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Imperatorial Rome

Moneyer: L. Livineius Regulus
Held Office: Moneyer 42 BC
Denomination: AR Denarius
Mint: Rome
Obverse: Small bare head of the praetor L. Livineius Regulus right.
Reverse: Curule chair between six fasces, three on either side. "L LIVINEIVS" above; "REGVLVS" in exergue.
Reference: RCVM 487/2; RRC 494/28; HCRI 177; Sydenham 1110; RSC Livineia 11.
Weight: 4.0 gms
Diameter: 18.4 mm

L. Livineius Regulus

The monetary quattuorvirate for 42 BC (L. Livineius Regulus, P. Clodius, L. Mussidius Longus, and C. Vibius Varus) was appointed by the newly constituted triumviral government of Antony, Octavian and Lepidus. Its activities were extensive and remarkable. For the first time in the history of the republican coinage the moneyers were called upon to oversee the regular production of gold coins. Although many of these aurei were issued in the names of the three Triumvirs, with their portraits, a few bore the personal types of the moneyers and the Caesarian regime. Denarii were also struck with personal types, and these greatly outnumbered the triumviral varieties which were issued in honour of Antony, Octavian, and the late dictator. Lepidus was pointedly ignored in the silver series and, as in the preceding year, no fractional silver coins (quinarii and sestertii) were struck at all. The half denarius was destined to be revived in certain military issues of the triumviral period, but the silver sestertius ceased as a denomination of the Roman coinage with Caesar's assassination in 44 BC.

Although history records nothing of the moneyer Lucius Livineius Regulus his coinage is of considerable interest and provides tantalizing glimpses of his family history which go some way to establishing his identity. The distinctive portrait head which dominates the obverses of his aurei and denarii is identified as that of another L. Regulus who held the office of praetor. This may well have been his father who, with his brother Marcus, was a friend of Cicero, and who served under Caesar in the Thapsus campaign of 46 BC. Another ancestor, this time a praefectus Urbi, is referred to on another of his denarii. Traditionally it has been thought that the moneyer himself was the holder of this office, but this view is rightly rejected by Crawford who states "neither the history of the times nor constitutional practice permits the view that the moneyer was himself Praefectus Urbi in or about 42 BC". The reverse types of Regulus' coinage concentrate on the themes of public games in the circus, corn-distributions, and the celebration of curule offices held by ancestors.

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