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Search results - "nero"
nero6.jpg
58 viewssalem
NeroDrususCaesars1.jpg
163 viewsStruck under Caligula. Nero and Drusus Caesars riding right, cloaks flying, NERO ET DRVSVS CAESARES / C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT around S-C. Rome mint, c. AD 37-38. RIC I 34 (pg. 110).2 commentssocalcoins
nero5.jpg
40 viewssalem
nero4.jpg
59 views2 commentssalem
nero3.jpg
40 viewssalem
nero42nummiD+R.jpg
145 viewsXLII nummii on dupondius of NeroRugser
neron.jpg
54 views1 commentssalem
nero7.jpg
33 viewssalem
nero8~0.jpg
34 viewssalem
nero9~2.jpg
29 viewssalem
nero11~1.jpg
28 viewssalem
nero12~1.jpg
36 views1 commentssalem
nero13~1.jpg
31 views1 commentssalem
NERO-4~0.jpg
91 viewsNero Dupondius - 65 A.D. - Mint of Rome
Obv. NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER P M TR P IMP P P
Radiate head left
Rev. PACE P R VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT
Temple of Janus with doors closed.
Cohen 174, RIC 290.
1 commentsMaxentius
NERO-3.jpg
35 viewsNero - As - 65/66 - Mint of Rome
Ob.: NERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP; laureate head right
Rev.: PACE P R VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT S C; janus temple with doors closed.
gs. 10 mm. 27,8
Cohen 171, RIC 306
Maxentius
NERO-6.jpg
41 viewsNERO - Billon Tetradrachm of Alexandria - Year 12=65/66 AD.
Obv.:NERΩ KΛAΥ KAIΣ ΣEB ΓER, radiate bust right, wearing aegis
Rev.: AΥTOKPA, draped bust of Alexandria right in elephant skin headdress, LIB to right.
Gs. 12,65 mm. 26,9
Milne 238, Emmett 109

Maxentius
5.jpg
30 viewsPOPPAEA
Neros Wife
Perinthus in thrace

Poppaea (Nero's wife) from Perinthus in Thrace; on the left is a head dress in a wreath (rotated in your picture) and on the right her portrait.

+Alexios
Nero.jpg
87 viewsNERO CAESAR AVGVSTVS Laur head of Nero r Rev. IVPPITER CVSTOS Juppiter seated l holding thunderbolt and sceptre(Rom 67-8 ad)RIC 69 weight 3,15 Gr2 commentsspikbjorn
Nero_(2).jpg
74 viewsNero AE Dupondius. NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER P M TR P IMP P P, laureate head left / SECVRITAS AVGVSTI S-C, II in ex, Securitas seated right, holding veil above her head, altar at feet right. RIC 4071 commentsSoxfan
britannicus01.jpg
45 viewsAE sestertius. Struck under Claudius, circa 50-54 AD, uncertain eastern provincial mint located in the modern-day Balkans.
Obv : TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG F BRITANNICVS, draped bust left.
Rev : - No legend, Mars advancing left, holding spear and shield, SC in fields. 35mm, 19.4g. Extremely Rare.

Ref : BMCRE 226
Cohen 2
RCV 1908, valued at $32,000 in Fine, which is a few multiples greater than any other sestertius issued during the several centuries the denomination was in use.
A large number of the surviving examples of this series (one may even suggest a majority of them), due to their rarity, have been subjected to modern alteration techniques such as smoothing, tooling, and repatination. As such, it's actually pleasant to see a bit of field roughness and a 'plain brown' patina of old copper on this example, evidence that it is just as ugly as it was the day it was last used in circulation back in Ancient Rome.
Britannicus, originally known as Germanicus after Claudius' older brother, was the emperor's original intended heir and natural son. Machinations by Agrippina II eventually saw Britannicus supplanted by her own son Nero, (by Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus) who took the throne upon Claudius' suspicious death. Britannicus himself died a few years later, reportedly poisoned by his step-brother. The future emperor Titus and Britannicus were close friends, and Titus became quite ill and nearly died after eating from the same poisoned dish that killed Britannicus.
R. Smits, Numismatist for Numismall
Nero_Antioch.jpg
19 viewsareich
Festus.jpg
71 viewsÆ Prutah

KAICAPOC (Caesar) date LC (year 5 = 58 CE),
palm branch

NЄP ωNO C (Nero)
in wreath tied at the bottom with an X;

Caesarea mint
59-62 CE

2.87g

Reference: Hendin 653, SGIC 5627.

ex-Arcade Coins
1 commentsJay GT4
Nero_Milne_145.jpg
12 viewsNERO
Billon Tetradrachm
25mm, 8.1 grams

OBV: NER KLAY KAIS SEB GER AYTO, Head of Nero right
REV: PRON NEOY SEBASTOY, Nero wearing a radiate crown seated left holding a map and scepter
LG to left = year 3
Milne 145
ziggy9
NERO_TAG.jpg
6 10 viewsSosius
image.jpg
6 Nero67 viewsNero. A.D. 54-68. Æ as (29 mm, 11.60 g, 6 h). Lugdunum, ca. A.D. 66. IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P MAX TR P P P, bare head of Nero right, globe at point of neck / S C across field, Victory alighting left, holding shield inscribed [S P Q R]. RIC 543; WCN 593; BMC 381; Cohen 302. Medium brown patina with attractive earthen green deposits, light encrustations. Very fine.

Ex Triskeles Auctions
RI0039
3 commentsSosius
Nero_Den_RIC_60_reimaged.jpg
6 Nero27 viewsNERO
AR Denarius (19mm, 3.43 g, 6h)
Rome mint. Struck ~65-66 AD

O: Laureate head right

R: Salus seated left on throne, holding patera.

RIC I 60; RSC 314. aVF

Ex-CNG Sale 35, Lot 737, 9/20/95

In AD 65-66 two new types appear on the coins of Nero, Jupiter Custos- “Guardian”, and Salus- “Well-Being” (of the emperor). Nero gave thanks for surviving the Pisonian Conspiracy, which got its name from G. Calpurnius Piso, a senator put forward as an alternative emperor by senior military officers and government officials who feared the increasingly erratic Nero. The plot was discovered, many prominent Romans were executed, and others, such as the philosopher Seneca, were forced to commit suicide. This delayed the emperor’s fate for a few years.

RI0043
1 commentsSosius
Nero_As_RIC_306.jpg
6 Nero AE As26 viewsNERO
AE As
NERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP, laureate head right / PACE P R VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT S-C, the Temple of Janus, latticed window to l., garland hung across closed double doors on the right.
RIC 306, Sear5 #1974

On the rare occasions when Rome was not at war with a foreign enemy the doors of the 'Twin Janus' temple were ceremonially closed, an event which Nero commemorated extensively on the coinage of 65-67 A.D. -- David R. Sear, Roman Coins and Their Values, Vol 1
RI0042
Sosius
Nero_Prov_As.jpg
6 Nero AE As17 viewsNERO
AE As
Moesia or Balkan mint (Perinthus, Thrace?)

O: NERO CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M, Laureate head right

R: S-C, Neptune standing left, holding dolphin and trident.

RPC I 1760; BMCRE 391 note, pl. 48, 11; WCN pg. 245, 1 var. (obverse legend); RIC: not listed but mentioned on pp. 186-187.

Fine/Good
RI0044
Sosius
Vindex_denarius.jpg
6.75 Revolt of Vindex53 viewsRevolt Against Nero, Gaius Iulius Vindex, Governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, c. Late 67 - May 68 A.D.

Struck by Gaius Iulius Vindex, the Roman governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, who rebelled against Nero's tax policy and declared allegiance to Galba, the governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, as the new emperor. Vindex was defeated and killed in battle near Vesontio (modern Besançon), but the military continued to support Galba. On 9 June 68, deserted by the Praetorian Guard, Nero stabbed himself in the throat.

Silver denarius, Unpublished, civil war restitution of Augustus, gF, porosity, marks, uncertain (Lugdunum?) mint, weight 3.167g, maximum diameter 19.0mm, die axis 180o, c. late 67 - May 68 A.D.; obverse CAESAR, bare head of Augustus right; reverse AVGVSTVS, young bull walking right, head turned facing; ex Roma Numismatics e-auction 6, lot 321; only two examples known to Forum

Purchased from FORVM
2 commentsSosius
Copy_(1)_of_ag2c.jpg
Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, 64 – 12 BCE27 viewsCopper as, RIC Caligula 58, BMC II 161, SRCV I 556, Rome mint, 10.2 g, 27.6 mm diam.
Obverse - M AGRIPPA L F COS II. Head left wearing a rostral crown.
Reverse - S - C . Neptune standing left, dolphin in right, trident vertical behind in left. Counter mark above left.
Military commander, Friend of Augustus, Grandfather of Caligula, Great-grandfather of Nero.
Sold 5-2018
NORMAN K
100_3196.JPG
Nero Billon Tetradrachm of Alexandria. 255 viewsRare. unlisted type9 commentsRandygeki(h2)
rjb_nero_06_09.jpg
5431 viewsNero 54-68 AD
AE as
Obv "NERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP"
Laureate head right
Rev "PACE P R VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT SC"
Temple of Janus with doors closed
Rome mint
RIC 306
mauseus
rjb_2012_05_32.jpg
5420 viewsNero 54-68 AD
AE as
Obv "NERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP"
Laureate head right
Rev "PACE P R TERRA MARIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT SC"
Temple of Janus with doors closed
Rome mint
RIC 300
mauseus
Dyrrhachion_Dracma.jpg
ILIRIA - DIRRAQUIO/EPIDAMNOS20 viewsAR dracma 18X16 mm 2.4 gr.

Anv: "MENIΣ [KOΣ ]" (Nombre de la Autoridad Monetaria que la acuña), sobre una Vaca a der. mirando a su ternero que se amanta a izq.
Rev: "AYP / ΔIO / [NY] / [ΣIOY]" – Doble Forma estrellada, dividida por dos líneas y rodeada por una doble línea formando un contorno cuadrado.
Los diseños del reverso de Korkyra así como de sus colonias, Apollonia (Apolonia) y Dyrrhachion (Dirraquio), han sido objeto de mucha especulación numismática. Eckhel (Doctrina numorum veterum [Vienna, 1792/3], II:155) aceptó la opinión de Laurentius Beger (Observationes Et Conjecturae In Numismata Quaedam Antiqua [Brandenburg, 1691]), que argumentó que el diseño del reverso representa el jardín de Alkinoos, el mítico rey de Phaiakia, descrito en detalle por el poeta Homero (Od. 7.112-133). Basado en el supuesto de que mítica Phaiakia era la isla de la antigua Korkyra (mod. Corfú), y sabiendo que Korkyrans colonizaron tanto Apollonia y Dyrrhachion, Beger (ya través de él, Eckhel) concluyeron que los elementos centrales eran flores y que el diseño general debe representar tanto el diseño del jardín, o las puertas que conducen a ella. Más tarde, la mayoría de los numismáticos, como Böckh, Müller, Friedlander, y von Sallet, argumentaron que los elementos centrales del diseño eran más como la estrella, mientras que Gardner favoreciendo una interpretación floral, aunque sea como una referencia a Apolo Aristaios o Nomios, no el jardín de ALKINOOS. Más recientemente, Nicolet-Pierre volvió a examinar la cuestión del diseño del reverso en su artículo sobre la moneda arcaica de Korkyra ("À props du monnayage archaïque de Corcyre," SNR 88 [2009], pp. 2-3) y ofreció una nueva interpretación. Tomando nota de un pasaje de Tucídides (3.70.4) en la que ese autor citó la existencia en la isla de un recinto sagrado (temenos) dedicado a Zeus y ALKINOOS, sugirió que el diseño del reverso podría haber sido inspirada por esto, y no en el jardín de ALKINOOS que detalla Homero.

Acuñación: 200 - 30 A.C.
Ceca: Dyrrhachion - Illyria (Hoy Durré en Albania)

Referencias: Sear GCTV Vol.I #1900 var Pag.187 – BMC Vol.7 #62-64 Pag.69 – SNG Copenhagen #467 - Maier #201 - Ceka #320
mdelvalle
FC20.jpg
Nero & Drusus Caesar. Died AD 31 and 33, respectively. Æ Dupondius (28mm, 16.30 g, 6h). Rome mint. Struck under Gaius (Caligula), AD 37-38. Nero and Drusus on horseback21 viewsJoe Geranio Collection- (Anyone may use as long as credit is given-(Joe Geranio JCIA) Nero & Drusus Caesar. Died AD 31 and 33, respectively. Æ Dupondius (28mm, 16.30 g, 6h). Rome mint. Struck under Gaius (Caligula), AD 37-38. Nero and Drusus on horsebackJoe Geranio
125.jpg
ΘEC188 viewsMACEDON. Thessalonica. Nero. Æ 27. A.D. 54-68. Obv: KAICAP-NEPWN. Bare head left; countermark on head. Rev: ΘECCA-ΛONIKH. Nike standing left on globe, holding wreath in extended right hand, palm branches in left hand. Ref: BMC -; RPC 1593 (2 pcs). Axis: 15°. Weight: 22.04 g. CM: ΘEC in rectangular punch, 7 x 3 mm. Howgego 537 (7 pcs). Howgego notes that the countermark was probably applied in A.D. 68/69, sanctioning coins of Nero. Collection Automan.Automan
126.jpg
ΘEC in rectangular punch174 viewsMACEDON. Thessalonica. Nero. Æ 23. A.D. 54-68. Obv: NE(PΩNC)EBAΣΣ-TOΣKAIΣAP (sic.). Bare head left; countermark across neck. Rev: ΘECCAΛ-ONIKH-ΩN in three lines in oak-wreath, eagle at top. Ref: BMC -; RPC 1603 (5 pcs); Axis: 180°. Weight: 7.36 g. Note: The name and face of Nero have been erased (damnatio). CM: ΘEC in rectangular punch, 7 x 3 mm. Howgego 537 (7 pcs). Note: Howgego notes that the countermark was probably applied in A.D. 68/69, sanctioning coins of Nero. He also notes that the application of the countermark was not directly connected with the erasure of the name and face of Nero, since this was done to only one of the seven specimens he identified. Collection Automan.Automan
Y04288.jpg
44 viewsROME. Nero. AD 54-68.
PB Tessera (21mm, 3.90 g)
NERO AV
Laureate head right
Blank
Rostovtzev 28; München 2-3; BM 1031
1 commentsArdatirion
00002x00~6.jpg
20 viewsROME. P. Glitius Gallus
PB Tessera (20mm, 2.89 g, 12h)
P GLITI GALLI, bare head right
Rooster standing right, [holding rostral crown in beak and palm frond in claws]
Rostowzew 1238, pl. IV, 33; BM 932

Ex Classical Numismatic Group 55 (13 September 2000), lot 1201 (part of)

Though the exact identity of this individual is unknown, he is undoubtedly a member of the gens Glitia. It is tempting to associate him with the P. Glitius L.f. Gallus who was implicated in the Pisonian Conspiracy against the emperor Nero and ultimately exiled to the island of Andros, or his son, P. Glitius P.f. Gallus.
Ardatirion
lg004_quad_sm.jpg
"As de Nîmes" or "crocodile" Ӕ dupondius of Nemausus (9 - 3 BC), honoring Augustus and Agrippa29 viewsIMP DIVI F , Heads of Agrippa (left) and Augustus (right) back to back, Agrippa wearing rostral crown and Augustus the oak-wreath / COL NEM, crocodile right chained to palm-shoot with short dense fronds and tip right; two short palm offshoots left and right below, above on left a wreath with two long ties streaming right.

Ӕ, 24.5 x 3+ mm, 13.23g, die axis 3h; on both sides there are remains of what appears to be gold plating, perhaps it was a votive offering? Rough edges and slight scrapes on flan typical for this kind of coin, due to primitive technology (filing) of flan preparation.

IMPerator DIVI Filius. Mint of COLonia NEMausus (currently Nîmes, France). Known as "As de Nîmes", it is actually a dupontius (lit. "two-pounder") = 2 ases (sometimes cut in halves to get change). Dupondii were often made out of a golden-colored copper alloy (type of brass) "orichalcum" and this appears to be such case.

Key ID points: oak-wreath (microphotography shows that at least one leaf has a complicated shape, although distinguishing oak from laurel is very difficult) – earlier versions have Augustus bareheaded, no PP on obverse as in later versions, no NE ligature, palm with short fronds with tip right (later versions have tip left and sometimes long fronds). Not typical: no clear laurel wreath together with the rostral crown, gold plating (!), both features really buffling.

But still clearly a "middle" kind of the croc dupondius, known as "type III": RIC I 158, RPC I 524, Sear 1730. It is often conservatively dated to 10 BC - 10 AD, but these days it is usually narrowed to 9/8 - 3 BC.

It is a commemorative issue, honoring the victory over Mark Antony and conquest of Egypt in 30 BC. The heads of Augustus and Agrippa were probably positioned to remind familiar obverses of Roman republican coins with two-faced Janus. Palm branch was a common symbol of victory, in this case grown into a tree, like the victories of Augustus and Agrippa grown into the empire. The two offshoots at the bottom may mean two sons of Agrippa, Gaius and Lucius, who were supposed to be Augustus' heirs and were patrons of the colony. Palm may also be a symbol of the local Nemausian deity, which was probably worshiped in a sacred grove. When these coins were minted, the colony was mostly populated by the settled veterans of Augustus' campaigns, hence the reminiscence of the most famous victory, but some of the original Celtic culture probably survived and was assimilated by Romans. The crocodile is not only the symbol of Egypt, like in the famous Octavian's coins AEGYPTO CAPTA. It is also a representation of Mark Antony, powerful and scary both in water and on land, but a bit slow and stupid. The shape of the crocodile with tail up was specifically chosen to remind of the shape of ship on very common "legionary" denarius series, which Mark Antony minted to pay his armies just before Actium. It is probably also related to the popular contemporary caricature of Cleopatra, riding on and simultaneously copulating with a crocodile, holding a palm branch in her hand as if in triumph. There the crocodile also symbolized Mark Antony.

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa was born c. 64-62 BC somewhere in rural Italy. His family was of humble and plebeian origins, but rich, of equestrian rank. Agrippa was about the same age as Octavian, and the two were educated together and became close friends. He probably first served in Caesar's Spanish campaign of 46–45 BC. Caesar regarded him highly enough to send him with Octavius in 45 BC to train in Illyria. When Octavian returned to Rome after Caesar's assassination, Agrippa became his close lieutenant, performing many tasks. He probably started his political career in 43 BC as a tribune of the people and then a member of the Senate. Then he was one of the leading Octavian's generals, finally becoming THE leading general and admiral in the civil wars of the subsequent years.

In 38 as a governor of Transalpine Gaul Agrippa undertook an expedition to Germania, thus becoming the first Roman general since Julius Caesar to cross the Rhine. During this foray he helped the Germanic tribe of Ubii (who previously allied themselves with Caesar in 55 BC) to resettle on the west bank of the Rhine. A shrine was dedicated there, possibly to Divus Caesar whom Ubii fondly remembered, and the village became known as Ara Ubiorum, "Altar of Ubians". This quickly would become an important Roman settlement. Agrippina the Younger, Agrippa's granddaughter, wife of Emperor Claudius and mother of Emperor Nero, would be born there in 15 AD. In 50 AD she would sponsor this village to be upgraded to a colonia, and it would be renamed Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium (colony of Claudius [at] the Altar of Agrippinians – Ubii renamed themselves as Agrippinians to honor the augusta!), abbreviated as CCAA, later to become the capital of new Roman province, Germania Inferior.

In 37 BC Octavian recalled Agrippa back to Rome and arranged for him to win the consular elections, he desperately needed help in naval warfare with Sextus Pompey, the youngest son of Pompey the Great, who styled himself as the last supporter of the republican cause, but in reality became a pirate king, an irony since his father was the one who virtually exterminated piracy in all the Roman waters. He forced humiliating armistice on the triumvirs in 39 BC and when Octavian renewed the hostilities a year later, defeated him in a decisive naval battle of Messina. New fleet had to be built and trained, and Agrippa was the man for the job. Agrippa's solution was creating a huge secret naval base he called Portus Iulius by connecting together lakes Avernus, Avernus and the natural inner and outer harbors behind Cape Misenum at the northern end of the Gulf of Naples. He also created a larger type of ship and developed a new naval weapon: harpax – a ballista-launched grapnel shot with mechanisms that allowed pulling enemy ships close for easy boarding. It replaced the previous boarding device that Romans used since the First Punic War, corvus – effective, but extremely cumbersome. A later defence against it were scythe blades on long poles for cutting ropes, but since this invention was developed in secret, the enemy had no chance to prepare anything like it. It all has proved extremely effective: in a series of naval engagements Agrippa annihilated the fleet of Sextus, forced him to abandon his bases and run away. For this Agrippa was awarded an unprecedented honour that no Roman before or after him received: a rostral crown, "corona rostrata", a wreath decorated in front by a prow and beak of a ship.

That's why Virgil (Aeneid VIII, 683-684), describing Agrippa at Actium, says: "…belli insigne superbum, tempora navali fulgent rostrata corona." "…the proud military decoration, gleams on his brow the naval rostral crown". Actium, the decisive battle between forces of Octavian and Mark Antony, may appear boring compared to the war with Sextus, but it probably turned out this way due to Agrippa's victories in preliminary naval engagements and taking over all the strategy from Octavian.

In between the wars Agrippa has shown an unusual talent in city planning, not only constructing many new public buildings etc., but also greatly improving Rome's sanitation by doing a complete overhaul of all the aqueducts and sewers. Typically, it was Augustus who later would boast that "he had found the city of brick but left it of marble", forgetting that, just like in his naval successes, it was Agrippa who did most of the work. Agrippa had building programs in other Roman cities as well, a magnificent temple (currently known as Maison Carrée) survives in Nîmes itself, which was probably built by Agrippa.

Later relationship between Augustus and Agrippa seemed colder for a while, Agrippa seemed to even go into "exile", but modern historians agree that it was just a ploy: Augustus wanted others to think that Agrippa was his "rival" while in truth he was keeping a significant army far away from Rome, ready to come to the rescue in case Augustus' political machinations fail. It is confirmed by the fact that later Agrippa was recalled and given authority almost equal to Augustus himself, not to mention that he married Augustus' only biological child. The last years of Agrippa's life were spent governing the eastern provinces, were he won respect even of the Jews. He also restored Crimea to Roman Empire. His last service was starting the conquest of the upper Danube, were later the province of Pannonia would be. He suddenly died of illness in 12 BC, aged ~51.

Agrippa had several children through his three marriages. Through some of his children, Agrippa would become ancestor to many subsequent members of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. He has numerous other legacies.
Yurii P
nero_popp_alexandria~0.jpg
(0062) POPPAEA31 views(wife of Nero)
Struck 64/65 AD Egypt-Alexandria
AR Tetradrachm 24 mm, 11.30 g
O: NERW KLAU KAIS SEB [GER AU] Radiate head right
R: POPPAIA SEBASTH Draped bust of Poppaea right
L IA in lower right field (Year 11)
Egypt, Alexandria
Emmett 128; Milne 223; Curtis 143; BMC 124; Glasgow 168
laney
tiberius_nero_drusus_resb.jpg
(03) TIBERIUS20 views14 - 37 AD
AE 28.5 mm; 11.46 g
O: His bare head left
R: Confronted heads of Caesars Nero and Drusus
Spain (Hispania Tarraconensis), Carthago Nova mint
cf RPC 179, SNG Cop 500 Scarce
laney
nero.jpg
(06) NERO36 views54 - 68 AD
(STRUCK AFTER 66 AD)
AE 29 mm 12.21 g
O: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P MAX [TR POT PP]
LAUR HEAD R
[SECVRITAS AVGVSTI]
SECURITAS SEATED R RESTING HEAD ON RIGHT HAND, HOLDING SCEPTER, ALTAR & TORCH BEFORE
laney
nerocombined.jpg
(06) NERO41 views54 - 68 AD
STRUCK Ca 66 AD
AE As
O: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG GERM
LAUR HEAD OF NERO, RIGHT
R: VICTORY, LEFT, HOLDING INSCRIBED SHIELD - SC
laney
NERO_RED.jpg
(06) NERO42 views 06. NERO
54 - 68 AD
STRUCK Ca 66 AD
AE As
O: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG GERM
LAUR HEAD OF NERO, RIGHT
R: VICTORY, LEFT, HOLDING INSCRIBED SHIELD - SC
laney
nero_janus.jpg
(06) NERO49 views54-68 AD
struck ca 65 AD
Æ As 29.5 mm 9.38 g
O: NERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP, laureate head right
R: Temple of Janus, doors to the right; S/C
RIC I 306
laney
nero_alex_r_2res.jpg
(06) NERO27 views54 - 68 AD
Struck 65 - 66 AD
Billon tetracrachm 24 mm 11.78 g
O: NERWKLAYKAISSEBGER Radiatebust of Nero right, wearing aegis
R: AYIGO-KRA Bust of Alexandria right, wearing elephant head headdress, L IB (year 12) right
Alexandria, Provincial Egypt
Milne 238, SRCV I 2004, Emmett 109, Koln 172, Dattari 204, BMC 163, RPC 5289
(ex Forum)
laney
nero_antioch.jpg
(06) NERO47 views54 - 68 AD
struck c. 64-68 AD RPC 4297
AE Semis 20.5 mm, 7.91 g
O: laureate head of Nero right.
R: SC within circle, laurel wreath around.
Syria, Antioch cf. RPC 4297
laney
nero_popp_alexandria.jpg
(06) NERO34 views54 - 68 AD
Struck 64/65 AD Egypt-Alexandria
AR Tetradrachm 24 mm, 11.30 g
O: NERW KLAU KAIS SEB [GER AU] Radiate head right
R: POPPAIA SEBASTH Draped bust of Poppaea right
L IA in lower right field (Year 11)
Egypt, Alexandria
Emmett 128; Milne 223; Curtis 143; BMC 124; Glasgow 168
laney
nero_vict_shield_res2.jpg
(06) NERO34 views54 - 68 AD
AE 27 mm, 10.75 g
O: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG GERM, laureate head right.
R: Victory flying left, holding a shield inscribed S P Q R, S-C in fields
laney
nero_quadrans_res.jpg
(06) NERO21 viewsAE Quadrans 17 mm; 3.39 g
O: NERO CLA-V - CAE AVG GER Helmet left, leaning on column' shield in front at left, spear behind pointing left
R: P M TR P - IMP P P, S - C Olive branch
laney
nero_denarius_salus_rr.jpg
(06) NERO47 views54-68 AD
(struck 65 - 66)
AR Denarius 17 mm; 3.4 g.
O: NERO CAESAR AVGVSTVS. Laureate head right.
R: SALVS. Salus seated left with patera.
Rome
RIC 60
1 commentslaney
nero_antioch_eagle.jpg
(06) NERO29 views54 - 68 AD
struck 67-68 AD
AR Tetradrachm 24.5 mm X 28 mm; 13.65 g
O: NEPΩN KAICAP CEBACTOC, laureate bust right wearing aegis;
R: ETOYC [...], eagle standing left holding wreath in beak, palm left
Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint; Prieur 92, RPC I 4192, Wruck 48
d.s.
laney
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(06) NERO38 views54-68 AD
struck ca 50-54 AD
AE 17 mm; 2.56 g
O: draped bust right.
R: ΘYATEIPH; double axe.
Lydia, Thyateira
cf RPC I, 2382; SNG Copenhagen 595
laney
nero_apollo_miletos_b.jpg
(06) NERO26 views54 - 68 AD
Æ 21.5 mm; 5.94 g
O: Bare head left
R: Apollo Kitharoidos standing right, holding lyre.
IONIA, Miletos; RPC I 2714.
laney
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(06) NERO19 views54 - 68 AD
AE 27 mm; 11.38 g
O: NERO CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM PM TRP, laureate head left
R: S-C across fields, large altar with two doors and surmounted by ornaments, PROVIDENT in ex.
Balkan mint, possibly Perinthos
RIC (1923) 440; RPC 1761; Cohen 255; WCN p. 245, Moesia 2
laney
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(06) NERO16 views54-68 AD
AE 16.5 mm; 3.88 g
O:Draped bust right.
R: Hekate standing facing, wearing polos and holding long torch in each hand.
Lydia, Philadelphia; RPC 3041.
laney
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(06) NERO16 views54 - 68 AD
Struck 65 - 66 AD
Billon tetracrachm 24 mm 11.78 g
O: NERWKLAYKAISSEBGER Radiatebust of Nero right, wearing aegis
R: AYIGO-KRA Bust of Alexandria right, wearing elephant head headdress, L IB (year 12) right
Alexandria, Provincial Egypt
Milne 238, SRCV I 2004, Emmett 109, Koln 172, Dattari 204, BMC 163, RPC 5289
(ex Forum)
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(06) NERO--ALEXANDRIA46 views54 - 68 AD
BILLON TETRADRACHM 25 mm 9.05 g
OBV: RAD BUST R
REV: EAGLE ADVANCING L ON THNUDERBOLT
ALEXANDRIA
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(06) NERO--COUNTERMARKED47 views54 - 68 AD
AE 19 mm 3.02 g
Phrygia, Akmoneia (probably L. Servenius Capito and his wife Iulia Severa. Struck circa 65 AD).
O: draped bust right; countermark: Asklepios holding snake-encircled staff
R: Zeus seated left, holding patera and sceptre
cf SNG von Aulock 3375 (same countermark).
laney
Denarius91BC.jpg
(501i) Roman Republic, D. Junius L.f. Silanus, 91 B.C.58 viewsSilver denarius, Syd 646a, RSC Junia 16, S 225 var, Cr 337/3 var, VF, 3.718g, 18.6mm, 0o, Rome mint, 91 B.C.; obverse head of Roma right in winged helmet, X (control letter) behind; reverse Victory in a biga right holding reins in both hands, V (control numeral) above, D•SILANVS / ROMA in ex; mint luster in recesses. Ex FORVM.

Although the coin itself does not commemorate the event, the date this coin was struck is historically significant.

MARCUS Livius DRUSUS (his father was the colleague of Gaius Gracchus in the tribuneship, 122 B.C.), became tribune of the people in 91 B.C. He was a thoroughgoing conservative, wealthy and generous, and a man of high integrity. With some of the more intelligent members of his party (such as Marcus Scaurus and L. Licinius Crassus the orator) he recognized the need of reform. At that time an agitation was going on for the transfer of the judicial functions from the equites to the senate; Drusus proposed as a compromise a measure which restored to the senate the office of judices, while its numbers were doubled by the admission of 300 equites. Further, a special commission was to be appointed to try and sentence all judices guilty of taking bribes.

The senate was hesitant; and the equites, whose occupation was threatened, offered the most violent opposition. In order, therefore, to catch the popular votes, Drusus proposed the establishment of colonies in Italy and Sicily, and an increased distribution of corn at a reduced rate. By help of these riders the bill was carried.

Drusus now sought a closer alliance with the Italians, promising them the long coveted boon of the Roman franchise. The senate broke out into open opposition. His laws were abrogated as informal, and each party armed its adherents for the civil struggle which was now inevitable. Drusus was stabbed one evening as he was returning home. His assassin was never discovered (http://62.1911encyclopedia.org/D/DR/DRUSUS_MARCUS_LIVIUS.htm).

The ensuing "Social War" (91-88 B.C.) would set the stage for the "Civil Wars" (88-87 & 82-81 B.C.) featuring, notably, Marius & Sulla; two men who would make significant impressions on the mind of a young Julius Caesar. Caesar would cross the Rubicon not thirty years later.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Nero.jpg
*SOLD*32 viewsNero AE As

Attribution: RIC 413, Lugdunum
Date: AD 62-66
Obverse: NERO CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GER P M TR P IMP PP, laureate bust r.
Reverse: VICTORIA AVGVSTI, Victory advancing l. holding wreath and palm frond,
SC across fields
Size: 29.5mm
Weight: 14.5 grams
ex-Forvm
Noah
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0001 - Quadrans Nero 64 AC89 viewsObv/NERO CLAV CAE AVG GER, owl on altar.
Rev/PM TR P IMP PP, SC on field, olive branch.
Quadrans of small module, no value-mark.

AE, 12.84mm, 1.70g
Mint: Rome.
RIC I/260 [C] - Cohen 185 - RCV 1988 - BMCRE p.258
ex-Numismática Saetabis
dafnis
Nero.jpg
002 - Nero (54-68 AD), as - RIC 54369 viewsObv: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P MAX TR P P P, laureate head left.
Rev: S - C, Victory flying left holding shield inscribed S P Q R.
Minted in Lugdunum c. 66 AD.

The shield held by Victory is the golden shield that was dedicated to Augustus by the Senate and Roman People (S. P. Q. R.) in recognition of his classic, cardinal virtues. By placing the shield and Victory on his coin, Nero was claiming these same virtues were part of his regime. (From: Forum Ancient Coin´s catalog nr 28743, after Roman History from Coins by Michael Grant).
3 commentspierre_p77
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002.Nero 54-68 AD31 viewsBillion Tetradrachm
Roman Egypt
Mint: Alexandria,Egypt; Date: 66/67 AD
Obv: ΝΕΡΩ ΚΛΑΥ Κ(ΑΙΣ ΣΕΒ ΓΕΡ Ας)-Radiate bust of Nero facing left,wearing aegis on shoulder,
LΙΓ in lower left field.(Year 13=66-67 AD).
Rev: ΘΕΟΣ(ΣΕΒΑΣΘΟΣ)-Radiate head of Divus Augustus facing right.
Size: 24mm,12.7gms
Ref: Milne-251; BMCGr-112; Emmett-113
Ex.Keith Emmett Collection; Ex.Wayne Phillips, Jan 1993; Ex.Beast Coins
5 commentsBrian L
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002b. Livia48 viewsLivia, as history most often knows her, was the wife of Augustus for over fifty years, from 38 BC until his death in AD 14 , an astonishingly long time in view of life expectancy in ancient Rome. Although certainty about their inner lives and proof for what we would consider a loving relationship is necessarily lost to us, we can infer genuine loyalty and mutual respect between the two. They remained married despite the fact that she bore him no child. Livia's position as first lady of the imperial household, her own family connections, her confident personality and her private wealth allowed her to exercise power both through Augustus and on her own, during his lifetime and afterward. All the Julio-Claudian emperors were her direct descendants: Tiberius was her son; Gaius (Caligula), her great-grandson; Claudius, her grandson; Nero, her great-great-grandson.

Tiberius and Livia- Thessalonica, Macedonia/Size: 22.5mm/Reference: RPC 1567
Obverse: TI KAISAR SEBASTOS, bare head of Tiberius right Reverse: QESSALONIKEWN SEBASTOU, draped bust of Livia right.

Ex-Imperial Coins
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002e. Octavia; Crete, Knossos.32 viewsCrete, Knossos. Nero and Octavia. Æ 26 (26.4 mm, 9.09 g, 1 h). A.D. 54-62. ca. A.D. 55-60. Volumnius Lupinus, magistrate. Vary Rare. NERO CLAV CAES AVG IMP LVPINO VOLVMNIO II, bare-headed bust of Nero right / NERO CLAVD CAES AVG IMP ET OCTAVIA AVGVSTI, confronted busts of Octavia, facing right with crescent overhead, and Nero, bare-headed with a start overhead. RPC 1006; Svoronos 217.ecoli
Augustus_AE-Semis_VIC-AVG_COHOR-PRAE-PHIL_Phillipi-Macedon_SNG-Cop-305_Q-001_h_18mm_0_00g-s.jpg
002p Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), (Time of Claudius or Nero, circa AD 41-68.??? ), Macedon, Phillipi, RPC I 1651, AE-18, (AE Semis), COHOR-PRAE-PHIL, Three military standards,108 views002p Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), (Time of Claudius or Nero, circa AD 41-68.??? ), Macedon, Phillipi, RPC I 1651, AE-18, (AE Semis), COHOR-PRAE-PHIL, Three military standards,
Augustus Macedon Phillipi Æ18 / Struck to Commemorate the Battle of Actium
avers:- VIC-AVG, Nike standing left holding wreath and palm branch.
revers:- COHOR-PRAE-PHIL, Three military standards.
exe: VIC/AVG//--, diameter:18mm, weight: , axis: h,
mint: Macedon, Phillipi, Pseudo-autonomous issue, date: Time of Claudius or Nero, circa AD 41-68., ref: RPC I 1651, SNG ANS 677; SNG Copenhagen 305, BMC 23, SGI 32.
Q-001
"This coin has traditionally been attributed to Augustus, but due to its copper composition, RPC attributes it as likely from Claudius to Nero; Philippi probably did not issue copper coins during the reign of Augustus."
1 commentsquadrans
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003b. Nero & Drusus Caesars33 viewsNero & Drusus Caesars, brothers of Caligula.

There father Germanicus was Heir Apparent to his own adoptive father Emperor Tiberius, but Germanicus predeceased the Emperor in 19. He was replaced as heir by Julius Caesar Drusus, son of Tiberius and his first wife Vipsania Agrippina. But he too predeceased the Emperor on July 1, 23.

