Indice Dietro Avanti
Tetradrammo di Cleopatra e Antonio
3.1.2015
Vorrei una consulenza numismatica su questa moneta con inciso il volto di M. Antonio da una parte e quello di Cleopatra dall'altra.
Sulla parte di M. Antonio c’è scritto: ANTWNIOC AVTOKPATWP TPITON TPIWN ANDPWN.
Sulla parte di Cleopatra c'è scritto: BACILICCA KLEOPATRA QEA NEWTEPA.
Le scritte le ho indicate leggendole partendo dalla sinistra in basso della moneta dalla parte di M. Antonio (più o meno dietro il suo collo) e da sotto dalla parte di Cleopatra (più o meno sotto il suo collo).
Il PESO della moneta che trova nelle foto allegate è di 7g.
Il DIAMETRO è di circa 25 mm.
L'asse di conio è ad ore 12.
Il COLORE è tipo argento.
Non sembra esserci presenza di materiale FERRO-MAGNETICO perché a contatto con una calamita non succede assolutamente niente.
In attesa di risposta le invio
Distinti Saluti
fig. 1
Cliccare sulle immagini di sopra per ingrandire
Roma, 10.1.2015
Egregio Lettore,
di seguito riporto gli elementi significativi raccolti sulla moneta di figura:

Tetradrammo1, zecca di Antiochia (?), 36÷34 a. C.2, RPC I 4094

Descrizione sommaria:
D. BACIΛICCA KΛEOΠATΡA ΘεA NEOTEPA3. Cleopatra, testa diademata a destra, busto drappeggiato e ingioiellato. Bordo perlinato.
R. ANTONIωC AΥTOKPATωP TPITON TRIωN ANΔΡωN4. Antonio, testa nuda a destra. Bordo perlinato5

La ricerca nel web di monete di tipologia simile a quelle di figura ha prodotto i seguenti risultati:

  1. http://www.cngcoins.com/Coin.aspx?CoinID=181306 251, Lot: 231. Estimate $1000. Sold for $3583. SYRIA, Seleucis and Pieria. Antioch. Mark Antony and Cleopatra. 36 BC. AR Tetradrachm (25mm, 13.80 g, 12h). Diademed and draped bust of Cleopatra right / Bare head of Mark Antony right. McAlee 174; Prieur 27; RPC 4094. Fine, porous. .. I commenti che seguono sulla moneta sono tratti da: http://www.edgarlowen.com/antony-cleopatra-10739.jpg 10739. EXCESSIVELY RARE SILVER TETRADRACHM OF MARC ANTONY AND CLEOPATRA, CIRCA 39 BC. SYRIA, Seleucis and Pieria, Antioch mint. Mark Antony and Cleopatra. 36 BC. AR Tetradrachm (25mm, 13.80 g, 12h). Diademed and draped bust of Cleopatra right / Bare head of Mark Antony right. McAlee 174; Prieur 27; RPC 4094. Fine, rough surfaces but both faces quite clear and of fine style. Obverse: Bust of Cleopatra facing right attired in her royal robes and diadem, wearing a necklace probably of large pearls which supports a pendant, the bust surrounded by Greek legend BACILICCA KLEOPATRA THEA NEOTERA = 'The Younger Queen Goddess Cleopatra'. Reverse: Bare head of Marc Antony facing right, surrounded by Greek legend ANTWNIOC AYTOKPATWP TPITON TPIWN ANDPWN = 'Antony Imperator Third Proclamation'. This excessively rare silver tetradrachm is believed by numismatic scholars to have been struck sometime between 36 and 34 BC, most likely at a mint in Syria where they often Summered. Michael Grant thinks it most likely that it was struck in 34 BC in connection with the great Donations of that year, in which Antony conferred much of the Eastern Mediterranean in a whole series of titles, territories and overlordships upon Cleopatra and her children. References: Michael Grant, Cleopatra, 1992, Barnes & Noble, pps. 168, 175 where he discusses the facts surrounding the issuance of this coin. Also, Burnett, Amandry & Ripolles, Roman Provincial Coinage, Volume I, # 4094, published jointly by the British Museum Press and the Bibliotech