provinces were on the verge of revolt. 
In 354 Gallus was summoned to the imperial court in Milan, stripped of his title
and executed.  This was the beginning of a new exile for Julian.  He
did not suffer the same fate as his brother because of the intervention of the
Empress Eusebia.  She probably also influenced the selection of Athens as
the location for Julian's new compulsory residence.







Constantius Gallus, Caesar 28 September 351 - winter 354 A.D.







Ex Scott
Collection.



Bronze AE3, RIC
354, 2.54g, 19.3mm, 180o, Siscia mint, 28 Sep 351 - Winter 354
A.D.; obverse D N CONSTANTIVS IVN NOB C, draped and cuirassed bust right;
reverse FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier standing left spearing fallen horseman,
shield on the ground, horseman wears a pointed cap and falls on the horses
neck, BSIS in ex; scarce





The second “exile” of Julian lasted for a single year, but it
was sufficient to complete his classic and philosophical background. Julian was
able to turn his compulsory residence in Athens (still one of the melting pots
of the Greek and Hellenistic culture) into a very profitable period of study. 


Thanks to his studies, he also understood that the Flavian
choice of the Christianity as the State religion (a political choice, to prevent
divergence , especially in the East, where this
religion was conquering the urban masses and a relevant percent of the upper
class) wasn’t able to bring stability to the Empire.






Magnentius, Augustus 18 January 350 - 10 August 353 A.D.










This reverse was meant to incite the Orthodox Christians of the west against
the Arian Constantius II, who intended to reclaim the western provinces. --
Coinage and History of the Roman Empire by David L. Vagi




Ex Aiello Collection.





Bronze centenionalis, RIC 320, 4.79g, 22.3mm, 180o, Trier mint,
352 A.D.; obverse N MAGNENTIVS P F AVG, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed
bust right; reverse SALVS DD NN AVG ET CAES, large Christogram (chi-rho),
flanked by alpha and omega, TRP in ex





Christianity as the State Religion

When the Christians were persecuted by the Roman State, the
contrasts and different tendencies of the various communities were not manifest.
The protection of the State and the rights connected to the status of official
religion of the Empire unleashed the contrasts between Orthodoxies, Arians,
Donatists, Meletians, and others.  This religious segregation was deeper
than any previous military and political division:  it could have
undermined the moral unity of the Empire.

The Church (unlike the Roman State) was intolerant – this is
a simple historical observation, and the paragon has to be performed with the
Roman religious tolerance and syncretism – and started a methodical and rational
policy of destruction (or, sometimes, forced assimilation) of any living
monument of the ancient and pagan world. The Fourth Century was a period of
extraordinary diffusion of Christianity, but also a Century of classical
renaissance, or – at least – neoclassicism, in reaction to the illiberal
tendencies of the new State religion.  The new interpretations of the
classical spirit were imbued of Neo-Platonist and mysteries concepts and
contaminated by oriental religions and Christian and Gnostic principals as
benevolence, equity, charity…

The appointment as Caesar

It is uncertain how Julian regained the confidence of
Constantius:  probably the capability to hide his real thoughts was central
in this process.  He appeared remissive and adulatory toward Constantius
and extremely diplomatic in general.  He was considered harmless, if not
stupid.

In any case, in the fall of 355 Constantius chose Julian as
Caesar and heir and sponsored his marriage with Elena (the Emperor's youngest
sister and Fausta and Constantine’s daughter).

It was in this period that Constantius promulgated his laws
against paganism, and Julian bore everything in silence.  Probably his
blood was boiling, because he associated the pagan religion with the classical
spirit of tolerance and freedom of thinking, but his ambition was stronger: 
to change something it was necessary to became the new Augustus, and to became
Emperor it was necessary to gain the respect of the legions.






Julian II, Caesar 6 November 355 - February 360 A.D.










Ex Aiello Collection.





Bronze half

centenionalis, about uncirculated, 1.60g, 17.6mm, 0o,
uncertain possibly unofficial mint, 355 - c. 361 A.D.; obverse D N CL
IVLIANVS N C, bare-headed cuirassed bust right; reverse FEL TEMP
REPARATIO, soldier left spearing fallen horseman, mintmark in ex off
flan; peculiar style and epigraphy suggest this coin might be an
ancient counterfeit.