Nero and his younger brother Drusus were the oldest adoptive grandsons of Tiberius. They jointly became Heirs Apparent. However, both were accused of treason along with their mother in AD 32. Nero was exiled to an island and Drusus in a prison where they either starved to death or was murdered by order of the emperor in AD 33.

Dupondius. Rome mint, struck under Caligula, 37-38 AD. NERO ET DRVSVS CAESARES, Nero & Drusus on horseback riding right / C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT around large S C.
Cohen 1. RIC 34

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005 NERO21 viewsEMPEROR: Nero
DENOMINATION: Denarius
OBVERSE: NERO CAESAR AVGVSTVS Laureate head right
REVERSE: Salus seated left, holding patera, SALVS in exergue
DATE: Ad 65-66
MINT: Roma
WEIGHT: 3.16 g
RIC: I.60 (R)
Barnaba6
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005. Nero 54-68AD. AE Sestertius, Rome mint, 63AD. DECVRSIO. 38.6mm193 viewsObv. Laureate ead right, wearing aegis NERO CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P
Rev. Nero on horseback prancing right, wearing cuirass, short tunic, and billowing cloak, spear in right hand, to right soldier moving right. carrying vexillum; to leftin shallow relief, soldier running right DECVRSIO in ex
BMCRE 155; Cohen 94, RIC I 176 var (obv legend)
38.6mm, 180o, 63 A.D. Rome mint.
This sestertius was an early emission from the Rome Mint, which resumed striking bronze after about 10 years of inactivity. The talented engraver, perhaps with extra time for this initial project, produced one of the best dies in the entire imperial bronze series. The special style, complemented by superior execution, has similarities to later medallions.


The fine expressive portrait has higher relief than the more common Lugdunum issues.
The reverse uses the roundness of the flan and three geometric planes of relief to both present the scene in a format that draws the eye to the emperor and show movement that is lacking on almost all other Roman coins. The rare use of geometric planes was repeated on ADLOCVTIO sestertii of Galba five years later, perhaps the work of the same artist. Rome sestertii after 70 A.D. are of far less impressive style.


The lack of SC leaves the reverse fields uncluttered. SC stood for Senatus Consultum, "By Decree of the Senate" and signified the role of the Senate in the minting of brass and bronze coinage. Many sestertii of Caligula and some brass and bronze of Nero lack SC. Subsequent issues include SC again, until inflation produced the demise of the sestertius under Gallienus, c. 265 AD
5 commentsLordBest
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005b. Britannicus126 viewsBritannicus (son of Claudius) AE17. Ionia, Smyrna

Britannicus (41 - 55 A.D.) was the son of the Roman emperor Claudius and his third wife Messalina. His original name was "Germanicus" but was changed in honor of his father's conquest of Britain in 43 AD.

Nobody is sure why Claudius made Nero his successor and not Britannicus, although the fact that Britannicus may have been Caligula's son is a factor. Britannicus was killed by (partisans of) his step-brother (and brother-in-law) Nero so that Nero could become emperor of Rome.

His sister Octavia is the heroine of the play written at some time after the death of Nero. It's title is titled her name, but its central message is the wrong done to the Claudian house because of the wrong done to its last male member and its last hope.

Britannicus. Before 54 AD. AE 17mm (4.31 g), Minted at Ionia, Smyrna. Bare head right 'ZMYP' below bust / Nike flying right. cf S(GIC) 516. Scarce. Some dirt and patina chipping.

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005d. Agrippina II89 viewsLYDIA, Hypaepa. Agrippina Jr., mother of Nero. Augusta, 50-59 AD. Æ 14mm (2.33 gm). Draped bust of Agrippina right / Cult statue of Artemis. RPC I 2541; SNG Copenhagen -.

Julia Vipsania Agrippina Minor or Agrippina Minor (Latin for "the younger") (November 7, AD 15 – March 59), often called "Agrippinilla" to distinguish her from her mother, was the daughter of Germanicus and Agrippina Major. She was sister of Caligula, granddaughter and great-niece to Tiberius, niece and wife of Claudius, and the mother of Nero. She was born at Oppidum Ubiorum on the Rhine, afterwards named in her honour Colonia Agrippinae (modern Cologne, Germany).

Agrippina was first married to (1st century AD) Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus. From this marriage she gave birth to Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, who would become Roman Emperor Nero. Her husband died in January, 40. While still married, Agrippina participated openly in her brother Caligula's decadent court, where, according to some sources, at his instigation she prostituted herself in a palace. While it was generally agreed that Agrippinilla, as well as her sisters, had ongoing sexual relationships with their brother Caligula, incest was an oft-used criminal accusation against the aristocracy, because it was impossible to refute successfully. As Agrippina and her sister became more problematic for their brother, Caligula sent them into exile for a time, where it is said she was forced to dive for sponges to make a living. In January, 41, Agrippina had a second marriage to the affluent Gaius Sallustius Crispus Passienus. He died between 44 and 47, leaving his estate to Agrippina.

As a widow, Agrippina was courted by the freedman Pallas as a possible marriage match to her own uncle, Emperor Claudius, and became his favourite councillor, even granted the honor of being called Augusta (a title which no other queen had ever received). They were married on New Year's Day of 49, after the death of Claudius's first wife Messalina. Agrippina then proceeded to persuade Claudius to adopt her son, thereby placing Nero in the line of succession to the Imperial throne over Claudius's own son, Brittanicus. A true Imperial politician, Agrippina did not reject murder as a way to win her battles. Many ancient sources credited her with poisoning Claudius in 54 with a plate of poisened mushrooms, hence enabling Nero to quickly take the throne as emperor.

For some time, Agrippina influenced Nero as he was relatively ill-equipped to rule on his own. But Nero eventually felt that she was taking on too much power relative to her position as a woman of Rome. He deprived her of her honours and exiled her from the palace, but that was not enough. Three times Nero tried to poison Agrippina, but she had been raised in the Imperial family and was accustomed to taking antidotes. Nero had a machine built and attached to the roof of her bedroom. The machine was designed to make the ceiling collapse — the plot failed with the machine. According to the historians Tacitus and Suetonius, Nero then plotted her death by sending for her in a boat constructed to collapse, intending to drown Agrippina. However, only some of the crew were in on the plot; their efforts were hampered by the rest of the crew trying to save the ship. As the ship sank, one of her handmaidens thought to save herself by crying that she was Agrippina, thinking they would take special care of her. Instead the maid was instantly beaten to death with oars and chains. The real Agrippina realised what was happening and in the confusion managed to swim away where a passing fisherman picked her up. Terrified that his cover had been blown, Nero instantly sent men to charge her with treason and summarily execute her. Legend states that when the Emperor's soldiers came to kill her, Agrippina pulled back her clothes and ordered them to stab her in the belly that had housed such a monstrous son.

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005d. Nero Claudius Drusus31 viewsNero Claudius Drusus. Died 9 BC. Æ Sestertius (35mm, 27.77 g, 6h). Rome mint. Struck under Claudius, circa AD 50-54. Bare head of Nero Claudius left / Claudius seated left on curule chair, holding branch and roll; around chair, weapons and armor to either side of globe. RIC I 109 (Claudius). Fine, rough reddish-brown surfaces.

Ex-CNG sale 209, lot 325 128/100

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006 - Nero (54-68 AD), As - RIC 34738 viewsObv: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG GERM, laureate head right.
Rev: PACE P R VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT, S - C in fields, temple of Janus with closed doors on right.
Minted in Rome c. 66 AD.

(Sold)
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006. Nero24 viewsNero Æ As. IMP NERO CAESAR AVG GERM, laureate head right. / Victoria, personifying victory, flying right, holding a shield inscribed S P Q R, S C at sides

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006. Nero28 viewsAE Dupondius
Date: 54-68 AD
Obverse: NERO CLAVDI CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P- Laureate head left.
Reverse: VICTORIA AVGVSTI S C - Victory flying left, holding wreath and palm.
Mint: Rome
Reference: RIC I, 199 - BMC 219
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006. Nero (54 AD - 68 AD) 47 viewsNero, last of the Julio-Claudians, had been placed in the difficult position of absolute authority at a young age coupled with the often-contradictory efforts of those in a position to manipulate him. Augustus, however, had not been much older when he began his bid for power, and so a great deal of the responsibility for Nero's conduct must also rest with the man himself. Nero's reign was not without military operations (e.g., the campaigns of Corbulo against the Parthians, the suppression of the revolt of Boudicca in Britain), but his neglect of the armies was a critical error.

Nero As, 26x27 mm, 10.0 g. Obverse: Nero laureate right, NERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP. Reverse: Temple of Janus, with latticed window to left and closed double doors to right, PACE PR VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT, SC.

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1 commentsecoli
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006a. Claudia16 viewsEGYPT, Alexandria. Nero, with Claudia. AD 54-68. BI Tetradrachm (22mm, 10.74 g, 12h). Dated RY 3 (AD 56/57). Laureate head of Nero right / Draped bust of Claudia Octavia right; L Γ (date) below chin. Köln 122-4; Dattari (Savio) 190; K&G 14.7; RPC I 5202; Emmett 127.3. Near VF. Ex - CNG

Furthermore, the carefully contrived marriage between Octavia and Nero was a disaster on a personal level. Nero soon embarked on a serious relationship with a freedman named Acte, and more importantly developed an active dislike for his wife. "Quickly feeling aversion to intimacy with Octavia, he replied to his friends who were finding fault with him that she ought to be satisfied with the outward trappings of a wife." This antipthy was not likely to produce offspring who would unite the Julian and Claudian lines. By 58 Nero was becoming involved with a freeborn mistress, Poppaea, whom he would want to make his empress in exchange for Octavia. But the legitimacy of his principate derived from his relationship with his predecessor, and he was not so secure that he could do without the connection with Claudius provided through his mother and his wife. In 59 he was able to arrange for Agrippina's death, but it was not until 62 that he felt free to divorce Octavia and marry Poppaea. The initial grounds for putting Octavia aside was the charge that she was barren because she had had no children. But a more aggressive attack was needed when opposition arose from those who still challenged Nero's prncipate and remained loyal to Octavia as the last representative of her family. With the connivance of Poppaea, charges of adultery were added, Octavia was banished to Campania and then to the island of Pandataria off the coast, and finally killed. Her severed head was sent to Rome.
2 commentsecoli
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006a. Nero / Poppaea31 viewsAlexandria, Egypt: Nero / Poppaea

Poppaea was married first to Rufrius Crispinus, then to the future (brief) emperor Otho. When Poppaea became mistress of the emperor Nero, Otho's friend, Nero appointed Otho to an important post as governor of Lusitai. Nero married Poppaea, and Poppaea was given the title Augusta. Poppaea and Nero had a daughter, Claudia, who did not live long. Poppaea urged Nero to kill his mother, Agrippina the Younger, and to divorce and later murder his first wife, Octavia. She is also reported to have persuaded Nero to kill the philosopher Seneca, who had supported Nero's previous mistress, Acte Claudia. Nero supposedly kicked her when she was pregnant in 65 C.E. and she died.

Billon tetradrachm, AD 54-68 (year 10 = AD 64) . 11.79gm, 24mm. Radiate head of Nero right / Bust of Poppaea right. Emmett 128 (10); Milne 218. F+ with some corrosion on reverse. Purchased from C. & L. Deland in 1973.
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006c. Statilia Messalina 17 viewsIONIA, Ephesus. Nero, with Statilia Messalina. AD 54-68. Æ . Struck AD 66. Laureate head of Nero right / Draped bust of Messalina right. RPC 2631; SNG von Aulock 7864. Very rare.
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007. Galba (68 AD - 69 AD)154 viewsGALBA. 68-69 AD.

Galba had displayed talent and ambition during his lengthy career. He enjoyed distinguished ancestry, moved easily among the Julio-Claudian emperors (with the exception of Nero towards the end of his principate), and had been awarded the highest military and religious honors of ancient Rome. His qualifications for the principate cannot be questioned. Even so, history has been unkind to him. Tacitus characterized Galba as "weak and old," a man "equal to the imperial office, if he had never held it." To be sure, Galba's greatest mistake lay in his general handling of the military. His treatment of the army in Upper Germany was heedless, his policy towards the praetorians short sighted. Given the climate in 68-69, Galba was unrealistic in expecting disciplina without paying the promised rewards.

AR Denarius (18mm, 2.97 gm). Rome mint. Bare head right / Legend in three lines within oak wreath. RIC I 167; RSC 287. Ex-CNG
2 commentsecoli73
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008. Otho 69 AD314 viewsOTHO. 69 AD.

Otho remains an enigma - part profligate Neronian wastrel and part conscientious military commander willing to give his life for the good of the state. Our sources are at a loss to explain the paradox. Neither Otho's person nor his bearing suggested such great courage. He is said to have been of moderate height, splay-footed and bandy-legged, but almost feminine in his care of his person. He had the hair of his body plucked out, and because of the thinness of his locks wore a wig so carefully fashioned and fitted to his head, that no one suspected it. Moreover, they say that he used to shave every day and smear his face with moist bread, beginning the practice with the appearance of the first down, so as never to have a beard; also that he used to celebrate the rites of Isis publicly in the linen garment prescribed by the cult.

AR Denarius (18mm, 3.20 gm). Bare head left / Securitas standing left, holding wreath and sceptre. RIC I 12; RSC 19. Fine. Ex-CNG
2 commentsecoli73
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009 Nero Claudius Drusus. AE sest. 39 viewsobv: NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMANICUS IMP bare head l.
rev: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TR P IMP Claudius seated l. on curule chair,
weapons and armer lying around
"brother of Tiberius"
1 commentshill132
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01 - Personalities of the Empire82 viewsPompey, Brutus, Julius Caesar, Marc Antony, Augustus, Livia, Caius & Lucius, Agrippa, Nero Claudius Drusus, Germanicus, Agrippina Sr., Tiberius, Drusus and Antonia1 commentsmdelvalle
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01-75 - Filipi - Macedonia - AUGUSTO (27 A.C. - 14 D.C.)18 viewsAE17 17 mm 5.0 gr.
Atribuida a Octavio/Augusto pero por la composición del metal correspondería su acuñación desde Claudio I a Neron, Filipi probablemente no acuñara en cobre durante el reinado de Augusto.

Anv: "VIC - AVG" a los lados de Victoria estante a izquierda sobre una base, portando guirnalda y hoja de palma.
Rev: "COHOR PRAE PHIL" - rodeando a tres estandartes militares.

Acuñada probablemente 41 A.C. - 68 D.C.
Ceca: Filipi - Macedonia

Referencias: RPC I #1651 Pag.308 - SNG Cop #305/6 - Sear GICTV #32 Pag.4 - BMC 5 #23 Pag.98 - SNG ANS #674-677
mdelvalle
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010. Vespasian 69 AD - 79 AD36 viewsVespasian

The character of this emperor showed very little, if anything, of the pagan tyrant. Though himself a man of no literary culture, he became the protector of his prisoner of war, the Jewish historian Josephus, a worshipper of the One God, and even permitted him the use of his own family name (Flavius). While this generosity may have been in some degree prompted by Josephus's shrewd prophecy of Vespasian's elevation to the purple, there are other instances of his disposition to reward merit in those with whom he was by no means personally sympathetic. Vespasian has the distinction of being the first Roman Emperor to transmit the purple to his own son; he is also noteworthy in Roman imperial history as having very nearly completed his seventieth year and died a natural death: being in feeble health, he had withdrawn to benefit by the purer air of his native Reate, in the "dewy fields" (rosei campi) of the Sabine country. By his wife, Flavia Domitilla, he left two sons, Titus and Domitian, and a daughter, Domitilla, through whom the name of Vespasian's empress was passed on to a granddaughter who is revered as a confessor of the Faith.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century. In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!"

Denarius. IMP CAES VESP AVG P M COS IIII, laureate head right / VES-TA to either side of Vesta standing left, holding simpulum & scepter. RSC 574
ecoli
Nero_AR-Den_NERO-CAESAR-AVGVSTVS_VESTA_RIC-I-62_p-153_C-335_Rome_65-66-AD_Rare_Q-001_6h_16-16,5mm_3,31g-s.jpg
014 Nero (54-68 A.D.), RIC I 0062, Rome, AR-Denarius, VESTA,95 views014 Nero (54-68 A.D.), RIC I 0062, Rome, AR-Denarius, VESTA,
avers: NERO CAESAR AVGVSTVS, laureate head right,
revers: VESTA, hexastyle temple of Vesta with domed roof and statue of Vesta within.
exerg: , diameter: 16-16,5mm, weight: g3,31, axes: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 65-66 A.D., ref: RIC I 0062, p-153, RSC-335, BMC-104,
Q-001
quadrans
Nero_AR-Den_IMP-NERO-CAESAR-AVG-P-P_SALVS_RIC-I-71_Rome_67-68-AD_Rare_Q-001_5h_17-17,5mm_3,06g-s.jpg
014 Nero (54-68 A.D.), RIC I 0071, Rome, AR-Denarius, SALVS, 100 views014 Nero (54-68 A.D.), RIC I 0071, Rome, AR-Denarius, SALVS,
avers: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P P, Laureate head right.
revers: Salus seated left, holding patera, SALVS in ex.
exerg: -/-//SALVS, diameter: 17-17,5mm, weight: 3,06g, axes: 5h,
mint: Rome, date: 67-68 A.D., ref: RIC I 0071, BMC-98,
Q-001
quadrans
Nero_AR-Den_IMP-NERO-CAESAR-AVG-P-P_SA-LVS_RIC-I-72_Rome_67-68-AD_Rare_Q-001_6h_18-19mm_3,34g-s.jpg
014 Nero (54-68 A.D.), RIC I 0072, Rome, AR-Denarius, SA-LVS, 108 views014 Nero (54-68 A.D.), RIC I 0072, Rome, AR-Denarius, SA-LVS,
avers: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P P, laureate head right.
revers: SA-LVS, to either side of Salus seated left holding patera.
exerg: SA/LVS//--, diameter: 18-19mm, weight: 3,34g, axes: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 67-68, ref: RIC I 0072, p-154, RSC-320, BMC-99,
Q-001
quadrans
Nero,_RIC_I_214,_AE-AS,_NERO_CLAVD_CAESAR_AVG_GER_P_M_TR_P_IMP_P_P,_GENIO_AVGVSTI,_S-C,_I,_Sear_1977,_WCN_269,_BMC_252,_Rome_63AD,Q-001,_6h,_22-23mm,_4,82g-s.jpg
014 Nero (54-68 A.D.), RIC I 0214, Lugdunum, AE-As, S/C//--, GENIO AVGVSTI, Genius standing left, 64 views014 Nero (54-68 A.D.), RIC I 0214, Lugdunum, AE-As, S/C//--, GENIO AVGVSTI, Genius standing left,
avers: NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER P M TR P IMP P P, Laureate head right.
reverse: GENIO AVGVSTI, Genius standing left, sacrificing from patera over altar, and holding cornucopiae, S C across fields.
exergue: S/C//--, diameter: 22,0-23,0mm, weight: 4,82 (!)g, axis: 6h,
mint: Lugdunum, date: 63A.D., ref: RIC I 214, Sear 1977, BMC 252,
Q-001
quadrans
Nero_AE-Semis_NERO-CAESAR-AVG-IMP_CER-_QVINQ-ROM-CO_S-_S-C_RIC-234_C-47_Rome_64-AD__Q-001_h_18mm_4,35g-s.jpg
014 Nero (54-68 A.D.), RIC I 0234, Rome, AE-Semis, CER QVINQ ROM CO,90 views014 Nero (54-68 A.D.), RIC I 0234, Rome, AE-Semis, CER QVINQ ROM CO,
avers:- NERO-CAESAR-AVG-IMP, Laureate head right.
revers:- CER-QVINQ-ROM-CO, SC in ex, mark of value S on table, urn and a wreath set on a table, two griffins on front panel, round shield resting against leg.
exergo: -/-//S-C, diameter: 18mm, weight: 4,35g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 64 A.D., ref: RIC-234, C-47,
Q-001
quadrans
Nero_AE-AS_IMP-NERO-CAESAR-AVG-GERM_PACE-PR-VBIQ-PARTA-IANVM-CLVSIT_S-C_RIC-348_C-_Rome_66-AD_Q-001_6h_27mm_11,14g-s.jpg
014 Nero (54-68 A.D.), RIC I 0348, Rome, AE-As, PACE PR VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT, S-C,112 views014 Nero (54-68 A.D.), RIC I 0348, Rome, AE-As, PACE PR VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT, S-C,
avers: IMP-NERO-CAESAR-AVG-GERM, Laureate head left.
revers: PACE-PR-VBIQ-PARTA-IANVM-CLVSIT, View of one front of the temple of Janus, with latticed window to left, and garland hung across closed double doors on the right, S C across fields.
exe: S/C//--, diameter: 27mm, weight: 11,14g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 66 AD., ref: RIC-348, C-,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Nero_AE-AS_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
014 Nero (54-68 A.D.), RIC I 0351, Rome, AE-As, S-C, Victory flying left,96 views014 Nero (54-68 A.D.), RIC I 0351, Rome, AE-As, S-C, Victory flying left,
avers: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG GERM, Laureate head right.
revers: Victory flying left, holding shield inscribed SPQR. S C across fields.
exerg: S/C//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 66A.D., ref: RIC-351, BMCRE 246, WCN 296,
Q-001
quadrans
Nero_AE-AS_IMP-NERO-CAESAR-AVG-P-MAX-TR-P-P-P_GENIO-AVGVSTI_S-C_RIC-533_C-_Lugdunum_66-AD__Q-001_h_28mm_9,79g-s.jpg
014 Nero (54-68 A.D.), RIC I 0464, Lugdunum, AE-As, GENIO AVGVSTI,129 views014 Nero (54-68 A.D.), RIC I 0464, Lugdunum, AE-As, GENIO AVGVSTI,
avers: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P MAX TR P P P, Laureate head right.
reverse: GENIO AVGVSTI, Genius standing left, sacrificing from patera over altar, and holding cornucopiae, S C across fields.
exergue: S/C//--, diameter: 28mm, weight: 9,79g, axis: 6h,
mint: Lugdunum, date: 66 AD., ref: RIC-464, C-,
Q-001
quadrans
Nero_AE-Dup_IMP-NERO-CAESAR-AVG-P-MAX-TR-P-P-P_VICTORIA-AVGVSTI_S-C_RIC-522_C-343_Lugdunum_66-67-AD__Q-001_h_29-30mm_16,22g-s.jpg
014 Nero (54-68 A.D.), RIC I 0522, Lugdunum, AE-Dupondius, VICTORIA AVGVSTI,128 views014 Nero (54-68 A.D.), RIC I 0522, Lugdunum, AE-Dupondius, VICTORIA AVGVSTI,
avers: IMP-NERO-CAESAR-AVG-P-MAX-TR-P-P-P, Laureate head right.
revers: VICTORIA-AVGVSTI, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm; S C across fields.
exerg: S/C//--, diameter: 29-30mm, weight: 16,22g, axis: 6h,
mint: Lugdunum, date: 66-67 A.D., ref: RIC-522, C-343,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Nero_AE-AS_IMP-NERO-CAESAR-AVG-P-MAX-TR-P-P-P_S-C_RIC-xx_BMC-xx_C-xx_Rome-40-41-AD_Q-001_h_29-30mm_8,19g-s.jpg
014 Nero (54-68 A.D.), RIC I 0544, Lugdunum, AE-As, S-C, Victory flying left,84 views014 Nero (54-68 A.D.), RIC I 0544, Lugdunum, AE-As, S-C, Victory flying left,
avers: IMP-NERO-CAESAR-AVG-P-MAX-TR-P-P-P, Bare head left, globe at point of bust.
revers: Victory flying left, holding shield inscribed SPQR. S C across fields.
exerg: S/C//--, diameter: 29-30mm, weight: 8,19g, axis: h,
mint: Lugdunum, date: 66A.D., ref: RIC-544, BMC 388, C 303, CBN 171.
Q-001
quadrans
014_Nero_(54-68_A_D_),_AE-17,_Ionia,_Smyrna,_NE_#929;_#937;NA_CEBACTON,_NEIKHN__#928;O_#928;_#928;AIA_ZMY_#929;,_RPC_2486;_Klose_31,_62-65_AD,_Q-001,_h,_17,5mm,_4,1g-s.jpg
014p Nero (54-68 A.D.), AE-17, Ionia, Smyrna, RPC 2486, Poppaea as Nike, advancing left,144 views014p Nero (54-68 A.D.), AE-17, Ionia, Smyrna, RPC 2486, Poppaea as Nike, advancing left,
avers: NEΡΩNA CEBACTON, Laureate head right.
reverse: NEIKHN ΠOΠΠAIA ZMYΡ, Poppaea as Nike, advancing left, holding wreath and cornucopiae.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter:17,5mm, weight: 4,10g, axis: h,
mint: Ionia, Smyrna, date: 62-65 A.D., ref: RPC 2486, Klose 31.,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
014p_Nero_(54-68_A_D_),_AE-18,_Lydia,_Apollonoshieron,_RPC_I_3045,_Apollo_standing_front_Q-001_6h_18mm_3,04g-s.jpg
014p Nero (54-68 A.D.), AE-18, Lydia, Apollonoshieron, RPC I 3045, Apollo standing front,148 views014p Nero (54-68 A.D.), AE-18, Lydia, Apollonoshieron, RPC I 3045, Apollo standing front,
avers: NEΡΩN KAICAΡ CEBACTOC, laureate head right
revers: AΠOΛΛΩNI/EΡEITΩN, Apollo standing front, head right, holding patera in right hand and resting with left on lyre.
exe: -/-//--, diameter:18,0mm, weight: 3,04g, axis: 6h
mint: Lydia, Apollonoshieron, date: 54-68 AD., ref: RPC I 3045; BMC 8-9; SNG Cop 33.
Q-001
quadrans
014_Nero_AE-22_Koinon-of-Thessaly_Diassarion_NEP_N-_E-__A__N-laureate-head-right_API_TI_NO_-_TPATH_-OV-Apollo-standing-right-playing_54-68-AD_1h_21-23mm_9,55gx-s.jpg
014p Nero (54-68 A.D.), AE-22, Thessaly, Koinon, RPC 1439, Diassarion, Apollo,68 views014p Nero (54-68 A.D.), AE-22, Thessaly, Koinon, RPC 1439, Diassarion, Apollo,
avers: NEPΩN-ΘE-ΣΣAΛ-ΩN , Laureate head right.
revers: APIΣTIΩNOΣ-ΣTPATHΓ-OV, Apollo Kitharoedos standing right, holding kithara in his left hand, playing it with his right.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 21-23mm, weight: 9,55g, axis: 1h
mint: Thessaly, Koinon, date: 54-68 AD., ref: Burrer Em. 1, Series 1, 16 (A3/R13); RPC 1439,
Q-001
quadrans
014_Nero_(54-68_AD)Billon-Tetradrachm,_G-160-61,_D-251-52,_Alexandria,_NEP_-K_AY-KAI_-_EB-_EP_AYTOKPA-L-I_Serapis_Q-001_axis-11h_23,5-25mm_11,53g-s.jpg
014p Nero (54-68 A.D.), AR-Tetradrachm, G-160-161, D-251-252, Egypt, Alexandria, AY-TOKPA, Draped bust of Serapis right,67 views014p Nero (54-68 A.D.), AR-Tetradrachm, G-160-161, D-251-252, Egypt, Alexandria, AY-TOKPA, Draped bust of Serapis right,
avers:- NERΩ-KΛAΥ-KAIΣ-ΣEB-ΓER, Radiate head of Nero right
revers:- AY-TOKPA, Draped bust of Serapis right, wearing calathus, date (LI) to right.
exe: -/LI//--, diameter: 23,5-25mm, weight: 11,53g, axis: 11h,
mint: Alexandria, date: Dated year (LI) 10 = 63-64 A.D., ref: Geissen-160-161, Dattari-251-252, Kapmann-Ganschow-14.77-p-59, RPC-5274,
Q-001
quadrans
014_Nero_(54-68_AD)Billon-Tetradrachm,_G-167,_D-271,_Alexandria,_NEP_-K_AY-KAI_-_EB-_EP_AYTOKPA-L-IA_Simpulum-right_Q-001_axis-1h_24mm_13,86g-s.jpg
014p Nero (54-68 A.D.), AR-Tetradrachm, G-167, D-271, Egypt, Alexandria, AY-TOKPA, Eagle standing left,91 views014p Nero (54-68 A.D.), AR-Tetradrachm, G-167, D-271, Egypt, Alexandria, AY-TOKPA, Eagle standing left,
avers:- NERΩ-KΛAΥ-KAIΣ-ΣEB-ΓER-AY, Radiate head of Nero right
revers:- AY-TOKPA, Eagle standing left, palm over far wing, date (L-IA) to left.
exe: L-IA/Simpulum//--, diameter: 24mm, weight: 13,86g, axis: 1h,
mint: Alexandria, date: Dated year (L IA) 11 = 64-65 A.D., ref: Geissen-167, Dattari-271, Kapmann-Ganschow-14.83-p-59, RPC-5284,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
014_Nero_(54-68_A_D_),_Billon-Tetradrachm,_Milne_0223,_Alexandria,__O__AIA__EBA_TH,_draped_bust_of_Poppaea_right,_Q-001_axis-0h_23,5mm_12,89ga-s.jpg
014p Nero (54-68 A.D.), AR-Tetradrachm, G-168-169, D-197-198, Egypt, Alexandria, ΠOΠΠAIA ΣEBAΣTH, draped bust of Poppaea right,102 views014p Nero (54-68 A.D.), AR-Tetradrachm, G-168-169, D-197-198, Egypt, Alexandria, ΠOΠΠAIA ΣEBAΣTH, draped bust of Poppaea right,
avers:- NERΩ ΛKAΥ KAIΣ ΣEB ΓER AV, radiate head of Nero right
revers:- ΠOΠΠAIA ΣEBAΣTH, draped bust of Poppaea right, LIA to right.
exe: -/LIA//--, diameter: 23,5mm, weight: 12,89g, axis: 0h,
mint: Alexandria, date: Dated year (LIA) 11 = 64-65 A.D., ref: Geissen-168-169, Dattari-197-198, Kapmann-Ganschow-14.85-p-59, RPC-5280-5282, Milne 223, Koln 168, BMCGr 124,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
014p_Nero_(54-68_A_D_),_AE-16,_Lydia,_Maeonia,_Menekrates,_strategos_,_Nero_r_,_RPC_3015,_Q-001,_0h,_16-16,5mm,_3,09g-s.jpg
014p Nero (54-68 A.D.), Lydia, Maeonia, RPC 3015, AE-16, Mên (Lunus), standing left, #157 views014p Nero (54-68 A.D.), Lydia, Maeonia, RPC 3015, AE-16, Mên (Lunus), standing left, #1
avers: NЄPΩИ KAIΣAP, Laureate head right.
reverse: MAIONΩN MENEKPATOYΣ / ЄΠ TI KΛ, Mên (Lunus), standing left, holding pine cone and scepter.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 16,0-16,5mm, weight: 3,09g, axes: 0h,
mint: Lydia, Maeonia, date: 65 A.D., ref: RPC 3015, BMC 35,
Q-001
quadrans
014_Nero_(54-68_A_D_),_AE22,_Thessalonika,_Macedon,_RPC_I__1603,_Moushmov_Online_6707b,_Q-001,_7h,_23mm,_6,68g-s~0.jpg
014p Nero (54-68 A.D.), Macedonia, Thessalonica, RPC-1603, AE-23, ΘEΣΣA/ΛONIKE/ΩN, in oak wreath, #163 views014p Nero (54-68 A.D.), Macedonia, Thessalonica, RPC-1603, AE-23, ΘEΣΣA/ΛONIKE/ΩN, in oak wreath, #1
avers: NEΡΩN ΣEBAΣTOΣ KAIΣAΡ, Bare head of Nero left.
reverse: ΘEΣΣA/ΛONIKE/ΩN in three lines, surrounded by an oak wreath, eagle with wings spread above.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 23,0mm, weight: 6,68g, axis: 7h,
mint: Macedonia, Thessalonica, date: 54-68 A.D., ref: RPC-1603, Moushmov Online 6707b,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
014_Nero_(54-68_A_D_),_Syria,_Antioch,_AR-Tetradrachm,Laur_bust_r_,_Eaglel_,_RPC-4182,_61-62_AD,_Q-001_1h_19,5-20,5mm_8,51g-s.jpg
014p Nero (54-68 A.D.), Syria, Antioch, RPC 4182, AR-Tetradrachm, Palm/H/IP//--, Eagle standing left on thunderbolt,104 views014p Nero (54-68 A.D.), Syria, Antioch, RPC 4182, AR-Tetradrachm, Palm/H/IP//--, Eagle standing left on thunderbolt,
avers:- NEPΩNOΣ KAIΣAPOΣ ΣEBAΣTOY, Laureate bust right, wearing aegis.
revers:- Eagle standing left on thunderbolt, palm branch before, H/IP behind.
exe: Palm/H/IP//--, diameter: 24,5-25,5mm, weight: 14,15g, axis: 1h,
mint: Syria, Antioch, date: Regnal year 8, Caesarian year 110 = 61/62 A.D., ref: RPC 4182,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Syria,_Antioch,_014_Nero_(54-68_A_D_),AE20_Semis_IM_NER_CLAV_CAESAR,_laur_head_R__SC_in_wreath,SNG_Cop_161,_Wruck_51,_RPC-4297_Q-001_1h_19,5-20,5mm_8,51g-s~0.jpg
014p Nero (54-68 A.D.), Syria, Antioch, SNG Cop 161, AE-20 Semis, SC within circle, laurel wreath around,154 views014p Nero (54-68 A.D.), Syria, Antioch, SNG Cop 161, AE-20 Semis, SC within circle, laurel wreath around,
avers:- IM•NER•CLAV CAESAR, Laureate head right.
revers:- SC within circle, laurel wreath around.
exe: S/C//--, diameter: 19,5-20,5 mm, weight: 8,51g, axis: 1h,
mint: Syria, Antioch, date: 54-68 A.D., ref: SNG Cop 161, RPC 4297, Wruck 51,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
16a.jpg
016a Aggrippina jr. AE14 2.1gm26 viewsobv: drp. bust r.
rev: cult statue of Artemis
"mother of Nero, doughter of germanicus,
sister of Caligula, wife of Claudius"
hill132
17a.jpg
017a Nero. AE AS 10.7gm27 viewsobv: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P MAX TR PPP bare head r.
rev: SC/Victory with shield inscribed SPQR
hill132
18.jpg
018 Poppaea. AE26 10.46gm23 viewsobv: draped and cressent bust r.
rev:headress of ISIS, TI-E to eather side, all within wreath
" 2nd wife of Nero "
hill132
0191.jpg
0191 - Denarius Nero 60-61 AC48 viewsObv/NERO CAESAR AVG IMP, bare head of Nero r.
Rev/PONTIF MAX TR P VII COS III PP, Ceres standing l. holding two ears of grain and long torch; EX SC in field.

Ag, 18.5mm, 3.38g
Mint: Rome
RIC I/24 [R3] - BMCRE I/35
ex-Silbury Coins, art.# LR638
1 commentsdafnis
Personajes_Imperiales_2.jpg
02 - Personalities of the Empire58 viewsCalígula, Claudius, Britannicus , Agrippina jr., Nero, Galba, Otho, Vitellius, Vespasian, Domitila, Titus, Domitia and Julia Titi1 commentsmdelvalle
RI 020b img.jpg
020 - Nero AE As - RIC 543 59 viewsAE As
Obv:– IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P MAX TR P P P (separated with dots), Bare head right with globe at tip
Rev:– -, Victory flying left holding shield inscribed S P Q R, S - C
Minted in Lugdunum. Circa A.D. 66
Reference:– BMCRE 381. RIC Vol I Nero 543

A decent example with a broken patina, a decent portrait, clear legends with the dots in the legends clearly visible.

Please click on the image to see a larger photograph.
2 commentsmaridvnvm
GI_020a_img.jpg
020 - Nero Billon Tetradrachm - Milne 22222 viewsObv:- NERW KLAY KAIS SEB GER, Radiate head of Nero right
Rev:– AYTO-KPA, Draped bust of Serapis right
Minted in Alexandria. LI in right field. Dated Year 10 (63/4 AD).
Reference:– Köln 160; Dattari 251; Milne 222; Emmett 133; RPC I 5274
2 commentsmaridvnvm
GI_020c_img.jpg
020 - Nero Billon Tetradrachm - Milne 23632 viewsBillon Tetradrachm
Obv:- NERW KLAY KAIS SEB GER, Radiate head of Nero right
Rev:– AYTO-KPA, Eagle standing left, palm under wing, simpulum in right field
Minted in Alexandria. L IA in left field. Dated Year 11 (64/5 AD).
Reference:– Dattari 271; Milne 236; Curtis 97; BMC Alexandria p 20, 166; RPC I 5284; Geissen 167; Kampmann-Ganschow 14.83
maridvnvm
RI_020a_img.jpg
020 - Nero Denarius - RIC 28 (Pre-reform)61 viewsObv:– NERO CAESAR AVG IMP, Bare head right
Rev:– PONTIF MAX TR P VII COS IIII P P, Oak leaves, surrounding EX SC
Minted in Lugdunum. A.D. 60-61
References:– RIC II 28 (R3)
1 commentsmaridvnvm
IMG_4373~0.jpg
027. Nero (54-68 A.D.)40 viewsAv.: NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER P M TR P IMP P P
Rv.: VICTORIA AVGVSTI / S-C

AE Dupondius Ø29 / 13.1g
RIC 449 Lugdunum, WCN 516
Juancho
Nero-Prieur-89.jpg
027. Nero.16 viewsTetradrachm, 63-64 AD, Antioch mint.
Obverse: ΝΕΡΩΝ ΚΑΙΣΑΡ ΣΕΒΑΣΤΟΣ / Laureate bust of Nero.
Reverse: ΕΤΟΥΣ ΒΙΡ . Ι / Eagle on thunderbolt, palm branch at right.
14.25 gm., 25 mm.
Prieur #89.