National, 1992. Grade: Fine. The tragic love story of Marc Antony and Cleopatra has been told and retold since antiquity by everyone from Plutarch through Shakespeare to Hollywood. The suicides of Antony and Cleopatra in August, 30 BC brought an end not only to the Ptolemaic Dynasty in Egypt, but to the entire Hellenistic age. Thenceforth Rome was master of the whole Mediterranean and the great age of Imperial Rome commenced. (see the coin of Octavian listed directly below for the victorious Roman ruler's commemoration of their defeat!) In spite of their fame, few coins depicting the portraits of both Antony and Cleopatra were struck, and of those struck the current type is the finest, the largest and the rarest. Coins with good portraits of Cleopatra are especially rare. In fact surviving contemporary portraits of Cleopatra in any medium are rare, and coins like the current example, engraved as they were during her lifetime under joint authority with Antony, give us one of the best representations of how she and Antony actually appeared. Here we see the strong features of the virile, impetuous Antony, bareheaded and ready to plunge into some grand new earth-shaking endeavor, and on the obverse, the stately elegant bust of Cleopatra, attired in her royal robes and jewelry. An extraordinary face, haughty, arrogant, ruthless, but clearly of great intelligence and commanding presence. Without doubt this coin type has one of the finest numismatic portraits of both Marc Antony and Cleopatra extant. This example though with the wear normally found still has clear portraits of both rulers and as such is worthy of the best collections. An extremely rare coin with only 44 examples known to RPC.
  2. https://www.numisbids.com/n.php?p=lot&sid=953&lot=327 Lot 327 Estimate: 10000 USD Cleopatra VII and Mark Antony. Tetradrachm, (12h). Syria or Phoenicia, c. 36 BC. Obv: BACIΛICCA KΛEOΠAT[PA ΘEA NEWTEPA] Diademed and draped bust of Cleopatra right. Rx: ANTWNIOC AYTOKPATWP TPITON TPIWN ANΔ[PWN] Bare head of Antony right. RPC 4094 (43 spec., 21 obv. dies). Prieur 27 (53 spec.). Toned VF.
  3. http://www.cngcoins.com/Coin.aspx?CoinID=272908 Triton XVIII, Lot: 893. Estimate $10000. SYRIA, Seleucis and Pieria. Antioch. Mark Antony & Cleopatra. 36 BC. AR Tetradrachm (27mm, 15.00 g, 12h). BACIΛICCA KΛЄOΠATPA [ΘЄA NЄωTЄPA], diademed bust of Cleopatra right, wearing earring, necklace, and embroidered dress / [ANT]ωNIOC AVTOKPATωP TRITON TPIωN ANΔ[PωN], bare head of Antony right. McAlee 174; Prieur 27; BMC 53; RPC I 4094. VF, deep cabinet tone, very minor porosity, slightly off center. Rare. Current Status. Triton XVIII, Lot: 893. Currently: $12000. High Bidder Greek7. Bidders (3).
  4. http://www.sixbid.com/browse.html?auction=1460&category=30629&lot=1320180 Estimate: 10'000 USD Starting price: 5'000 USD Price realized: 36'000 USD Mark Antony and Cleopatra. Silver Tetradrachm (14.9 g), 36 BC. Antioch. BACIΛICCA KΛEOΠ[ATPA ΘEA NEω]TEPA, diademed and draped bust of Cleopatra right. Reverse: ANTωNIOC AY[TOKPATωP T]PITON TPIωN ANΔPωN, bare head of Mark Antony right. McAlee 174; Prieur 27; RPC I 4094. Both portraits are outstanding. Nice antique, slightly iridescent, toning. Slight flan crack on obverse at 2 o'clock and on corresponding reverse. Choice Very Fine. Estimated Value $10,000 - 13,000 Ex George Zacos & P. Hanaz Antiquities, Grand Bazar, Istanbul. Included with original envelope.