Julian was charged with reestablishment of the imperial
control in Gaul, after the troubles caused by  Magnentius and Silvanus’ revolts
and the Frankish and Alamanni’s alarming invasions caused by the lack of the
garrisons on the western front due to the civil wars.
Despite the hostility of his commanders (some of them responsible for the
execution of Gallus), Julian repelled the invaders, pursued them into their
territories and secured the Rhine frontier (establishing a new and powerful
fleet on the waterway).

The military victories of Julian were accompanied by a broad
program to improve the quality of life of the population.  In addition to
improving security, he also reduced taxes and reformed the corrupted
bureaucracy.

Julian become Augustus

After control
in the Occident was re-established and Constantius had brought order on the
Danubian border, the emperor requested Julian transfer some legions to fight in
Orient against Persians.  Julian's soldiers refused (because this was
contrary to their enlistment pacts) and hailed the popular (at least in
Occident) Julian as Augustus in his quarters at Lutetia.  He accepted the
title.






Julian II, Augustus February 360 - 26 June or July 363 A.D.










Ex Aiello Collection.





Bronze AE3, RIC 329, 3.24g, 20.2mm, 180o,
Rome mint, 361-363 A.D.; obverse D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG,
pearl-diademed, helmeted and cuirassed bust left holding spear in right
and shield in left; reverse VOT / X / MV·LT / XX within wreath,
VRB·ROM·[ ], in ex.





Constantius recalled Julian to Constantinople but he refused
(remembering the fate of his brother Gallus) and moved his troops toward the
Balkans.  Constantius did the same, but he fell ill and died enroute to
battle near Tarsus.  On his deathbed, he named Julian as his successor and
avoided a new civil war. 

Julian entered Constantinople as new dominus at the
end of 361 A.D..
The Apostate

Julian was never cristianus, he was simply obliged by
his father’s tormentors to become Christian and acted as a Christian to avoid
death.  He earned the moniker of “Apostate” as a result of his reforms
aimed at reducing the privileges of the Christian religion.  He strongly
opposed but did not persecute the church and restored the rights and possessions
of the pagan worshippers.  He also wrote a polemic libellus “Against
the Galileans” to show his ideas.  His only discriminatory act against
Christians was to prohibit them from teaching rhetoric and grammar (this was an
illiberal decision, but probably aimed at avoiding the Christianisation of some
ancient Greek and Latin authors and the censure of others in the schools…). 
All the others measures were aimed at re-establishing a real freedom of
religion.  For instance, Julian extended a complete amnesty to the exiled
Orthodoxies (that caused new problems between Christian factions, but this was
inessential in the liberal view of Julian).






Julian II, Augustus February 360 - 26 June or July 363 A.D.








Research indicates the common belief which identifies
the bull as the Apis bull is wrong. An interesting passage from Dio
Crhysostom compares a good ruler to a bull. Also, Julian was most likely
born in May, in the in the sign of Taurus. The stars above probably
represent the two important star clusters in Taurus, Pleiades and Hyades. 
Taurus or Apis, this bull is pagan and this coin was the last pagan coin
type issued by the Empire.





Bronze AE1, RIC 163, 8.65g, 28.4mm, 180o,
Constantinople mint, 361-363 A.D.; obverse D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG,
diademed draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SECVRITAS REIPVB, Apis
bull right, two stars above horns, branch CONSPB branch in ex.





In reality, Julian worked to promote culture and philosophy
in any manifestation.  He tried to reduce taxes and the public debts of
municipalities; he augmented administrative decentralisation; he promoted a
campaign of austerity to reduce public expenditure (setting himself as the
example).  He reformed the postal service and eliminated the powerful
secret police.






Julian II, Augustus February 360 - 26 June or July 363 A.D.








 





Copper AE3, S 4080, C 53, 1.30g, 16.3mm, 180o,
Antioch mint, obverse IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter seated left on throne
holding globe in right hand and scepter in left; reverse VICTORIA AVGG,
Victory standing left holding wreath and palm, ANT in ex.





A Currency Reform

In the monetary field, Julian made an important step toward
the normalisation of the market: he adjusted the silver/gold ratio in the coins
to a level nearer the ratio of the intrinsic value of two metals.  This
reduced private hoarding and generated a revival of the private economy.