Dating this coin: BIP is the Greek way of writing the numeral 112 (B = 2; I = 10; P = 100) -- which is year 112 of the Caesarean Era of Antioch ( which started numbering from the Battle of Pharsalia, Aug. 9, 48 BC). The second I (after BIP) stands for the 10'th year of Nero's reign, which by today's reckoning is 63 - 64 AD.
Callimachus
Vespasian-RIC-15.jpg
035. Vespasian.39 viewsDenarius, 69-71 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG / Laureate bust of Vespasian.
Reverse: IVDAEA / Jewish woman captive seated on ground, mourning; trophy behind her.
3.44 gm., 18 mm.
RIC #15; Sear #2296.

When the Jewish Revolt began in 66 AD, Nero appointed Vespasian supreme commander in the East to put down the uprising. In 69 AD Vespasian made his own bid for the throne and left his son Titus to finish up the Jewish War -- which he did in 70 AD by capturing Jerusalem and destroying the Temple. This victory of Vespasian and Titus was the major military event of the reign, and numerous coins were issued to commemorate it.
2 commentsCallimachus
Antonia_03_portrait.jpg
036 BC - AD 037 - ANTONIA10 viewsAntonia

Antonia 36 BC - 37 was the younger of two daughters of Mark Antony and Octavia Minor. She was a niece of the Emperor Augustus, sister-in-law of the Emperor Tiberius, paternal grandmother of the Emperor Caligula and Empress Agrippina the Younger, mother of the Emperor Claudius, and both maternal great-grandmother and paternal great-aunt of the Emperor Nero

for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
cd3961.JPG
042 Nero Claudius Drusus25 viewsNero Claudius Drusus AE Sestertius. NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMANICVS IMP, bare head left / TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, Claudius, togate, seated left on curule chair, holding branch; arms lying around; SC in ex.




"When, three months after her marriage to Augustus, Livia gave birth to Decimus (later Nero) Drusus - the father of the future Emperor Claudius - people naturally suspected that he was the product of adultry with his stepfather."
Randygeki(h2)
Claudius_RIC_I_58.jpg
05 Claudius RIC I 58249 viewsClaudius 41-54 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome Mint 50-51 A.D. (3.58g, 18.4mm, 8h). Obv: TI CLAVD CAESAR AVG P M TR P X PP IMP XVIII, laureate head right. Rev: PACI AVGVSTAE, Pax-Nemesis advancing right, holding winged caduceus pointed at snake. RIC I 58, RSC 66a. Ex CNG 258, Lot: 348.

Claudius was a capable, yet unlikely emperor. Shunned as an idiot by his family due to a limp and embarrassing stutter. After Caligula's murder the Praetorian Guard proclaimed him emperor. He governed well and conquered the troublesome island of Britain. He was poisoned by his second wife, mother of Nero. It was very difficult for me to find a denarius of Claudius, and I love this reverse.
8 commentsLucas H
Claudius_RIC_I_64.jpg
05 Claudius RIC I 6465 viewsClaudius. 41-54 A.D. Rome Mint 51-2 A.D. (3.32g, 18.4m, 0h). Obv: [TI CLA]VD CAESAR AVG PM TR P XI IMP P P C[OS V], laureate head right. Rev: SPQR/PP/OBCS in three lines in oak wreath. RIC I 64. RSC 96.

Claudius was put on the throne by the Praetorian Guard after the murder of Caligula, and was eventually murdered by Nero’s mother. This is a worn coin and common reverse during Claudius’ reign, but I wanted to obtain it as denarii of Claudius seem few and far between, second only to Gaius in the 12 Caesar series it seems.
4 commentsLucas H
Nero 1.jpg
05 Nero47 viewsNero Denarius. Laureate and bearded head of Nero right; IMP NERO CAESAR AVGVSTVS / Salus draped, seated left on throne, holding patera, SALVS in exergue. RIC 67, RSC 258, BMC 83. Weight 3.02 g. Die Axis 6 hr.



mix_val
CRAW_519_Denario_Ahenobarbo.jpg
05-01 - Cn.DOMITIUS L.f. AHENOBARBUS (42 - 36 A.C.)20 views Gneo Domicio Enobarbo bisabuelo de Nerón, político y militar .
AR Denarius 18x21 mm 3.8 gr

Anv: Cabeza masculina barbada viendo a derecha - "AHENOBAR" delante del busto.
Rev: Trofeo militar con 2 lanzas y escudo, sobre una proa de galera. "CN·DOMITIVS·IMP".

Acuñada en el 41 A.C.
Ceca móvil militar probablemente en la región de los mares Adriático ó Jónico.

Referencias: Sear RCTV I #1456 Pag.279, Craw RRC #519/2, Syd CRR #1177, BMCRR (East)#94, RSC I Domitia 21 Pag.45, Sear CRI #339, Babelon I Domitia 21 Pag.467, Catalli #841, Albert #1648
mdelvalle
1007381.JPG
050 Nero 57 viewsNero & Tiberius
Billon Tetradrachm of Alexandria.
Year 13

Egypt, Alexandria. Nero. Year 13 (66/67 AD). Billon Tetradrachm (12.92 gm, 24mm). NERW KL[AV SEB GER AV], radiate bust left wearing aegis, LIG before / TIBERIO[S KAISAR], laureate head of Tiberius right. Köln 187ff.; Milne 256ff.; Curtis 175ff. RPC 5295, BMCGr 114, SGI 637, sear5


New photo
3 commentsRandygeki(h2)
n5240.JPG
050 Nero31 viewsNero AE As. NERO CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GER P M TR P IMP P P, laureate head right / VICTORIA AVGVSTI S-C, Victory flying left, holding wreath & palm. Lugdunum mint: AD 62-66

Randygeki(h2)
IMG_2890.JPG
050 Nero10 views Nero Denarius. NERO CAESAR AVGVSTVS, laureate head right / VESTA, hexastyle temple of Vesta with domed roof & statue of Vesta within. RIC 62, RSC 335, BMC 104Randygeki(h2)
Nero,_RIC_I_64.jpg
06 Nero RIC I 6484 viewsNero 54-68 A.D.. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. c. 66-67 A.D. (3.25g, 17.2mm, 6h ). Obv: l to r in- IMP NERO CAESAR AVGVSTVS, laureate head right. Rev: l to r in- IVPPITER CVSTOS, Jupiter, bare to waist, seated left holding thunderbolt ring right, and long scepter in left. RIC I 64, RSC 121.6 commentsLucas H
Nero_RIC_I_15.jpg
06 Nero RIC I 1539 viewsNero. 54-68 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. 54 A.D. Oct.-Dec.. (3.43g, 19.1mm, 9h) . Obv: NERO CAESAR AVG IMP, bare head right. Rev: PONTIF MAX TR P IIII PP around oak-wreath enclosing EX SC. RIC I 15 (R2).

A worn but scarce pre-reform denarius from early in Nero’s reign. Despite the wear, the weight of this specimen is quite nice. The EX SC with the oak wreath could allude to the Senate’s awarding of the corona civica to Nero. This specimen also has a very unusual die axis for imperial coinage of the Roman mint from this time.
1 commentsLucas H
Nero_RIC_I_55.jpg
06 Nero RIC I 5528 viewsNero. 54-68 A.D. Rome Mint. 65-66 A.D. (3.30g, 18.7m, 5h). Obv: [N]ERO CAESAR AVGVS[TVS], laureate head right. Rev: ROMA in ex., Roma, helmeted and dr., seated l. on cuirass, r. holding Victory, l. parazonium by side, r. foot resting on helmet; shields, with greaves behind. RIC I 55 (R).

A worn denarius of Nero, but with an interesting reverse. Roma, deprecated frequently on denarii during the Republic, was as not frequently used during the empire. While not necessarily a scarce type, it seems less ubiquitous than Salas and Jupiter for Nero.
1 commentsLucas H
Galba,_RIC_204.jpg
07 01 Galba RIC 20449 viewsGalba. 8 June 68-15 Jan. 69 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. (3.22g, 19.3mm, 6 h). Obv: IMP SER GALBA CAESAR AVG, bust, laureate draped right. Rev: ROMA RENASCES, Roma standing left, holding Victory on globe and transverse eagle tipped scepter. RIC 204. Ex HBJ.

Galba’s reign marked the end of the Julio-Claudian’s rule of Rome. Rated R3 in the RIC, this type appears fairly scarce with 2 examples in the Reka Devnia hoard, and only 2 in Berk’s photofile. Galba, the first of the 4 emperors of 69 A.D, was governor of Hispania Tarraconensis during Nero’s reign. He was assassinated after 7 months of rule and succeeded by his former supporter, Otho
3 commentsLucas H
Galba_RIC_I_189.jpg
07 Galba RIC I 18937 viewsGalba April 3-Jan. 15, 69 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome Mint 69 A.D. (3.15g, 18.9m, 6h). Obv: [I]MP SER GALBA CAESAR AVG, laureate and draped bust right. Rev: [DI]VA AVGVSTA, Livia standing left, holding patera and scepter. RIC I 189, RSC 55a. ACCG IV, 59.

Upon Nero’s death, Galba was governor of Hispania Terraconensis, and marched to Rome. His short reign was ended by his murder in a plot hatched by Otho and the Praetorians. Many of his economic measures had been unpopular, including his refusal to “bribe” the Praetorians upon his ascension.
1 commentsLucas H
galba,_RIC_I_167.jpg
07 Galba, RIC I 16749 viewsGalba July, 68-Jan., 69. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. Aug-Oct 68 A.D. (3.07g, 17.8mm, 6h). Obv: IMP SER GALBA AVG, bare head right. Rev: SPQR OB CS in 3 lines within oak wreath. RIC I 167, RSC 287, Sear 2109.

Upon the death of Nero, Galba’s troops proclaimed him emperor on April 3, 68 A.D. Governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, he marched on Rome and assumed the throne, but was assassinated in a plot by Otho on January 15, 69 beginning the year of 4 emperors.
1 commentsLucas H
Republica_AR-Den_S-dot-C_A-dot-CXXIIII_TI-dot-CLAVD-dot-TI-dot-F_A-dot-N_Xx_Xx_Q-001_18mm_3_79g-s.jpg
079 B.C., Ti. Claudius Nero, Republic AR-Denarius Serratus, Crawford 383/1, Rome, Denarius serratus, TI.CLAUD TI.F AP.N TI., A. CXXIIII, Victory in biga right,83 viewsRepublic, TI.CLAUD TI.F AP.N TI. Claudius Nero, 79 BC. Claudia-5,
avers:- Bust of Diana r., draped, with bow and quiver over shoulder; before S dot C, Border of dots.
revers:- Victory in biga right, holding wreath in right hand and reins and palm-branch in left hand; below, control-letter "A" with dot on the right and numeral CXXIIII ; TI dot CLAVD dot TI dot F / AP dot N dot
exe: -/-// TI•CLAVD•TI•F / AP•N•, diameter: 18mm, weight: 3,79g, axis: 4h,
mint: Rome, date 79 B.C., ref: Crawford 383/1, Sydenham 770a,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Otho_RIC_I_3_1.jpg
08 01 Otho RIC I 483 viewsOtho. 15 Jan. to April 69 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. 69 A.D. (3.27g, 18.9mm, 6h). Obv: IMP M OTHO CAESAR AVG TR P, bare head right. Obv: PAX ORBIS TERRARVM, Pax, draped, standing left, right holding branch, and left caduceus. RIC I 4, RCV 2156, RSC 3. Ex Warren Esty Personal Collection.

At 3 months, Otho had the shortest reign in the Year of the Four Emperors. During much of Nero’s reign, Otho administered Lusitania, and followed Galba when he marched on Rome. Upon Galba’s naming another as his successor to the throne, with some of the rankers of the Praetorian Guard, Otho staged a coup, had Galba murdered, and was declared Emperor.

THis is an odd reverse message for an emperor complicit in the murder of his one-time allie and predecessor Galba, while the legeons of Vitellius were Marching on Rome. PAX ORBIS TERRARVM "Peace on the Earth" is ironic given the civil war going on in Rome at the time.
5 commentsLucas H
hierapolis_AE18.jpg
098-217 AD - HIERAPOLIS (Phrygia) AE18 62 viewsobv: - (bare head of Hercules)
rev: IERAPO-LITWN (winged Nemesis standing left, holding bridle, within dotted border)
ref: SNG Cop. 422. Weber, Hierapolis 142, 8
4.43gms, 18mm
Rare
Hierapolis can mean "sacred city", because of the several temples. The city was devastated by an earthquake which took place in 17 A.D. during the reign of Tiberius. In 60 AD, during the rule of emperor Nero, an even more severe earthquake left the city completely in ruins. Afterwards the city was rebuilt in Roman style with the financial support from the emperor. Hierapolis was visited by the Emperor Hadrian in 129 A.D., the Emperor Caracalla in 215 and the Emperor Valens in 370.
On obverse is a typical Hercules head, compare to my CORNELIA 58 denarius.
berserker
Denario_Claudio_I_y_Agripina_jr.jpg
10-01 - CLAUDIO (41 - 54 D.C.)71 viewsAR Denario 3.13 grs.

Anv: TI. CLAVD. CAESAR AVG. GERM. P. M. TRIB. POT. P. P.. Cabeza laureada de Claudio a derecha.
Rev: AGRIPPINAE AVGVSTAE. Busto de Agripina a derecha con corona de espigas.

Julia Vipsania Agripina , más conocida cómo Agripina la Menor para distinguirla de su madre, fue la hija mayor de Germánico y Agripina la Mayor, bisnieta por tanto de Marco Antonio y Octavia. Fue además Esposa de Ahenobarbo, hermana de Calígula, mujer y sobrina de Claudio I y madre de Nerón.

Acuñada 50 - 54 D.C.
Ceca: Roma Italia
Rareza: R

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #81 Pag.126 (Plate.16) - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1886 Pag.371 - BMCRE Vol.1 #75 - Cohen Vol.1 (Agrippine et Claude) #4 Pag.274 - DVM #27 Pag.84 - CBN #82 - RSC Vol. II #4 Pag.11
3 commentsmdelvalle
RIC_81_Claudio_y_Agripina_Jr_.jpg
10-01 - CLAUDIO y AGRIPINA Jr. (41 - 54 D.C.)26 viewsAR Denario 20.0 mm 3.13 grs.

Anv: TI. CLAVD. CAESAR AVG. GERM. P. M. TRIB. POT. P. P.. Cabeza laureada de Claudio a derecha.
Rev: AGRIPPINAE AVGVSTAE. Busto de Agripina a derecha con corona de espigas.

Julia Vipsania Agripina , más conocida cómo Agripina la Menor para distinguirla de su madre, fue la hija mayor de Germánico y Agripina la Mayor, bisnieta por tanto de Marco Antonio y Octavia. Fue además Esposa de Ahenobarbo, hermana de Calígula, mujer y sobrina de Claudio I y madre de Nerón.

Acuñada 50 - 54 D.C.
Ceca: Roma Italia
Rareza: R

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #81 Pag.126 (Plate.16) - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1886 Pag.371 - BMCRE Vol.1 #75 - Cohen Vol.1 (Agrippine et Claude) #4 Pag.274 - DVM #27 Pag.84 - CBN #82 - RSC Vol. II #4 Pag.11
1 commentsmdelvalle
RIC_115_Sestercio_Claudio_I.jpg
10-25 - CLAUDIO (41 - 54 D.C.)17 viewsAE Sestercio 34 mm 20.8 gr.
Acuñada en conmemoración del nacimiento de Británico.

Anv: "TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TR P IMP P P", Cabeza laureada viendo a derecha.
Rev: "SPES AVGVSTA - S C", Spes avanzando a izquierda, portando ramos de flores en mano derecha y sosteniendo su vestido con la izquierda.

Acuñada: 41-42 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC I #115 Pag.128 Plate 16 - BMCRE I #192 Pag.191 Plate 36 #3 - BN #165 - DVM #13 Pag.82 - Sear RCTV I #1854 Pag.367 - CBN #216 - Cohen I #85 Pag.192
mdelvalle
029.JPG
100 Titus82 viewsF/Fair, 3.002g, 18.2mm, 180o, Rome mint, as Caesar, 71 - 72 A.D.; obverse T CAES IMP VESP PON TR POT, laureate head right; reverse NEP RED, Neptune standing left, foot on globe, acrostolium in right and scepter in left.

RIC II Vesp 155, Cohen 121, RIC 366 ex Forvm

"Titus was the very popular victor of the Judean rebellion. He ruled during the eruption of Vesuvius. Titus once complained he had lost a day because twenty-four hours passed without his bestowing a gift. He was, however, generous to a fault. Had he ruled longer, he might have brought bankruptcy and lost hist popularity."

This coin gives thanks to Neptune for the safe return of Titus after the Jewish War.
6 commentsRandygeki(h2)
Medio_Asarion_BRITANICO_Smyrna_en_Ionia.jpg
11-20 - Smyrna en Ionia - BRITANICO (50 - 54 D.C.)17 viewsAE15 - 1/2 Assarión (Provincial)
15 mm 4,05 gr 0 hr.

Tiberio Claudio César Británico en latín Tiberius Claudius Caesar Britannicus (12 de febrero de 41 - 11 de febrero de 55) fue un noble romano, nacido del matrimonio entre el emperador Claudio y su tercera esposa, Valeria Mesalina. En el momento de su nacimiento, sólo un mes después del inicio del reinado de Claudio, fue nombrado heredero del Imperio; no obstante hubo tres factores: la condena a muerte de su madre a causa de bigamia, el matrimonio de Claudio con Agripina y la adopción de Nerón, descendiente del recordado Germánico, que provocaron que los ciudadanos romanos no le consideraran como sucesor imperial. Fue asesinado el día anterior a su decimocuarto cumpleaños. (Fuente Wikipedia)

Anv: "ZMYP" debajo - Busto vestido a cabeza desnuda viendo a derecha.
Rev: "ΕΠΙ ΦΙΛΙΣ ΤΟΥ ΕΙΚΑΔΙΟ Σ", (Philistos y Eikadios Magistrados), Nike avanzando a derecha, portando un trofeo sobre su hombro.

Acuñada 50 - 54 D.C.
Ceca: Smyrna en Ionia

Referencias: Vagi #650 - Lingren #562 - KLDSE XXXI #37 pag.223 - SNG Cop #1351 - SNG Von Aulock #7995 - BMC Vol.16 #284 Pag.270 - RPC I #2476 Pag.419
mdelvalle
hadrian_RIC306d.jpg
117-138 AD - HADRIAN AR denarius - struck 134-138 AD54 viewsobv: HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P (laureate head right)
rev: HISPANIA (Hispania reclining left, resting on rock, holding branch, rabbit at her feet)
ref: RIC II 306d, RSC 837 (5frcs)
mint: Rome
2.53gms, 18mm
Scarce
A scarce denarius - part of the famous 'travel series'. Hadrian visited to Hispania at the end of 122 AD, spent the winter at Tarraco (today Tarragona), and here he restored at his own expense the temple of Augustus. He was also in Gades (Cadiz) and Italica (Sevilla), where was the birthplace of emperor Trajan. Hadrian was generous to his settled town, which he made a colonia; he added temples, including a Trajaneum venerating Trajan, and rebuilt several public buildings.
berserker
12_caes_portraits_coll_res_lt.jpg
12 CAESARS PORTRAITS164 viewsObverse images from my collection.
R 1: Julius, Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula
R 2: Claudius, Nero, Galba, Otho
R 3: Vitellius, Vespasian, Titus, Domitian
2 commentslaney
RIC_92_Dupondio_Antonia.jpg
12-01 - ANTONIA (36 A.C. - 37 D.C.)22 viewsAE Dupondio 27 mm 10.2 gr. (IMITACIÓN PROVINCIAL)
Hija de Marco Antonio y Octavia, nieta de Augusto, esposa de Nero Claudius Drusus y madre de Germánico y Claudio. Emisión póstuma acuñada por su hijo Claudio

Anv: "ANTONIA [AVG]VSTA" - Busto vestido viendo a derecha.
Rev: "TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM [TR P] IMP - S C" - Claudio de pié a izquierda, vistiendo toga y velo, portando Simpulum en mano derecha extendida y pergamino enrollado en izquierda.

Acuñada 41 - 42 D.C.
Ceca: Inicialmente acreditada por mí a Roma, pero finalmente corregida esta acreditación por el Sr. Curtis Clay como una imitación Provincial.

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #92 Pag.127 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 (Claudius) #1902 Pag.375 - BMCRE #166 - Cohen Vol.1 #6 Pag.223 - DVM #3 Pag.77 - CBN (Claudius) #143 - Von Kaenel Tipo 15 #292 (V216/R262)
mdelvalle
Dupondio ANTONIA RIC 92.jpg
12-1 - ANTONIA (36 A.C. - 37 D.C.)70 viewsAE Dupondio 27 mm 10.2 gr. (IMITACIÓN PROVINCIAL)
Hija de Marco Antonio y Octavia, nieta de Augusto, esposa de Nero Claudius Drusus y madre de Germánico y Claudio. Emisión póstuma acuñada por su hijo Claudio

Anv: "ANTONIA [AVG]VSTA" - Busto vestido viendo a derecha.
Rev: "TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM [TR P] IMP - S C" - Claudio de pié a izquierda, vistiendo toga y velo, portando Simpulum en mano derecha extendida y pergamino enrollado en izquierda.

Acuñada 41 - 42 D.C.
Ceca: Inicialmente acreditada por mí a Roma, pero finalmente corregida esta acreditación por el Sr. Curtis Clay como una imitación Provincial.

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #92 Pag.127 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 (Claudius) #1902 Pag.375 - BMCRE #166 - Cohen Vol.1 #6 Pag.223 - DVM #3 Pag.77 - CBN (Claudius) #143 - Von Kaenel Tipo 15 #292 (V216/R262)
mdelvalle
antpius sest-liberalitas.jpg
138-161 AD - ANTONINUS PIUS AE sestertius - struck 147-148 AD99 viewsobv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TRP (laureate head right)
rev: COS IIII around, S-C on platform, [LIBERALITAS / AVG IIII] in exergue (Emperor seated on platform with outstretched hand, officer behind him, Liberalitas holding account board (abacus) and cornucopiae before him, citizen at left below, receiving generosity, holding out fold of toga)
ref: RIC III 774, Cohen 498 (30frcs)
27.11gms, 30mm, brass
Rare

A rare historical issue with a remarkable reverse "propaganda" type. In this case, it celebrates the emperor's largesse during one of his famous nine donatives, known as "congiaria", to the citizens of Rome. Although originally these donatives were in liquid (oil and wine), by Pius' time they commonly took the form of cash. Aiding the emperor here by communicating the gifts to the citizens is the personification of generosity, Liberalitas.
berserker
Denario_Neron_RIC_68_1.jpg
14 - 15 - NERON (54 - 68 D.C.)80 viewsAR Denario 18,6 mm 3,32 g.

Anv: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P P - Cabeza laureada a derecha.
Rev: ANEPÍGRAFA - Águila legionaria entre dos estandartes.

Esta emisión se realiza para conmemorar una invasión planeada del Cáucaso que se anticipó por la muerte de Neron. Para encabezar la invasión, Neron creó una nueva legión, "La Legión de Alejandro el Grande", estaba compuesta de reclutas italianos que midieran más de 1,80 mts. de alto.

Acuñada: 67 - 68 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: R2

Referencias: RIC I #68 pag.154 - Cohen I #356 - BMCRE I #107 - CBN #238 - DVN #4 Pag.84 - RSC II #356
1 commentsmdelvalle
Denario_Neron_RIC_69.jpg
14 - 16 - NERON (54 - 68 D.C.) 72 viewsAR Denario 3,07 gr.

Anv: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P P - Cabeza laureada a derecha.
Rev: IVPPITER CVSTOS - Júpiter sentado hacia la izq., portando trueno en mano derecha y largo cetro vertical en der..

Esta emisión se realiza para agradecerle a Júpiter El Guardian (CVSTOS), el haber actuado para salvarlo de la famosa Conspiración Pisoniana , según Nerón únicamente la intervención divina de Éste pudo evitar su muerte, nombrándolo de aquí en adelante como protector del Imperio Romano.
La Conspiración Pisoniana: Luego del incendio del centro de Roma acaecido en el 64 D.C., recordemos la imagen de Nerón tocando la lira mientras se quemaba Roma, Nerón comienza la construcción en el sector quemado del Domus Aurea o Casa Dorada, nombre recibido por los azulejos dorados en su fachada; Este y otros excesos del Emperador hacen que se forme una conspiración para derrocarlo y colocar en su lugar a Gaius Calpurnius Piso / Cayo Calpurnio Pisón, político perteneciente a una noble familia romana, contando con el apoyo de senadores y personajes cercanos al Emperador como Petronio, Lucano, Séneca, y Faenio Rufo, comandante de la Guardia Pretoriana. Cuando la conspiración fue descubierta Cayo Calpurnio Pisón optó por quitarse la vida. Esta Conspiración había sido preparada para el 19 de abril de 65 d. C., en el templo del dios Sol (vecino al Circo Máximo). El arma homicida había sido escondida en el templo de Ceres y el autor era un hombre de la clase de los senadores llamado Escevino, la conspiración fracasa cuando un esclavo de este último le cuenta al Emperador de las intenciones de su amo.

Acuñada: 67 - 68 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: R

Referencias: RIC I # 69 Pag.154 - Cohen I #122 Pag.200 - DVM #8 Pag.85 - BMC #80
mdelvalle
AS NERON RIC 312.jpg
14-02 - NERON (54 - 68 D.C.)80 viewsAE AS 27 x 25 mm 8.9 gr.

Anv: "NERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "S C" - Victoria volando a izquierda, portando un escudo ovalado con las letras "SP/QR" inscriptas en el.

Acuñada 65 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #312 Pag.169 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1976 Pag.391 - BMCRE #241 - Cohen Vol.1 #288 Pag.298 - DVM #32a Pag.87 - CBN #399 - Mac Dowall WCN #285/90
mdelvalle
AS NERON RIC 306_1.jpg
14-04 - NERON (54 - 68 D.C.)111 viewsAE AS 27 x 25 mm 11.2 gr.

Anv: "NERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PACE P.R. VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVS[IT] - S C" – Templo de los gemelos Jano (Ianus Geminus) mostrando sus puertas dobles cerradas a la derecha y en la pared lateral izquierda una larga ventana enrejada .

Acuñada 4ta. Emisión 65 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #306 Pag.168 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1974 Pag.390 - BMCRE #227 - Cohen Vol.1 #171 Pag.290 - DVM #30 Pag.87 - CBN #400 - Mac Dowall WCN #288
mdelvalle
Dupondio_Neron_RIC_519.jpg
14-05 - NERON (54 - 68 D.C.)131 viewsOricalco Dupondio 27,65 mm 11.4 gr.

Anv: "IMP NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG P MAX TR P P P" - Busto laureado viendo a izquierda, orbe bajo el busto.
Rev: "VICTORIA AVGVSTI - S C" – Victoria avanzando a izquierda, portando corona de laureles en mano der. y hoja de palma en izquierda.

Acuñada 4ta. Emisión 66 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #523 Pag.181 - BMCRE #356 - Mac Dowall WCN #526
1 commentsmdelvalle
RIC_68_Denario_Neron.jpg
14-05 - NERON (54 - 68 D.C.)22 viewsAR Denario 18,6 mm 3,32 g.

Anv: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P P - Cabeza laureada a derecha.
Rev: ANEPÍGRAFA - Águila legionaria entre dos estandartes.

Esta emisión se realiza para conmemorar una invasión planeada del Cáucaso que se anticipó por la muerte de Neron. Para encabezar la invasión, Neron creó una nueva legión, "La Legión de Alejandro el Grande", estaba compuesta de reclutas italianos que midieran más de 1,80 mts. de alto.

Acuñada: 67 - 68 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: R2

Referencias: RIC I #68 pag.154 - Cohen I #356 Pag.303 - BMCRE I #107 - CBN #238 - DVN #4 Pag.84 - RSC II #356 Pag.16 - Sear RCTV I #1947 Pag.384
mdelvalle
RIC_69_Denario_Neron.jpg
14-06 - NERON (54 - 68 D.C.) 23 viewsAR Denario 18.6 mm 3,07 gr.

Anv: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P P - Cabeza laureada a derecha.
Rev: IVPPITER CVSTOS - Júpiter sentado hacia la izq., portando trueno en mano derecha y largo cetro vertical en der..

Esta emisión se realiza para agradecerle a Júpiter El Guardian (CVSTOS), el haber actuado para salvarlo de la famosa Conspiración Pisoniana , según Nerón únicamente la intervención divina de Éste pudo evitar su muerte, nombrándolo de aquí en adelante como protector del Imperio Romano.
La Conspiración Pisoniana: Luego del incendio del centro de Roma acaecido en el 64 D.C., recordemos la imagen de Nerón tocando la lira mientras se quemaba Roma, Nerón comienza la construcción en el sector quemado del Domus Aurea o Casa Dorada, nombre recibido por los azulejos dorados en su fachada; Este y otros excesos del Emperador hacen que se forme una conspiración para derrocarlo y colocar en su lugar a Gaius Calpurnius Piso / Cayo Calpurnio Pisón, político perteneciente a una noble familia romana, contando con el apoyo de senadores y personajes cercanos al Emperador como Petronio, Lucano, Séneca, y Faenio Rufo, comandante de la Guardia Pretoriana. Cuando la conspiración fue descubierta Cayo Calpurnio Pisón optó por quitarse la vida. Esta Conspiración había sido preparada para el 19 de abril de 65 d. C., en el templo del dios Sol (vecino al Circo Máximo). El arma homicida había sido escondida en el templo de Ceres y el autor era un hombre de la clase de los senadores llamado Escevino, la conspiración fracasa cuando un esclavo de este último le cuenta al Emperador de las intenciones de su amo.

Acuñada: 67 - 68 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: R

Referencias: RIC I # 69 Pag.154 - Cohen I #122 Pag.200 - DVM #8 Pag.85 - BMC #80 - CBN #239 - Sear RCTV #1943 Pag.384 - RSC II #123 Pag.14
mdelvalle
Neron Semis.jpg
14-08 - NERON (54 - 68 D.C.)67 viewsAE Semis 20 mm 4.8 gr.

Anv: "IMP NERO CAESAR AVG" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAX TR POT IMP P - S C" - Roma con yelmo sentada a izquierda Sobre una coraza militar, portando una corona en mano derecha levantada y Parazonium (espada militar corta, ancha y sin punta, que llevaban los Jefes militares como señal de distinción) en izquierda.

Acuñada 66 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: NO LISTADA, EN TODOS LOS CASOS DIFIEREN EN LA LEYENDA DEL REVERSO (una sola P) - RIC Vol.1 #549 var Pag.182 - BMCRE #402 var - Cohen Vol.1 #237 var Pag.295 - DVM #35 var Pag.87

Mr. Curtis Clay says:
"IMP P in place of IMP P P appears with some frequency on Lugdunese bronzes of Nero, but not often enough to justify the belief that it was intentional. I attribute it to carelessness, not planning ahead and running out of space before the intended legend was complete.
Nonetheless the error seems to be unrecorded for this particular type, so it is also "unpublished"!"
mdelvalle
RIC_549v_Semis_Neron.jpg
14-08 - NERON (54 - 68 D.C.)17 viewsAE Semis 20 mm 4.8 gr.

Anv: "IMP NERO CAESAR AVG" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAX TR POT IMP P - S C" - Roma con yelmo sentada a izquierda Sobre una coraza militar, portando una corona en mano derecha levantada y Parazonium (espada militar corta, ancha y sin punta, que llevaban los Jefes militares como señal de distinción) en izquierda.

Acuñada 66 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: NO LISTADA, EN TODOS LOS CASOS DIFIEREN EN LA LEYENDA DEL REVERSO (una sola P) - RIC Vol.1 #549 var Pag.182 - BMCRE #402 var - Cohen Vol.1 #237 var Pag.295 - DVM #35 var Pag.87

Mr. Curtis Clay says:
"IMP P in place of IMP P P appears with some frequency on Lugdunese bronzes of Nero, but not often enough to justify the belief that it was intentional. I attribute it to carelessness, not planning ahead and running out of space before the intended legend was complete.
Nonetheless the error seems to be unrecorded for this particular type, so it is also "unpublished"!"
mdelvalle
AS NERON RPC 1761.jpg
14-10 - NERON (54 - 68 D.C.)56 viewsAE AS (Híbrido No listado en RIC) 28 x 24 mm 10.0 gr.

Anv: "[IMP NERO] CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG [GERM P M TR P]" - Busto laureado viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "S C " - Leyenda a los lados de un altar con dos puertas y ornamentos en la parte superior. "PROVIDENT" en exergo.
Puede ser una moneda híbrida acuñada a partir de un anverso de Neron y un reverso de Augusto póstumo ?? - Ver BMC nota de página 276

Acuñada 54/58 D.C.
Ceca:

Referencias: Cohen Vol.1 #255 Pag.296 - (RIC #528/530/531 Pag.181 muestran ARA PACIS en exergo, en lugar de PROVIDENT)
mdelvalle
RIC_306_AS_Neron.jpg
14-14 - NERON (54 - 68 D.C.)16 viewsAE AS 27 x 25 mm 11.2 gr.

Anv: "NERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PACE P.R. VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVS[IT] - S C" – Templo de los gemelos Jano (Ianus Geminus) mostrando sus puertas dobles cerradas a la derecha y en la pared lateral izquierda una larga ventana enrejada .

Acuñada 4ta. Emisión 65 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #306 Pag.168 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1974 Pag.390 - BMCRE #227 - Cohen Vol.1 #171 Pag.290 - DVM #30 Pag.87 - CBN #400 - Mac Dowall WCN #288
mdelvalle
Denario_Neron_Salus_RIC_67_Fourree.jpg
14-15 - NERON (54 - 68 D.C.)41 viewsFALSIFICACIÓN ANCIANA
Denario Forrado 17 mm 1.9 gr.

Anv: " NERO CAESAR - AVGVSTVS" - Cabeza laureada viendo a derecha.
Rev: Salus (La Salud) sentada en un trono a izquierda, portando patera en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido. "SALVS" en el exergo.

Este tipo se refiere a la supresión de la conspiración del Pisonian. El supuesto asesino Fl. Scaevinus, tomó una daga sagrada del templo de Salus en Ferentum para matar a Nerón, pero uno de los libertos de Scaevinus lo traicionó llevando esa misma daga a Nerón como evidencia. Neron dedicó la daga en el templo de Salus en Roma, escribiendo "a Júpiter el Protector". Por este motivo se promovieron con mucha fuerza a Salus y Júpiter Custos en toda la acuñación de Nerón como guardianes del reino..

Acuñada Con posterioridad al 66-67 D.C.
Ceca: No oficial

Referencias: RIC Vol.I #60 Pag.153 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1945 var. (Leyenda del anverso) Pag.384 - BMCRE Vol.I #90 - Cohen Vol.1 #314 Pag.300 - DVM #15 Pag.85 - CBN #237 - RSC Vol. II #314 Pag.15
mdelvalle
RIC_312_AS_Neron.jpg
14-16 - NERON (54 - 68 D.C.)10 viewsAE AS 27 x 25 mm 8.9 gr.

Anv: "NERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "S C" - Victoria volando a izquierda, portando un escudo ovalado con las letras "SP/QR" inscriptas en el.

Acuñada 65 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #312 Pag.169 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1976 Pag.391 - BMCRE #241 - Cohen Vol.1 #288 Pag.298 - DVM #32a Pag.87 - CBN #399 - Mac Dowall WCN #285/90
mdelvalle
AE NERON Macedonia.jpg
14-20 - NERON (54 - 68 D.C.)50 viewsAE 24 (Provincial FEDERACIÓN de CIUDADES MACEDÓNICAS) 24 mm 7.0 gr.

Anv: "KAIΣAP NEPΩN" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a izquierda. Gráfila de puntos.
Rev: "MAKEΔONON ΣEBAΣTOΣ" - Leyenda alrededor de un escudo de guerra macedónico. Gráfila de puntos.