  5. http://romanumismatics.com/archive/auction-viii/lot/0910/ Marc Antony and Cleopatra AR Tetradrachm. Uncertain Phoenician mint, 36 BC. BACIΛICCA KΛEOΠATPA ΘEA NEWTEPA, diademed and draped bust of Cleopatra right, her dress embroidered with pearls / ANTWNIOC AYTOKPATWP TPITON TPIWN ANDPWN, bare head of Antony right. RPC 4094; McAlee 174; Prieur 27; BMC 53. 15.08g, 27mm, 1h. Near Extremely Fine. Near Extremely Fine. Good metal for the issue, and aesthetically very pleasing. Rare. 30,000Lst. Good metal for the issue, and aesthetically very pleasing. Rare. This tetradrachm, struck after the return of Antony to the East, proclaims the new political alliance between the triumvir and the Egyptian queen Cleopatra. Antony’s choice to leave the sister of his rival Octavian was a bold move which completely separated him from his homeland, though the many titles and honours he received when he made this transition are symptomatic of the irresistible allure of the luxurious Eastern world. Despite Antony having been away for four years, during which time he had married another woman and fathered two daughters (see lot 926 for the younger daughter, Antonia Minor), Cleopatra eagerly accepted Antony’s invitation to join him in Antioch, where the two were married and made ostentatious display of their partnership. Her acquiescence is understandable considering that she had already borne twins for Antony, and no doubt considered herself equal to the task of beguiling him once more and manipulating him to her will. The difficulty of maintaining the Ptolemaic Kingdom intact while Rome greedily ogled her rich and bountiful, but weak, country was no doubt the prime motivating factor. Though this coin confirms their political union, the individual sovereignty of both Cleopatra and Antony is distinctly maintained by their placement on obverse and reverse respectively rather than displaying them in a conjoined bust format. This issue has been traditionally assigned to Antioch, however R. McAlee points out that the letter forms (C for Σ and ω for Ω) are inconsistent with those on contemporary Antiochene issues. Moreover, Antioch remained in Roman rule despite Antony granting vast tracts of territory to Cleopatra. The placement of Cleopatra, not Antony, on the obverse also points to a mint within Egyptian territory, perhaps in Phoenicia. For this same reason, a military mint moving with Antony appears unlikely. Nonetheless, the dating of the coin suggests that it may well have been issued in support of Antony, and in particular of his Parthian campaign, a great undertaking involving more than 100,000 Roman and allied troops which ultimately proved to be a complete failure that cost the lives of about 25,000 men. This joint issue coinage (along with the similar denarius type) no doubt contributed to the increasingly prevalent view in Rome that Antony had deserted his Roman values and indeed the Roman people; a view that was shortly thereafter firmly cemented by the Donations of Alexandria, in which ceremony Antony paraded himself dressed as Dionysus and proceeded to distribute Rome’s eastern territories to the children of Cleopatra and grant them many titles. When Octavian obtained Marc Antony’s from the temple of Vesta, distaste turned to outrage as it was read out in the Senate that Antony wished to be buried with Cleopatra in Alexandria. When the Third Triumvirate expired on the last day of 33 BC the Roman world again found itself at war.
  6. http://www.mycrandall.ca/courses/NTIntro/images/AntonCleoCoin.htm Mean Diameter: 26.5 mm. (1.04"). Weight: 15.10 gm. (0.472 Troy oz.). Metal composition: Nearly pure silver with natural toning. References: Michael Grant, Cleopatra, 1992, Barnes & Noble, pps. 168, 175 where he discusses the facts surrounding the issuance of this coin. Also, Burnett, Amandry & Ripolles, Roman Provincial Coinage, Volume I, # 4094, published jointly by the British Museum Press and the Bibliotech National, 1992. Grade: Near extra fine. Price: On request. Status: Sold. Order #C006. This excessively rare silver tetradrachm is believed by numismatic scholars to have been struck sometime between 36 and 34 BC, most likely at a mint in Syria where they often Summered. Michael Grant thinks it most likely that it was struck in 34 BC in connection with the great Donations of that year, in which Antony conferred much of the Eastern Mediterranean in a whole series of titles, territories and overlordships upon Cleopatra and her children. Obverse: Bust of Cleopatra facing right attired in her royal robes and diadem, wearing a necklace probably of large pearls which supports a pendant, the bust surrounded by Greek legend BACILICCA KLEOPATRA THEA NEOTERA = 'The Younger Queen Goddess Cleopatra'. Reverse: Bare head of Marc Antony facing right, surrounded by Greek legend ANTWNIOC AYTOKPATWP TPITON TPIWN ANDPWN = 'Antony Imperator Third Proclamation'.