The Persian Campaign and the Death

Like many of his predecessors, Julian tried to solve the
“Persian problem” with a military expedition; he launched in the Spring of 363
A.D.  His plan was ambitious, because he split his army in a “pincers” to
attach the enemy on two fronts.  He remained victorious until June but on
26 June 363 (or July according to some sources) he
was injured in a battle along the banks of the Tigris river.  His two
forces would never reunite to execute his plan.  He died in his tent from
the wounds received in battle, at 31 or 32 years of age. 






Julian II, Augustus February 360 - 26 June or July 363 A.D.








 





Bronze AE3, RIC 220, 2.69g, 18.6mm, 0o, Antioch
mint, 361-363 A.D.; obverse D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed,
helmeted and cuirassed bust left holding spear in right and shield in
left; reverse VOT / X / MVLT / XX within wreath, branch SMANTG
branch in
ex; scarce





Jovian, the Praetorian Prefect of Julian, was proclaimed
emperor.  Jovian quickly made peace with the Persians and ended religious
freedom for pagans.  It was the end of the projects of “the Apostate”, or
“the Philosopher” (as some would suggest as a better title) Emperor and the
beginning of a new period of instability for the Empire.

The Literary Works of Julian

Julian was a refined scholar and writer.  A significant
part of his literary works survived to the Middle Ages.  The polemic
Against the Galileans is lost, but we can reconstruct something of it from
the Christian replies. Unfortunately we lost everything of the Commentari
of the Gaul campaign, which he wrote following the example of Caesar. 
If we ignore the encomiastic and adulatory orations (To Constantius and
To Eusebia) and the philosophical works (To Eraclios, the Cinic),
the style of Julian (in his Letters and in the Misopogon, a book
against his detractors) is described as concise, nervous, caustic and brilliant,
rich in Classic and Greek reminiscences and quotations.

Mints

The following mints
were used during Julian’s reign: Lugdunum, Arelate, Aquileia, Rome, Siscia,
Sirmium, Thessalonica, Heraclea, Constantinople, Nicomedia, Cyzicus, Antioch,
Alexandria.

Bibliography



“Grande Dizionario Enciclopedico UTET”, IX, p.
186-188,Unione Tipografico-Editrice Torinese, 1969.


“The Handbook of Roman Imperial Coins”, p. 289 &
304-305, David Van Meter, Laurion Press, 1991.


“New Advent” Internet site,

http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08558b.htm.


“Ancient Coin Collecting III: The Roman World–Politics
and Propaganda” Wayne G. Sayles, Krause Publications, 1997.


“Handbook of Ancient Greek and Roman Coins”, Zander
H. Klawans , Whitman, 2003.


Note by the author:

To assemble this short paper I just
gathered some of the information contained in the sources I quoted above. If you
have any suggestions or corrections, please let me know at

federico.muras@tiscali.it.  

Federico Morando


 

|Obverse| legends
DNCLIVLANVSAVG
DNCLIVLIANVSNC
DNCLIVLIANVSNOBCAES
DNFLCLIVLIANVSPFAVG
DNIVLIANVSNOBC
DNIVLIANVSNOBCAES
DNIVLIANVSPFAVG
FLCLIVLIANVSPFAVG
FLCLIVLIANVSAVG
FLCLIVLIANVSNOBC
FLCLIVLIANVSNOBCAES
FLCLIVLIANVSPERPAVG
FLCLIVLIANVSPFAVG
FLCLIVLIANVSPPAVG
IVLIANVSAVG
ANONYMOUS COINS ATTRIBUTED TO THE REIGN OF JULIAN
DEOSERAPIDI
DEOSARAPIDI
ISISFARIA
IOVICONSERVATORI

Dates
Caesar, 6 November 355 - February 360 A.D.
Augustus, February 360 - 26 June or July 363 A.D.