Ceca: Thessalónica

Referencias: GICTV #541 Pag.51 - BMC Vol.5 #146 Pag.27 - RPC #1614 - AMNG #242 - SNG Cop. #1335
mdelvalle
RIC_523_Dupondio_Neron.jpg
14-20 - NERON (54 - 68 D.C.)21 viewsOricalco Dupondio 27,65 mm 11.4 gr.

Anv: "IMP NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG P MAX TR P P P" - Busto laureado viendo a izquierda, orbe bajo el busto.
Rev: "VICTORIA AVGVSTI - S C" – Victoria avanzando a izquierda, portando corona de laureles en mano der. y hoja de palma en izquierda.

Acuñada 4ta. Emisión 66 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #523 Pag.181 - Sear RCTV #1970 Pag.389 - DVM #28a Pag.87 - CBN #310 - Cohen I #325 Pag.301 - BMCRE #356 - Mac Dowall WCN #526
mdelvalle
Cohen_255_Perinto_Neron.jpg
14-30 - Perintos - Balcanes - NERON (54 - 68 D.C.)14 viewsAE AS (Híbrido No listado en RIC) 28 x 24 mm 10.0 gr.

Anv: "[IMP NERO] CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG [GERM P M TR P]" - Busto laureado viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "S C " - Leyenda a los lados de un altar con dos puertas y ornamentos en la parte superior. "PROVIDENT" en exergo.
Puede ser una moneda híbrida acuñada a partir de un anverso de Neron y un reverso de Augusto póstumo ?? - Ver BMC nota de página 276

Acuñada 54/58 D.C.
Ceca: Balcanica, posiblemente Perintos

Referencias: Cohen Vol.1 #255 Pag.296 - (RIC #528/530/531 Pag.181 muestran ARA PACIS en exergo, en lugar de PROVIDENT) - RIC (1923) #440 - RPC I #1761 - WCN p. 245, Moesia 2.
mdelvalle
RPC_1614_Tesalonica_Neron.jpg
14-32 - Tesalonica - Macedonia - NERON (54 - 68 D.C.)20 viewsAE 24 (Provincial FEDERACIÓN de CIUDADES MACEDÓNICAS) 24 mm 7.0 gr.

Anv: "KAIΣAP NEPΩN" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a izquierda. Gráfila de puntos.
Rev: "MAKEΔONON ΣEBAΣTOΣ" - Leyenda alrededor de un escudo de guerra macedónico. Gráfila de puntos.

Ceca: Thessalónica

Referencias: Sear GICTV #541 Pag.51 - BMC Vol.5 #146 Pag.27 - RPC #1614 - AMNG #242 - SNG Cop. #1335
mdelvalle
RPC_2060_Nicaea_Neron.jpg
14-34 - Nicea - Bitinia - NERON (54 - 68 D.C.)17 viewsAE Dupondio 28 mm 10.8 gr.

Anv: "NERΩN KΛAUΔIOΣ KAIΣAP ΣEBAΣTOΣ ΓEPM" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a derecha. Contramarca "GALBA" en la cara.
Rev: "ΠOΠΠAIA ΣEBAΣTH;" - Popea, esposa de Nerón sedente en trono a derecha.

Ceca: Nicea - Bitinia

Referencias: RPC I #2060
mdelvalle
Julian2VotXConstantinople.jpg
1409a, Julian II "the Philosopher," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.143 viewsJulian II, A.D. 360-363; RIC 167; VF; 2.7g, 20mm; Constantinople mint; Obverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, helmeted & cuirassed bust right, holding spear & shield; Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath; CONSPB in exergue; Attractive green patina. Ex Nemesis.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Julian the Apostate (360-363 A.D.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University

Introduction

The emperor Flavius Claudius Julianus reigned from 360 to 26 June 363, when he was killed fighting against the Persians. Despite his short rule, his emperorship was pivotal in the development of the history of the later Roman empire. This essay is not meant to be a comprehensive look at the various issues central to the reign of Julian and the history of the later empire. Rather, this short work is meant to be a brief history and introduction for the general reader. Julian was the last direct descendent of the Constantinian line to ascend to the purple, and it is one of history's great ironies that he was the last non-Christian emperor. As such, he has been vilified by most Christian sources, beginning with John Chrysostom and Gregory Nazianzus in the later fourth century. This tradition was picked up by the fifth century Eusebian continuators Sozomen, Socrates Scholasticus, and Theodoret and passed on to scholars down through the 20th century. Most contemporary sources, however, paint a much more balanced picture of Julian and his reign. The adoption of Christianity by emperors and society, while still a vital concern, was but one of several issues that concerned Julian.

It is fortunate that extensive writings from Julian himself exist, which help interpret his reign in the light of contemporary evidence. Still extant are some letters, several panegyrics, and a few satires. Other contemporary sources include the soldier Ammianus Marcellinus' history, correspondence between Julian and Libanius of Antioch, several panegyrics, laws from the Theodosian Code, inscriptions, and coinage. These sources show Julian's emphasis on restoration. He saw himself as the restorer of the traditional values of Roman society. Of course much of this was rhetoric, meant to defend Julian against charges that he was a usurper. At the same time this theme of restoration was central to all emperors of the fourth century. Julian thought that he was the one emperor who could regain what was viewed as the lost glory of the Roman empire. To achieve this goal he courted select groups of social elites to get across his message of restoration. This was the way that emperors functioned in the fourth century. By choosing whom to include in the sharing of power, they sought to shape society.

Early Life

Julian was born at Constantinople in 331. His father was Julius Constantius, half-brother of the emperor Constantine through Constantius Chlorus, and his mother was Basilina, Julius' second wife. Julian had two half-brothers via Julius' first marriage. One of these was Gallus, who played a major role in Julian's life. Julian appeared destined for a bright future via his father's connection to the Constantinian house. After many years of tense relations with his three half-brothers, Constantine seemed to have welcomed them into the fold of the imperial family. From 333 to 335, Constantine conferred a series of honors upon his three half-siblings, including appointing Julius Constantius as one of the consuls for 335. Julian's mother was equally distinguished. Ammianus related that she was from a noble family. This is supported by Libanius, who claimed that she was the daughter of Julius Julianus, a Praetorian Prefect under Licinius, who was such a model of administrative virtue that he was pardoned and honored by Constantine.

Despite the fact that his mother died shortly after giving birth to him, Julian experienced an idyllic early childhood. This ended when Constantius II conducted a purge of many of his relatives shortly after Constantine's death in 337, particularly targeting the families of Constantine's half-brothers. ulian and Gallus were spared, probably due to their young age. Julian was put under the care of Mardonius, a Scythian eunuch who had tutored his mother, in 339, and was raised in the Greek philosophical tradition, and probably lived in Nicomedia. Ammianus also supplied the fact that while in Nicomedia, Julian was cared for by the local bishop Eusebius, of whom the future emperor was a distant relation. Julian was educated by some of the most famous names in grammar and rhetoric in the Greek world at that time, including Nicocles and Hecebolius. In 344 Constantius II sent Julian and Gallus to Macellum in Cappadocia, where they remained for six years. In 351, Gallus was made Caesar by Constantius II and Julian was allowed to return to Nicomedia, where he studied under Aedesius, Eusebius, and Chrysanthius, all famed philosophers, and was exposed to the Neo-Platonism that would become such a prominent part of his life. But Julian was most proud of the time he spent studying under Maximus of Ephesus, a noted Neo-Platonic philospher and theurgist. It was Maximus who completed Julian's full-scale conversion to Neo-Platonism. Later, when he was Caesar, Julian told of how he put letters from this philosopher under his pillows so that he would continue to absorb wisdom while he slept, and while campaigning on the Rhine, he sent his speeches to Maximus for approval before letting others hear them. When Gallus was executed in 354 for treason by Constantius II, Julian was summoned to Italy and essentially kept under house arrest at Comum, near Milan, for seven months before Constantius' wife Eusebia convinced the emperor that Julian posed no threat. This allowed Julian to return to Greece and continue his life as a scholar where he studied under the Neo-Platonist Priscus. Julian's life of scholarly pursuit, however, ended abruptly when he was summoned to the imperial court and made Caesar by Constantius II on 6 November 355.

Julian as Caesar

Constantius II realized an essential truth of the empire that had been evident since the time of the Tetrarchy--the empire was too big to be ruled effectively by one man. Julian was pressed into service as Caesar, or subordinate emperor, because an imperial presence was needed in the west, in particular in the Gallic provinces. Julian, due to the emperor's earlier purges, was the only viable candidate of the imperial family left who could act as Caesar. Constantius enjoined Julian with the task of restoring order along the Rhine frontier. A few days after he was made Caesar, Julian was married to Constantius' sister Helena in order to cement the alliance between the two men. On 1 December 355, Julian journeyed north, and in Augusta Taurinorum he learned that Alamannic raiders had destroyed Colonia Agrippina. He then proceeded to Vienne where he spent the winter. At Vienne, he learned that Augustudunum was also under siege, but was being held by a veteran garrison. He made this his first priority, and arrived there on 24 June 356. When he had assured himself that the city was in no immediate danger, he journeyed to Augusta Treverorum via Autessioduram, and from there to Durocortorum where he rendezvoused with his army. Julian had the army stage a series of punitive strikes around the Dieuse region, and then he moved them towards the Argentoratum/Mongontiacum region when word of barbarian incursions reached him.

From there, Julian moved on to Colonia Agrippina, and negotiated a peace with the local barbarian leaders who had assaulted the city. He then wintered at Senonae. He spent the early part of the campaigning season of 357 fighting off besiegers at Senonae, and then conducting operations around Lugdunum and Tres Tabernae. Later that summer, he encountered his watershed moment as a military general. Ammianus went into great detail about Julian's victory over seven rogue Alamannic chieftains near Argentoratum, and Julian himself bragged about it in his later writing. After this battle, the soldiers acclaimed Julian Augustus, but he rejected this title. After mounting a series of follow-up raids into Alamannic territory, he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia, and on the way defeated some Frankish raiders in the Mosa region. Julian considered this campaign one of the major events of his time as Caesar.

Julian began his 358 military campaigns early, hoping to catch the barbarians by surprise. His first target was the Franks in the northern Rhine region. He then proceeded to restore some forts in the Mosa region, but his soldiers threatened to mutiny because they were on short rations and had not been paid their donative since Julian had become Caesar. After he soothed his soldiers, Julian spent the rest of the summer negotiating a peace with various Alamannic leaders in the mid and lower Rhine areas, and retired to winter quarters at Lutetia. In 359, he prepared once again to carry out a series of punitive expeditions against the Alamanni in the Rhine region who were still hostile to the Roman presence. In preparation, the Caesar repopulated seven previously destroyed cities and set them up as supply bases and staging areas. This was done with the help of the people with whom Julian had negotiated a peace the year before. Julian then had a detachment of lightly armed soldiers cross the Rhine near Mogontiacum and conduct a guerilla strike against several chieftains. As a result of these campaigns, Julian was able to negotiate a peace with all but a handful of the Alamannic leaders, and he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia.

Of course, Julian did more than act as a general during his time as Caesar. According to Ammianus, Julian was an able administrator who took steps to correct the injustices of Constantius' appointees. Ammianus related the story of how Julian prevented Florentius, the Praetorian Prefect of Gaul, from raising taxes, and also how Julian actually took over as governor for the province of Belgica Secunda. Hilary, bishop of Poitiers, supported Ammianus' basic assessment of Julian in this regard when he reported that Julian was an able representative of the emperor to the Gallic provincials. There is also epigraphic evidence to support Julian's popularity amongst the provincial elites. An inscription found near Beneventum in Apulia reads:
"To Flavius Claudius Julianus, most noble and sanctified Caesar, from the caring Tocius Maximus, vir clarissimus, for the care of the res publica from Beneventum".

Tocius Maximus, as a vir clarissimus, was at the highest point in the social spectrum and was a leader in his local community. This inscription shows that Julian was successful in establishing a positive image amongst provincial elites while he was Caesar.

Julian Augustus

In early 360, Constantius, driven by jealousy of Julian's success, stripped Julian of many troops and officers, ostensibly because the emperor needed them for his upcoming campaign against the Persians. One of the legions ordered east, the Petulantes, did not want to leave Gaul because the majority of the soldiers in the unit were from this region. As a result they mutinied and hailed Julian as Augustus at Lutetia. Julian refused this acclamation as he had done at Argentoratum earlier, but the soldiers would have none of his denial. They raised him on a shield and adorned him with a neck chain, which had formerly been the possession of the standard-bearer of the Petulantes and symbolized a royal diadem. Julian appeared reluctantly to acquiesce to their wishes, and promised a generous donative. The exact date of his acclamation is unknown, but most scholars put it in February or March. Julian himself supported Ammianus' picture of a jealous Constantius. In his Letter to the Athenians, a document constructed to answer charges that he was a usurper, Julian stated that from the start he, as Caesar, had been meant as a figurehead to the soldiers and provincials. The real power he claimed lay with the generals and officials already present in Gaul. In fact, according to Julian, the generals were charged with watching him as much as the enemy. His account of the actual acclamation closely followed what Ammianus told us, but he stressed even more his reluctance to take power. Julian claimed that he did so only after praying to Zeus for guidance.

Fearing the reaction of Constantius, Julian sent a letter to his fellow emperor justifying the events at Lutetia and trying to arrange a peaceful solution. This letter berated Constantius for forcing the troops in Gaul into an untenable situation. Ammianus stated that Julian's letter blamed Constantius' decision to transfer Gallic legions east as the reason for the soldiers' rebellion. Julian once again asserted that he was an unwilling participant who was only following the desire of the soldiers. In both of these basic accounts Ammianus and Julian are playing upon the theme of restoration. Implicit in their version of Julian's acclamation is the argument that Constantius was unfit to rule. The soldiers were the vehicle of the gods' will. The Letter to the Athenians is full of references to the fact that Julian was assuming the mantle of Augustus at the instigation of the gods. Ammianus summed up this position nicely when he related the story of how, when Julian was agonizing over whether to accept the soldiers' acclamation, he had a dream in which he was visited by the Genius (guardian spirit) of the Roman state. The Genius told Julian that it had often tried to bestow high honors upon Julian but had been rebuffed. Now, the Genius went on to say, was Julian's final chance to take the power that was rightfully his. If the Caesar refused this chance, the Genius would depart forever, and both Julian and the state would rue Julian's rejection. Julian himself wrote a letter to his friend Maximus of Ephesus in November of 361 detailing his thoughts on his proclamation. In this letter, Julian stated that the soldiers proclaimed him Augustus against his will. Julian, however, defended his accession, saying that the gods willed it and that he had treated his enemies with clemency and justice. He went on to say that he led the troops in propitiating the traditional deities, because the gods commanded him to return to the traditional rites, and would reward him if he fulfilled this duty.

During 360 an uneasy peace simmered between the two emperors. Julian spent the 360 campaigning season continuing his efforts to restore order along the Rhine, while Constantius continued operations against the Persians. Julian wintered in Vienne, and celebrated his Quinquennalia. It was at this time that his wife Helena died, and he sent her remains to Rome for a proper burial at his family villa on the Via Nomentana where the body of her sister was entombed. The uneasy peace held through the summer of 361, but Julian concentrated his military operations around harassing the Alamannic chieftain Vadomarius and his allies, who had concluded a peace treaty with Constantius some years earlier. By the end of the summer, Julian decided to put an end to the waiting and gathered his army to march east against Constantius. The empire teetered on the brink of another civil war. Constantius had spent the summer negotiating with the Persians and making preparations for possible military action against his cousin. When he was assured that the Persians would not attack, he summoned his army and sallied forth to meet Julian. As the armies drew inexorably closer to one another, the empire was saved from another bloody civil war when Constantius died unexpectedly of natural causes on 3 November near the town of Mopsucrenae in Cilicia, naming Julian -- the sources say-- as his legitimate successor.

Julian was in Dacia when he learned of his cousin's death. He made his way through Thrace and came to Constantinople on 11 December 361 where Julian honored the emperor with the funeral rites appropriate for a man of his station. Julian immediately set about putting his supporters in positions of power and trimming the imperial bureaucracy, which had become extremely overstaffed during Constantius' reign. Cooks and barbers had increased during the late emperor's reign and Julian expelled them from his court. Ammianus gave a mixed assessment of how the new emperor handled the followers of Constantius. Traditionally, emperors were supposed to show clemency to the supporters of a defeated enemy. Julian, however, gave some men over to death to appease the army. Ammianus used the case of Ursulus, Constantius' comes sacrum largitionum, to illustrate his point. Ursulus had actually tried to acquire money for the Gallic troops when Julian had first been appointed Caesar, but he had also made a disparaging remark about the ineffectiveness of the army after the battle of Amida. The soldiers remembered this, and when Julian became sole Augustus, they demanded Ursulus' head. Julian obliged, much to the disapproval of Ammianus. This seems to be a case of Julian courting the favor of the military leadership, and is indicative of a pattern in which Julian courted the goodwill of various societal elites to legitimize his position as emperor.

Another case in point is the officials who made up the imperial bureaucracy. Many of them were subjected to trial and punishment. To achieve this goal, during the last weeks of December 361 Julian assembled a military tribunal at Chalcedon, empanelling six judges to try the cases. The president of the tribunal was Salutius, just promoted to the rank of Praetorian Prefect; the five other members were Mamertinus, the orator, and four general officers: Jovinus, Agilo, Nevitta, and Arbetio. Relative to the proceedings of the tribunal, Ammianus noted that the judges, " . . . oversaw the cases more vehemently than was right or fair, with the exception of a few . . .." Ammianus' account of Julian's attempt at reform of the imperial bureaucracy is supported by legal evidence from the Theodosian Code. A series of laws sent to Mamertinus, Julian's appointee as Praetorian Prefect in Italy, Illyricum, and Africa, illustrate this point nicely. On 6 June 362, Mamertinus received a law that prohibited provincial governors from bypassing the Vicars when giving their reports to the Prefect. Traditionally, Vicars were given civil authority over a group of provinces, and were in theory meant to serve as a middle step between governors and Prefects. This law suggests that the Vicars were being left out, at least in Illyricum. Julian issued another edict to Mamertinus on 22 February 362 to stop abuse of the public post by governors. According to this law, only Mamertinus could issue post warrants, but the Vicars were given twelve blank warrants to be used as they saw fit, and each governor was given two. Continuing the trend of bureaucratic reform, Julian also imposed penalties on governors who purposefully delayed appeals in court cases they had heard. The emperor also established a new official to weigh solidi used in official government transactions to combat coin clipping.

For Julian, reigning in the abuses of imperial bureaucrats was one step in restoring the prestige of the office of emperor. Because he could not affect all elements of society personally, Julian, like other Neo-Flavian emperors, decided to concentrate on select groups of societal elites as intercessors between himself and the general populace. One of these groups was the imperial bureaucracy. Julian made it very clear that imperial officials were intercessors in a very real sense in a letter to Alypius, Vicar of Britain. In this letter, sent from Gaul sometime before 361, the emperor praises Alypius for his use of "mildness and moderation with courage and force" in his rule of the provincials. Such virtues were characteristic of the emperors, and it was good that Alypius is representing Julian in this way. Julian courted the army because it put him in power. Another group he sought to include in his rule was the traditional Senatorial aristocracy. One of his first appointments as consul was Claudius Mamertinus, a Gallic Senator and rhetorician. Mamertinus' speech in praise of Julian delivered at Constantinople in January of 362 is preserved. In this speech, Claudius presented his consular selection as inaugurating a new golden age and Julian as the restorer of the empire founded by Augustus. The image Mamertinus gave of his own consulate inaugurating a new golden age is not merely formulaic. The comparison of Julian to Augustus has very real, if implicit, relevance to Claudius' situation. Claudius emphasized the imperial period as the true age of renewal. Augustus ushered in a new era with his formation of a partnership between the emperor and the Senate based upon a series of honors and offices bestowed upon the Senate in return for their role as intercessor between emperor and populace. It was this system that Julian was restoring, and the consulate was one concrete example of this bond. To be chosen as a consul by the emperor, who himself had been divinely mandated, was a divine honor. In addition to being named consul, Mamertinus went on to hold several offices under Julian, including the Prefecture of Italy, Illyricum, and Africa. Similarly, inscriptional evidence illustrates a link between municipal elites and Julian during his time as Caesar, something which continued after he became emperor. One concrete example comes from the municipal senate of Aceruntia in Apulia, which established a monument on which Julian is styled as "Repairer of the World."

Julian seems to have given up actual Christian belief before his acclamation as emperor and was a practitioner of more traditional Greco-Roman religious beliefs, in particular, a follower of certain late antique Platonist philosophers who were especially adept at theurgy as was noted earlier. In fact Julian himself spoke of his conversion to Neo-Platonism in a letter to the Alexandrians written in 363. He stated that he had abandoned Christianity when he was twenty years old and been an adherent of the traditional Greco-Roman deities for the twelve years prior to writing this letter.

(For the complete text of this article see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/julian.htm)

Julian’s Persian Campaign

The exact goals Julian had for his ill-fated Persian campaign were never clear. The Sassanid Persians, and before them the Parthians, had been a traditional enemy from the time of the Late Republic, and indeed Constantius had been conducting a war against them before Julian's accession forced the former to forge an uneasy peace. Julian, however, had no concrete reason to reopen hostilities in the east. Socrates Scholasticus attributed Julian's motives to imitation of Alexander the Great, but perhaps the real reason lay in his need to gather the support of the army. Despite his acclamation by the Gallic legions, relations between Julian and the top military officers was uneasy at best. A war against the Persians would have brought prestige and power both to Julian and the army.

Julian set out on his fateful campaign on 5 March 363. Using his trademark strategy of striking quickly and where least expected, he moved his army through Heirapolis and from there speedily across the Euphrates and into the province of Mesopotamia, where he stopped at the town of Batnae. His plan was to eventually return through Armenia and winter in Tarsus. Once in Mesopotamia, Julian was faced with the decision of whether to travel south through the province of Babylonia or cross the Tigris into Assyria, and he eventually decided to move south through Babylonia and turn west into Assyria at a later date. By 27 March, he had the bulk of his army across the Euphrates, and had also arranged a flotilla to guard his supply line along the mighty river. He then left his generals Procopius and Sebastianus to help Arsacius, the king of Armenia and a Roman client, to guard the northern Tigris line. It was also during this time that he received the surrender of many prominent local leaders who had nominally supported the Persians. These men supplied Julian with money and troops for further military action against their former masters. Julian decided to turn south into Babylonia and proceeded along the Euphrates, coming to the fortress of Cercusium at the junction of the Abora and Euphrates Rivers around the first of April, and from there he took his army west to a region called Zaitha near the abandoned town of Dura where they visited the tomb of the emperor Gordian which was in the area. On April 7 he set out from there into the heart of Babylonia and towards Assyria.

Ammianus then stated that Julian and his army crossed into Assyria, which on the face of things appears very confusing. Julian still seems to be operating within the province of Babylonia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The confusion is alleviated when one realizes that,for Ammianus, the region of Assyria encompassed the provinces of Babylonia and Assyria. On their march, Julian's forces took the fortress of Anatha, received the surrender and support of several more local princes, and ravaged the countryside of Assyria between the rivers. As the army continued south, they came across the fortresses Thilutha and Achaiachala, but these places were too well defended and Julian decided to leave them alone. Further south were the cities Diacira and Ozogardana, which the Roman forces sacked and burned. Soon, Julian came to Pirisabora and a brief siege ensued, but the city fell and was also looted and destroyed. It was also at this time that the Roman army met its first systematic resistance from the Persians. As the Romans penetrated further south and west, the local inhabitants began to flood their route. Nevertheless, the Roman forces pressed on and came to Maiozamalcha, a sizable city not far from Ctesiphon. After a short siege, this city too fell to Julian. Inexorably, Julian's forces zeroed in on Ctesiphon, but as they drew closer, the Persian resistance grew fiercer, with guerilla raids whittling at Julian's men and supplies. A sizable force of the army was lost and the emperor himself was almost killed taking a fort a few miles from the target city.
Finally, the army approached Ctesiphon following a canal that linked the Tigris and Euphrates. It soon became apparent after a few preliminary skirmishes that a protracted siege would be necessary to take this important city. Many of his generals, however, thought that pursuing this course of action would be foolish. Julian reluctantly agreed, but became enraged by this failure and ordered his fleet to be burned as he decided to march through the province of Assyria. Julian had planned for his army to live off the land, but the Persians employed a scorched-earth policy. When it became apparent that his army would perish (because his supplies were beginning to dwindle) from starvation and the heat if he continued his campaign, and also in the face of superior numbers of the enemy, Julian ordered a retreat on 16 June. As the Roman army retreated, they were constantly harassed by guerilla strikes. It was during one of these raids that Julian got caught up in the fighting and took a spear to his abdomen. Mortally wounded he was carried to his tent, where, after conferring with some of his officers, he died. The date was 26 June 363.

Conclusion

Thus an ignominious end for a man came about who had hoped to restore the glory of the Roman empire during his reign as emperor. Due to his intense hatred of Christianity, the opinion of posterity has not been kind to Julian. The contemporary opinion, however, was overall positive. The evidence shows that Julian was a complex ruler with a definite agenda to use traditional social institutions in order to revive what he saw as a collapsing empire. In the final assessment, he was not so different from any of the other emperors of the fourth century. He was a man grasping desperately to hang on to a Greco-Roman conception of leadership that was undergoing a subtle yet profound change.
Copyright (C) 2002, Walter E. Roberts and Michael DiMaio, Jr. Used by permission.

In reality, Julian worked to promote culture and philosophy in any manifestation. He tried to reduce taxes and the public debts of municipalities; he augmented administrative decentralisation; he promoted a campaign of austerity to reduce public expenditure (setting himself as the example). He reformed the postal service and eliminated the powerful secret police.
by Federico Morando; JULIAN II, The Apostate, http://www.forumancientcoins.com/NumisWiki/view.asp?key=Julian%20II

Flavius Claudius Iulianus was born in 331 or maybe 332 A.D. in Constantinople. He ruled the Western Empire as Caesar from 355 to 360 and was hailed Augustus by his legions in Lutetia (Paris) in 360. Julian was a gifted administrator and military strategist. Famed as the last pagan emperor, his reinstatement of the pagan religion earned him the moniker "the Apostate." As evidenced by his brilliant writing, some of which has survived to the present day, the title "the Philosopher" may have been more appropriate. He died from wounds suffered during the Persian campaign of 363 A.D. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.




2 commentsCleisthenes
Saladin_A788.jpg
1701a, Saladin, 1169-11932029 viewsAYYUBID: Saladin, 1169-1193, AR dirham (2.92g), Halab, AH580, A-788, lovely struck, well-centered & bold, Extremely Fine, Scarce.

His name in Arabic, in full, is SALAH AD-DIN YUSUF IBN AYYUB ("Righteousness of the Faith, Joseph, Son of Job"), also called AL-MALIK AN-NASIR SALAH AD-DIN YUSUF I (b. 1137/38, Tikrit, Mesopotamia--d. March 4, 1193, Damascus), Muslim sultan of Egypt, Syria, Yemen, and Palestine, founder of the Ayyubid dynasty, and the most famous of Muslim heroes.

In wars against the Christian crusaders, he achieved final success with the disciplined capture of Jerusalem (Oct. 2, 1187), ending its 88-year occupation by the Franks. The great Christian counterattack of the Third Crusade was then stalemated by Saladin's military genius.

Saladin was born into a prominent Kurdish family. On the night of his birth, his father, Najm ad-Din Ayyub, gathered his family and moved to Aleppo, there entering the service of 'Imad ad-Din Zangi ibn Aq Sonqur, the powerful Turkish governor in northern Syria. Growing up in Ba'lbek and Damascus, Saladin was apparently an undistinguished youth, with a greater taste for religious studies than military training.
His formal career began when he joined the staff of his uncle Asad ad-Din Shirkuh, an important military commander under the amir Nureddin, son and successor of Zangi. During three military expeditions led by Shirkuh into Egypt to prevent its falling to the Latin-Christian (Frankish) rulers of the states established by the First Crusade, a complex, three-way struggle developed between Amalric I, the Latin king of Jerusalem, Shawar, the powerful vizier of the Egyptian Fatimid caliph, and Shirkuh. After Shirkuh's death and after ordering Shawar's assassination, Saladin, in 1169 at the age of 31, was appointed both commander of the Syrian troops and vizier of Egypt.

His relatively quick rise to power must be attributed not only to the clannish nepotism of his Kurdish family but also to his own emerging talents. As vizier of Egypt, he received the title king (malik), although he was generally known as the sultan. Saladin's position was further enhanced when, in 1171, he abolished the Shi'i Fatimid caliphate, proclaimed a return to Sunnah in Egypt, and consequently became its sole ruler.

Although he remained for a time theoretically a vassal of Nureddin, that relationship ended with the Syrian emir's death in 1174. Using his rich agricultural possessions in Egypt as a financial base, Saladin soon moved into Syria with a small but strictly disciplined army to claim the regency on behalf of the young son of his former suzerain.
Soon, however, he abandoned this claim, and from 1174 until 1186 he zealously pursued a goal of uniting, under his own standard, all the Muslim territories of Syria, northern Mesopotamia, Palestine, and Egypt.

This he accomplished by skillful diplomacy backed when necessary by the swift and resolute use of military force. Gradually, his reputation grew as a generous and virtuous but firm ruler, devoid of pretense, licentiousness, and cruelty. In contrast to the bitter dissension and intense rivalry that had up to then hampered the Muslims in their resistance to the crusaders, Saladin's singleness of purpose induced them to rearm both physically and spiritually.

Saladin's every act was inspired by an intense and unwavering devotion to the idea of jihad ("holy war")-the Muslim equivalent of the Christian crusade. It was an essential part of his policy to encourage the growth and spread of Muslim religious institutions.

He courted its scholars and preachers, founded colleges and mosques for their use, and commissioned them to write edifying works especially on the jihad itself. Through moral regeneration, which was a genuine part of his own way of life, he tried to re-create in his own realm some of the same zeal and enthusiasm that had proved so valuable to the first generations of Muslims when, five centuries before, they had conquered half the known world.

Saladin also succeeded in turning the military balance of power in his favour-more by uniting and disciplining a great number of unruly forces than by employing new or improved military techniques. When at last, in 1187, he was able to throw his full strength into the struggle with the Latin crusader kingdoms, his armies were their equals. On July 4, 1187, aided by his own military good sense and by a phenomenal lack of it on the part of his enemy, Saladin trapped and destroyed in one blow an exhausted and thirst-crazed army of crusaders at Hattin, near Tiberias in northern Palestine.

So great were the losses in the ranks of the crusaders in this one battle that the Muslims were quickly able to overrun nearly the entire Kingdom of Jerusalem. Acre, Toron, Beirut, Sidon, Nazareth, Caesarea, Nabulus, Jaffa (Yafo), and Ascalon (Ashqelon) fell within three months.

But Saladin's crowning achievement and the most disastrous blow to the whole crusading movement came on Oct. 2, 1187, when Jerusalem, holy to both Muslim and Christian alike, surrendered to the Sultan's army after 88 years in the hands of the Franks. In stark contrast to the city's conquest by the Christians, when blood flowed freely during the barbaric slaughter of its inhabitants, the Muslim reconquest was marked by the civilized and courteous behaviour of Saladin and his troops. His sudden success, which in 1189 saw the crusaders reduced to the occupation of only three cities, was, however, marred by his failure to capture Tyre, an almost impregnable coastal fortress to which the scattered Christian survivors of the recent battles flocked. It was to be the rallying point of the Latin counterattack.

Most probably, Saladin did not anticipate the European reaction to his capture of Jerusalem, an event that deeply shocked the West and to which it responded with a new call for a crusade. In addition to many great nobles and famous knights, this crusade, the third, brought the kings of three countries into the struggle.

The magnitude of the Christian effort and the lasting impression it made on contemporaries gave the name of Saladin, as their gallant and chivalrous enemy, an added lustre that his military victories alone could never confer on him.

The Crusade itself was long and exhausting, and, despite the obvious, though at times impulsive, military genius of Richard I the Lion-Heart, it achieved almost nothing. Therein lies the greatest-but often unrecognized--achievement of Saladin. With tired and unwilling feudal levies, committed to fight only a limited season each year, his indomitable will enabled him to fight the greatest champions of Christendom to a draw. The crusaders retained little more than a precarious foothold on the Levantine coast, and when King Richard set sail from the Orient in October 1192, the battle was over.

Saladin withdrew to his capital at Damascus. Soon, the long campaigning seasons and the endless hours in the saddle caught up with him, and he died. While his relatives were already scrambling for pieces of the empire, his friends found that the most powerful and most generous ruler in the Muslim world had not left enough money to pay for his own grave.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
H.A.R. Gibb, "The Arabic Sources for the Life of Saladin," Speculum, 25:58-72 (1950). C.W. Wilson's English translation of one of the most important Arabic works, The Life of Saladin (1897), was reprinted in 1971. The best biography to date is Stanley Lane-Poole, Saladin and the Fall of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, new ed. (1926, reprinted 1964), although it does not take account of all the sources.
See: http://stp.ling.uu.se/~kamalk/language/saladin.html
Ed. J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
Saladin_A787.jpg
1701b, Saladin, 1169-1193153 viewsAYYUBID: Saladin, 1169-1193, AR dirham (2.93), al-Qahira, AH586, A-787.2, clear mint & date, double struck, some horn-silvering;VF-EF.

His name in Arabic is SALAH AD-DIN YUSUF IBN AYYUB ("Righteousness of the Faith, Joseph, Son of Job"). He was born in 1137/8 A.D. in Tikrit, Mesopotamia (modern day Iraq). In wars against the Christian crusaders, he achieved a significant success with the disciplined capture of Jerusalem (Oct. 2, 1187), ending its 88-year occupation by the Franks. Unlike the notorious conquest by the Christians, who slaughtered the inhabitants of the “Holy City,” Saladin’s reconquest of Jerusalem was marked by civilized and courteous behaviour. Saladin was generous to his vanquished foes—by any measure. When he died in 1193, this man who is arguably Islam’s greatest hero was virtually penniless. After a lifetime of giving alms to the poor, his friends found that the most powerful and most generous ruler in the Muslim world had not left enough money to pay for his own grave.
Cleisthenes
Denario_Vespasiano_RIC_114_2_Judaea_Capta.jpg
18-14 - VESPASIANO (69 - 79 D.C.)35 viewsAR Denario 18 mm 2.8 gr.

Anv: " IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG" Leyenda en sentido anti-horario - Cabeza laureada viendo a derecha.
Rev: "[T]R POT X – COS VIIII" – Victoria avanzando a izquierda y atando un escudo sobre un trofeo de armas, en cuya base se encuentra un acongojado prisionero Judío sentado a izquierda.

Este reverso puede referirse a la victoria en Judea o, alternativamente, puede asociarse con las actividades en el norte de Bretaña del famoso Gobernador Gnaus Julius Agricola, suegro del historiador Tácitus.

Acuñada 79 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: Comun

Referencias: RIC Vol.II #114D Pag.27 - RIC2 #1068 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #2309 Pag.437 - BMCRE Vol.2 #246 - Cohen Vol.1 #552 Pag.411 - DVM #53/4 Pag.102 - CBN #216 - RSC Vol. II #552 Pag.48 - Hendin #767 Pag.321
mdelvalle
RIC_114_Denario_Vespasiano.jpg
18-15 - VESPASIANO (69 - 79 D.C.)18 viewsAR Denario 18 mm 2.8 gr.

Anv: " IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG" Leyenda en sentido anti-horario - Cabeza laureada viendo a derecha.
Rev: "[T]R POT X – COS VIIII" – Victoria avanzando a izquierda y atando un escudo sobre un trofeo de armas, en cuya base se encuentra un acongojado prisionero Judío sentado a izquierda.

Este reverso puede referirse a la victoria en Judea o, alternativamente, puede asociarse con las actividades en el norte de Bretaña del famoso Gobernador Gnaus Julius Agricola, suegro del historiador Tácitus.

Acuñada 79 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: Comun

Referencias: RIC Vol.II #114D Pag.27 - RIC2 #1068 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #2309 Pag.437 - BMCRE Vol.2 #246 - Cohen Vol.1 #552 Pag.411 - DVM #53/4 Pag.102 - CBN #216 - RSC Vol. II #552 Pag.48 - Hendin #767 Pag.321
mdelvalle
MarcAntDenOctavian.jpg
1ae Marc Antony and Octavian43 viewsFormed the Second Triumvirate, 43-33 BC, , along with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus. Antony killed himself in 30 BC.