  7. http://www.cngcoins.com/Coin.aspx?CoinID=27686 Sale: Triton VI, Lot: 574. Estimate $3000. Closing Date: Monday, 13 January 2003. Sold For $4250. SYRIA, Seleucis and Pieria. Antioch(?). Mark Antony and Cleopatra. Circa 36 BC. AR Tetradrachm (14.17 gm). [BACILICCA] KLEOPATRA QEA NEW[TEPA], diademed and draped bust of Cleopatra right, her dress embroidered with pearls / ANTWNIOC AVTOKPATWP TPITON TPIWN [ANDPWN], bare head of Antony right. RPC I 4094; Prieur 27; BMC Galatia pg. 158, 53. Toned VF, moderate porosity. Rare; fine portraits of Cleopatra and Antony. ($3000). Ex Münzen und Medaillens 23 (17-18 June 1993), lot 477.
  8. http://www.artic.edu/aic/collections/artwork/194522 Tetradrachm (Coin) Portraying Cleopatra and Mark Antony, about 36 B.C. Silver Diam. 2.6 cm (1 1/16 in.), 15.22 g Katherine K. Adler Memorial Fund, 2008.173 Ancient and Byzantine Art Gallery 152 Cleopatra (69–30 B.C.) ruled Egypt during the period when Rome was slowly absorbing the eastern Mediterranean and its vast riches. By allying herself first with Julius Caesar and then, after his assassination, with Mark Antony (83–30 B.C.), she hoped to maintain her own authority and Egypt’s independence. The powerful political alliance between Antony and Cleopatra worried Caesar’s heir, his great-nephew Octavian, who in 31 B.C. defeated the couple in a sea battle. Rather than suffer the humiliation of surrendering to Octavian, Cleopatra and Antony killed themselves. By pairing their faces on coinage, the rulers advertised their powerful partnership, which was so strong that they are shown with the same face on this coin. Cleopatra’s profile is a copy of Antony’s portrait. However, by placing her image on the front (primary side) of the coin, Cleopatra is presented as the more important of the two rulers. Moreover, her portrait is larger than Antony’s, extending to her shoulders and featuring her legendary pearl jewelry. A crown circling her carefully braided hair symbolizes her status as a queen. To pay their armies and satisfy their other debts, the ambitious Roman warlord Mark Antony and the charismatic Egyptian queen Cleopatra minted coins bearing their portraits. Antony is shown with the short hair that was the typical Roman fashion of the time, but also with distinctive features including a flat nose, a strong chin, and a long, thick neck. Although regally adorned in her legendary pearl jewelry, Cleopatra’s physical attributes surprisingly mimic those of Antony, right down to the Adam’s apple on her massive neck. Since coins changed hands easily, they were an especially effective way of spreading the political ideologies of those who issued them. A person who saw these coins would not only equate Cleopatra and her power with Antony and his, but would also understand that she was the more important of the two because her image appears on the front of the coin, while his is relegated to the back. Since the once glorious kingdom of Egypt survived entirely on Roman sufferance, this was a bold claim on the part of the couple, one that undoubtedly offended their enemies in Rome.