Rarity of Denominations, Average Weights of Well Preserved Coins,
Mints, and Other Information
Gold multiple solidus - Greatest rarity
Gold solidus - Rare
Silver heavy miliarense - Exceedingly rare
Silver miliarense - Very rare
Siliqua - Scarce
Bronze AE1 - Somewhat scarce
Bronze AE3/4 - Common (but not as common as most Constantine dynasty rulers)

Links
FORVM's Catalog
Members' Gallery
Fake Coin Reports
De Imperatoribus Romanis
Google
Discussion Board Search
WildWinds
Coin Archives
 
References
Please add references here.
  

|Dictionary of Roman Coins|












Please add updates or make corrections to the NumisWiki text version as appropriate.
Julianus II, Julianus (Flavius Claudius) [Julian II], usually called Julian the Apostate, because he, at an early age, abandoned the Christian faith, and, as soon as he had the power, retored the worship of idols, which he pretended to reform, but which he in fact enforced in all the bigoted extravagance and blind absurdity of Pagan superstition.





He was the son of Julis Consantnius, nephew of Constantine the Great, and brother of Constantiu Gallus, born at Constantinople A.D. 331. He was created Caesar A.D. 355, and married Helena, sister of Constantius II. The government of Gaul, Spain, and Britain was committed to his charge.

He repulsed the Germans from Gaul, and established himself at Lutetia, now Paris, in 358. Proclaimed emperor by the troops in 360; the death of Constantius soon after left him sole master of the empire. Julian II was a great general, a man of learning, a fine writer, possesing many qualities of a wise, energetic, and excellent prince; but in matters of religion one of the weakest, most fantastic, and mischievous of mankind.

This declared and inveterate enemy of Christianity made war upon Persia, with decided success; but was slain in an engagment on the banks of the Tigris, at the age of 31, A.D. 362, in the fourth year of his reign.

His second brass and third brass coins are, with certain exceptions, common; his silver ofthe usual size, are by no means scarce; but his gold are rare: On these he is styled D N IVIANVS NOB CAES - IMP FL CL JVLIANVS PERP or PF AVG.

"The Caesars" of Julian, a work which that emperor wrote in Greek, is a remarkable proof no less of his scholarship than of his talent for raillery and satire. The translation of that extraordinary production by Ezech. Spanheim., illustrrated by the most learned remarks, mythological, historical, and numismatical, enriched by a profusion of medals and other ancient monuments, is one of the most interesting as well as instructive volumes which can be persued by the student of the medallic science.
Julian II is noted, by Ammianus his pagan admirer, but by no means indiscriminate panegyrist, for having made himself very conspicuous in wearing a long and bushy beard, which amongst courtiers of Contantius procured for him the derisive appleation of a goat (capellam non hominem). In confirmation of this alleged peculiarity we find him on many of his coins "bearded like a pard:" as Caesar he appears with naked head; but as emperor he wears a diadem ornamented with precious stones.

Under the reign of Julian II coins were struck, which Banduri exhibits, and which Eckhel comments upon, inscribed DEO SERAPIDI (see the words), and VOTA PVBLICA, shewing that his philosophic contemner of the Christian mysteries was not ahamed to stamp his imperial coinage with representations of Serapis, Isis, and Anubis, and to revive the monstrous Egyptian idolatry.




View whole page from the |Dictionary Of Roman Coins|

The Coins of Julian IIBy Jim Phelps
Mint City
Modern Name
Typical Mint Marks (as Caesar / as Augustus)
Officinae (Caes/Aug)


Alexandria
Alexandria, Egypt
ALE#
4/4


Antioch
Antakiyah, Syria (Turkey?)
AN# / ANT#, SMANT#
15/4 - A,B,,
,


Aquileia
near Trieste, Italy
AQ# / AQVIL#
3/2 - P,S,T


Constantina/Arelate
Arles, France
#CON / #CONST
3/3 - P,S,T


Constantinople
Istanbul, Turkey
CONS# / CONSP#
11/4 - A,B,,
,
,


Cyzicus
Kapu Dagh, Turkey
SMK# / CVZICEN#, CVZIC#, CVZ#
6/3 - A,B,,,


Heraclea Thracica
Eregli, Turkey
SMH# / HERACL#
5/2 - A,B,,
,



Lugdunum
Lyons, France
CPLG, MPLG, PPLG / LVGDOFF#, #LVGD
2/2 - P,S


Nicomedia
Izmit, Turkey
SMN#, SMN#, NIK#
6/3 - A,B,


Roma
Rome, Italy
R#, RM# / R#, RP#, VRBROM#
7/4 - P,B,T,Q,E,S,,Z


Sirmium
Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia
#SIRM
2/2 - A,B


Siscia
Sisak, Croatia
#SIS, #SISD, #SISL, #SISV, #SISR / #SIS, #SISC
4/2 - A,B,,



Thessalonica
Salonika, Greece
SMTS# / TES#
5/4 - A,B,,
,



Treveri
Trier, Germany
SMTR# / (none)
2/0


Barbaric
Barbaric imitations











Alexandria



Antioch



Obv: DNFLCLIVLI ANVSPFAVG - Draped bust right wearing a pearl diadem.

