The Mihrabanid (Mehrabanid) dynasty was a Muslim dynasty that ruled Sistan (or Nimruz) from 1236 until the mid-16th century. It was the third indigenous Muslim dynasty of Sistan, having been preceded by the Saffarid and Nasrid dynasties.
The Mihrabanids used the title of malik during their rule of Sistan. A malik could inherit the throne or be appointed by the nobles and military commanders. Their capital was generally the city of Shahr-i Sistan. Outside of the capital, the Mihrabanids frequently had problems asserting their authority over the outer towns of the province, and on occasion had to resort to force in order to bring them into line. The maliks often gave control of these towns to other Mihrabanids.
The Mihrabanids were often vassals of their more powerful neighbours. The Mihrabanids assumed control of Sistan in the wake of its subjugation by the Mongols. After the foundation of the Ilkhanate by Hulegu Khan in 1256 the maliks recognized the Ilkhans as their overlords. Under the Ilkhans, Sistan's distance from the capital gave the Mihrabanids a high degree of autonomy. During this time they intermittently fought against the Kartid maliks of Herat, who were also Ilkhanid vassals, and had replaced them in eastern Persia. By 1289, all of Quhistan had been conquered by the Mihrabanids, with Nasir al-Din Muhammad giving it to his son Shams al-Din 'Ali as an appanage. After the Ilkhanate's collapse in the mid-14th century the Mihrabanids were independent for almost half a century. This independence was ended by Timur, who invaded Sistan in 1383 and caused extensive devastation to the province. The Mihrabanids henceforth were Timurid vassals until the latter's overthrow by the Shaybanids in the first decade of the 16th century.