  9. http://wildwinds.com/coins/imp/cleopatra/RPC_4094.jpg From the Gemini V Auction, Closed January 6, 2009.  Lot# 753Estimate: US$4000 Ptolemaic Kingdom. Cleopatra VII and Mark Antony. ca. 36 BC. Silver tetradrachm (15.07 gm). BACIËÉCCA ÊËÅÏÐÁÔÑÁ ÈÅÁ ÍÅùÔÅÑÁ, diademed and draped bust of Cleopatra VII right / ÁÍÔùÍÉÏC AYTOKRATùÑ TPITON  ÔÑÉùÍ ÁÍ?ÑùÍ, bare head of Mark Antony right. Svoronos 1897, pl. xliii, 22–23. RPC 4094. Prieur 27. Good fine. Ex CNG 75, 23 May 2007, lot 841.  ... Lot 753 sold for high bid of $3750 [ $4312.5, or approx 3191.25 EUR, 2932.5 GBP.
  10. http://www.goldbergcoins.com/view-auctions/catalog/id/28/lot/65000/ Mark Antony and Cleopatra. Silver Tetradrachm (16.2g). Minted at Syria, Antioch, ca. 36 BC. Diademed and draped bust right of Cleopatra VII (Ptolemaic Queen of Egypt and Antony's fifth wife), wearing a pearl-embroidered dress. Reverse: Bare head of Antony right. RPC 4094; Prieur 27; Svor. 1897, pl. IXIII, 22-23. Rare. Nicely toned a light slate gray. Excellent portraits on a full, pleasing flan. A desierable example of the type. Very Fine. Estimated Value $10,000 - 12,000. Ex Ebert Collection, lot 5587.
  11. https://www.flickr.com/photos/antiquitiesproject/6059785463/ RR87 A Rare and Exceptional Roman Imperatorial Silver Tetradrachm of Marc Antony and Cleopatra VII, With Exceptional Likenesses of Two of the Most Famous Personages of Antiquity The Roman Republic Marcus Antonius and Cleopatra Tetradrachm, Antiochia ad Orontem Syriae secondary mint (?) circa 36, AR 13.32 g. BACILICCA KΛ'EOΠATΡA ΘEA NEΩTEΡA Diademed bust of Cleopatra r. Rev. ANTWNIOC AYTOKPATWR TΡITON TRIWN ANDRWN Bare head of M. Antonius r. C 2. BMC 53. RPC 4094. Prieur 27. Kraay- Hirmer pl. 220, 809. Butcher, Coinage in Roman Syria p. 57, fig. 8.1. Very rare. Two magnificent portraits struck on unusually good metal for the issue. Lovely old cabinet tone and good very fine.
  12. http://www.ancientmoney.org/ri/cleopatra_antony_tet.html Cleopatra VII 69-30 BC and Marc Antony 83-30 BC AR (81%) tetradrachm 15.0362 gm, 26.7 mm Antioch (?) 36 BC 1. Burnett, Andrew, Michel Amandry, and Pere Pau Ripollès. 1998. Roman Provincial Coinage Volume I: From the death of Caesar to the death of Vitellius. Pages 601-602 #4094 and Plate 155 #4094. London: British Museum Press. 2. Wroth, Warwick. 1899. Catalogue of the Greek Coins of Galatia, Cappadocia, and Syria. Page 158 #53 and Plate XIX #3. London: The Trustees of the British Museum. 3.  Svoronos, J. N. 1904. Ta Nomismata tou Kratous ton Ptolemaion, Volume 2. Page 316 #1897 and Plate LXIII #22-23. Athens: Tupios P. D. Sakellairou Obverse Bust of Cleopatra facing right wearing diadem, earring, pearl necklace, and dress embroidered in front with pearls. Border of dots. ΒΑΣΙΛΙΣΣΑ ΚΛΕΟΠΑΤΡΑ ΘΕΑ ΝΕΩΤΕΡΑ. The lunate forms of Σ and Ε, and W for Ω appear in the coin's inscriptions. Reverse Bare head of Antony facing right, border of dots. ΑΝΤΩΝΙΟΣ ΑΥΤΟΚΡΑΤΩΡ ΤΡΙΤΟΝ ΤΡΙΩΝ ΑΝΔΡΩΝ.