Rev: SECVRITASREIPVB - Bull walking right, two stars above.

Ex: (branch)ANT(Gamma)(branch)



VM.25, SR.4072v, LRBC2.2640




Obv: DNFLCLIVLI ANVSPFAVG - Helmeted, and draped bust left, wearing a
pearl diadem over the helmet and holding a spear and a shield.

Rev: VOT / X / MVLT / X X - Legend in four lines enclosed by a wreath.

Ex: (branch)ANTA(branch)



VM.28, SR.4074v, LRBC2.2642




Aquileia



Obv: DNFLCLIVLI ANVSPFAVG - Draped bust right wearing a pearl diadem.

Rev: SECVRITASREIPVB - Bull walking right, two stars above.

Ex: (dot)AQVILP



VM.25, SR.4072v, LRBC2.959




Constantina/Arelate

Arelate (the modern city of Arles) was renamed Constantina in 330, to
reflect the ruling Constantine dynasty at the time. This change was
also reflected in the mintmark, and often causes misattribution of coins
to Constantinople. The pattern is easy to spot if you watch for it, as
coins of Arelate will have the officina mark before the city name,
while the coins of Constantinople have the name before the officina.
Also, an eagle often appears on Julian's Arelate coins - either before
the bull on the large-module coins, or in the medallion at the top of
the wreath on his VOT/X/MULT/XX coins.


Obv: DNFLCLIVLI ANVSPFAVG - Draped bust right wearing a pearl diadem.

Rev: SECVRITASREIPVB - Bull walking right, two stars above.
Eagle standing to right with a wreath in his beak, either carrying something or perched on something.

Ex: PCONST



VM.25v, SR.4073, LRBC2.468/9




Obv: DNFLCLIVLI ANVSPFAVG - Draped bust right wearing a pearl diadem.

Rev: SECVRITASREIPVB - Bull walking right, two stars above.
Eagle standing to right with a wreath in his beak.

Ex: PCONST(dot)



VM.25v, SR.4073, LRBC2.469




Obv: DNFLCLIVLI ANVSPFAVG - Helmeted, and draped bust left, wearing a pearl diadem over the helmet and holding a spear and a shield.

Rev: VOT / X / MVLT / X X - Legend in four lines enclosed by a wreath.
At the top of the wreath is an eagle medallion.

Ex: CONST

Officina number off flan. Interesting radiate design on shield.

VM.28, SR.4074v, LRBC2.470




Constantinople



Obv: DNFLCLIVLI ANVSPFAVG - Draped bust right wearing a pearl diadem.

Rev: SECVRITASREIPVB - Bull walking right, two stars above.

Ex: CONSPA



VM.25, SR.4072v, LRBC2.2056




Obv: DNFLCLIVLI ANVSPFAVG - Helmeted, and draped bust left, wearing a
pearl diadem over the helmet and holding a spear and a shield.

Rev: VOT / X / MVLT / X X - Legend in four lines enclosed by a wreath.

Ex: (dot)CONSPA(branch)(dot)

Mint mark is troublesome - the CONSPA is clear, but the surrounding devices aren't.
The dot before is certain, but the branch-dot after is very vague. This would match the
mint mark on LRBC2-2058, which is only believed to exist on AE1's (the bull coins).
The only recorded mint mark for this AE3 in LRBC2 is (branch)CONSPA(branch).

VM.28, SR.4074v, LRBC2.2060v




Obv: DNFLCLIVLI ANVSPFAVG - Helmeted, and draped bust left, wearing a
pearl diadem over the helmet and holding a spear and a shield.

Rev: VOT / X / MVLT / X X - Legend in four lines enclosed by a wreath.