Denarius
41 BC

Marc Antony portrait, right, M ANT IMP AVG III VIR RPCM BARBAT QP
Octavian portrait, right, CAESAR IMP PONT III VIR RPC

RSC 8

Plutarch described Antony thusly: Antony grew up a very beautiful youth, but by the worst of misfortunes, he fell into the acquaintance and friendship of Curio, a man abandoned to his pleasures, who, to make Antony's dependence upon him a matter of greater necessity, plunged him into a life of drinking and dissipation, and led him through a course of such extravagance that he ran, at that early age, into debt to the amount of two hundred and fifty talents. . . . He took most to what was called the Asiatic taste in speaking, which was then at its height, and was, in many ways, suitable to his ostentatious, vaunting temper, full of empty flourishes and unsteady efforts for glory. . . . He had also a very good and noble appearance; his beard was well grown, his forehead large, and his nose aquiline, giving him altogether a bold, masculine look that reminded people of the faces of Hercules in paintings and sculptures. It was, moreover, an ancient tradition, that the Antonys were descended from Hercules, by a son of his called Anton; and this opinion he thought to give credit to by the similarity of his person just mentioned, and also by the fashion of his dress. For, whenever he had to appear before large numbers, he wore his tunic girt low about the hips, a broadsword on his side, and over all a large coarse mantle. What might seem to some very insupportable, his vaunting, his raillery, his drinking in public, sitting down by the men as they were taking their food, and eating, as he stood, off the common soldiers' tables, made him the delight and pleasure of the army. In love affairs, also, he was very agreeable: he gained many friends by the assistance he gave them in theirs, and took other people's raillery upon his own with good-humour. And his generous ways, his open and lavish hand in gifts and favours to his friends and fellow-soldiers, did a great deal for him in his first advance to power, and after he had become great, long maintained his fortunes, when a thousand follies were hastening their overthrow.
1 commentsBlindado
Lepidus_Antony_Quinarius.jpg
1af Lepidus_214 viewsQuinarius

M LEP IMP, simpulum, aspergillum, axe (surmounted by wolf's head) & ape

M ANT IMP, lituus, capis (jug) and raven

Military mint with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus & Antony in Transalpine Gaul, 44-42 BC

Cr489/3, Syd 1158a

Lepidus was a member of the Second Triumvirate.

According to Plutarch's Life of Pompey: Sulla, however, was annoyed at seeing to what a height of reputation and power Pompey was advancing, but being ashamed to obstruct his career, he kept quiet. Only, when in spite of him and against his wishes Pompey made Lepidus consul, by canvassing for him and making the people zealously support him through their goodwill towards himself, seeing Pompey going off through the forum with a throng, Sulla said: "I see, young man, that you rejoice in your victory; and surely it was a generous and noble thing for Lepidus, the worst of men, to be proclaimed consul by a larger vote than Catulus, the best of men, because you influenced the people to take this course. Now, however, it is time for you to be wide awake and watchful of your interests; you have made your adversary stronger than yourself." But Sulla showed most clearly that he was not well-disposed to Pompey by the will which he wrote. For whereas he bequeathed gifts to other friends, and made some of them guardians of his son, he omitted all mention of Pompey. And yet Pompey bore this with great composure, and loyally, insomuch that when Lepidus and sundry others tried to prevent the body of Sulla from being buried in the Campus Martius, or even from receiving public burial honours, he came to the rescue, and gave to the interment alike honour and security.

Soon after the death of Sulla, his prophecies were fulfilled, and Lepidus tried to assume Sulla's powers. He took no circuitous route and used no pretence, but appeared at once in arms, stirring up anew and gathering about himself the remnants of faction, long enfeebled, which had escaped the hand of Sulla. His colleague, Catulus, to whom the incorrupt and sounder element in the senate and people attached themselves, was the great Roman of the time in the estimate set upon his wisdom and justice, but was thought better adapted for political than military leadership. The situation itself, therefore, demanded Pompey, who was not long in deciding what course to take. He took the side of the nobility, and was appointed commander of an army against Lepidus, who had already stirred up a large part of Italy and was employing Brutus to hold Cisalpine Gaul with an army.

Other opponents against whom Pompey came were easily mastered by him, but at Mutina, in Gaul, he lay a long while besieging Brutus. Meanwhile, Lepidus had made a hasty rush upon Rome, and sitting down before it, was demanding a second consulship, and terrifying the citizens with a vast throng of followers. But their fear was dissipated by a letter brought from Pompey, announcing that he had brought the war to a close without a battle. For Brutus, whether he himself betrayed his army, or whether his army changed sides and betrayed him, put himself in the hands of Pompey, and receiving an escort of horsemen, retired to a little town upon the Po. Here, after a single day had passed, he was slain by Geminius, who was sent by Pompey to do the deed. And Pompey was much blamed for this. For as soon as the army of Brutus changed sides, he wrote to the senate that Brutus had surrendered to him of his own accord; then he sent another letter denouncing the man after he had been put to death. The Brutus who, with Cassius, killed Caesar, was a son of this Brutus, a man who was like his father neither in his wars nor in his death, as is written in his Life. As for Lepidus, moreover, as soon as he was expelled from Italy, he made his way over to Sardinia. There he fell sick and died of despondency, which was due, as we are told, not to the loss of his cause, but to his coming accidentally upon a writing from which he discovered that his wife was an adulteress.
Blindado
BrutusDenLictors.jpg
1ag Marcus Junius Brutus64 viewsTook his own life in 42 BC after being defeated at Philippi by Antony and Octavian

Denarius, issued as moneyer, 54 BC
Head of Liberty, right, LIBERTAS
Consul L. Junius Brutus between lictors, preceded by accensus, BRVTVS

Seaby, Junia 31

Plutarch wrote: Marcus Brutus was descended from that Junius Brutus to whom the ancient Romans erected a statue of brass in the capitol among the images of their kings with a drawn sword in his hand, in remembrance of his courage and resolution in expelling the Tarquins and destroying the monarchy. . . . But this Brutus, whose life we now write, having to the goodness of his disposition added the improvements of learning and the study of philosophy, and having stirred up his natural parts, of themselves grave and gentle, by applying himself to business and public affairs, seems to have been of a temper exactly framed for virtue; insomuch that they who were most his enemies upon account of his conspiracy against Caesar, if in that whole affair there was any honourable or generous part, referred it wholly to Brutus, and laid whatever was barbarous and cruel to the charge of Cassius, Brutus's connection and familiar friend, but not his equal in honesty and pureness of purpose. . . . In Latin, he had by exercise attained a sufficient skill to be able to make public addresses and to plead a cause; but in Greek, he must be noted for affecting the sententious and short Laconic way of speaking in sundry passages of his epistles. . . . And in all other things Brutus was partaker of Caesar's power as much as he desired: for he might, if he had pleased, have been the chief of all his friends, and had authority and command beyond them all, but Cassius and the company he met with him drew him off from Caesar. . . . Caesar snatching hold of the handle of the dagger, and crying out aloud in Latin, "Villain Casca, what do you?" he, calling in Greek to his brother, bade him come and help. And by this time, finding himself struck by a great many hands, and looking around about him to see if he could force his way out, when he saw Brutus with his dagger drawn against him, he let go Casca's hand, that he had hold of and covering his head with his robe, gave up his body to their blows.
2 commentsBlindado
AgrippaAsNeptune.jpg
1ah Marcus Agrippa36 viewsDied 12 BC
As, minted by Caligula.

Head left wearing rostral crownt, M AGRIPPA L F COS III
Neptune standing facing, head left, naked except for cloak draped behind him & over both arms, holding small dolphin in right hand & vertical trident in left, SC

RIC 58

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (c 63 BC–12 BC) was a close friend, and defence minister of the future emperor Augustus. He was responsible for many of his military victories, most notably Actium against the forces of Mark Antony and Cleopatra VII of Egypt. He was son-in-law to Augustus, maternal grandfather of the Emperor Caligula, father-in-law of the Emperors Tiberius and Claudius, and maternal great-grandfather of the Emperor Nero. He probably served in Caesar’s campaign of 46/45 BC against Pompey and Caesar regarded him highly enough to send him with Octavius in 45 BC to study at Apollonia. From then on Agrippa played a major part in Augustus’ career, as military commander and admiral, also undertaking major public works, and writing works on geography (following his survey of the Empire) and other subjects. He erected many fine buildings in Rome, including the original Pantheon on the Campus Martius (during his third consulship 27 BC). He married Claudia Marcella the Elder, daughter of Octavia the Younger in 28 BC, and Julia the Elder in 21 BC, with whom he had five children. His daughter Agrippina Vipsania the Younger the married Tiberius, and his daughter Agrippina Vipsania the Elder married Germanicus. His last campaign initiated the conquest of the upper Danube region, which would become the Roman province of Pannonia in 13 BC. Augustus had Agrippa’s remains placed in his own mausoleum. Ronald Syme offers a compelling case that Agrippa was much more co-ruler of the empire with Augustus than he was a subordinate.
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1ai Augustus25 views27 BC-14 AD

Denarius
Laureate head left, AVGVSTVS DIVI F
Apollo stg. Right, IMP XII

Van Meter notes that after about 15 BC, Augustus moved the production of gold and silver to Lugdunum and underscored the end of the moneyer issues by using "IMP" on the reverse.

RIC 180

Suetonius summarized Augusts' life in these words: He lost his father at the age of five (58BC). At twelve he delivered a funeral oration in honour of his grandmother Julia, Julius Caesar’s sister (51BC). At sixteen, having assumed the toga, he was decorated by Caesar during the African triumph (46BC) even though he had been too young to fight. When Caesar went to conquer Pompey’s sons in Spain (in 46BC), Augustus followed, despite still being weak from severe illness, and despite being shipwrecked on the way, with a minimal escort, over roads menaced by the enemy, so endearing himself greatly to Caesar, who quickly formed a high opinion of Augustus’ character, beyond merely his energetic pursuit of the journey.
After recovering the Spanish provinces, Caesar planned an expedition against the Dacians, to be followed by an attack on Parthia, and sent Augustus ahead (in 45BC) to Apollonia in Illyria, where he spent his time studying. When news came of Caesar’s assassination (in 44BC), and that the will named him as the main heir, Augustus considered seeking protection from the legions quartered there. However he decided it would be rash and premature, and chose to return to Rome, and enter on his inheritance, despite the doubts expressed by his mother, and strong opposition from his stepfather, the ex-consul Marcius Philippus.

Augustus went on to levy armies and rule the State; firstly for a twelve-year period (from 43BC to 30BC), initially with Mark Antony and Lepidus and then (from 33BC) with Antony alone; and later by himself for a further forty-four years (to his death in AD14).

In his youth he was betrothed to Servilia, the daughter of Publius Servilius Vatia Isauricus, but on his reconciliation with Mark Antony following their first dispute, the troops begged them to become allied by some tie of kinship, and he married (in 43BC) Claudia, Antony’s stepdaughter, born to Fulvia and Publius Clodius Pulcher, even though Claudia was barely of marriageable age. However he quarrelled with Fulvia, and divorced Claudia before the marriage had been consummated.

Not long afterwards (in 40BC), he married Scribonia, whose previous husbands had been ex-consuls, and to one of whom she had borne a child. He divorced her also ‘tired’, he wrote, ‘of her shrewish ways,’ and immediately took Livia Drusilla from her husband Tiberius Nero though she was pregnant at the time (38BC), loving and esteeming her alone to the end.
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1am Drusus22 viewsHeir to throne until assassination by Sejanus in 23

As

Bare head, left, DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N
PONTIF TRIBVN POTEST ITER SC

RIC 45

Nero Claudius Drusus, later adopted as Drusus Julius Caesar (13BC - 23AD), called Drusus the Younger, was the only child of Tiberius and his first wife, Vipsania Agrippina. Tiberius and Drusus delivered the only two eulogies for Augustus in front of the temple to the god Julius. In 14, after the death of Augustus, Drusus suppressed a mutiny in Pannonia. In 15 he became consul. He governed Illyricum from 17 to 20. In 21 he was again consul, while in 22 he received tribunicia potestas (tribunician power), a distinction reserved solely for the emperor or his immediate successor. Drusus married his paternal cousin Livilla in 4. Their daughter Julia was born shortly after. Their son Tiberius Gemellus (his twin brother Germanicus Gemellus died in infancy) was born in 19. By 23 Drusus, who made no secret of his antipathy towards Sejanus, looked likely to succeed Tiberius as emperor. Sources concur that with Livilla as his accomplice Sejanous poisoned her husband Drusus.

Suetonius says, "He lacked affection not only for his adopted son Germanicus, but even for his own son Drusus the Younger, whose vices were inimical to him, Drusus indeed pursing loose and immoral ways. So inimical, that Tiberius seemed unaffected by his death (in 23AD), and quickly took up his usual routine after the funeral, cutting short the period of mourning. When a deputation from Troy offered him belated condolences, he smiled as if at a distant memory, and offered them like sympathy for the loss of their famous fellow-citizen Hector!"
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1an Germanicus36 viewsAdopted by Tiberius in 4 AD, died mysteriously in 19

As, struck by Caligula

Bare head, left, GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N
C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT SC

RIC 57

Germanicus Julius Caesar (c16 BC-AD 19) was was born in Lugdunum, Gaul (modern Lyon). At birth he was named either Nero Claudius Drusus after his father or Tiberius Claudius Nero after his uncle. He received the agnomen Germanicus, in 9 BC, when it was posthumously awarded to his father in honour of his victories in Germania. Germanicus was the grandson-in-law and great-nephew of the Emperor Augustus, nephew and adoptive son of the Emperor Tiberius, father of the Emperor Caligula, brother of the Emperor Claudius, and the maternal grandfather of the Emperor Nero. He married his maternal second cousin Agrippina the Elder, a granddaughter of Augustus, between 5 and 1 BC. The couple had nine children. Two died very young; another, Gaius Julius Caesar, died in early childhood. The remaining six were: Nero Caesar, Drusus Caesar, the Emperor Caligula, the Empress Agrippina the Younger, Julia Drusilla, and Julia Livilla.

According to Suetonius: Germanicus, who was the son of Drusus the Elder and Antonia the Younger, was adopted (in 4AD) by Germanicus’s paternal uncle, Tiberius. He served as quaestor (in7AD) five years before the legal age and became consul (in12AD) without holding the intermediate offices. On the death of Augustus (in AD14) he was appointed to command the army in Germany, where, his filial piety and determination vying for prominence, he held the legions to their oath, though they stubbornly opposed Tiberius’s succession, and wished him to take power for himself.

He followed this with victory in Germany, for which he celebrated a triumph (in 17 AD), and was chosen as consul for a second time (18 AD) though unable to take office as he was despatched to the East to restore order there. He defeated the forces of the King of Armenia, and reduced Cappadocia to provincial status, but then died at Antioch, at the age of only thirty-three (in AD 19), after a lingering illness, though there was also suspicion that he had been poisoned. For as well as the livid stains which covered his body, and the foam on his lips, the heart was found entire among the ashes after his cremation, its total resistance to flame being a characteristic of that organ, they say, when it is filled with poison.

All considered Germanicus exceptional in body and mind, to a quite outstanding degree. Remarkably brave and handsome; a master of Greek and Latin oratory and learning; singularly benevolent; he was possessed of a powerful desire and vast capacity for winning respect and inspiring affection.

His scrawny legs were less in keeping with the rest of his figure, but he gradually fleshed them out by assiduous exercise on horseback after meals. He often killed enemy warriors in hand-to-hand combat; still pleaded cases in the courts even after receiving his triumph; and left various Greek comedies behind amongst other fruits of his studies.

At home and abroad his manners were unassuming, such that he always entered free or allied towns without his lictors.

Whenever he passed the tombs of famous men, he always offered a sacrifice to their shades. And he was the first to initiate a personal search for the scattered remains of Varus’s fallen legionaries, and have them gathered together, so as to inter them in a single burial mound.

As for Germanicus, Tiberius appreciated him so little, that he dismissed his famous deeds as trivial, and his brilliant victories as ruinous to the Empire. He complained to the Senate when Germanicus left for Alexandria (AD19) without consulting him, on the occasion there of a terrible and swift-spreading famine. It was even believed that Tiberius arranged for his poisoning at the hands of Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso, the Governor of Syria, and that Piso would have revealed the written instructions at his trial, had Tiberius not retrieved them during a private interview, before having Piso put to death. As a result, the words: ‘Give us back Germanicus!’ were posted on the walls, and shouted at night, all throughout Rome. The suspicion surrounding Germanicus’ death (19 AD) was deepened by Tiberius’s cruel treatment of Germanicus’s wife, Agrippina the Elder, and their children.
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1ao3 Julia Drusilla33 viewsAE 20 of Smyrna (Izmir, Turkey)
Laureate head of Caligula, right, ΓAION KAICAPA EΠI AOYIOΛA
Drusilla as Persephone seated left, poppies between two stalks of grain in right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left hand, ∆POYCIΛΛAN ZMYPNAIΩN MHNOΦANHC

Caligula’s sister

Klose XXVIII, 27 (Vs4/Rs10); RPC I 2472; SNG Cop 1343; SNGvA 2202; BMC Ionia p. 269, 272

According to Suetonius’ salacious account: Germanicus had married Agrippina the Elder, daughter of Marcus Agrippa and Julia the Elder, and she had borne him nine children. Two died in infancy, another in early childhood. . . .

The other children survived their father: three girls, Agrippina the Younger, Drusilla and Livilla, born in successive years; and three boys, Nero, Drusus, and Gaius Caesar (Caligula). . . . [Caligula] habitually committed incest with each of his three sisters, seating them in turn below him at large banquets while his wife reclined above. It is believed that he violated Drusilla’s virginity while a minor, and been caught in bed with her by his grandmother Antonia, in whose household they were jointly raised. Later, when Drusilla was married to Lucius Cassius Longinus, an ex-consul, he took her from him and openly treated her as his lawful married wife. When he fell ill he made her heir to his estate and the throne.

When Drusilla died (in 38AD) he declared a period of public mourning during which it was a capital offense to laugh, or bathe, or to dine with parents, spouse or children. Caligula himself was so overcome with grief that he fled the City in the middle of the night, and travelled through Campania, and on to Syracuse, returning again with the same degree of haste, and without cutting his hair or shaving. From that time forwards whenever he took an important oath, even in public or in front of the army, he always swore by Drusilla’s divinity.
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1aq Agrippina junior31 viewsMarried Claudius 49 AD

Diobol of Alexandria

Draped bust right, wreathed with corn, hair bound in plait behind, AGRIPPEINA CЄBACTH
Draped bust of Euthenia right, wreathed with corn, holding ears of corn, ЄYQH-NIA across fields, L-IB below

Milne 124

Agrippina the Younger, Julia Agrippina, or Agrippinilla (Little Agrippina) after 50 AD known as Julia Augusta Agrippina (c16 AD –59) was sister of Caligula, niece and fourth wife of Claudius and the mother of Nero. In 28, Tiberius arranged for Agrippina to marry her paternal second cousin Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus. Their only son was named Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, after Domitius’s recently deceased father. This child would become the Emperor Nero. In 39, Agrippina and her sister Livilla, with their maternal cousin, Drusilla’s widower, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, were involved in a failed plot to murder Caligula, and make Lepidus emperor. Lepidus was executed. Agrippina and Livilla were exiled by their brother to the Pontine Islands.

Suetonius says, "But it was Agrippina the Younger, his brother Germanicus’s daughter, who ensnared him, assisted by a niece’s privilege of exchanging kisses and endearments. At the next Senate meeting, he primed a group of Senators to propose that he ought to marry Agrippina, as it was in the public interest, and that such marriages between uncle and niece should from then on be regarded as lawful, and no longer incestuous. He married her (AD 49) with barely a day’s delay, but only one freedman and one leading centurion married their respective nieces, to follow suit. Claudius himself, with Agrippina, attended the centurion’s wedding."

The Euthenia reverse reminds one of "euthanasia." which is what some suspect she did to Claudius to elevate her son Nero to the purple.
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1ar Nero52 views54-68

As

Bare head, right, IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P MAX TR P P P
Genius, GENIO AVGVSTI

RIC 86

Suetonius wrote: Nero was born nine months after the death of Tiberius, at Antium, at sunrise on the 15th of December (AD 37). . . . While he was still a young stripling he took part in a successful performance of the Troy Game in the Circus, in which he exhibited great self-possession. At the age of twelve or so (sometime in AD 50), he was adopted by Claudius, who appointed Annaeus Seneca, already a member of the Senate, as his tutor. The following night, it is said, Seneca dreamed that his young charge was really Caligula, and Nero soon proved the dream prophetic by seizing the first opportunity to reveal his cruel disposition. . . . After Claudius’s death (AD 54) had been announced publicly, Nero, who was not quite seventeen years old, decided to address the Guards in the late afternoon, since inauspicious omens that day had ruled out an earlier appearance. After being acclaimed Emperor on the Palace steps, he was carried in a litter to the Praetorian Camp where he spoke to the Guards, and then to the House where he stayed until evening. He refused only one of the many honours that were heaped upon him, that of ‘Father of the Country’, and declined that simply on account of his youth.

Eutropius summarized: To him succeeded NERO, who greatly resembled his uncle Caligula, and both disgraced and weakened the Roman empire; he indulged in such extraordinary luxury and extravagance, that, after the example of Caius Caligula, he even bathed in hot and cold perfumes, and fished with golden nets, which he drew up with cords of purple silk. He put to death a very great number of the senate. To all good men he was an enemy. At last he exposed himself in so disgraceful a manner, that he danced and sung upon the stage in the dress of a harp-player and tragedian. He was guilty of many murders, his brother, wife, and mother, being put to death by him. He set on fire the city of Rome, that he might enjoy the sight of a spectacle such as Troy formerly presented when taken and burned.

In military affairs he attempted nothing. Britain he almost lost; for two of its most noble towns4 were taken and levelled to the ground under his reign. The Parthians took from him Armenia, and compelled the Roman legions to pass under the yoke. Two provinces however were formed under him; Pontus Polemoniacus, by the concession of King Polemon; and the Cottian Alps, on the death of King Cottius.

15 When, having become detestable by such conduct to the city of Rome, and being deserted at the same time by every one, and declared an enemy by the senate, he was sought for to be led to punishment (the punishment being, that he should be dragged naked through the streets, with a fork placed under his head,5 be beaten to death with rods, and then hurled from the Tarpeian rock), he fled from the palace, and killed himself in a suburban villa of one of his freed-men, between the Salarian and Nomentane roads, at the fourth milestone from the city. He built those hot baths at Rome, which were formerly called the Neronian, but now the Alexandrian. He died in the thirty-second year of his age, and the fourteenth year of his reign; and in him all the family of Augustus became extinct.

Having successfully dispatched his scheming mother Agrippina in 59 and survived a decade on the throne, Nero must have felt like a genius when this was minted ca 64 AD!
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1as Poppaea38 viewsWife of Nero, died 65 AD

Tetradrachm

Radiate head, right, NERW LKAU KAIS SEB GER AV
Poppaea, portrait right, POPPAIA SEBASTH, LIA to rt

Milne 209

Poppaea Sabina (AD 30-65) after AD 63 known as Poppaea Augusta Sabina and sometimes referred to as Poppaea Sabina the Younger to differentiate her from her mother of the same name, was the second wife of the Emperor Nero from AD 62. Prior to this she was the wife of the future Emperor Otho. Suetonius noted, "He married two wives after Octavia. The first was Poppaea Sabina (from AD 62), daughter of an ex-quaestor, married at that time to a Roman knight. . . . Nero doted on Poppeia, whom he married twelve days after divorcing Octavia, yet he caused her death by kicking her when she was pregnant and ill, because she complained of his coming home late from the races. She had borne him a daughter, Claudia Augusta, who died in infancy."
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1at Galba31 views68-69

Denarius

Laureate head, right, SER GALBA IMP CAESAR AVG P M TR P
Victory standing on globe, VICTORIA PR

RIC 111

Suetonius recorded: Servius Galba, the future emperor was born on the 24th of December, 3BC, in the consulship of Marcus Valerius Messala and Gnaeus Lentulus, at a hillside mansion near Terracina, on the left of the road to Fundi (Fondi). He was formally adopted by his stepmother Livia Ocellina, and took the name Livius and the surname Ocella, also changing his forename to Lucius, until he became Emperor.

It is common knowledge that when calling on Augustus to pay his respects, with other boys of his age, the Emperor pinched his cheek, and said in Greek: ‘You too will have a taste of power, my child.’ And when Tiberius heard the prophecy that Galba would be emperor in old age, he commented: ‘Well let him be, it’s no concern of mine.’

Galba achieved office before the usual age and as praetor (in 20AD), controlling the games at the Floralia, he was the first to introduce a display of tightrope-walking elephants. He next governed Aquitania, for almost a year, and not long afterwards held the consulship for six months (in 33AD). When Caligula was assassinated (in 41AD), Galba chose neutrality though many urged him to seize the opportunity for power. Claudius expressed his gratitude by including him among his intimate friends, and Galba was shown such consideration that the expedition to Britain was delayed to allow him to recover from a sudden but minor indisposition. Later he was proconsul in Africa for two years (44/45AD), being singled out, and so avoiding the usual lottery, to restore order in the province, which was riven by internecine rivalry and an indigenous revolt. He re-established peace, by the exercise of ruthless discipline, and the display of justice even in the most trifling matters. . . .

But when word from the City arrived that Nero was dead and that the people had sworn allegiance to him, he set aside the title of governor and assumed that of Caesar. He then began his march to Rome in a general’s cloak, with a dagger, hanging from his neck, at his chest, and did not resume the toga until his main rivals had been eliminated, namely the commander of the Praetorian Guard in Rome, Nymphidius Sabinus, and the commanders in Germany and Africa, Fonteius Capito and Clodius Macer. . . . His prestige and popularity were greater while winning power than wielding it, though he showed evidence of being a more than capable ruler, loved less, unfortunately, for his good qualities than he was hated for his bad ones.

He was even warned of the danger of imminent assassination, the day before his death, by a soothsayer, as he offered the morning sacrifice. Shortly afterwards he learnt that Otho had secured the Guards camp, and when his staff advised him to carry the day by his presence and prestige, by going there immediately, he opted instead to stay put, but gather a strong bodyguard of legionaries from their billets around the City. He did however don a linen corselet, though saying that frankly it would serve little against so many weapons. False reports, put about by the conspirators to lure him into appearing in public, deceived a few of his close supporters, who rashly told him the rebellion was over, the plotters overthrown, and that the rest of the troops were on their way to congratulate him and carry out his orders. So he went to meet them, with such confidence, that when a soldier boasted of killing Otho, he snapped out: ‘On whose authority?’ before hastening on to the Forum. The cavalrymen who had been ordered to find and kill him, who were spurring through the streets scattering the crowds of civilians, now caught sight of him in the distance and halted an instant before galloping towards him and cutting him down, while his staff ran for their lives.
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1au Otho36 views69

Denarius
Bewigged head, right, IMP OTHO CAESAR AVG TR P
Securitas stg., SECVRITAS P R

RIC 10

Suetonius wrote: Otho was born on the 28th of April 32 AD, in the consulship of Furius Camillus Arruntius and Domitius Ahenobarbus, Nero’s father. In early youth he was so profligate and insolent that he earned many a beating from his own father. . . . After his father died, he feigned love for an influential freedwoman at Court, though she was old and decrepit, in order to win her favour, and then used her to insinuate himself among the emperor’s friends, easily achieving the role of Nero’s chief favourite, not only because they were of a similar disposition, but also some say because of a sexual relationship. . . .

Otho had hoped to be adopted by Galba as his successor, and anticipated the announcement daily. But Piso was chosen, dashing Otho’s hopes, and causing him to resort to force, prompted not only by feelings of resentment but also by his mounting debts. He declared that frankly he would have to declare himself bankrupt, unless he became emperor. . . . When the moment was finally ripe, . . . his friends hoisted him on their shoulders and acclaimed him Emperor. Everyone they met joined the throng, as readily as if they were sworn accomplices and a part of the conspiracy, and that is how Otho arrived at his headquarters, amidst cheering and the brandishing of swords. He at once sent men to kill Galba and Piso. . . .

Meanwhile the army in Germany had sworn allegiance to Vitellius. When the news reached Otho he persuaded the Senate to send a deputation, advising the soldiers to maintain peace and order, since an emperor had already been chosen. However he also sent envoys with letters and personal messages, offering to share power with Vitellius, and marry his daughter. With civil war clearly inevitable, on the approach of Vitellius’s advance guard, who had marched on Rome led by their generals, . . . Otho began his campaign vigorously, and indeed too hastily. . . .

His army won three engagements, but of a minor nature, firstly in the Alps, then near Placentia, and finally at a place called Castor’s, and were ultimately defeated in a decisive and treacherous encounter at Betriacum (on the 14th April). . . . After this defeat, Otho resolved to commit suicide, more from feelings of shame, which many have thought justified, and a reluctance to continue the struggle with such high cost to life and property, than from any diffidence or fear of failure shown by his soldiers. . . . On waking at dawn (on the 16th of April, AD69), he promptly dealt himself a single knife-blow in the left side of his chest, and first concealing and then showing the wound to those who rushed in at the sound of his groaning, he breathed his last. . . . Otho was thirty-six years old when he died, on the ninety-second day of his reign. . . .

Neither his bodily form nor appearance suggested great courage. He is said to have been of medium height, bandy-legged and splay-footed, though as fastidious as a woman in personal matters. He had his body-hair plucked, and wore a toupee to cover his scanty locks, so well-made and so close-fitting that its presence was not apparent.
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1av Vitellius42 views69

Denarius
Portrait, right, A VITELLIVS GERMAN IMP TR P
Vesta std., PONT MAX

RIC 107

According to Suetonius: Lucius’s son Aulus, the future emperor, was born on the 24th of September 15AD, or according to some authorities on the 7th, during the consulship of Drusus Caesar and Norbanus Flaccus. . . . His boyhood and early youth were spent on Capreae (Capri) among Tiberius’s creatures, he himself being marked by the nickname of ‘Spintria’ (sex-token) throughout his life, and suspected of having secured his father’s first promotion to office by surrendering his own chastity. As he grew older, though contaminated by every kind of vice, Vitellius gained and kept a prominent place at court, winning Caligula’s friendship by his devotion to chariot-racing and Claudius’s by his love of dice. With Nero he was even closer. . . .

Honoured, as these emperors’ favourite, with high office in the priesthood, as well as political power, he governed Africa (under Nero, in 60/61AD) as proconsul, and was then Curator of Public Works (in 63AD), employing a contrasting approach, and with a contrasting effect on his reputation. In his province he acted with outstanding integrity over two successive years, since he served as deputy also to his brother who succeeded him (61/62AD) yet during his administration of the City he was said to have stolen various temple offerings and ornaments, and substituted brass and tin for the gold and silver in others. . . .

Contrary to all expectations, Galba appointed Vitellius to Lower Germany (in 68AD). Some think it was brought about by Titus Vinius, whose influence was powerful at that time, and whose friendship Vitellius had previously won through their mutual support for the ‘Blues’ in the Circus. But it is clear to everyone that Galba chose him as an act of contempt rather than favour, commenting that gluttons were among those least to be feared, and Vitellius’s endless appetite would now be able to sate itself on a province. . . .

He entered Rome to the sound of trumpets, surrounded by standards and banners, wearing a general’s cape, sword at his side, his officers in their military cloaks also, and the men with naked blades. With increasing disregard for the law, human or divine, he then assumed the office of High Priest on the anniversary of the Allia (18th July), arranged the elections for the next ten years, and made himself consul for life. . . .

Vitellius’s worst vices were cruelty and gluttony. . . . By the eighth month of his reign (November 69AD) the legions in Moesia and Pannonia had repudiated Vitellius, and sworn allegiance to Vespasian despite his absence, following those of Syria and Judaea who had done so in Vespasian’s presence. . . .

The vanguard of Vespasian’s army had now forced its way into the Palace, unopposed, and the soldiers were ransacking the rooms, in their usual manner. They hauled Vitellius, unrecognised, from his hiding place, asked his name and where the Emperor might be. He gave some lying answer, but was soon identified, so he begged for safe custody, even if that meant imprisonment, claiming he had important information for Vespasian regarding his security. However his arms were bound behind him and a noose flung over his head, and he was dragged along the Sacred Way to the Forum, amid a hail of mockery and abuse, half-naked, with his clothes in tatters. His head was held back by the hair, like a common criminal and, with a sword-point under his chin so that he was forced to look up and reveal his face, he was pelted with filth and dung, denounced as arsonist and glutton, and taunted with his bodily defects by the crowd. For, Vitellius was exceptionally tall, and his face was usually flushed from some drinking bout. He had a huge belly, too, and one thigh crippled by a blow from a four-horse chariot which struck him when he was in attendance on Caligula who was driving. At last, after being tormented by a host of cuts from the soldiers’ swords, he was killed on the Gemonian Stairs, and his body dragged with a hook to the Tiber.
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1aw Vespasian44 views69-79

Denarius
Laureate head, right, IMP CAES VESP AVG CEN
Salus seated left with patera, SALVS AVG

RIC 513 (C2)

Suetonius wrote: The Flavians seized power, and the Empire, long troubled and adrift, afflicted by the usurpations and deaths of three emperors, at last achieved stability. True they were an obscure family, with no great names to boast of, yet one our country has no need to be ashamed of. . . . Vespasian was born in the Sabine country, in the little village of Falacrinae just beyond Reate (Rieti), on the 17th of November 9 AD in the consulship of Quintus Sulpicius Camerinus and Gaius Poppaeus Sabinus, five years before the death of Augustus. He was raised by his paternal grandmother Tertulla on her estate at Cosa. . . .

Under Claudius, he was sent to Germany (in 41 AD) to command a legion, thanks to the influence of Narcissus. From there he was posted to Britain (in 43 AD), where partly under the leadership of Aulus Plautius and partly that of Claudius himself, he fought thirty times, subjugating two powerful tribes, more than twenty strongholds, and the offshore island of Vectis (the Isle of Wight). This earned him triumphal regalia, and a little later two priesthoods and the consulship (in 51 AD) which he held for the last two months of the year. . . . He won, by lot, the governorship of Africa (in 63 AD), ruling it soundly and with considerable dignity. . . .

An ancient and well-established belief became widespread in the East that the ruler of the world at this time would arise from Judaea. This prophecy as events proved referred to the future Emperor of Rome, but was taken by the Jews to apply to them. They rebelled, killed their governor, and routed the consular ruler of Syria also, when he arrived to restore order, capturing an Eagle. To crush the rebels needed a considerable force under an enterprising leader, who would nevertheless not abuse power. Vespasian was chosen, as a man of proven vigour, from whom little need be feared, since his name and origins were quite obscure. Two legions with eight divisions of cavalry and ten cohorts of auxiliaries were added to the army in Judaea, and Vespasian took his elder son, Titus, along as one of his lieutenants. . . .

Yet Vespasian made no move, though his follower were ready and eager, until he was roused to action by the fortuitous support of a group of soldiers unknown to him, and based elsewhere. Two thousand men, of the three legions in Moesia reinforcing Otho’s forces, despite hearing on the march that he had been defeated and had committed suicide, had continued on to Aquileia, and there taken advantage of the temporary chaos to plunder at will. Fearing that if they returned they would be held to account and punished, they decided to choose and appoint an emperor of their own, on the basis that they were every bit as worthy of doing so as the Spanish legions who had appointed Galba, or the Praetorian Guard which had elected Otho, or the German army which had chosen Vitellius. They went through the list of serving consular governors, rejecting them for one reason or another, until in the end they unanimously adopted Vespasian, who was recommended strongly by some members of the Third Legion, which had been transferred to Moesia from Syria immediately prior to Nero’s death. . . .

Vespasian, an unheralded and newly-forged emperor, as yet lacked even a modicum of prestige and divine majesty, but this too he acquired. . . . Returning to Rome (in 70 AD) attended by such auspices, having won great renown, and after a triumph awarded for the Jewish War, he added eight consulships (AD 70-72, 74-77, 79) to his former one, and assumed the censorship. He first considered it essential to strengthen the State, which was unstable and well nigh fatally weakened, and then to enhance its role further during his reign. . . .
2 commentsBlindado
DomitianAsMoneta.jpg
1az Domitian20 views81-96

As

Laureate head right, IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XV CENS PER P P
Moneta std, MONETA AVGVSTI S C

RIC 708

Suetonius wrote: Domitian was born on the 24th of October AD51, a month before his father Vespasian took up office as consul. . . . When Vespasian died, Domitian considered granting his soldiers twice the bounty offered by his brother Titus, and had no qualms in claiming that his father’s will had been tampered with, since he had been due a half-share of the Empire. From then on, he plotted continually against his brother, openly and in secret. When Titus was gripped by his fatal illness, Domitian ordered him to be left for dead, before he had actually breathed his last. . . .

He governed inconsistently, displaying a mixture of virtue and vice, but after some time his virtues too gave way to vice, since he seems to have been made avaricious through lack of funds, and cruel through fear, contrary to his natural disposition. . . . Domitian was diligent and conscientiousness in his administration of justice, often holding special sittings on the tribunal in the Forum. . . . [I]n his private life, and even for some time after becoming Emperor, he was considered free of greed and avarice; and indeed often showed proof not only of moderation, but of real generosity. . . . His moderation and clemency however were not destined to last, his predilection to cruelty appearing somewhat sooner than his avarice. . . . In this way he became an object of terror to all, and so hated that he was finally brought down by a conspiracy of his companions and favourite freedmen, which also involved his wife, Domitia Longina.