  13. https://www.flickr.com/photos/julio-claudians/8138442150/ Joe Geranio Mark Antony and Cleopatra. 36 BC. AR Tetradrachm (12.34 g, 12h). Antioch in Syria mint. BACIΛICCA KΛЄOΠATPA ΘЄA NЄωTЄPA, diademed and draped bust of Cleopatra right, her dress embroidered with pearls / ANTωNIOC AYTOKPATωP TPITON TPIωN [ANDPωN], bare head Mark Antony and Cleopatra. 36 BC. AR Tetradrachm (12.34 g, 12h). Antioch in Syria mint. BACIΛICCA KΛЄOΠATPA ΘЄA NЄωTЄPA, diademed and draped bust of Cleopatra right, her dress embroidered with pearls / ANTωNIOC AYTOKPATωP TPITON TPIωN [ANDPωN], bare head of Antony right. RPC 4094; McAlee 174; Prieur 27; BMC 53. These tetradrachms, struck after the separation of Antony and Octavia, herald the political alliance between the triumvir and the Egyptian queen. Lacking any more certain alternative, this issue has been assigned to Antioch. During this time, Antony was continually moving throughout the eastern provinces, as well as against Parthia. Consequently, these coins could have been struck anywhere in order to facilitate an ad hoc payment for his soldiers. R. McAlee, in his forthcoming book on Roman Antioch, points out that the letter forms – C for Σ and ω for Ω – are inconsistent with those on contemporary Antiochene issues. Those issues with a horse-head control mark to the left of Antony’s head may hint at a possible mint further east, connecting it with Antony’s Armenian intevention in 34 BC, or, more attractively, the invasion of Parthia in 36 BC (cf. Shore 92 for Parthian bronze issues with a very similar horse-head design), events commemorated in an elaborate political display in Alexandria later in 34 BC. Such posturings clearly demonstrated Antony’s political ambition to separate the eastern Roman provinces, combine them with the Ptolemaic kingdom, and create a new empire of his own.
  14. http://numismatics.org/collection/1967.152.567 Silver Tetradrachm of Antony and Cleopatra, Antioch, 36 BC. 1967.152.567 Obverse: BACIAICCA KLEOPATPA THEA NEUTEPA - Mark Anthony hd. bare r. reverse Reverse: ANTUNIOC AYTOKPATUP TPITON TPIUN ANADPUN - Cleopatra bust diad. dr. r. Physical Description Axis: 12 Measurements Weight: 15.322 Diameter: 26mm Date: 36 BC Denomination: Tetradrachm Material: Silver. Reference: RPC1.4094. Identifier: 1967.152.567. Department: Greek Collection: American Numismatic Society.
  15. http://www.deamoneta.com/auctions/view/103/1987 Mark Antony and Cleopatra. Syria, Antioch. AR Tetradrachm c. 36 BC. Diademed and draped bust of Cleopatra r. / Bare head of Mark Antony r. McAlee 174; Prieur 27; RPC 4094. 13.32g, 26mm, 12h. Toned Fair. Base d'asta: £ 80.
  16. Vcoins Cleopatra and Marc (Mark) Antony AR Tetradrachm, Syria, Seleucis and Pieria (Antioch?) - Cleopatra/Marc Antony - Rare. Cleopatra and Marc Antony AR Tetradrachm, ca. 36 BC, 14.62gm, Syria, Seleucis and Pieria (Antioch?), 26mm.� Obv: BACILICCA KLeOPATRA QeA NewTeRA (translation: "Queen Cleopatra, Thea, the younger"); diademed and draped bust of Cleopatra right, her dress embroidered with pearls.� Rev: ANTwNIOC AYTOKRATwR TRITON TRIwN ANDRwN (translation: "Antony, Imperator for the third time, Triumvir"); bare head of Antony right.� RPC I 4094; Prieur 27.� Fine. Precio: US$ 2,495.00 € 2,112.08 Producto vendido Cotización al: 1/11/2015.
  17. http://www.cngcoins.com/Coin.aspx?CoinID=103749 Sale: CNG 75, Lot: 841. Estimate $3000. Closing Date: Wednesday, 23 May 2007. Sold For $4100. This amount does not include the buyer’s fee. SYRIA, Seleucis and Pieria. Antioch(?). Mark Antony and Cleopatra. Circa 36 BC. AR Tetradrachm (15.05 g, 12h). Diademed and draped bust of Cleopatra right, her dress embroidered with pearls / Bare head of Antony right. RPC I 4094; Prieur 27 . Good Fine, toned.