Ex: (branch)CONSA(branch)

This pattern of mintmark not recorded in the LRBC. The officina mark is difficult to
make out - either an "A" or a delta.

VM.28, SR.4074v, LRBC2.2060v




Obv: DNFLCLIVLI ANVSPFAVG - Helmeted, and draped bust left, wearing a
pearl diadem over the helmet and holding a spear and a shield.

Rev: VOT / X / MVLT / X X - Legend in four lines enclosed by a wreath.

Ex: (branch)CONSPB(branch)



VM.28, SR.4074v, LRBC2.2060




Cyzicus



Obv: DNFLCLIVLI ANVSNOBCS - Bare-headed draped bust right.

Rev: FELTEMP REPARATIO - Soldier spearing fallen horseman.
(dot)M(dot) in left field.

Ex: SMK(Delta)

Less common obverse legend for this issue.

VM.26v, SR.4063v, LRBC2.2503




Obv: DNFLCLIVLI ANVSPFAVG - Draped bust right wearing a pearl diadem.

Rev: SECVRITASREIPVB - Bull walking right, two stars above.

Ex: CVZB



VM.25, SR.4072v, LRBC2.2511




Heraclea Thracica



Obv: DNFLCLIVLI ANVSPFAVG - Helmeted, and draped bust left, wearing a
pearl diadem over the helmet and holding a spear and a shield.

Rev: VOT / X / MVLT / X X - Legend in four lines enclosed by a wreath.

Ex: HERACLA



VM.28, SR.4074v, LRBC2.1908




Obv: DNFLCLIVLI ANVSPFAVG - Helmeted, and draped bust left, wearing a
pearl diadem over the helmet and holding a spear and a shield.

Rev: VOT / X / MVLT / X X - Legend in four lines enclosed by a wreath.

Ex: HERACL.A

Look close for the dot in the exergue - it's hidden pretty well, keeping the normal
letter spacing but it's there, above the leg of the "L".

VM.28, SR.4074v, LRBC2.1909




Obv: DNFLCLIVLI ANVSPFAVG - Draped bust right wearing a pearl diadem.

Rev: SECVRITASREIPVB - Bull walking right, two stars above.

Ex: HERACLA



VM.25, SR.4072v, LRBC2.1907, RIC8.105




Lugdunum



Nicomedia



Obv: DNFLCLIVLI ANVSPFAVG - Helmeted, and draped bust left, wearing a
pearl diadem over the helmet and holding a spear and a shield.

Rev: VOT / X / MVLT / X X - Legend in four lines enclosed by a wreath.

Ex: NIK(gamma)

Mintmark not show for this coin in the LRBC.

VM.28, SR.4074v, LRBC2.-, RIC8.123




Roma



Obv: DNFLCLIVLI ANVSPFAVG - Helmeted, and draped bust left, wearing a
pearl diadem over the helmet and holding a spear and a shield.

Rev: VOT / X / MVLT / X X - Legend in four lines enclosed by a wreath.

Ex: VRB.ROMT



VM.28, SR.4074v, LRBC2.695




Sirmium



Obv: DNIVLIA NVSNOBC - Bare-headed draped bust right.

Rev: SPESREI PVBLICE - Emperor standing left holding a globe and a spear.

Ex: ASIRM



VM.29v, SR.4064v, LRBC2.1616




Obv: DNFLCLIVLI ANVSPFAVG - Helmeted, and draped bust left, wearing a
pearl diadem over the helmet and holding a spear and a shield.

Rev: VOT / X / MVLT / X X - Legend in four lines enclosed by a wreath.

Ex: ASIRM



VM.28, SR.4074v, LRBC2.1619, RIC8.108




Obv: DNFLCLIVLI ANVSPFAVG - Cuirassed bust left wearing a pearl diadem
over a helm, and carrying a spear and a shield.

Rev: VOT X MVLT XX - Legend in four lines fully enclosed by a wreath.

Ex: BSIRM



VM.28, SR.4074v, LRBC2.1619




Obv: DNFLCLIVLI ANVSPFAVG - Cuirassed bust left wearing a pearl diadem
over a helm, and carrying a spear and a shield.

Rev: VOT X MVLT XX - Legend in four lines fully enclosed by a wreath.