Domitian was tall, and of a ruddy complexion, with large rather weak eyes, and a modest expression. He was handsome and attractive when young, his whole body well-made except for his feet with their short toes. Later, he lost his hair, and developed a protruding belly, while his legs became thin and spindly after a long illness. . . . He found exercise intolerable, seldom walked when in Rome and while travelling and on campaign rarely rode but used a litter. Weaponry in general held no interest for him, though he was exceptionally keen on archery. There are plenty of witnesses to his killing a hundred wild creatures or more at a time on his Alban estate, bringing them down with successive arrows planted so deftly as to give the effect of horns. . . .

At the beginning of his reign, he had the libraries, which had been damaged by fire, restored at great expense, instituting a search for copies of lost works, and sending scribes to Alexandria to transcribe and edit them. Yet he himself neglected liberal studies, and never bothered to interest himself in history or poetry, or even to acquire a decent writing style.
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HadrianSestFortuna.jpg
1be Hadrian44 views117-138

Sestertius
Laureate head, right, HADRIANVUS AVG COS III PP
Fortuna standing left with rudder on globe and cornucopia, FORTVNA AVG

RIC 759

According to the Historia Augusta, "Bereft of his father at the age of ten, he became the ward of Ulpius Trajanus, his cousin, then of praetorian rank, but afterwards emperor, and of Caelius Attianus, a knight. He then grew rather deeply devoted to Greek studies, to which his natural tastes inclined so much that some called him 'Greekling. . . .' In the 105-106 second Dacian war, Trajan appointed him to the command of the First Legion, the Minervia, and took him with him to the war; and in this campaign his many remarkable deeds won great renown. . . . On taking possession of the imperial power
Hadrian at once resumed the policy of the early emperors and devoted his attention to maintaining peace throughout the world. . . . [I]n this letter to the Senate he apologized because he had not left it the right to decide regarding his accession, explaining that the unseemly haste of the troops in acclaiming him emperor was due to the belief that the state could not be without an emperor. . . . He was, in the same person, austere and genial, dignified and playful, dilatory and quick to act, niggardly and generous, deceitful and straightforward, cruel and merciful, and always in all things changeable. . . . Hadrian's memory was vast and his ability was unlimited ; for instance, he personally dictated his speeches and gave opinions on all questions. He was also very witty. . . ."

After this Hadrian departed for Baiae, leaving Antoninus at Rome to carry on the government. But he received no benefit there, and he thereupon
sent for Antoninus, and in his presence he died there at Baiae on the sixth day before the Ides of July.

According to Eutropius: After the death of Trajan, AELIUS HADRIAN was made emperor, not from any wish to that effect having been expressed by Trajan himself, but through the influence of Plotina, Trajan's wife; for Trajan in his life-time had refused to adopt him, though he was the son of his cousin. He also was born at Italica in Spain. Envying Trajan's glory, he immediately gave up three of the provinces which Trajan had added to the empire, withdrawing the armies from Assyria, Mesopotamia, and Armenia, and deciding that the Euphrates should be the boundary of the empire. When he was proceeding, to act similarly with regard to Dacia, his friends dissuaded him, lest many Roman citizens should be left in the hands of the barbarians, because Trajan, after he had subdued Dacia, had transplanted thither an infinite number of men from the whole Roman world, to people the country and the cities; as the land had been exhausted of inhabitants in the long war maintained by Decebalus.

He enjoyed peace, however, through the whole course of his reign; the only war that he had, he committed to the conduct of a governor of a province. He went about through the Roman empire, and founded many edifices. He spoke with great eloquence in the Latin language, and was very learned in the Greek. He had no great reputation for clemency, but was very attentive to the state of the treasury and the discipline of the soldiers. He died in Campania, more than sixty years old, in the twenty-first year, tenth month, and twenty-ninth day of his reign. The senate was unwilling to allow him divine honours; but his successor Titus Aurelius Fulvius Antonius, earnestly insisting on it, carried his point, though all the senators were openly opposed to him.
1 commentsBlindado
AntonPiusAsWreath.jpg
1bh Antoninus Pius48 views138-161

As

Laureate head, right, ANTONINUS AVG PIVS PP TR P XI
Wreath, PRIMI DECENALIS COS IIII SC

RIC 171

According to the Historia Augusta: Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Antoninus Pius. . . was born at an estate at Lanuvium on the thirteenth day before the Kalends of October in the twelfth consulship of Domitiaiiand first of Cornelius Dolabella. . . . In personal appearance he was strikingly hand-
some, in natural talent brilliant, in temperament kindly; he was aristocratic in countenance and calm in nature, a singularly gifted speaker and an elegant scholar, conspicuously thrifty, a conscientious land-holder, gentle, generous, and mindful of others' rights. He possessed all these qualities, moreover, in the proper mean and without ostentation, and, in fine, was praiseworthy in every way and, in the minds of all good men. . . . He was given the name of Pius by the senate, either because, when his father-in-law was old and weak, he lent him a supporting hand in his attendance at the senate. . . or because he spared those men whom Hadrian in his ill-health had condemned to death, or because after Hadrian's death he
had unbounded and extraordinary honours decreed for him in spite of opposition from all, or because, when Hadrian wished to make away with himself, by great care and watchfulness he prevented him from so doing, or because he was in fact very kindly by nature and did no harsh deed in his own time. . . .

The manner of his adoption, they say, was some what thus : After the death of Aelius Verus, whom Hadrian had adopted and named Caesar, a day was set for the meeting of the senate, and to this Arrius Antoninus came, supporting the steps of his father-in-law. For this act, it is said, Hadrian adopted him. But this could not have been the only reason for the adoption, nor ought it to have been, especially since Antoninus had always done well in his administration of public office. . . .

After his accession to the throne he removed none of the men whom Hadrian had appointed to office, and, indeed, was so steadfast and loyal that he retained good men in the government of provinces for terms of seven and even nine years. He waged a number of wars, but all of them through his legates. . . . With such care did he govern all peoples under him that he looked after all things and all men as if they were his own. As a result, the provinces all prospered in his reign, informers were abolished, and the confiscation of goods was less frequent than ever before. . . .

He died in the seventieth year of his age, but his loss was felt as though he had been but a youth. . . . On the second day, as he saw that his condition was becoming worse, in the presence of his prefects he committed the state and his daughter to Marcus Antoninus. . . .
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ConstantinusFollisSol.jpg
1ec_2 Constantine the Great18 views307-337

Follis

Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, IMP CONSTANTINVS PF AVG
Sol standing left, chlamys across left shoulder, raising right hand and holding globe in left hand, captive to left. Mintmark RQ.

RIC VII 52

According to Zonaras: Constans, in the eleventh year of his reign since he had been proclaimed Caesar, having ruled gently and mildly, came to the end of his life while residing in Britain, having, because of his goodness, bequeathed grief for himself among those he ruled, first having appointed successor the elder of his own sons, namely Constantine the Great, whom he begat by his first wife. He also had by his second wife, Herculius’ daughter Theodora, other sons, Constantinus, Hannibalianus, and Constantius. Constantine the Great was preferred over them, since they were judged by their father to be unsuited for sovereignty. . . . Constantine, when he was still a lad, was actually given by his father as a hostage to Gallerius, in order that, serving as a hostage, at the same time he be trained in the exercise of the soldierly art.

Eutropius summarizes: CONSTANTINE, being a man of great energy, bent upon effecting whatever he had settled in his mind, and aspiring to the sovereignty of the whole world, proceeded to make war on Licinius, although he had formed a connexion with him by marriage,5 for his sister Constantia was married to Licinius. And first of all be overthrew him, by a sudden attack, at Cibalae in Pannonia, where he was making vast preparations for war; and after becoming master of Dardania, Maesia, and Macedonia, took possession also of several other provinces.

There were then various contests between them, and peace made and broken. At last Licinius, defeated in a battle at Nicomedia by sea and land, surrendered himself, and, in violation of an oath taken by Constantine, was put to death, after being divested of the purple, at Thessalonica.

At this time the Roman empire fell under the sway of one emperor and three Caesars, a state of things which had never existed before; the sons of Constantine ruling over Gaul, the east, and Italy. But the pride of prosperity caused Constantine greatly to depart from his former agreeable mildness of temper. Falling first upon his own relatives, he put to death his son, an excellent man; his sister's son, a youth of amiable disposition; soon afterwards his wife, and subsequently many of his friends.

He was a man, who, in the beginning of his reign, might have been compared to the best princes; in the latter part of it, only to those of a middling character. Innumerable good qualities of mind and body were apparent in him; he was exceedingly ambitious of military glory, and had great success in his wars; a success, however, not more than proportioned to his exertions. After he had terminated the Civil war, he also overthrew the Goths on various occasions, granting them at last peace, and leaving on the minds of the barbarians a strong remembrance of his kindness. He was attached to the arts of peace and to liberal studies, and was ambitious of honourable popularity, which he, indeed, sought by every kind of liberality and obligingness. Though he was slow, from suspicion, to serve some of his friends,6 yet he was exceedingly generous towards others, neglecting no opportunity to add to their riches and honours.

He enacted many laws, some good and equitable, but most of them superfluous, and some severe. He was the first that endeavoured to raise the city named after him to such a height as to make it a rival to Rome. As he was preparing for war against the Parthians, who were then disturbing Mesopotamia, he died in the Villa Publica, at Nicomedia, in the thirty-first year of his reign, and the sixty-sixth of his age.

Zosimus described Constantine's conversion to Christianity: For he put to death his son Crispus, stiled (as I mentioned) Caesar, on suspicion of debauching his mother-in-law Fausta, without any regard to the ties of nature. And when his own mother Helena expressed much sorrow for this atrocity, lamenting the young man's death with great bitterness, Constantine under pretence of comforting her, applied a remedy worse than the disease. For causing a bath to be heated to an extraordinary degree, he shut up Fausta in it, and a short time after took her out dead. Of which his conscience accusing him, as also of violating his oath, he went to the priests to be purified from his crimes. But they told him, that there was no kind of lustration that was sufficient to clear him of such enormities. A Spaniard, named Aegyptius, very familiar with the court-ladies, being at Rome, happened to fall into converse with Constantine, and assured him, that the Christian doctrine would teach him how to cleanse himself from all his offences, and that they who received it were immediately absolved from all their sins. Constantine had no sooner heard this than he easily believed what was told him, and forsaking the rites of his country, received those which Aegyptius offered him ; and for the first instance of his impiety, suspected the truth of divination.
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Demetrio III, Philopator - Nike.jpg
20-02 - Demetrio III, Philopator Soter (Eukairos) (95 al 88 A.C.)23 viewsHijo de Antíoco VIII y nieto de Demetrio II, con la ayuda de Tolomeo X, Rey de Egipto, recupera parte de los dominios sirios de su padre en 95 A.C., asentando su corte en Damasco, desde donde trata de acrecentar sus dominios, venciendo en batalla incluso al Rey Macabeo Alejandro Jannaeus, pero la hostilidad del pueblo judío lo obligó a retirarse. Intentando destronar a su hermano Filipo I Philadelphus, fue derrotado por Arabes y Partos, fue hecho prisionero por el Rey Mitrídates II, Rey de los Partos, hasta su muerte en el año 87 A.C.

AE 19 mm 6.1 gr.

Anv: Busto radiado de Demetrio viendo a derecha. Grafila de puntos.
Rev: "BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΔHMHTPIOY OEOΨ ΦIΛOΠATOPOΣ ΣΩTHPOΣ “ - Nike (Victoria) avanzando a derecha. Fecha de acuñación en exergo "ΘIΣ" = SE 219 (94/3 A.C.)

Acuñación: 94 - 93 A.C.
Ceca: Damasco en Siria

Referencias: LSM. #117 – SNG Spaer #2856-8 - SC #2454. 1-12
mdelvalle
Demetrio III, Philopator - Hermes sobre base.jpg
20-04 - Demetrio III, Philopator Soter (Eukairos) (95 al 88 A.C.)18 viewsHijo de Antíoco VIII y nieto de Demetrio II, con la ayuda de Tolomeo X, Rey de Egipto, recupera parte de los dominios sirios de su padre en 95 A.C., asentando su corte en Damasco, desde donde trata de acrecentar sus dominios, venciendo en batalla incluso al Rey Macabeo Alejandro Jannaeus, pero la hostilidad del pueblo judío lo obligó a retirarse. Intentando destronar a su hermano Filipo I Philadelphus, fue derrotado por Arabes y Partos, fue hecho prisionero por el Rey Mitrídates II, Rey de los Partos, hasta su muerte en el año 87 A.C.
AE 17 mm 3.9 gr.

Anv: Busto radiado de Demetrio viendo a derecha. Grafila de puntos.
Rev: "BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΔHMHTPIOY ΦIΛOΠATOPOΣ ΣΩTHPOΣ “ - Hermes desnudo de pié sobre una base, de frente viendo a izquierda, sosteniendo Hoja de Palma en mano derecha extendida y caduceo en la izquierda.

Acuñación: 96 - 95 A.C.
Ceca: Damasco en Siria

Referencias: BMC 4#5 Pag.101 – SNG Spaer #2871/79 - SC #2456.1-6 - HGC 9 #1312
mdelvalle
Demetrio III, Philopator - Hermes.jpg
20-06 - Demetrio III, Philopator Soter (Eukairos) (95 al 88 A.C.)17 viewsHijo de Antíoco VIII y nieto de Demetrio II, con la ayuda de Tolomeo X, Rey de Egipto, recupera parte de los dominios sirios de su padre en 95 A.C., asentando su corte en Damasco, desde donde trata de acrecentar sus dominios, venciendo en batalla incluso al Rey Macabeo Alejandro Jannaeus, pero la hostilidad del pueblo judío lo obligó a retirarse. Intentando destronar a su hermano Filipo I Philadelphus, fue derrotado por Arabes y Partos, fue hecho prisionero por el Rey Mitrídates II, Rey de los Partos, hasta su muerte en el año 87 A.C.
AE 17 mm 3.7 gr.

Anv: Busto radiado de Demetrio viendo a derecha. Grafila de puntos.
Rev: "BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΔHMHTPIOY OEOΨ ΦIΛOΠATOPOΣ ΣΩTHPOΣ “ - Hermes desnudo de pié a izquierda, sosteniendo Hoja de Palma en mano derecha extendida y caduceo en la izquierda.

Acuñación: 95 - 88 A.C.
Ceca: Damasco en Siria

Referencias: SNG Spaer, #2840 – 2844 - SC #2455 - SNG Uk # 0408_5821 - BMC 4 #6 var. Pag.101
mdelvalle
BOTLAUREL_2011.JPG
201157 viewsTHIS YEAR'S WINNERS
CLICK ON A COIN FOR ITS DETAILS

*Alex
BOTLAUREL_2018.JPG
201869 viewsTHIS YEAR'S WINNERS
CLICK ON A COIN FOR ITS DETAILS



*Alex
coins51.JPG
201a. JULIA DOMNA29 viewsLuna

In Greek mythology, Selene was an ancient lunar deity and the daughter of the titans Hyperion and Theia. She was identified with the Roman moon goddess, Luna.

Like most moon deities, Selene plays a fairly large role in her pantheon. However, Selene was eventually largely supplanted by Artemis, and Luna by Diana. In the collection known as the Homeric hymns, there is a Hymn to Selene (xxxii), paired with the hymn to Helios. Selene is described in Apollodorus 1.2.2; Hesiod's Theogony 371; Nonnius 48.581; Pausanias 5.1.4; and Strabo 14.1.6, among others.

The Roman goddess of the moon, Luna, had a temple on the Aventine Hill. It was built in the 6th century BC, but was destroyed in the Great Fire of Rome during Nero's reign. There was also a temple dedicated to Luna Noctiluca ("Luna that shines by night") on the Palatine Hill. There were festivals in honor of Luna on March 31, August 24 and August 28

JULIA DOMNA, - 217 AD. Antoninianus, Rome, 215 - 217 AD Bust, no crescent, right / Luna Lucifera in biga left. Rare. RIC 379.
1 commentsecoli
20150407_183828-horz.jpg
23 GETA RIC 8836 viewsGeta 209-211 AD. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. 211 AD. (2.86g; 20.23mm) Obv: P SEPT GETA PIVS AVG BRIT, Laureate head right. Rev: LIBERALITAS AVG V, Liberalitas standing, head left, with counting board & cornucopiae.
RIC 88; RSC 68

Ex: Holding History, Vcoins

The reverse ends legend with "AUG V". The 'V' stands for the number of times donatives had been given at the time of the minting. "Liberalitas" signifies generosity.
2 commentsPaddy
VHC26-coin.jpg
26- GREAT BRITAIN, 1 SHILLING, KM780.19 viewsSize: 23.5 mm. Composition: .925 Silver/.1682 oz. Mintage: 3,426,000.
Grade: NGC MS64 (Cert.# 4080257-009).
Comments: Received raw as a generous gift for Victoria from Dimitri Gotzamanis.
lordmarcovan
nerotet2TN.jpg
3. Nero, Syrian Silver Tetradrachm, 63 AD126 viewsAlexandrian Tetradrachm of Nero; young portrait
Obv. SEBASTOS NEPON KAISAP, young portrait of Nero
Rev. BIP (year 112 in Ceasarean era, 63 AD) Eagle clutching palm branch
1 commentsZam
706Hadrian_RIC389.jpg
389B Hadrian Denarius Roma 138 AD Eagle standing24 viewsReference.
RIC 389B; RSC 271;

Obv. DIVVS HADRIANVS AVG
Head of Divus Hadrian, bare, right

Rev. CONSECRATIO
Eagle standing front on globe, head turned left, wings spread

3.04 gr
18 mm
6h

Note.
From the estate of Thomas Bentley Cederlind.

Consecratio was the apotheosis of the dead Roman emperors, which however was only bestowed on those who were judged worthy of her by the Senate or by their successors.
However, it is well known, how generous people in Rome with this honor mishandled. Even empresses enjoyed after their death the privilege of consecratio. After their consecratio they got the nickname of Divi or Divae. Several ceremonies at the funeral went to the consecratio advance. In burning the corpse on the pyre rose include becoming an eagle from the flames to heaven. The emperors and empresses thus become the god had their own temples, priests and parties. They were so entirely assimilated to the gods.

The emperors themselves have mocked their deification. In the Historia Augusta is sick of Vespasian told that he says "I feel to be a God." In his famous poem "Animula vagula blandula" Hadrian doubt his deification.
okidoki
antonia_AE17_RPC1582.jpg
41-54 AD - ANTONIA AE16 of Thessalonica - struck under Claudius 29 viewsobv: ANTWNIA (draped bust right, hair tied in queue down neck)
rev: TECCALO-NEIKEWN (Nike on globe left, holding wreath and palm)
ref: RPC 1582, SNG ANS 840
mint: Thessalonica, Macedonia
4.74 gms, 16 mm
Very rare - original green patina

Antonia was daughter of Marc Antony and Octavia, wife of Nero Claudius Drusus, sister-in-law of Tiberius, mother of Claudius, and grandmother of Caligula.
berserker
claudius_AE18_RPC2624.jpg
41-54 AD - CLAUDIUS & AGRIPPINA Junior AE18 of Ephesos - struck 49-50 AD37 viewsobv: Jugate laureate heads of Claudius and draped bust of Agrippina II, right
rev: EFE / KOYCI-NIOC / TO-D (stag standing right) (D = episcopus for the fourth time)
ref: BMC 205, RPC 2624, SNG Cop.373
mint: Ephesos
6.49 gms, 18 mm
Very rare - original green patina

Julia Agrippina (Agrippina the Younger) was the 4th wife of the emperor Claudius. She was murdered by her son, Nero, in 59 A.D.
1 commentsberserker
Nero Claudius Drusus sest - R.jpg
41-54 AD - NERO CLAUDIUS DRUSUS AE Sestertius - struck under Claudius (42-43 AD)38 viewsobv: NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMANICVS IMP (bare head of Drusus left)
rev: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P (Claudius, togate, holding laurel branch and roll, seated left on curule chair set on globe, resting both feet on cuirass on ground, several shields, spears, and a helmet are also scattered around him, a sword rests against the globe beneath the curule chair), S-C in ex.
ref: RIC I 109 [Claudius], Cohen 8 (10 frcs), BMCRE 208
26.36gms, 34mm, orichalcum
Rare

Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus, son of Livia, brother of Tiberius and father of Claudius was the governor of Gaul in 13 BC, initiated a series of successful campaigns against the Germans. Died in a fall from his horse in 9 BC.
berserker
465-2b_Considia.jpg
465/2b. Considia - denarius (46 BC)9 viewsAR Denarius (Rome, 46 BC)
O/ Laureate head of Apollo right; A behind; no border.
R/ Curule chair, garlanded, on which lies wreath; C CONSIDI above; PAETI in exergue.
3.6g
Crawford 465/2b (93 obverse dies/103 reverse dies, two varieties)
- Rollin & Feuardent, 1903, Collection Charvet de Beauvais, lot 265 (together with 3 other Considia). Sold for Fr.19 with lots 264 and 266.

* Gaius Considius Paetus:

Like the other two moneyers for 46 BC (Titus Carisius and Manius Cordius Rufus), Paetus belonged to a small gens. The Considii are indeed unattested before the 1st century, apart from a Tribune of the Plebs in 476. The gens came to prominence in the 50s, when two of its members became Praetors: Gaius Considius Longus between 58-52, and Marcus Considius Nonianus between 54-50.

Like his colleagues, Paetus was doubtlessly a supporter of Caesar. The curule chair on the reverse alludes to Caesar's right to sit on a curule chair between the Consuls in the Senate (Cassius Dio, xliii. 14). There is therefore a chance that he was the same person as the Gaius Considius mentioned in the Pseudo-Caesar's 'De Bello Africo' (§89) as the son of the Praetor of 54-50 -- a supporter of Pompey who died after Thapsus -- nonetheless absolved by Caesar after the war. This theory fits well with Caesar's policy of generously granting pardon to his former enemies, and was accepted by Mommsen, following Borghesi (cf. Mommsen, 1860, p. 657). However, Crawford did not mention this possibility.
Joss
nero as-.jpg
54-68 AD - NERO AE as - struck 64 AD25 viewsobv: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P MAX TR PP (bare head right)
rev: - / S.C. (Victory flying left with shield inscribed SPQR)
ref: RIC543, C.302
8.28gms, 28mm
berserker
nero quadrans.jpg
54-68 AD - NERO AE quadrans - struck 64 AD25 viewsobv: NERO CLAV C AVG GER (Column with helmet atop and shield to side)
rev: P M TR P IMP PP (branch), S C across fields.
ref: RIC I 317 (obverse type 7, reverse type 6), C.179 (2frcs)
mint: Rome
2.52gms, 14mm
berserker
nero sest-.jpg
54-68 AD - NERO AE sestertius - struck 66 AD58 viewsobv: NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER P M TR P IMP P P (laureate head right, aegis on bust)
rev: ANNONA AVGVSTI CERES / S.C. (Ceres seated left with grain-ears & torch, facing Annona standing right with cornucopiae; between them, ship's stern and modius set on altar.)
ref: RIC I 137, BMCRE 127, C.16 (8frcs)
mint: Rome
27.51gms, 34mm orichalcum
Rare

Ceres, the Roman goddess of agriculture, holds her usual attributes, grain and the torch with which she searches for her daughter, Proserpina, held captive in the Underworld for the winter months. Annona, the personification of the grain harvest,
holds a cornucopia, symbol of agricultural abundance; this is her first appearance on a coin. On the altar is a modius, a grain measure, and in the background a ship's stern, references to the transport of the grain.
1 commentsberserker
nero den-.jpg
54-68 AD - NERO AR denarius - struck 64-65 AD37 viewsobv: IMP NERO CAESAR AVGVSTVS
rev: IVPITER CVSTOS (Jupiter seated left, bare to the waist, holding thunderbolt and scepter)
ref: RIC I 53, C.119 (3frcs), BMC74
mint: Rome
3.15gms, 18mm
Rare

This coin is usually seen as commemorating the failure of the Piso conspiracy, its reverse depicting Jupiter, the "guardian" of Nero.
berserker
1183Hadrian_RIC552.jpg
552 Hadrian Orichalcum Sestertius, Roma 118 AD Hadrian and Liberalitas 54 viewsReference.
RIC 552; Strack 516; Hunter II 324, BMCRE III 1137, Cohen II 914, SRCV II 3606 var. (band over shoulder, S - C at sides); Banti 488

Obv. IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG
Laureate bust right, drapery on left shoulder, seen from front

Rev. PONT MAX TR POT COS II / S C LIBERALITAS AVG
Hadrian seated left on raised platform, before him sits an attendant distributing coins to a togate citizen climbing steps of platform, Liberalitas standing left on far side of attendant, holding coin counter, LIBERALITAS AVG / S C (senatus consulto) in exergue

25.81 gr
35 mm
6h

Note.
The generosity and munificent largesses of Hadrian, after having been recorded many times on various coins and in diverse ways, are on the reverse of a first brass medal of great rarity, glorified altogether by the above splendid title, "The Benefactor of the World," a superlative the more remarkable, inasmuch as, neither before nor afterward, is it found conferred on any other emperor. -- Dictionary| of Roman| Coins|
FORVM coin
5 commentsokidoki
Sestercio_Maximo_RIC_11.jpg
64-02 - MAXIMO (Cesar 235 - 238 D.C.)40 viewsAE Sestercio 30 mm 17.4 gr.

Hijo de Maximino I y su Cesar y compañero de campañas durante todo su reinado.


Anv: "MAXIMVS CAES GERM" - Busto a cabeza desnuda, vistiendo Paludamentum (Capote militar), viendo a derecha, visto desde detrás.
Rev: "PIETAS AVG" – Implementos religiosos: Lituus (Atributo pontifical, báculo o cayado (vara con un extremo curvo) usado por los Augures (Adivinación “Augurium Praesagium”), Cuchilla de sacrificio y Patera (Plato, adoptado de los etruscos, usado en ceremonias religiosas para derramar vino sobre el altar) a la izquierda, de una Gran urna o Vasija de sacrificio, y Simpulum (cucharon usado por los sacerdotes durante los sacrificios) y sprinkler/Aspersoir ¿? a la derecha. "S C " en el exergo.

Acuñada: 4ta. Emisión Tarde en 236 a marzo/Abril 238 D.C.
Ceca: Roma – Italia
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte II #11 Pag.156 - Sear RCTV Vol.III #8316 - BMCRE #204 - Cohen Vol.IV #7 Pag.525 - DVM # Pag. – Alram #36-5
mdelvalle
RIC_11_Sestercio_Maximo.jpg
64-02 - MAXIMO (Cesar 235 - 238 D.C.)12 viewsAE Sestercio 30 mm 17.4 gr.

Hijo de Maximino I y su Cesar y compañero de campañas durante todo su reinado.


Anv: "MAXIMVS CAES GERM" - Busto a cabeza desnuda, vistiendo Paludamentum (Capote militar), viendo a derecha, visto desde detrás.
Rev: "PIETAS AVG" – Implementos religiosos: Lituus (Atributo pontifical, báculo o cayado (vara con un extremo curvo) usado por los Augures (Adivinación “Augurium Praesagium”), Cuchilla de sacrificio y Patera (Plato, adoptado de los etruscos, usado en ceremonias religiosas para derramar vino sobre el altar) a la izquierda, de una Gran urna o Vasija de sacrificio, y Simpulum (cucharon usado por los sacerdotes durante los sacrificios) y sprinkler/Aspersoir ¿? a la derecha. "S C " en el exergo.

Acuñada: 4ta. Emisión Tarde en 236 a marzo/Abril 238 D.C.
Ceca: Roma – Italia
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte II #11 Pag.156 - Sear RCTV Vol.III #8316 Pag.80 - BMCRE #204 - Cohen Vol.IV #7 Pag.525 - DVM # Pag. – Alram #36-5 - MIR #12-3
mdelvalle
Nero-RIC53.JPG
64-65 Ad Nero - RIC 53 - Rare209 viewsNERO CAESAR AVGVSTVS - Laureate Bust right
IVPPITER CVSTOS - Jupiter, seated left, holding thunderbolt and scepter.
The reverse "type commemorates the protection of Nero from the Pisonian Conspiracy. In 64 AD, a large section of central Rome burned; Nero's reputed singing of the destruction of Troy during the fire led to the later association of him "fiddling" as the city burned. Nero's "excesses" resulted in a conspiracy to overthrow and replace him with Gaius Calpurnius Piso. Among the conspirators were many high-ranking members of Nero's court including Seneca the Younger, the poet Lucan, and Petronius, who called himself Nero's "arbiter of elegance." To Nero, the the failure of a conspiracy made up of those so close to him could have been achieved only through divine intervention. As the king of the Gods oversaw the security of the Roman state, Nero believed it was Jupiter the Guardian (Custos) who had saved him from harm."
5 commentsjimwho523
TiberiusTributePennyRICI30RSCII16aSRCV1763.jpg
703a, Tiberius, 19 August 14 - 16 March 37 A.D., Tribute Penny of Matthew 22:20-2146 viewsSilver denarius, RIC I 30, RSC II 16a, SRCV 1763, gVF, Lugdunum mint, 3.837g, 18.7mm, 90o, 16 - 37 A.D.; obverse TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right; reverse PONTIF MAXIM, Pax/Livia seated right holding scepter and branch, legs on chair ornamented, feet on footstool; toned. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Tiberius (A.D. 14-37)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

Introduction
The reign of Tiberius (b. 42 B.C., d. A.D. 37, emperor A.D. 14-37) is a particularly important one for the Principate, since it was the first occasion when the powers designed for Augustus alone were exercised by somebody else. In contrast to the approachable and tactful Augustus, Tiberius emerges from the sources as an enigmatic and darkly complex figure, intelligent and cunning, but given to bouts of severe depression and dark moods that had a great impact on his political career as well as his personal relationships.

. . . .

Early life (42-12 B.C.)
Tiberius Claudius Nero was born on 16 November 42 B.C. to Ti. Claudius Nero and Livia Drusilla. Both parents were scions of the gens Claudia which had supplied leaders to the Roman Republic for many generations. . . [I]n 39 B.C., his mother Livia divorced Ti. Claudius Nero and married Octavian, thereby making the infant Tiberius the stepson of the future ruler of the Roman world. Forever afterward, Tiberius was to have his name coupled with this man, and always to his detriment.

. . . .

Accession and Early Reign (A.D. 14 - 23)
The accession of Tiberius proved intensely awkward. After Augustus had been buried and deified, and his will read and honored, the Senate convened on 18 September to inaugurate the new reign and officially "confirm" Tiberius as emperor. Such a transfer of power had never happened before, and nobody, including Tiberius, appears to have known what to do. Tacitus's account is the fullest. . . Rather than tactful, he came across to the senators as obdurate and obstructive. He declared that he was too old for the responsibilities of the Principate, said he did not want the job, and asked if he could just take one part of the government for himself. The Senate was confused, not knowing how to read his behavior. Finally, one senator asked pointedly, "Sire, for how long will you allow the State to be without a head?" Tiberius relented and accepted the powers voted to him, although he refused the title "Augustus."

. . . .

Tiberius allowed a trusted advisor to get too close and gain a tremendous influence over him. That advisor was the Praetorian Prefect, L. Aelius Sejanus, who would derail Tiberius's plans for the succession and drive the emperor farther into isolation, depression, and paranoia.

Sejanus (A.D. 23-31)
Sejanus hailed from Volsinii in Etruria. He and his father shared the Praetorian Prefecture until A.D. 15 when the father, L. Seius Strabo, was promoted to be Prefect of Egypt, the pinnacle of an equestrian career under the Principate. Sejanus, now sole Prefect of the Guard, enjoyed powerful connections to senatorial houses and had been a companion to Gaius Caesar on his mission to the East, 1 B.C. - A.D. 4. Through a combination of energetic efficiency, fawning sycophancy, and outward displays of loyalty, he gained the position of Tiberius's closest friend and advisor.

. . . .

[I]n a shocking and unexpected turn of events, [a] letter sent by Tiberius from Capri initially praised Sejanus extensively, and then suddenly denounced him as a traitor and demanded his arrest. Chaos ensued. Senators long allied with Sejanus headed for the exits, the others were confused -- was this a test of their loyalty? What did the emperor want them to do? -- but the Praetorian Guard, the very troops formerly under Sejanus's command but recently and secretly transferred to the command of Q. Sutorius Macro, arrested Sejanus, conveyed him to prison, and shortly afterwards executed him summarily. A witch-hunt followed. . . All around the city, grim scenes were played out, and as late as A.D. 33 a general massacre of all those still in custody took place.

Tiberius himself later claimed that he turned on Sejanus because he had been alerted to Sejanus's plot against Germanicus's family. This explanation has been rejected by most ancient and modern authorities, since Sejanus's demise did nothing to alleviate that family's troubles.

. . . .

The Last Years (A.D. 31-37)
The Sejanus affair appears to have greatly depressed Tiberius. A close friend and confidant had betrayed him; whom could he trust anymore? His withdrawal from public life seemed more complete in the last years. Letters kept him in touch with Rome, but it was the machinery of the Augustan administration that kept the empire running smoothly. Tiberius, if we believe our sources, spent much of his time indulging his perversities on Capri.

. . . .

Tiberius died quietly in a villa at Misenum on 16 March A.D. 37. He was 78 years old. There are some hints in the sources of the hand of Caligula in the deed, but such innuendo can be expected at the death of an emperor, especially when his successor proved so depraved. The level of unpopularity Tiberius had achieved by the time of his death with both the upper and lower classes is revealed by these facts: the Senate refused to vote him divine honors, and mobs filled the streets yelling "To the Tiber with Tiberius!" (in reference to a method of disposal reserved for the corpses of criminals).

Tiberius and the Empire
Three main aspects of Tiberius's impact on the empire deserve special attention: his relative military inertia; his modesty in dealing with offers of divine honors and his fair treatment of provincials; and his use of the Law of Treason (maiestas).

. . . .

Conclusion
. . . Tiberius's reign sporadically descended into tyranny of the worst sort. In the right climate of paranoia and suspicion, widespread denunciation led to the deaths of dozens of Senators and equestrians, as well as numerous members of the imperial house. In this sense, the reign of Tiberius decisively ended the Augustan illusion of "the Republic Restored" and shone some light into the future of the Principate, revealing that which was both promising and terrifying.

[For the entire article please refer to http://www.roman-emperors.org/tiberius.htm]

Copyright © 1997, Garrett G. Fagan. Used by permission.

"Some of the things he did are hard to believe. He had little boys trained as minnows to chase him when he went swimming and to get between his legs and nibble him. He also had babies not weaned from their mother breast suck at his chest and groin . . . "
(Suetonius. The Twelve Caesars. Trans. Robert Graves. London: Penguin Books, 1979. XLIV).

Jesus, referring to a "penny" asked, "Whose is this image and superscription?" When told it was Caesar, He said, ''Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's and unto God the things that are God's" (Matthew 22:20-21). Since Tiberius was Caesar at the time, this denarius type is attributed by scholars as the "penny" referred to in the Bible(Joseph Sermarini).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
TiberiusHierapolis.jpg
703b, Tiberius, 19 August 14 - 16 March 37 A.D., Hierapolis, Phrygia104 viewsBronze AE 16, RPC I 2966 (1 specimen), F, Phrygia, Hierapolis, 3.300g, 15.6mm, 0o; Obverse: TIBEPIOC KAISAR, laureate head right; Reverse: IERAPOLEITWN ZOSIMOS [...], Apollo Archegetes (Lairbenos) standing left, playing lyre; reverse countermarked with star of six rays, in oval punch, 2.5 x 3.5 mm, Howgego 445 (3 pcs, 1 of which from this magistrate); dark patina; very rare. Ex FORVM.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

TIBERIUS (A.D. 14-37)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

The reign of Tiberius Claudius Nero (b. 42 B.C., d. A.D. 37, emperor A.D. 14-37) is a particularly important one for the Principate, since it was the first occasion when the powers designed for Augustus alone were exercised by somebody else. In contrast to the approachable and tactful Augustus, Tiberius emerges from the sources as an enigmatic and darkly complex figure, intelligent and cunning, but given to bouts of severe depression and dark moods that had a great impact on his political career as well as his personal relationships. His reign abounds in contradictions. Despite his keen intelligence, he allowed himself to come under the influence of unscrupulous men who, as much as any actions of his own, ensured that Tiberius's posthumous reputation would be unfavorable; despite his vast military experience, he oversaw the conquest of no new region for the empire; and despite his administrative abilities he showed such reluctance in running the state as to retire entirely from Rome and live out his last years in isolation on the island of Capri. His reign represents, as it were, the adolescence of the Principate as an institution. Like any adolescence, it proved a difficult time.

. . . .