  18. http://www.forumancientcoins.com/fakes/displayimage.php?pos=-2731 Marc Antony Tetradrachm Seller's description: Obverse: Diademed and draped bust of Cleopatra right, her dress embroidered with pearls. Text around BACILICCA KLEOPATRA QEA NEWTERA. Reverse: Bare head of Mark Antony right. Text around ANTWNIOC AVTOKPATWP TPITON TPIWN ANDRWN. REPRODUCTION, has copy mark 'WRL' stamped on one side.
Veniamo alle conclusioni: osservo in primo luogo che la moneta di figura presenta caratteristiche fisiche difformi dai conȋ autentici d'epoca, risultando il peso eccessivamente basso; inoltre, specie sulla superficie del rovescio, il fondo della moneta appare dalla foto costellato di numerosi piccoli avvallamenti che potrebbero derivare dalla realizzazione per fusione invece che per conio. Non posso escludere che la moneta sia la stessa illustrata nel link18, dalla quale sia stato cassato il marchio di fabbrica WRL (Westair Reproductions Ltd).

Un saluto cordiale.
Giulio De Florio

-----------------------------------------------
Note:
(1) Tetradrammo (argento). Raccolgo in tabella le caratteristiche fisiche dei tetradrammi della tipologia di figura tratte dai link di cui sopra:

Riferimenti Peso (g.)  Diametro (mm) Asse di conio (h)
Link01 13,80 25 12
Link02 - - 12
Link03 15 27 12
Link04 14,9 - -
Link05 15,08 27 1
Link06 15,10 26,5 -
Link07 14,17 - -
Link08 15,22 26 -
Link09 15,07 - -
Link10 16,2 - -
Link11 13,32 - -
Link12 15,04 26,7 -
Link13 12,34 - 12
Link14 15,322 26 12
Link15 13,32 26 12
Link16 14,62 26 -
Link17 15,05 - 12
Si evince dalla tabella che la moneta in esame (7g, 25mm, 12h) presenta caratteristiche fisiche che, per quanto concerne il peso, si discostano in modo sostanziale da quelle delle monete autentiche del periodo.
(2) Non c'è unanimità tra gli studiosi circa la data e la zecca alle quali si possa attribuire questa emissione (v. linka e linkb): alcuni ritengono che la moneta sia stata battuta tra il 36 e il 34 a. C. da una zecca siriana (convenzionalmente Antiochia) dove Antonio e Cleopatra solevano svernare; R. McAlee rileva che l'uso della C al posto della Σ e della ω al posto della Ω non è tipico della monetazione antiochese, oltre tutto Antiochia rimase sotto il controllo romano, nonostante le vaste concessioni territoriali alla regina d'Egitto. Michael Grant ritiene più probabile la data del 34 a. C, l'anno delle grandi donazioni nel quale Antonio assegnò a Cleopatra e ai di lei figli larga parte del Mediterraneo Orientale sotto forma di titoli, territori, feudi. L'aver posto l'immagine di Cleopatra sul dritto della moneta farebbe pensare ad una zecca in area egiziana, forse in Fenicia, ciò che porterebbe ad escludere una zecca itinerante al seguito di Antonio. Nondimeno la presenza di Cleopatra al dritto e Antonio al rovescio farebbe pensare ad un'emissione in supporto di Antonio in occasione della campagna partica che vide coinvolti più di centomila soldati romani e alleati in un'impresa disastrosa nella quale persero la vita venticinquemila uomini. Il dott. Ted Buttrey del Fitzwilliam Museum di Cambridge rileva in una mail che le leggende delle monete tolemaiche in lingua greca, come quelle di altri regni orientali, sono sempre espresse al genitivo, al contrario di quelle romane nelle quali i nomi dei personaggi sono enunciati al nominativo. Su questa moneta invece le leggende, pur in lingua greca, sono espresse al nominativo, il che suggerisce a T.B. che la moneta sia stata battuta in una città o zecca sotto il controllo di Antonio nella quale ci si esprimeva in greco (probabilmente Damasco, a giudicare dallo stile di Cleopatra).