Ex: BSIRM



VM.28, SR.4074v, LRBC2.1619, RIC8.108




Obv: DNFLCLIVLI ANVSPFAVG - Draped bust right wearing a pearl diadem.

Rev: SECVRITASREIPVB - Bull walking right, two stars above.

Ex: ASIRM(wreath)

Very heavy green patina, obscuring many of the details.

VM.25, SR.4072v, LRBC2.1620




Siscia



Obv: IMPIVLIANVSNOBCAES - Bare-headed draped bust right.

Rev: FELTEMP REPARATIO - Soldier spearing fallen horseman.

Ex: BSIS

An uncommon obverse legend for this mint - doesn't appear in LRBC.

VM.26, SR.4063v, LRBC2.----




Thessalonica



Obv: DNFLCLIVLI ANVSPFAVG - Draped bust right wearing a pearl diadem.

Rev: SECVRITASREIPVB - Bull walking right, two stars above.

Ex: (branch)TESB(dot)



VM.25, SR.4072v, LRBC2.1695




Obv: DNFLCLIVLI ANVSPFAVG - Cuirassed bust left wearing a pearl diadem over a helm, and carrying a spear and a shield.

Rev: VOT X MVLT XX - Legend in four lines fully enclosed by a wreath.

Ex: TES(gamma)



VM.28, SR.4074v, LRBC2.1619




Obv: DNFLCLIVLI ANVSPFAVG - Helmeted, and draped bust left, wearing a
pearl diadem over the helmet and holding a spear and a shield.

Rev: VOT / X / MVLT / X X - Legend in four lines enclosed by a wreath.

Ex: (branch)TES(delta)(branch)



VM.28, SR.4074v, LRBC2.1697, RIC8.227




Obv: DNFLCLIVLI ANVSPFAVG - Draped bust right wearing a pearl diadem.

Rev: SECVRITASREIPVB - Bull walking right, two stars above.

Ex: (star)TES(delta)(branch)

Officina mark unrecorded in LRBC.

VM.25, SR.4072v, LRBC2.----




Treveri



Barbaric Imitations



Obv: ...NVS... - Diademed head right.

Rev: ...CVRA...VB... - Bull walking right, two stars above.

Ex: (pi)P



VM.25v, SR.4072v, LRBC2.----




Obv: DNFLCLIVLIANVSPFAVG - Diademed head right.

Rev: SECVRITASREIPVB - Bull walking right, two stars above.

Ex: HSISC

Letters all correct, but executed crudely.

VM.25v, SR.4072v, LRBC2.1261sim




Obv: DNFLCLIVLI ANVSPFAVG - Beardless draped bust right wearing a
pearl diadem.

Rev: SECVRIT...VB - Bull walking right, two stars above.

Ex: ...IIC

One of my favorites. Looks almost good enough to be official, except for the odd nose.
But wait - what happened to the beard? Also, the mint mark on the reverse is poorly done
- perhaps this was off the flan on the original?

VM.25v, SR.4072v, LRBC2.----




The following catalogue references are used for the coins throughout this site:

VM - "The Handbook of Roman Imperial Coins" by David Van Meter (1991) - My favorite general reference.

SR - "Roman Coins and Their Values" - by David Sear (1988)

LRBC - "Late Roman Bronze Coinage" Part II - by Carson, Hill, & Kent (1978)




There are some excellent resources for learning more about this series,
and about other ancient coins. I'd like to recommend the following:

Moneta email
list - To quote from the website: "This list is dedicated to the joys of
ancient coin collecting. The period covered extends from the earliest
coinage through medieval. Topics may include your collection, news and
events, requests for advice and attribution, historical discussion as
related to coins and more. Basically anything to do with ancient and
medieval coins."

AncientCoinMarket
email list - Bringing buyers and sellers of ancient and medieval coins
together. Post want lists, ask what's avalable, post your sales or
auctions.

UncleanedCoins
email list - Anything relating to uncleaned ancient/medieval/... coins,
and pretty much anything else. A very entertaining and informative
list.

The Celator
monthly magazine - THE magazine about ancient coins. If you have any
interest in ancient coins or their history, a subscription to The
Celator is a must.




If you have an comments, questions, or corrections, please email me.

All coins from the author's collection. Not a commercial site, these coins are not for sale.
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The Coins of Julian II

last modified: 7 Mar 2006