Medieval England

England: The Saxon Period

841 to 1066 A.D.

In 410 AD, the Roman emperor, Honorius, sent word to the citizens of the province of Britain to make their own arrangements for their safety. The exit of the Roman legions led to the arrival of Germanic tribes, the Angles, Saxons and the Jutes. Roman civilization in Britain was submerged, although not entirely lost. Celtic inhabitants were displaced to Wales, Scotland and Cornwall.

By about 600, several minor kingdoms had emerged, such as Wessex, Mercia and Northumbria. The first coins started to be issued about this time. In 598, St. Augustine re-introduced Christianity to the islands.

Contacts with continental Europe were strong although the power of individual kingdoms in Britain waxed and waned. Mercia was particularly strong under Offa (757 - 796) who was considered an equal to the great Charlemagne (768 - 814).

In 793 came the first of the Viking raids in Northumbria. However, in 865 came a major attack by the "Great Army". Not until 878 was Alfred, king of Wessex, after much troubles and cake-burning, able to turn the tables. Even then, the problems with the Vikings (AKA Danes) were not over. Whether in common cause against the invaders or not, the individual kingdoms came together so that Eadgar (959 - 975) became REX ANGLORUM, king of England.

In 1066, the last Viking invasion, that of Harold Hardrada, was defeated by Harold II at Stamford Bridge. King Harold then marched south to meet another threat, that of William of Normandy. On 14th October, 1066, on Senlac Hill near Hastings, Harold lost his life and the Saxons, England.

England Bibliography List of Rulers of England

Click on image for more details and history
Saxon England
710 - 720
AR Sceat
For a list of the Rulers of
the component kingdoms
of Britain
see here
Saxon Northumbria; Aethelred II
First Reign 841 - 844
AE Sceat
Viking Kingdom of York
c. 895-902
AR Penny
Saxon Mercia; Burgred
852 - 874
AR Penny
Saxon Wessex; Alfred the Great
871 - 899
AR Penny
Edward the Elder
Saxon England: Aethelstan
924 - 939
AR Penny
Edmund I
Saxon England: Eadgar
959 - 975
AR Penny
Edmund the Martyr
Aethelred II the Unready
978 - 1016
AR Longcross Penny
Edmund II Ironside
Cnut (Canute)
1017 - 1023
AR Quatrefoil Penny
Harold I -Harefoot
1017 - 1023
AR Jewel Cross Penny
Edward the Confessor
1042 - 1066
AR Helmet type of Penny
Harold II


England: The Saxon Period
England: Medieval Period
England: The Stuarts
Great Britain from George I