It is all but inevitable that any historical assessment of Tiberius will quickly devolve into a historiographical assessment of Tacitus. So masterful is Tacitus's portrayal of his subject, and so influential has it been ever since, that in all modern treatments of Tiberius, in attempting to get at the man, must address the issue of Tacitus's historiographical methods, his sources, and his rhetoric. The subject is too vast to address here, but some points are salient. Tacitus's methods, especially his use of innuendo and inference to convey notions that are essentially editorial glosses, makes taking his portrayal of Tiberius at face value inadvisable. Further, his belief in the immutable character of people -- that one's character is innate at birth and cannot be changed, although it can be disguised -- prevents him from investigating the possibility that Tiberius evolved and developed over his lifetime and during his reign. Instead, Tacitus's portrayal is one of peeling back layers of dissimulation to reach the "real" Tiberius lurking underneath.

Overall, Tiberius's reign can be said to show the boons and banes of rule by one man, especially a man as dark, awkward, and isolated as Tiberius. For the people of the provinces, it was a peaceful and well-ordered time. Governors behaved themselves, and there were no destructive or expensive wars. In the domestic sphere, however, the concentration of power in one person made all the greater the threat of misbehavior by ambitious satellites like Sejanus or foolish friends like Piso. Furthermore, if the emperor wished to remain aloof from the mechanics of power, he could do so. Administrators, who depended on him for their directions, could operate without his immediate supervision, but their dealings with a man like Sejanus could lead to disaster if that man fell from grace. As a result, although he was not a tyrant himself, Tiberius's reign sporadically descended into tyranny of the worst sort. In the right climate of paranoia and suspicion, widespread denunciation led to the deaths of dozens of Senators and equestrians, as well as numerous members of the imperial house. In this sense, the reign of Tiberius decisively ended the Augustan illusion of "the Republic Restored" and shone some light into the future of the Principate, revealing that which was both promising and terrifying.

[For the complete article please refer to http://www.roman-emperors.org/tiberius.htm]

By Garrett G. Fagan, Pennsylvania State University.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.


Hierapolis in History

Usually said to be founded by Eumenes II, king of Pergamum (197-159 BC), Hierapolis may actually have been established closer to the 4th century BC by the Seleucid kings.

The name of the city may derive from Hiera, the wife of Telephus (son of Hercules and grandson of Zeus), the mythical founder of Pergamum. Or it may have been called the "sacred city" because of the temples located at the site. (The name Pamukkale is sometimes used just to refer to the white terraces, but the modern name of the whole area is also Pamukkale.)

With Colossae and Laodicea, Hierapolis became part of the tri-city area of the Lycus River valley. Hierapolis was located across the river from the other two cities and was noted for its textiles, especially wool. The city was also famous for its purple dye, made from the juice of the madder root.

The hot springs at Hierapolis (which still attract visitors today) were believed to have healing properties, and people came to the city to bathe in the rich mineral waters in order to cure various ailments.

Hierapolis was dedicated to Apollo Lairbenos, who was said to have founded the city. The Temple of Apollo that survives in ruins today dates from the 3rd century AD, but its foundations date from the Hellenistic period.

Also worshipped at Hierapolis was Pluto, god of the underworld, probably in relation to the hot gases released by the earth (see the Plutonium, below). The chief religious festival of ancient Hierapolis was the Letoia, in honor of the the goddess Leto, a Greek form of the Mother Goddess. The goddess was honoured with orgiastic rites.

Hierapolis was ceded to Rome in 133 BC along with the rest of the Pergamene kingdom, and became part of the Roman province of Asia. The city was destroyed by an earthquake in 60 AD but rebuilt, and it reached its peak in the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD.

Famous natives of Hierapolis include the Stoic philosopher Epictetus (c.55-c.135 AD) and the philosopher and rhetorician Antipater. Emperor Septimus hired Antipater to tutor his sons Caracalla and Geta, who became emperors themselves.

Hierapolis had a significant Jewish population in ancient times, as evidence by numerous inscriptions on tombs and elsewhere in the city. Some of the Jews are named as members of the various craft guilds of the city. This was probably the basis for the Christian conversion of some residents of Hierapolis, recorded in Colossians 4:13.

In the 5th century, several churches as well as a large martyrium dedicated to St. Philip (see "In the Bible," below) were built in Hierapolis. The city fell into decline in the 6th century, and the site became partially submerged under water and deposits of travertine. It was finally abandoned in 1334 after an earthquake. Excavations began to uncover Hierapolis in the 19th century.

Hierapolis in the Bible

Hierapolis is mentioned only once in the Bible, when St. Paul praises Epaphras, a Christian from Colossae, in his letter to the Colossians. Paul writes that Epaphras "has worked hard for you and for those in Laodicea and in Hierapolis" (Colossians 4:12-13). Epaphras was probably the founder of the Christian community at Hierapolis.

Ancient tradition also associates Hierapolis with a biblical figure, reporting that Philip died in Hierapolis around 80 AD. However, it is not clear which Philip is menat. It could be Philip the Apostle, one of the original 12 disciples, who is said to have been martyred by upside-down crucifixion (Acts of Philip) or by being hung upside down by his ankles from a tree.

Or Philip could be Philip the Evangelist, a later disciple who helped with administrative matters and had four virgin-prophetess daughters (Acts 6:1-7; 21:8-9). Early traditions say this Philip was buried in Hierapolis along with his virgin daughters, but confusingly call him "Philip the Apostle"! In any case, it seems a prominent person mentioned in Acts did die in Hierapolis.
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/turkey/hierapolis-pamukkale.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
CaligulaSmyrnaRPC2473.jpg
704a, Caligula, 16 March 37 - 24 January 41 A.D.100 viewsCaligula, 37 - 41 AD, Ionia, Smyrna. AE 17mm. Klose, Smyrna 27a. RPC 2473. 2.89 gm. Fine. Menophanes, Aviola, Procos, 37-38 AD. Obverse: AION, laureate head right; Reverse: Nike holding wreath right. Ex Tom Vossen.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

GAIUS (CALIGULA) (A.D. 37-41)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (Caligula) was born on 31 August, A.D. 12, probably at the Julio-Claudian resort of Antium (modern Anzio), the third of six children born to Augustus's adopted grandson, Germanicus, and Augustus's granddaughter, Agrippina. Caligula was the Roman Emperor between A.D. 37-41). Unfortunately, his is the most poorly documented reign of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. The literary sources for these four years are meager, frequently anecdotal, and universally hostile.[[1]] As a result, not only are many of the events of the reign unclear, but Gaius himself appears more as a caricature than a real person, a crazed megalomaniac given to capricious cruelty. Although some headway can be made in disentangling truth from embellishment, the true character of the youthful emperor will forever elude us.

As a baby he accompanied his parents on military campaigns in the north and was shown to the troops wearing a miniature soldier's outfit, including the hob-nailed sandal called caliga, whence the nickname by which posterity remembers him. His childhood was not a happy one, spent amid an atmosphere of paranoia, suspicion, and murder. Instability within the Julio-Claudian house, generated by uncertainty over the succession, led to a series of personal tragedies.

When Tiberius died on 16 March A.D. 37, Gaius was in a perfect position to assume power, despite the obstacle of Tiberius's will, which named him and his cousin Tiberius Gemellus joint heirs. (Gemellus's life was shortened considerably by this bequest, since Gaius ordered him killed within a matter of months.) Backed by the Praetorian Prefect Q. Sutorius Macro, Gaius asserted his dominance. He had Tiberius's will declared null and void on grounds of insanity, accepted the powers of the Principate as conferred by the Senate, and entered Rome on 28 March amid scenes of wild rejoicing. His first acts were generous in spirit: he paid Tiberius's bequests and gave a cash bonus to the Praetorian Guard, the first recorded donativum to troops in imperial history.

The ancient sources are practically unanimous as to the cause of Gaius's downfall: he was insane. The writers differ as to how this condition came about, but all agree that after his good start Gaius began to behave in an openly autocratic manner, even a crazed one. The sources describe his incestuous relations with his sisters, laughable military campaigns in the north, the building of a pontoon bridge across the Bay at Baiae, and the plan to make his horse a consul. Their unanimous hostility renders their testimony suspect, especially since Gaius's reported behavior fits remarkably well with that of the ancient tyrant, a literary type enshrined in Greco-Roman tradition centuries before his reign. Further, the only eye-witness account of Gaius's behavior, Philo's Embassy to Gaius, offers little evidence of outright insanity, despite the antagonism of the author, whom Gaius treated with the utmost disrespect.

The conspiracy that ended Gaius's life was hatched among the officers of the Praetorian Guard, apparently for purely personal reasons. It appears also to have had the support of some senators and an imperial freedman. As with conspiracies in general, there are suspicions that the plot was more broad-based than the sources intimate, and it may even have enjoyed the support of the next emperor Claudius, but these propositions are not provable on available evidence. On 24 January A.D. 41 the praetorian tribune Cassius Chaerea and other guardsmen caught Gaius alone in a secluded palace corridor and cut him down. He was 28 years old and had ruled three years and ten months.

Whatever damage Tiberius's later years had done to the carefully crafted political edifice created by Augustus, Gaius multiplied it a hundredfold. When he came to power in A.D. 37 Gaius had no administrative experience beyond his honorary quaestorship, and had spent an unhappy early life far from the public eye. He appears, once in power, to have realized the boundless scope of his authority and acted accordingly. For the elite, this situation proved intolerable and ensured the blackening of Caligula's name in the historical record they would dictate. The sensational and hostile nature of that record, however, should in no way trivialize Gaius's importance. His reign highlighted an inherent weakness in the Augustan Principate, now openly revealed for what it was -- a raw monarchy in which only the self-discipline of the incumbent acted as a restraint on his behavior. That the only means of retiring the wayward princes was murder marked another important revelation: Roman emperors could not relinquish their powers without simultaneously relinquishing their lives.

Copyright © 1997, Garrett G. Fagan.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Ancient Smyrna

The 5,000 year-old city of Izmir is one of the oldest cities of the Mediterranean basin. The original city was established in the third millennium BC (at present day Bayraklı), at which time it shared with Troy the most advanced culture in Anatolia.


Greek settlement is attested by the presence of pottery dating from about 1000 BC. In the first millennium BC Izmir, then known as Smyrna, ranked as one of the most important cities of the Ionian Federation. During this period, it is believed that the epic poet Homer resided here.

Lydian conquest of the city around 600 BC brought this golden age to an end. Smyrna was little more than a village throughout the Lydian and subsequent sixth century BC Persian rule. In the fourth century BC a new city was built on the slopes of Mt. Pagos (Kadifekale) during the reign of Alexander the Great. Smyrna's Roman period, beginning in the first century BC, was its second great era.

In the first century AD, Smyrna became one of the earliest centers of Christianity and it was one of the Seven Churches of Revelation. Both Revelation and the Martyrdom of Polycarp indicate the existence of a Jewish community in Smyrna as early as the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. The letter to the church at Smyrna in Revelation indicates that the Christians were spiritually "rich" and apparently in conflict with the Jews (2:9).

The origins of the Christian community there, which was established in the 1st century, are unknown. Ignatius of Antioch stopped at Smyrna on his way to martyrdom in Rome in 107 AD, and he sent a letter back to the Christians there from later in his journey. Smyrna's bishop, Polycarp, was burned at the stake in Smyrna's stadium around 156 AD.

Byzantine rule came in the fourth century and lasted until the Seljuk conquest in 11th century. In 1415, under Sultan Mehmed Çelebi, Smyrna became part of the Ottoman Empire.

The city earned its fame as one of the most important port cities of the world during the 17th to 19th centuries. The majority of its population were Greek but merchants of various origins (especially Greek, French, Italian, Dutch, Armenian, Sephardi and Jewish) transformed the city into a cosmopolitan portal of trade. During this period, the city was famous for its own brand of music (Smyrneika) as well as its wide range of products it exported to Europe (Smyrna/Sultana raisins, dried figs, carpets, etc.).

Today, Izmir is Turkey's third largest city and is nicknamed "the pearl of Aegean." It is widely regarded as the most Westernized city of Turkey in terms of values, ideology, gender roles, and lifestyle.
© 2005-08 Sacred Destinations. All rights reserved.
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/turkey/izmir-history.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
CLAUD34LG.jpg
705a, Claudius, 25 January 41 - 13 October 54 A.D.62 viewsClaudius. 42-43 AD. AE As.
Claudius. 42-43 AD. AE As (29 mm, 10.87 g). Obverse: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P, bare head right; Reverse: CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI / S - C, Constantiae in military dress standing left, holding spear; RIC I, 111; aVF. Ex Imperial Coins.



De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

CLAUDIUS (41-54 A.D.)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

Ti. Claudius Nero Germanicus (b. 10 BC, d. 54 A.D.; emperor, 41-54 A.D.) was the third emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. His reign represents a turning point in the history of the Principate for a number of reasons, not the least for the manner of his accession and the implications it carried for the nature of the office. During his reign he promoted administrators who did not belong to the senatorial or equestrian classes, and was later vilified by authors who did. He followed Caesar in carrying Roman arms across the English Channel into Britain but, unlike his predecessor, he initiated the full-scale annexation of Britain as a province, which remains today the most closely studied corner of the Roman Empire. His relationships with his wives and children provide detailed insights into the perennial difficulties of the succession problem faced by all Roman Emperors. His final settlement in this regard was not lucky: he adopted his fourth wife's son, L. Domitius Ahenobarbus, who was to reign catastrophically as Nero and bring the dynasty to an end. Claudius's reign, therefore, was a mixture of successes and failures that leads into the last phase of the Julio-Claudian line.

Robert Graves' fictional characterization of Claudius as an essentially benign man with a keen intelligence has tended to dominate the wider public's view of this emperor. Close study of the sources, however, reveals a somewhat different kind of man. In addition to his scholarly and cautious nature, he had a cruel streak, as suggested by his addiction to gladiatorial games and his fondness for watching his defeated opponents executed. He conducted closed-door (in camera ) trials of leading citizens that frequently resulted in their ruin or deaths -- an unprecedented and tyrannical pattern of behavior. He had his wife Messalina executed, and he personally presided over a kangaroo court in the Praetorian Camp in which many of her hangers-on lost their lives. He abandoned his own son Britannicus to his fate and favored the advancement of Nero as his successor. While he cannot be blamed for the disastrous way Nero's rule turned out, he must take some responsibility for putting that most unsuitable youth on the throne. At the same time, his reign was marked by some notable successes: the invasion of Britain, stability and good government in the provinces, and successful management of client kingdoms. Claudius, then, is a more enigmatic figure than the other Julio-Claudian emperors: at once careful, intelligent, aware and respectful of tradition, but given to bouts of rage and cruelty, willing to sacrifice precedent to expediency, and utterly ruthless in his treatment of those who crossed him. Augustus's suspicion that there was more to the timid Claudius than met the eye was more than fully borne out by the events of his unexpected reign.

The possibility has to be entertained that Claudius was a far more active participant in his own elevation than traditional accounts let on. There is just reason to suspect that he may even have been involved in planning the murder of Gaius (Caligula). Merely minutes before the assassination of Gaius, Claudius had departed for lunch; this appears altogether too fortuitous. This possibility, however, must remain pure speculation, since the ancient evidence offers nothing explicit in the way of support. On the other hand, we can hardly expect them to, given the later pattern of events. The whole issue of Claudius's possible involvement in the death of Gaius and his own subsequent acclamation by the Praetorian Guard must, therefore, remain moot . . . yet intriguing

Copyright 1998, Garrett G. Fagan.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

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706 Hadrian Sestertius Roma 132-34 AD Galley left57 viewsReference
RIC 706; Strack 837; C. 657; Banti 337

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS
Laureate head right.

Rev. FELICITATI AVG COS III P P S-C in field
Galley moving left with stearman and five rowers; vexillum on prow.

23.61 gr
31 mm
12h

Ex.
Stack's Bowers Galleries January 2013 N.Y.I.N.C. lot 5210

Note.
An acrostolium is an ornamental extension of the stem post on the prow of an ancient warship. Often used as a symbol of victory or of power at sea. (numiswiki)
1st-4th Century AD:
The Ship in Imperial Rome

Realizing its importance, Augustus established the Roman navy along lines similar to that of the legions. In addition to a number of key harbors, from which ships could be deployed, he stationed several fleets (Latin classes) in key areas throughout the empire. Among these, the classis Britannica patrolled the channel between Gaul and Britannia, protecting the shipping lanes. Its strategic regional importance is commemorated in the coinage of several of the period usurpers from the area. M. Aurelius Postumus was the first to do so (lots 676-679). His bronze ship issues carry the legend LAETITIA AVG, emphasizing the source of imperial well-being resides in a strong navy. The usurper M. Aurelius Carausius, commander of the classis Britannica under Diocletian, struck coins commemorating, in part, his control of that fleet and its abilities in keeping the sea lanes open (lot 680). His short-lived successor, Allectus, continued the type (lots 681-684).

One important function of the navy was the transportation of the imperial family on state visits. From the time of Augustus, vessels were dispatched to carry the emperor between the capital and the provinces. One such instance is commemorated in a rare bronze as, struck at Patrae in AD 66/7 (lot 609). The reverse depicts the quinquereme used to carry Nero on his infamous tour of Greece. Hadrian’s extensive travels were recorded with a wide variety of ship types struck at Rome (lots 610-622), and in the East (lot 623). An inscription from Ephesus (Syll. III 3241), records that a local captain, L. Erastus, used his ship to transport the emperor while he was in that area. A coin struck at Alexandria (lot 624) is of particular importance for, in the same year as the coin was struck Antinoüs drowned as the imperial party was sailing up the Nile. Hadrian’s successors continued to travel, now to shore up border conflicts or prepare for one of the periodic wars with Persia (lots 625-627; 631-675). By the middle of the third century AD local issues, rather than those minted at the imperial capital, recorded these events, a sign that the center of power was drifting away from Rome itself.

Warships were not the exclusive vessel of the Roman navy. Providing the empire with an uninterrupted supply of grain, as well as other necessary supplies, necessitated the construction of ship for such a purpose. Unlike the warship, which required speed and strength for ramming, the merchantman (Greek nau~ stroggulh; Latin navis oneraria) was of broader beam. Many of these vessels, like the ponto or more common actuaria resembled the shape of a trireme and could be powered by both oars and sails. Since ships of this type were used to transport vital commodities such as wine and grain, they, like the large ponto, are often those shown on coins from the Black Sea (lots 655 and 664-666). The great Roman merchantman, or corbita, often seen in part on imperial issues commemorating the annona, is more familiar (lots 607-608). Powered by two large sails, it featured a rear cabin in the shape of a swan and was the true workhorse of Roman merchant vessels; its type continued well into the Byzantine period.
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706a, Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D.73 views6, Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D. AE setertius, Date: 66 AD; RIC I 516, 36.71 mm; 25.5 grams; aVF. Obverse: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG PONT MAX TR POT PP, Laureate bust right; Reverse: S C, ROMA, Roma seated left, exceptional portrait and full obverse legends. Ex Ancient Imports.

NERO (54-68 A.D.)

It is difficult for the modern student of history to realize just how popular Nero actually was, at least at the beginning of his reign. Rome looked upon her new Emperor with hope. He was the student of Seneca, and he had a sensitive nature. He loved art, music, literature, and theatre. He was also devoted to horses and horse racing—a devotion shared by many of his subjects. The plebs loved their new Emperor. As Professor of Classics Judith P. Hallett (University of Maryland, College Park) says, “It is not clear to me that Nero ever changed or that Nero ever grew-up, and that was both his strength and his weakness. Nero was an extraordinarily popular Emperor: he was like Elvis” (The Roman Empire in the First Century, III. Dir. Margaret Koval and Lyn Goldfarb. 2001. DVD. PBS/Warner Bros. 2003).

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Herbert W. Benario
Emory University

Introduction and Sources
The five Julio-Claudian emperors are very different one from the other. Augustus dominates in prestige and achievement from the enormous impact he had upon the Roman state and his long service to Rome, during which he attained unrivaled auctoritas. Tiberius was clearly the only possible successor when Augustus died in AD 14, but, upon his death twenty-three years later, the next three were a peculiar mix of viciousness, arrogance, and inexperience. Gaius, better known as Caligula, is generally styled a monster, whose brief tenure did Rome no service. His successor Claudius, his uncle, was a capable man who served Rome well, but was condemned for being subject to his wives and freedmen. The last of the dynasty, Nero, reigned more than three times as long as Gaius, and the damage for which he was responsible to the state was correspondingly greater. An emperor who is well described by statements such as these, "But above all he was carried away by a craze for popularity and he was jealous of all who in any way stirred the feeling of the mob." and "What an artist the world is losing!" and who is above all remembered for crimes against his mother and the Christians was indeed a sad falling-off from the levels of Augustus and Tiberius. Few will argue that Nero does not rank as one of the worst emperors of all.

The prime sources for Nero's life and reign are Tacitus' Annales 12-16, Suetonius' Life of Nero, and Dio Cassius' Roman History 61-63, written in the early third century. Additional valuable material comes from inscriptions, coinage, papyri, and archaeology.


Early Life
He was born on December 15, 37, at Antium, the son of Cnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbusand Agrippina. Domitius was a member of an ancient noble family, consul in 32; Agrippina was the daughter of the popular Germanicus, who had died in 19, and Agrippina, daughter of Agrippa, Augustus' closest associate, and Julia, the emperor's daughter, and thus in direct descent from the first princeps. When the child was born, his uncle Gaius had only recently become emperor. The relationship between mother and uncle was difficult, and Agrippina suffered occasional humiliation. But the family survived the short reign of the "crazy" emperor, and when he was assassinated, it chanced that Agrippina's uncle, Claudius, was the chosen of the praetorian guard, although there may have been a conspiracy to accomplish this.

Ahenobarbus had died in 40, so the son was now the responsibility of Agrippina alone. She lived as a private citizen for much of the decade, until the death of Messalina, the emperor's wife, in 48 made competition among several likely candidates to become the new empress inevitable. Although Roman law forbade marriage between uncle and niece, an eloquent speech in the senate by Lucius Vitellius, Claudius' closest advisor in the senatorial order, persuaded his audience that the public good required their union. The marriage took place in 49, and soon thereafter the philosopher Seneca [[PIR2 A617]] was recalled from exile to become the young Domitius' tutor, a relationship which endured for some dozen years.

His advance was thereafter rapid. He was adopted by Claudius the following year and took the name Tiberius Claudius Nero Caesar or Nero Claudius Caesar Drusus Germanicus, was preferred to Claudius' natural son, Britannicus, who was about three years younger, was betrothed to the emperor's daughter Octavia, and was, in the eyes of the people, the clear successor to the emperor. In 54, Claudius died, having eaten some poisoned mushrooms, responsibility for which was believed to be Agrippina's, and the young Nero, not yet seventeen years old, was hailed on October 13 as emperor by the praetorian guard.


The First Years of Rule
The first five years of Nero's rule are customarily called the quinquennium, a period of good government under the influence, not always coinciding, of three people, his mother, Seneca, and Sextus Afranius Burrus, the praetorian prefect. The latter two were allies in their "education" of the emperor. Seneca continued his philosophical and rhetorical training, Burrus was more involved in advising on the actualities of government. They often combined their influence against Agrippina, who, having made her son emperor, never let him forget the debt he owed his mother, until finally, and fatally, he moved against her.

Nero's betrothal to Octavia was a significant step in his ultimate accession to the throne, as it were, but she was too quiet, too shy, too modest for his taste. He was early attracted to Poppaea Sabina, the wife of Otho, and she continually goaded him to break from Octavia and to show himself an adult by opposing his mother. In his private life, Nero honed the musical and artistic tastes which were his chief interest, but, at this stage, they were kept private, at the instigation of Seneca and Burrus.

As the year 59 began, Nero had just celebrated his twenty-first birthday and now felt the need to employ the powers which he possessed as emperor as he wished, without the limits imposed by others. Poppaea's urgings had their effect, first of all, at the very onset of the year, with Nero's murder of his mother in the Bay of Naples.

Agrippina had tried desperately to retain her influence with her son, going so far as to have intercourse with him. But the break between them proved irrevocable, and Nero undertook various devices to eliminate his mother without the appearance of guilt on his part. The choice was a splendid vessel which would collapse while she was on board. As this happened, she swam ashore and, when her attendant, having cried out that she was Agrippina, was clubbed to death, Agrippina knew what was going on. She sent Nero a message that she was well; his response was to send a detachment of sailors to finish the job. When she was struck across the head, she bared her womb and said, "Strike here, Anicetus, strike here, for this bore Nero," and she was brutally murdered.

Nero was petrified with fear when he learned that the deed had been done, yet his popularity with the plebs of Rome was not impaired. This matricide, however, proved a turning point in his life and principate. It appeared that all shackles were now removed. The influence of Seneca and Burrus began to wane, and when Burrus died in 62, Seneca realized that his powers of persuasion were at an end and soon went into retirement. Britannicus had died as early as 55; now Octavia was to follow, and Nero became free to marry Poppaea. It may be that it had been Burrus rather than Agrippina who had continually urged that Nero's position depended in large part upon his marriage to Octavia. Burrus' successor as commander of the praetorian guard, although now with a colleague, was Ofonius Tigellinus, quite the opposite of Burrus in character and outlook. Tigellinus became Nero's "evil twin," urging and assisting in the performance of crimes and the satisfaction of lusts.


Administrative and Foreign Policy
With Seneca and Burrus in charge of administration at home, the first half-dozen years of Nero's principate ran smoothly. He himself devoted his attention to his artistic, literary, and physical bents, with music, poetry, and chariot racing to the fore. But his advisors were able to keep these performances and displays private, with small, select audiences on hand. Yet there was a gradual trend toward public performance, with the establishment of games. Further, he spent many nights roaming the city in disguise, with numerous companions, who terrorized the streets and attacked individuals. Those who dared to defend themselves often faced death afterward, because they had shown disrespect for the emperor. The die was being cast for the last phases of Nero's reign.


The Great Fire at Rome and The Punishment
of the Christians
The year 64 was the most significant of Nero's principate up to this point. His mother and wife were dead, as was Burrus, and Seneca, unable to maintain his influence over Nero without his colleague's support, had withdrawn into private life. The abysmal Tigellinus was now the foremost advisor of the still young emperor, a man whose origin was from the lowest levels of society and who can accurately be described as criminal in outlook and action. Yet Nero must have considered that he was happier than he had ever been in his life. Those who had constrained his enjoyment of his (seemingly) limitless power were gone, he was married to Poppaea, a woman with all advantages save for a bad character the empire was essentially at peace, and the people of Rome enjoyed a full measure of panem et circenses. But then occurred one of the greatest disasters that the city of Rome, in its long history, had ever endured.

The fire began in the southeastern angle of the Circus Maximus, spreading through the shops which clustered there, and raged for the better part of a week. There was brief success in controlling the blaze, but then it burst forth once more, so that many people claimed that the fires were deliberately set. After about a fortnight, the fire burned itself out, having consumed ten of the fourteen Augustan regions into which the city had been divided.

Nero was in Antium through much of the disaster, but his efforts at relief were substantial. Yet many believed that he had been responsible, so that he could perform his own work comparing the current fate of Rome to the downfall of Troy. All his efforts to assist the stricken city could not remove the suspicion that "the emperor had fiddled while Rome burned." He lost favor even among the plebs who had been enthusiastic supporters, particularly when his plans for the rebuilding of the city revealed that a very large part of the center was to become his new home.

As his popularity waned, Nero and Tigellinus realized that individuals were needed who could be charged with the disaster. It so happened that there was such a group ready at hand, Christians, who had made themselves unpopular because of their refusal to worship the emperor, their way of life, and their secret meetings. Further, at this time two of their most significant "teachers" were in Rome, Peter and Paul. They were ideal scapegoats, individuals whom most Romans loathed, and who had continually sung of the forthcoming end of the world.

Their destruction was planned with the utmost precision and cruelty, for the entertainment of the populace. The venue was Nero's circus near the Mons Vaticanus. Christians were exposed to wild animals and were set ablaze, smeared with pitch, to illuminate the night. The executions were so grisly that even the populace displayed sympathy for the victims. Separately, Peter was crucified upside down on the Vatican hill and Paul was beheaded along the Via Ostiensis. But Nero's attempt, and hope, to shift all suspicion of arson to others failed. His popularity even among the lower classes was irrevocably impaired.

[For a detailed and interesting discussion of Nero’s reign please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/nero.htm]

The End - Nero's Death and its Aftermath
Nero's and Tigellinus' response to the conspiracy was immediate and long-lasting. The senatorial order was decimated, as one leading member after another was put to death or compelled to commit suicide. The year 66 saw the suicides of perhaps the most distinguished victims of the "reign of terror," Caius Petronius and Thrasea Paetus. Petronius, long a favorite of Nero because of his aesthetic taste, had been an able public servant before he turned to a life of ease and indolence. He was recognized as the arbiter elegantiae of Nero's circle, and may be the author of the Satyricon. At his death, he left for Nero a document which itemized many of the latter's crimes. Thrasea, a staunch Stoic who had been for some years an outspoken opponent of Nero's policies, committed suicide in the Socratic manner. This scene is the last episode in the surviving books of Tacitus' Annals.

In the year 68, revolt began in the provinces. . . the end of Nero's reign became inevitable. Galba claimed the throne and began his march from Spain. Nero panicked and was rapidly abandoned by his supporters. He finally committed suicide with assistance, on June 9, 68, and his body was tended and buried by three women who had been close to him in his younger days, chief of whom was Acte. His death scene is marked above all by the statement, "Qualis artifex pereo," (What an artist dies in me.) Even at the end he was more concerned with his private life than with the affairs of state.

The aftermath of Nero's death was cataclysmic. Galba was the first of four emperors who revealed the new secret of empire, that an emperor could be made elsewhere than in Rome. Civil war ensued, which was only ended by the victory of the fourth claimant, Vespasian, who established the brief dynasty of the Flavians. The dynasty of the Julio-Claudians was at an end.

Nero's popularity among the lower classes remained even after his death.

. . . .

It is not excessive to say that he was one of the worst of Rome's emperors in the first two centuries and more of the empire. Whatever talents he had, whatever good he may have done, all is overwhelmed by three events, the murder of his mother, the fire at Rome, and his savage treatment of the Christians.

Precisely these qualities are the reasons that he has remained so well known and has been the subject of many writers and opera composers in modern times. These works of fiction particularly merit mention: Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis, one of the finest works of the 1907 Nobel Laureate in Literature, and John Hersey's The Conspiracy. Nero unquestionably will always be with us.

Copyright (C) 2006, Herbert W. Benario.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

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707a, Galba, 3 April 68 - 15 January 69 A.D.66 viewsGalba AE As, 68-69 AD; cf. SRC 727, 729ff; 27.85mm, 12g; Rome: Obverse: GALBA IMP CAESAR…, Laureate head right; Reverse: S P Q R OB CIV SER in oak wreath; gF+/F Ex. Ancient Imports.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Galba (68-69 A.D.)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary


Introduction
The evidence for the principate of Galba is unsatisfactory. The sources either concentrate on the personality of the man, thereby failing to offer a balanced account of his policies and a firm chronological base for his actions; or, they focus on the final two weeks of his life at the expense of the earlier part of his reign. As a result, a detailed account of his principate is difficult to write. Even so, Galba is noteworthy because he was neither related to nor adopted by his predecessor Nero. Thus, his accession marked the end of the nearly century-long control of the Principate by the Julio-Claudians. Additionally, Galba's declaration as emperor by his troops abroad set a precedent for the further political upheavals of 68-69. Although these events worked to Galba's favor initially, they soon came back to haunt him, ending his tumultuous rule after only seven months.

Early Life and Rise to Power
Born 24 December 3 BC in Tarracina, a town on the Appian Way, 65 miles south of Rome, Servius Galba was the son of C. Sulpicius Galba and Mummia Achaica. Galba's connection with the noble house of the Servii gave him great prestige and assured his acceptance among the highest levels of Julio-Claudian society. Adopted in his youth by Livia, the mother of the emperor Tiberius, he is said to have owed much of his early advancement to her. Upon her death, Livia made Galba her chief legatee, bequeathing him some 50 million sesterces. Tiberius, Livia's heir, reduced the amount, however, and then never paid it. Galba's marriage proved to be a further source of disappointment, as he outlived both his wife Lepida and their two sons. Nothing else is known of Galba's immediate family, other than that he remained a widower for the rest of his life.

Although the details of Galba's early political career are incomplete, the surviving record is one of an ambitious Roman making his way in the Emperor's service. Suetonius records that as praetor Galba put on a new kind of exhibition for the people - elephants walking on a rope. Later, he served as governor of the province of Aquitania, followed by a six-month term as consul at the beginning of 33. Ironically, as consul he was succeeded by Salvius Otho, whose own son would succeed Galba as emperor. Over the years three more governorships followed - Upper Germany (date unknown), North Africa (45) and Hispania Tarraconensis, the largest of Spain's three provinces (61). He was selected as a proconsul of Africa by the emperor Claudius himself instead of by the usual method of drawing lots. During his two-year tenure in the province he successfully restored internal order and quelled a revolt by the barbarians. As an imperial legate he was a governor in Spain for eight years under Nero, even though he was already in his early sixties when he assumed his duties. The appointment showed that Galba was still considered efficient and loyal. In all of these posts Galba generally displayed an enthusiasm for old-fashioned disciplina, a trait consistent with the traditional characterization of the man as a hard-bitten aristocrat of the old Republican type. Such service did not go unnoticed, as he was honored with triumphal insignia and three priesthoods during his career.

On the basis of his ancestry, family tradition and service to the state Galba was the most distinguished Roman alive (with the exception of the houses of the Julii and Claudii) at the time of Nero's demise in 68. The complex chain of events that would lead him to the Principate later that year began in March with the rebellion of Gaius Iulius Vindex, the governor of Gallia Lugdunensis. Vindex had begun to sound out provincial governors about support for a rebellion perhaps in late 67 or early 68. Galba did not respond but, because of his displeasure with Neronian misgovernment, neither did he inform the emperor of these treasonous solicitations. This, of course, left him dangerously exposed; moreover, he was already aware that Nero, anxious to remove anyone of distinguished birth and noble achievements, had ordered his death. Given these circumstances, Galba likely felt that he had no choice but to rebel.

In April, 68, while still in Spain, Galba "went public," positioning himself as a vir militaris, a military representative of the senate and people of Rome. For the moment, he refused the title of Emperor, but it is clear that the Principate was his goal. To this end, he organized a concilium of advisors in order to make it known that any decisions were not made by him alone but only after consultation with a group. The arrangement was meant to recall the Augustan Age relationship between the emperor and senate in Rome. Even more revealing of his imperial ambitions were legends like LIBERTAS RESTITUTA (Liberty Restored), ROM RENASC (Rome Reborn) and SALUS GENERIS HUMANI (Salvation of Mankind), preserved on his coinage from the period. Such evidence has brought into question the traditional assessment of Galba as nothing more than an ineffectual representative of a bygone antiquus rigor in favor of a more balanced portrait of a traditional constitutionalist eager to publicize the virtues of an Augustan-style Principate.
Events now began to move quickly. In May, 68 Lucius Clodius Macer, legate of the III legio Augusta in Africa, revolted from Nero and cut off the grain supply to Rome. Choosing not to recognize Galba, he called himself propraetor, issued his own coinage, and raised a new legion, the I Macriana liberatrix. Galba later had him executed. At the same time, 68, Lucius Verginius Rufus, legionary commander in Upper Germany, led a combined force of soldiers from Upper and Lower Germany in defeating Vindex at Vesontio in Gallia Lugdunensis. Verginius refused to accept a call to the emperorship by his own troops and by those from the Danube, however, thereby creating at Rome an opportunity for Galba's agents to win over Gaius Nymphidius Sabinus, the corrupt praetorian prefect since 65. Sabinus was able to turn the imperial guard against Nero on the promise that they would be rewarded financially by Galba upon his arrival. That was the end for Nero. Deposed by the senate and abandoned by his supporters, he committed suicide in June. At this point, encouraged to march on Rome by the praetorians and especially by Sabinus, who had his own designs on the throne, Galba hurriedly established broad-based political and financial support and assembled his own legion (subsequently known as the legio VII Gemina). As he departed from Spain, he abandoned the title of governor in favor of "Caesar," apparently in an attempt to lay claim to the entire inheritance of the Julio-Claudian house. Even so, he continued to proceed cautiously, and did not actually adopt the name of Caesar (and with it the emperorship) until sometime after he had left Spain.