(3) BACIΛICCA KΛEOΠATΡA ΘεA NEOTEPA, cioè Regina (basilissa) Cleopatra Thea la Giovane (Neòtera). A proposito dell'appellativo "Thea" che accompagna la moneta in esame si noterà che è l'appellativo di un'altra Cleopatra (Cleopatra Thea Evergete), n. 164 circa, m. 121 a. C., di stirpe tolemaica ma entrata per matrimonio nella dinastia Seleucide di Siria. Dunque il nome scelto da Cleopatra la Giovane fa riferimento a questa sua antenata, essenzialmente nell'intento di riportare in vita la dinastia Seleucide, rovesciata da Roma, mentre la Siria, in termini militari sotto il controllo di Antonio, era politicamente condiviso con la regina d'Egitto.
(4) ANTONIωC AΥTOKPATωP TPITON TRIωN ANΔΡωN, è la titolatura di Antonio, equivalente al latino "Antonius Imperator III, triumvir" [Antonio, generale acclamato per la terza volta (=triton), triumviro (triωn anδρωn)].
(5) Un'interessante osservazione viene enunciata nel linkc di cui sopra che traduco integralmente: "Associando i loro volti sulla moneta, Cleopatra e Antonio intesero propagandare la solidità della loro alleanza, talmente forte che essi sono rappresentati sulla moneta con lo stesso volto. Il profilo di Cleopatra è una copia del ritratto di Antonio. Tuttavia, essendo Cleopatra  ritratta nel dritto della moneta, si presenta, tra i due, come il personaggio più importante. Inoltre, il suo ritratto è più grande di quello di Antonio, includendo anche il mezzo busto adorno di una collana di perle. La corona che circonda i suoi capelli accuratamente intrecciati simboleggia il suo status regale. Marco Antonio è rappresentato con i capelli corti, secondo lo stile romano del tempo, ma anche con le caratteristiche proprie distintive, il naso piatto, il mento forte, e il collo lungo e spesso. Sebbene regalmente adorna dei suoi leggendari gioielli, gli attributi fisici di Cleopatra sorprendentemente imitano quelli di Antonio. Poiché passavano di mano facilmente, le monete erano un mezzo estremamente efficace per diffondere le ideologie politiche di coloro che le emettevano. Una persona che ne avesse avuta una tra le mani non solo avrebbe equiparato il potere di Cleopatra con quello di Antonio ma avrebbe anche compreso che, tra i due, la donna era il personaggio più importante perché la sua immagine compariva sul fronte della moneta. Dal momento che il regno una volta glorioso d'Egitto sopravviveva solo per la tacita condiscendenza dei Romani, lo sfacciato proclama della coppia era tale da ferire i loro nemici presenti in Roma."
In proposito, pur condividendo le argomentazioni sui profili del volto svolte da Katherine K. Adler, qualche perplessità mi è sorta sull'ipotesi sottesa che un qualsiasi cittadino romano, avendo in mano la moneta, avrebbe potuto a prima vista distinguerne il dritto e, sulla base di questo solo fatto, stabilire che Cleopatra era il personaggio più importante in quanto raffigurato sul dritto. Ho perciò coinvolto sul tema il forum di numismatica Moneta-L di Yahoo, da cui ho ricevuto conferma che, su una moneta con due teste, l'unico modo di distinguere il dritto sia quello di avviare uno studio complesso delle impronte delle monete per verificare se la maggiore ricorrenza di impronte identiche si registri per una faccia piuttosto che per l'altra. Dal che si evince che il cittadino comune romano avrebbe certamente potuto rilevare che Antonio e la regina egiziana erano stati messi sullo stesso piano ma non avrebbe potuto affermare che da ciò derivava che Cleopatra era ritratta sul dritto della moneta.
Indice Dietro Avanti