The Principate of Galba
Meanwhile, Rome was anything but serene. An unusual force of soldiers, many of whom had been mustered by Nero to crush the attempt of Vindex, remained idle and restless. In addition, there was the matter concerning Nymphidius Sabinus. Intent on being the power behind the throne, Nymphidius had orchestrated a demand from the praetorians that Galba appoint him sole praetorian prefect for life. The senate capitulated to his pretensions and he began to have designs on the throne himself. In an attempt to rattle Galba, Nymphidius then sent messages of alarm to the emperor telling of unrest in both the city and abroad. When Galba ignored these reports, Nymphidius decided to launch a coup by presenting himself to the praetorians. The plan misfired, and the praetorians killed him when he appeared at their camp. Upon learning of the incident, Galba ordered the executions of Nymphidius' followers. To make matters worse, Galba's arrival was preceded by a confrontation with a boisterous band of soldiers who had been formed into a legion by Nero and were now demanding legionary standards and regular quarters. When they persisted, Galba's forces attacked, with the result that many of them were killed.
Thus it was amid carnage and fear that Galba arrived at the capital in October, 68, accompanied by Otho, the governor of Lusitania, who had joined the cause. Once Galba was within Rome, miscalculations and missteps seemed to multiply. First, he relied upon the advice of a corrupt circle of advisors, most notably: Titus Vinius, a general from Spain; Cornelius Laco, praetorian prefect; and his own freedman, Icelus. Second, he zealously attempted to recover some of Nero's more excessive expenditures by seizing the property of many citizens, a measure that seems to have gone too far and to have caused real hardship and resentment. Third, he created further ill-will by disbanding the imperial corps of German bodyguards, effectively abolishing a tradition that originated with Marius and had been endorsed by Augustus. Finally, he seriously alienated the military by refusing cash rewards for both the praetorians and for the soldiers in Upper Germany who had fought against Vindex.

This last act proved to be the beginning of the end for Galba. On 1 January 69 ("The Year of the Four Emperors"), the troops in Upper Germany refused to declare allegiance to him and instead followed the men stationed in Lower Germany in proclaiming their commander, Aulus Vitellius, as the new ruler. In response, Galba adopted Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi Licinianus to show that he was still in charge and that his successor would not be chosen for him. Piso, although an aristocrat, was a man completely without administrative or military experience. The choice meant little to the remote armies, the praetorians or the senate, and it especially angered Otho, who had hoped to succeed Galba. Otho quickly organized a conspiracy among the praetorians with the now-familiar promise of a material reward, and on 15 January 69 they declared him emperor and publicly killed Galba; Piso, dragged from hiding in the temple of Vesta, was also butchered.

Assessment
In sum, Galba had displayed talent and ambition during his lengthy career. He enjoyed distinguished ancestry, moved easily among the Julio-Claudian emperors (with the exception of Nero towards the end of his principate), and had been awarded the highest military and religious honors of ancient Rome. His qualifications for the principate cannot be questioned. Even so, history has been unkind to him. Tacitus characterized Galba as "weak and old," a man "equal to the imperial office, if he had never held it." Modern historians of the Roman world have been no less critical. To be sure, Galba's greatest mistake lay in his general handling of the military. His treatment of the army in Upper Germany was heedless, his policy towards the praetorians short sighted. Given the climate in 68-69, Galba was unrealistic in expecting disciplina without paying the promised rewards. He was also guilty of relying on poor advisors, who shielded him from reality and ultimately allowed Otho's conspiracy to succeed. Additionally, the excessive power of his henchmen brought the regime into disfavor and made Galba himself the principal target of the hatred that his aides had incited. Finally, the appointment of Piso, a young man in no way equal to the challenges placed before him, further underscored the emperor's isolation and lack of judgment. In the end, the instability of the post-Julio-Claudian political landscape offered challenges more formidable than a tired, septuagenarian aristocrat could hope to overcome. Ironically, his regime proved no more successful than the Neronian government he was so eager to replace. Another year of bloodshed would be necessary before the Principate could once again stand firm.

Copyright (C) 1999, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
roman_emperor_otho.jpg
708a, Otho64 viewsOtho (69 A.D.)
John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction
In January 69 Otho led a successful coup to overthrow the emperor Galba. Upon advancing to the throne, he hoped to conciliate his adversaries and restore political stability to the Empire. These ambitions were never to be realized. Instead, our sources portray a leader never fully able to win political confidence at Rome or to overcome military anarchy abroad. As a result, he was defeated in battle by the forces of Vitellius, his successor, and took his own life at the conclusion of the conflict. His principate lasted only eight weeks.
Early Life and Career
Marcus Salvius Otho was born at Ferentium on 28 April 32 A. D. His grandfather, also named Marcus Salvius Otho, was a senator who did not advance beyond the rank of praetor. Lucius Otho, his father, was consul in 33 and a trusted administrator under the emperors Tiberius, Gaius and Claudius. His mother, Albia Terentia, was likely to have been nobly born as well. The cognomen "Otho" was Etruscan in origin, and the fact that it can be traced to three successive generations of this family perhaps reflects a desire to maintain a part of the Etruscan tradition that formed the family's background.
Otho is recorded as being extravagant and wild as a youth - a favorite pastime involved roving about at night to snare drunkards in a blanket. Such behavior earned floggings from his father, whose frequent absences from home on imperial business suggest little in the way of a stabilizing parental influence in Otho's formative years. These traits apparently persisted: Suetonius records that Otho and Nero became close friends because of the similarity of their characters; and Plutarch relates that the young man was so extravagant that he sometimes chided Nero about his meanness, and even outdid the emperor in reckless spending.
Most intriguing in this context is Otho's involvement with Nero's mistress, Poppaea Sabina, the greatest beauty of her day. A relationship between the two is widely cited in the ancient sources, but the story differs in essential details from one account to the next. As a result, it is impossible to establish who seduced whom, whether Otho ever married Poppaea, and whether his posting to Lusitania by Nero should be understood as a "banishment" for his part in this affair. About the only reliable detail to emerge is that Otho did indeed become governor of Lusitania in 59, and that he assumed the post as a quaestor, a rank below that of praetor or consul, the minimum usually required for the office. From here he would launch his initial thrust towards the imperial throne.
Overthrow of Galba
Nero's suicide in June 68 marked the end of the Julio-Claudian dynasty and opened up the principate to the prerogatives of the military beyond Rome. First to emerge was Servius Sulpicius Galba, governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, who had been encouraged to revolt by the praetorians and especially by Nymphidius Sabinus, the corrupt and scheming praetorian prefect at Rome. By this time Otho had been in Spain for close to ten years. His record seems to have been a good one, marked by capable administration and an unwillingness to enrich himself at the expense of the province. At the same time, perhaps seeing this as his best chance to improve his own circumstances, he supported the insurrection as vigorously as possible, even sending Galba all of his gold and his best table servants. At the same time, he made it a point to win the favor of every soldier he came in contact with, most notably the members of the praetorian guard who had come to Spain to accompany Galba to Rome. Galba set out from Spain in July, formally assuming the emperorship shortly thereafter. Otho accompanied him on the journey.
Galba had been in Rome little more than two months when on 1 January 69 the troops in Upper Germany refused to declare allegiance to him and instead followed the men stationed in Lower Germany in proclaiming their commander, Aulus Vitellius, as the new ruler. To show that he was still in charge Galba adopted his own successor, Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi Licinianus, an aristocrat completely without administrative or military experience. The choice meant little to the remote armies, the praetorians or the senate and particularly angered Otho, who had hoped to succeed Galba. Otho quickly organized a conspiracy among the praetorians with promise of a material reward, and on 15 January 69 they declared him emperor and publicly killed Galba; Piso, dragged from hiding in the temple of Vesta, was also butchered. On that same evening a powerless senate awarded Otho the imperial titles.
Otho's Principate in Rome
It is not possible to reconstruct a detailed chronology of Otho's brief eight and a half weeks as princeps in Rome (15 January-15 March). Even so, Galba's quick demise had surely impressed upon Otho the need to conciliate various groups. As a result, he continued his indulgence of the praetorian guard but he also tried to win over the senate by following a strict constitutionalist line and by generally keeping the designations for the consulship made by Nero and Galba. In the provinces, despite limited evidence, there are some indications that he tried to compensate for Galba's stinginess by being more generous with grants of citizenship. In short, Otho was eager not to offend anyone.
Problems remained, however. The praetorians had to be continually placated and they were always suspicious of the senate. On the other hand, the senate itself, along with the people, remained deeply disturbed at the manner of Otho's coming to power and his willingness to be associated with Nero. These suspicions and fears were most evident in the praetorian outbreak at Rome. Briefly, Otho had decided to move from Ostia to Rome a cohort of Roman citizens in order to replace some of Rome's garrison, much of which was to be utilized for the showdown with Vitellius. He ordered that weapons be moved from the praetorian camp in Rome by ship to Ostia at night so that the garrison replacements would be properly armed and made to look as soldierly as possible when they marched into the city. Thinking that a senatorial counter-coup against Otho was underway, the praetorians stormed the imperial palace to confirm the emperor's safety, with the result that they terrified Otho and his senatorial dinner guests. Although the praetorians' fears were eventually calmed and they were given a substantial cash payment, the incident dramatically underscored the unease at Rome in the early months of 69.
Otho's Offensive against Vitellius
Meanwhile, in the Rhineland, preparations for a march on Rome by the military legions that had declared for Vitellius were far advanced. Hampered by poor intelligence gathering in Gaul and Germany and having failed to negotiate a settlement with Vitellius in early 69, Otho finally summoned to Italy his forces for a counterattack against the invading Vitellian army. His support consisted of the four legions of Pannonia and Dalmatia, the three legions of Moesia and his own imperial retinue of about 9,000. Vitellius' own troops numbered some 30,000, while those of his two marshals, Aulus Caecina Alienus and Fabius Valens, were between 15,000 and 20,000 each.
Otho's strategy was to make a quick diversionary strike in order to allow time for his own forces to assemble in Italy before engaging the enemy. The strategy worked, as the diversionary army, comprised of urban cohorts, praetorians and marines all from Rome or nearby, was successful in Narbonese Gaul in latter March. An advance guard sent to hold the line on the Po River until the Danubian legions arrived also enjoyed initial success. Otho himself arrived at Bedriacum in northern Italy about 10 April for a strategy session with his commanders. The main concern was that the Vitellians were building a bridge across the Po in order to drive southward towards the Apennines and eventually to Rome. Otho decided to counter by ordering a substantial part of his main force to advance from Bedriacum and establish a new base close enough to the new Vitellian bridge to interrupt its completion. While en route, the Othonian forces, strung out along the via Postumia amid baggage and supply trains, were attacked by Caecina and Valens near Cremona on 14 April. The clash, know as the Battle of Bedriacum, resulted in the defeat of the Othonian forces, their retreat cut off by the river behind them. Otho himself, meanwhile, was not present, but had gone to Brixellum with a considerable force of infantry and cavalry in order to impede any Vitellian units that had managed to cross the Po.
The plan had backfired. Otho's strategy of obtaining victory while avoiding any major battles had proven too risky. Realizing perhaps that a new round of fighting would have involved not only a significant re-grouping of his existing troops but also a potentially bloody civil war at Rome, if Vitellius' troops reached the capital, Otho decided that enough blood had been shed. Two weeks shy of his thirty-seventh birthday, on 16 April 69, he took his own life.
Assessment
To be sure, Otho remains an enigma - part profligate Neronian wastrel and part conscientious military commander willing to give his life for the good of the state. Our sources are at a loss to explain the paradox. Perhaps, like Petronius, he saw it was safer to appear a profligate in Nero's court? In the final analysis, Otho proved to be an organized and efficient military commander, who appealed more to the soldier than to the civilian. He also seems to have been a capable governor, with administrative talents that recalled those of his father. Nevertheless, his violent overthrow of Galba, the lingering doubts that it raised about his character, and his unsuccessful offensive against Vitellius are all vivid reminders of the turbulence that plagued the Roman world between the reigns of Nero and Vespasian. Regrettably, the scenario would play itself out one more time before peace and stability returned to the empire.
Copyright (C) 1999, John Donahue
Edited by J.P.Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
VitelliusARdenariusVesta.jpg
709a, Vitellius, 2 January - 20 December 69 A.D.42 viewsVITELLIUS AR silver denarius. RSC 72, RCV 2200. 19mm, 3.2 g. Obverse: A VITELLIVS GERM IMP AVG TR P, laureate head right; Reverse - PONT MAXIM, Vesta seated right, holding scepter and patera. Quite decent. Ex. Incitatus Coins. Photo courtesy of Incitatus Coins.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Vitellius (69 A.D.)

John F. Donahue
College of William and Mary


It is often difficult to separate fact from fiction in assessing the life and reign of Vitellius. Maligned in the ancient sources as gluttonous and cruel, he was also a victim of a hostile biographical tradition established in the regime of the Flavians who had overthrown him. Nevertheless, his decision to march against Rome in 69 was pivotal, since his subsequent defeat signalled the end of military anarchy and the beginning of an extended period of political stability under Vespasian and his successors.

Early Life and Career

Aulus Vitellius was born in September, 15 AD, the son of Lucius Vitellius and his wife Sestilia. One of the most successful public figures of the Julio-Claudian period, Lucius Vitellius was a three-time consul and a fellow censor with the emperor Claudius. Aulus seems to have moved with equal ease in aristocratic circles, successively winning the attention of the emperors Gaius, Claudius, and Nero through flattery and political skill.

Among his attested public offices, Vitellius was a curator of public works, a senatorial post concerned with the maintenance and repair of public buildings in Rome, and he was also proconsul of North Africa, where he served as a deputy to his brother, perhaps about 55 A. D. In addition, he held at least two priesthoods, the first as a member of the Arval Brethren, in whose rituals he participated from 57 A.D., and the second, as one of the quindecemviri sacris faciundis, a sacred college famous for its feasts.

With respect to marriage and family, Vitellius first wed a certain Petroniana, the daughter of a consul, sometime in the early to mid thirties A.D. The union produced a son, Petronianus, allegedly blind in one eye and emancipated from his father's control as a result of being named his mother's heir. Tradition records that Vitellius killed the boy shortly after emancipation amid charges of parricide; the marriage soon ended in divorce. A second marriage, to Galeria Fundana, daughter of an ex-praetor, was more stable than the first. It produced another son, who was eventually killed by the Flavians after the overthrow of Vitellius, as well as a daughter. Galeria is praised by Tacitus for her good qualities, and in the end it was she who saw to Vitellius' burial.

Rise to Power and Emperorship

Without doubt, the most fortuitous moment in Vitellius' political career was his appointment as governor of Lower Germany by the emperor Galba late in 68. The decision seemed to have caught everybody by surprise, including Vitellius himself, who, according to Suetonius, was in straitened circumstances at the time. The choice may have been made to reduce the possibility of rebellion by the Rhine armies, disaffected by Galba's refusal to reward them for their part in suppressing the earlier uprising of Julius Vindex. Ironically, it was Vitellius' lack of military achievement and his reputation for gambling and gluttony that may have also figured in his selection. Galba perhaps calculated that a man with little military experience who could now plunder a province to satisfy his own stomach would never become disloyal. If so, it was a critical misjudgement by the emperor.

The rebellion began on January 1, 69 ("The Year of the Four Emperors"), when the legions of Upper Germany refused to renew their oath of allegiance to Galba. On January 2, Vitellius' own men, having heard of the previous day's events, saluted him as emperor at the instigation of the legionary legate Fabius Valens and his colleagues. Soon, in addition to the seven legions that Vitellius now had at his command in both Germanies, the forces in Gaul, Britain, and Raetia also came over to his side. Perhaps aware of his military inexperience, Vitellius did not immediately march on Rome himself. Instead, the advance was led by Valens and another legionary general, Aulus Caecina Alienus, with each man commanding a separate column. Vitellius would remain behind to mobilize a reserve force and follow later.

Caecina was already one hundred fifty miles on his way when news reached him that Galba had been overthrown and Otho had taken his place as emperor. Undeterred, he passed rapidly down the eastern borders of Gaul; Valens followed a more westerly route, quelling a mutiny along the way. By March both armies had successfully crossed the Alps and joined at Cremona, just north of the Po. Here they launced their Batavian auxiliaries against Otho's troops and routed them in the First Battle of Bedriacum. Otho killed himself on April 16, and three days later the soldiers in Rome swore their allegience to Vitellius. The senate too hailed him as emperor.

When Vitellius learned of these developments, he set out to Rome from Gaul. By all accounts the journey was a drunken feast marked by the lack of discipline of both the troops and the imperial entourage. Along the way he stopped at Lugdunum to present his six-year-old son Germanicus to the legions as his eventual successor. Later, at Cremona, Vitellius witnessed the corpse-filled battlefield of Otho's recent defeat with joy, unmoved by so many citizens denied a proper burial.

The emperor entered Rome in late June-early July. Conscious of making a break with the Julio-Claudian past, Vitellius was reluctant to assume the traditional titles of the princes, even though he enthusiastically made offerings to Nero and declared himself consul for life. To his credit, Vitellius did seem to show a measure of moderation in the transition to the principate. He assumed his powers gradually and was generally lenient to Otho's supporters, even pardoning Otho's brother Salvius Titianus, who had played a key role in the earlier regime. In addition, he participated in Senate meetings and continued the practice of providing entertainments for the Roman masses. An important practical change involved the awarding of posts customarily held by freedmen to equites, an indication of the growth of the imperial bureaucracy and its attractiveness to men of ambition.

In other matters, he replaced the existing praetorian guard and urban cohorts with sixteen praetorian cohorts and four urban units, all comprised of soldiers from the German armies. According to Tacitus, the decision prompted a mad scramble, with the men, and not their officers, choosing the branch of service that they preferred. The situation was clearly unsatisfactory but not surprising, given that Vitellius was a creation of his own troops. To secure his position further, he sent back to their old postings the legions that had fought for Otho, or he reassigned them to distant provinces. Yet discontent remained: the troops who had been defeated or betrayed at Bedriacum remained bitter, and detachments of three Moesian legions called upon by Otho were returned to their bases, having agitated against Vitellius at Aquileia.

Flavian Revolt

The Vitellian era at Rome was short-lived. By mid-July news had arrived that the legions of Egypt under Tiberius Julius Alexander had sworn allegiance to a rival emperor, Titus Flavius Vespasianus, the governor of Judaea and a successful and popular general. Vespasian was to hold Egypt while his colleague Mucianus, governor of Syria, was to invade Italy. Before the plan could be enacted, however, the Danube legions, former supporters of Otho, joined Vespasian's cause. Under the leadership of Antonius Primus, commander of the Sixth legion in Pannonia, and Cornelius Fuscus, imperial procurator in Illyricum, the legions made a rapid descent on Italy.

Although his forces were only half of what Vitellius commanded in Italy, Primus struck first before the emperor could muster additional reinforcements from Germany. To make matters worse for the Vitellians, Valens was ill, and Caecina, now consul, had begun collaborating with the Flavians. His troops refused to follow his lead, however, and arrested him at Hostilia near Cremona. They then joined the rest of the Vitellian forces trying to hold the Po River. With Vitellius still in Rome and his forces virtually leaderless, the two sides met in October in the Second Battle of Bedriacum. The emperor's troops were soundly defeated and Cremona was brutally sacked by the victors. In addition, Valens, whose health had recovered, was captured while raising an army for Vitellius in Gaul and Germany; he was eventually executed.

Meanwhile, Primus continued towards Rome. Vitellius made a weak attempt to thwart the advance at the Apennine passes, but his forces switched to the Flavian side without a fight at Narnia in mid-December. At Rome, matters were no better. Vespasian's elder brother, Titus Flavius Sabinus, the city prefect, was successful in an effort to convince Vitellius to abdicate but was frustrated by the mob in Rome and the emperor's soldiers. Forced to flee to the Capitol, Sabinus was set upon by Vitellius' German troops and soon killed, with the venerable Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus set ablaze in the process. Within two days, the Flavian army fought its way into Rome. In a pathetic final move, Vitellius disguised himself in dirty clothing and hid in the imperial doorkeeper's quarters, leaning a couch and a mattress against the door for protection. Dragged from his hiding place by the Flavian forces, he was hauled off half-naked to the Forum, where he was tortured, killed, and tossed into the Tiber. The principate could now pass to Vespasian.

Assessment

Vitellius has not escaped the hostility of his biographers. While he may well have been gluttonous, his depiction as indolent, cruel, and extravagant is based almost entirely on the propaganda of his enemies. On the other hand, whatever moderating tendencies he did show were overshadowed by his clear lack of military expertise, a deficiency that forced him to rely in critical situations on largely inneffective lieutenants. As a result he was no match for his Flavian successors, and his humiliating demise was perfectly in keeping with the overall failure of his reign.

Copyright (C) 1999, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
VespasianPax_RICii10.jpg
710a, Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.134 viewsSilver denarius, RIC II, 10, aVF, 3.5 g, 18mm, Rome mint, 69-71 AD; Obverse: IMP CAESA[R] VESPASIANV[S AV]G - Laureate head right; Reverse: COS ITER [T]R POT - Pax seated left holding branch and caduceus. Ex Imperial Coins.


De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espèrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.





Cleisthenes
TitusCommColosseum.jpg
711a, Titus, 24 June 79 - 13 September 81 A.D. 109 viewsTITUS AUGUSTUS AR silver denarius. Struck at Rome, 80 AD. IMP TITVS CAESAR VESPASIAN AVG PM, laureate head right. Reverse - TRP IX IMP XV COS VIII PP, elephant walking left. Fully legible legends, about Very Fine, nice golden toning. Commemmorates the completion and dedication of the Colosseum and the opening of games. SCARCE. RCV 2512, valued at $544 in EF. 17mm, 3.1g. Ex Incitatus.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 79-81)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Titus Flavius Vespasianus was born on December 30, 39 A.D. He was the oldest of the three children of the founder of the Flavian Dynasty, Vespasian. Beginning in the year 70 Titus was named Cæsar and coregent; he was highly educated and a brilliant poet and orator in both Latin and Greek. He won military fame during the Jewish Revolt of 69-70. In April, 70, he appeared before the walls of Jerusalem, and conquered and destroyed the city after a siege of five months. He wished to preserve the Temple, but in the struggle with the Jews who rushed out of it a soldier threw a brand into the building. The siege and taking of the city were accompanied by barbarous cruelties. The next year Titus celebrated his victory by a triumph; to increase the fame of the Flavian dynasty the inscription on the triumphal arch represented the overthrow of the helpless people as a heroic achievement. Titus succeeded his father as Emperor in 79.

Before becoming emperor, tradition records that Titus was feared as the next Nero, a perception that may have developed from his association with Berenice, his alleged heavy-handedness as praetorian prefect, and tales of sexual debauchery. Once in office, however, both emperor and his reign were portrayed in universally positive terms. The suddenness of this transformation raises immediate suspicions, yet it is difficult to know whether the historical tradition is suspect or if Titus was in fact adept at taking off one mask for another. What is clear, however, is that Titus sought to present the Flavians as the legitimate successors of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Proof came through the issuing of a series of restoration coins of previous emperors, the most popular being Augustus and Claudius. In A.D. 80 Titus also set out to establish an imperial cult in honor of Vespasian. The temple, in which cult (the first that was not connected with the Julio-Claudians) was housed, was completed by Domitian and was known as the Temple of Vespasian and Domitian.
Legitimacy was also sought through various economic measures, which Titus enthusiastically funded. Vast amounts of capital poured into extensive building schemes in Rome, especially the Flavian Amphitheater, popularly known as the Colosseum. In celebration of additions made to the structure, Titus provided a grand 100-day festival, with sea fights staged on an artificial lake, infantry battles, wild beast hunts, and similar activities. He also constructed new imperial baths to the south-east of the Amphitheater and began work on the celebrated Arch of Titus, a memorial to his Jewish victories. Large sums were directed to Italy and the provinces as well, especially for road building. In response to the eruption of Vesuvius in A.D. 79, Titus spent large sums to relieve distress in that area; likewise, the imperial purse contributed heavily to rebuilding Rome after a devastating fire destroyed large sections of the city in A.D. 80. As a result of these actions, Titus earned a reputation for generosity and geniality. For these reasons he gained the honourable title of "amor et deliciæ generis humani" (the darling and admiration of the human race). Even so, his financial acumen must not be under-estimated. He left the treasury with a surplus, as he had found it, and dealt promptly and efficiently with costly natural disasters. The Greek historian of the third-century A.D., Cassius Dio, perhaps offered the most accurate and succinct assessment of Titus' economic policy: "In money matters, Titus was frugal and made no unnecessary expenditure." In other areas, the brevity of Titus' reign limits our ability to detect major emphases or trends in policy. As far as can be discerned from the limited evidence, senior officials and amici were well chosen, and his legislative activity tended to focus on popular social measures, with the army as a particular beneficiary in the areas of land ownership, marriage, and testamentary freedom. In the provinces, Titus continued his father's policies by strengthening roads and forts in the East and along the Danube.

Titus died in September, A.D. 81 after only 26 months in office. Suetonius recorded that Titus died on his way to the Sabine country of his ancestors in the same villa as his father. A competing tradition persistently implicated his brother and successor, Domitian, as having had a hand in the emperor's demise, but the evidence is highly contradictory and any wrongdoing is difficult to prove. Domitian himself delivered the funeral eulogy and had Titus deified. He also built several monuments in honor of Titus and completed the Temple of Vespasian and Titus, changing the name of the structure to include his brother's and setting up his cult statue in the Temple itself.

Titus was the beneficiary of considerable intelligence and talent, endowments that were carefully cultivated at every step of his career, from his early education to his role under his father's principate. Cassius Dio suggested that Titus' reputation was enhanced by his early death. It is true that the ancient sources tend to heroicize Titus, yet based upon the evidence, his reign must be considered a positive one. He capably continued the work of his father in establishing the Flavian Dynasty and he maintained a high degree of economic and administrative competence in Italy and beyond. In so doing, he solidified the role of the emperor as paternalistic autocrat, a model that would serve Trajan and his successors well. Titus was used as a model by later emperors, especially those known as the Five Good Emperors (Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius).

Copyright (C) 1997, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Catholic Encyclopedia, http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14746b.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Titus_Colosseum_Commem_AR_denarius.jpg
711a, Titus, 24 June 79 - 13 September 81 A.D.136 viewsTitus, 24 June 79 - 13 September 81 A.D. AR denarius, RCV 2512, aVF, struck at Rome, 80 A.D., 17.5mm, 3.4g. Obverse: IMP TITVS CAESAR VESPASIAN AVG PM, laureate head right; Reverse: TRP IX IMP XV COS VIII PP, elephant walking left. Fully legible legends; nice golden toning. This coin was struck in order to commemorate the completion and dedication of the Flavian Amphitheatre (the Colosseum) and its opening games. Very scarce. Ex Incitatus; photo courtesy Incitatus.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 79-81)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Titus Flavius Vespasianus was born on December 30, 39 A.D. He was the oldest of the three children of the founder of the Flavian Dynasty, Vespasian. Beginning in the year 70 Titus was named Cæsar and coregent; he was highly educated and a brilliant poet and orator in both Latin and Greek. He won military fame during the Jewish Revolt of 69-70. In April, 70, he appeared before the walls of Jerusalem, and conquered and destroyed the city after a siege of five months. He wished to preserve the Temple, but in the struggle with the Jews who rushed out of it a soldier threw a brand into the building. The siege and taking of the city were accompanied by barbarous cruelties. The next year Titus celebrated his victory by a triumph; to increase the fame of the Flavian dynasty the inscription on the triumphal arch represented the overthrow of the helpless people as a heroic achievement. Titus succeeded his father as Emperor in 79.

Before becoming emperor, tradition records that Titus was feared as the next Nero, a perception that may have developed from his association with Berenice, his alleged heavy-handedness as praetorian prefect, and tales of sexual debauchery. Once in office, however, both emperor and his reign were portrayed in universally positive terms. The suddenness of this transformation raises immediate suspicions, yet it is difficult to know whether the historical tradition is suspect or if Titus was in fact adept at taking off one mask for another. What is clear, however, is that Titus sought to present the Flavians as the legitimate successors of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Proof came through the issuing of a series of restoration coins of previous emperors, the most popular being Augustus and Claudius. In A.D. 80 Titus also set out to establish an imperial cult in honor of Vespasian. The temple, in which cult (the first that was not connected with the Julio-Claudians) was housed, was completed by Domitian and was known as the Temple of Vespasian and Domitian.
Legitimacy was also sought through various economic measures, which Titus enthusiastically funded. Vast amounts of capital poured into extensive building schemes in Rome, especially the Flavian Amphitheater, popularly known as the Colosseum. In celebration of additions made to the structure, Titus provided a grand 100-day festival, with sea fights staged on an artificial lake, infantry battles, wild beast hunts, and similar activities. He also constructed new imperial baths to the south-east of the Amphitheater and began work on the celebrated Arch of Titus, a memorial to his Jewish victories. Large sums were directed to Italy and the provinces as well, especially for road building. In response to the eruption of Vesuvius in A.D. 79, Titus spent large sums to relieve distress in that area; likewise, the imperial purse contributed heavily to rebuilding Rome after a devastating fire destroyed large sections of the city in A.D. 80. As a result of these actions, Titus earned a reputation for generosity and geniality. For these reasons he gained the honourable title of "amor et deliciæ generis humani" (the darling and admiration of the human race). Even so, his financial acumen must not be under-estimated. He left the treasury with a surplus, as he had found it, and dealt promptly and efficiently with costly natural disasters. The Greek historian of the third-century A.D., Cassius Dio, perhaps offered the most accurate and succinct assessment of Titus' economic policy: "In money matters, Titus was frugal and made no unnecessary expenditure." In other areas, the brevity of Titus' reign limits our ability to detect major emphases or trends in policy. As far as can be discerned from the limited evidence, senior officials and amici were well chosen, and his legislative activity tended to focus on popular social measures, with the army as a particular beneficiary in the areas of land ownership, marriage, and testamentary freedom. In the provinces, Titus continued his father's policies by strengthening roads and forts in the East and along the Danube.

Titus died in September, A.D. 81 after only 26 months in office. Suetonius recorded that Titus died on his way to the Sabine country of his ancestors in the same villa as his father. A competing tradition persistently implicated his brother and successor, Domitian, as having had a hand in the emperor's demise, but the evidence is highly contradictory and any wrongdoing is difficult to prove. Domitian himself delivered the funeral eulogy and had Titus deified. He also built several monuments in honor of Titus and completed the Temple of Vespasian and Titus, changing the name of the structure to include his brother's and setting up his cult statue in the Temple itself.

Titus was the beneficiary of considerable intelligence and talent, endowments that were carefully cultivated at every step of his career, from his early education to his role under his father's principate. Cassius Dio suggested that Titus' reputation was enhanced by his early death. It is true that the ancient sources tend to heroicize Titus, yet based upon the evidence, his reign must be considered a positive one. He capably continued the work of his father in establishing the Flavian Dynasty and he maintained a high degree of economic and administrative competence in Italy and beyond. In so doing, he solidified the role of the emperor as paternalistic autocrat, a model that would serve Trajan and his successors well. Titus was used as a model by later emperors, especially those known as the Five Good Emperors (Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius).

Copyright (C) 1997, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Catholic Encyclopedia, http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14746b.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
3 commentsCleisthenes
Antoniniano Aureliano RIC 135.jpg
96-06 - AURELIANO (270 - 275 D.C.)45 viewsAE Antoniniano 21 mm 3.0 gr.

Anv: "AVRELIANVS AVG" - Busto radiado y con coraza, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "ORIENS AVG" - Sol radiado y desnudo, su manto sobre hombro izquierdo, de pié a derecha, levanta su mano derecha portando un globo en izquierda. A sus piés un prisionero sentado con sus manos atadas a la espalda. "S" en exergo.

Acuñada 5ta. Emisión - Período 1ro.- Primavera de 274 D.C.
Ceca: Mediolanum (Off. 2da.) - Milan Italia
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.V Parte I #135 Pag.280 - Cohen Vol.VI #142 Pag.190 - DVM #15 Pag.257 - LV.#1156 - Göbl#67 a2 - La Venera. II.1/4611
mdelvalle
RIC_135_Doble_Antoniniano_Aureliano.jpg
96-06 - AURELIANO (270 - 275 D.C.)8 viewsAE Antoniniano 21 mm 3.0 gr.

Anv: "AVRELIANVS AVG" - Busto radiado y con coraza, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "ORIENS AVG" - Sol radiado y desnudo, su manto sobre hombro izquierdo, de pié a derecha, levanta su mano derecha portando un globo en izquierda. A sus piés un prisionero sentado con sus manos atadas a la espalda. "S" en exergo.

Acuñada 5ta. Emisión - Período 1ro.- Primavera de 274 D.C.
Ceca: Mediolanum (Off. 2da.) - Milan Italia

Referencias: RIC Va #135 (C) P.280, RIC2 Temp #1509, Cohen VI #142 P.190, DVM #15 P.257, Göbl#67 a2, La Venera. 4611/37, BNC #544/5
mdelvalle
Antoniniano_Aureliano_RIC_151.jpg
96-09 - AURELIANO (270 - 275 D.C.)29 viewsAE Antoniniano (Cospel recortado perimetralmente) 18 mm 1.4 gr.

Anv: "IM[P C AVREL]IANVS AVG" - Busto radiado y con coraza, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "ORIE[NS AVG]" – Sol radiado desnudo con su manto sobre el hombro izquierdo, caminando hacia la izquierda, levantando su brazo derecho extendido y sosteniendo un globo en la mano izquierda. A ambos lados dos prisioneros sentados y con sus manos atadas. El sol apoya su pié derecho en las ataduras del prisionero ubicado a su derecha. "QXXT" en exergo.

Acuñada 2da. Emisión Jun/Sept. 274 D.C.
Ceca: Ticinum (Off. 4ta.) - Pavia Italia
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.V Parte I #151 Pag.281 - Cohen Vol.VI #153 Pag.191 - LV.#1273 - Göbl#72 a4 - La Venera. II.1/5065 - DVM # Pag. -
mdelvalle
RIC_151_Doble_Antoniniano_Aureliano.jpg
96-09 - AURELIANO (270 - 275 D.C.)7 viewsAE Antoniniano (Cospel recortado perimetralmente ó acuñado en cospel de denario) 18 mm 1.4 gr.

Anv: "IM[P C AVREL]IANVS AVG" - Busto radiado y con coraza, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "ORIE[NS AVG]" – Sol radiado desnudo con su manto sobre el hombro izquierdo, caminando hacia la izquierda, levantando su brazo derecho extendido y sosteniendo un globo en la mano izquierda. A ambos lados dos prisioneros sentados y con sus manos atadas. El sol apoya su pié derecho en las ataduras del prisionero ubicado a su derecha. "QXXT" en exergo.

Acuñada 2da. Emisión Jun/Sept. 274 D.C.
Ceca: Ticinum (Off. 4ta.) - Pavia Italia

Referencias: RIC Va #151 (C) P.281, RIC2 Temp.#1535, Cohen VI #153 P.191, Göbl#72 a4, La Venera. 5065/5165, DVM #14 var.P.257, BNC #597/9, Hunter #62
mdelvalle
Antoniniano_Aureliano_RIC_279.jpg
96-20 - AURELIANO (270 - 275 D.C.)33 viewsAE Antoniniano 23 x 22 mm 3.3 gr.

Anv: "IMP AVRELIANVS AVG" - Busto radiado y con coraza, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "ORI-ENS AVG]" – Sol radiado desnudo con su manto sobre el hombro izquierdo, caminando hacia la izquierda, levantando su brazo derecho extendido y sosteniendo un globo en la mano izquierda. A ambos lados dos prisioneros sentados y con sus manos atadas. El sol apoya su pié derecho en las ataduras del prisionero ubicado a su derecha. "XXIT" en exergo.

Acuñada 7ma. Emisión Jun/Sept. 274 D.C.
Ceca: Serdica (Off. 3ra.) – Sofia Bulgaria
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.V Parte I #279 Pag.296 - Cohen Vol.VI #145 Pag.190/1 - Göbl#256 k3 - La Venera. II.1/9974 (1 ex) - DVM # Pag. –
mdelvalle
RIC_279_Doble_Antoniniano_Aureliano.jpg
96-20 - AURELIANO (270 - 275 D.C.)6 viewsAE Antoniniano 23 x 22 mm 3.3 gr.

Anv: "IMP AVRELIANVS AVG" - Busto radiado y con coraza, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "ORI-ENS AVG]" – Sol radiado desnudo con su manto sobre el hombro izquierdo, caminando hacia la izquierda, levantando su brazo derecho extendido y sosteniendo un globo en la mano izquierda. A ambos lados dos prisioneros sentados y con sus manos atadas. El sol apoya su pié derecho en las ataduras del prisionero ubicado a su derecha. "XXIT" en exergo.

Acuñada 7ma. Emisión Jun/Sept. 274 D.C.
Ceca: Serdica (Off. 3ra.) – Sofia Bulgaria

Referencias: RIC Vol.V Parte I #279 Pag.296 - Cohen Vol.VI #145 Pag.190/1 - Göbl#256 k3 - La Venera. II.1/9974 (1 ex) - DVM #14 P.257
mdelvalle
Antoniniano Probo RIC 157.jpg
A101-02 - PROBO (276 - 282 D.C.)37 viewsAE Antoniniano 22 x 25 mm 3.5 gr.

Anv: "IMP PROBVS AVG" - Busto radiado y con coraza, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "ADVENTVS AVG" - Emperador montado sobre un caballo, hacia la izquierda, saluda con su mano derecha levantada y portando cetro en brazo izquierdo. A los piés del caballo adelante, un prisionero sentado con sus manos atados a la espalda. "R creciente Δ" en exergo.
El caballo hacia la izquierda y leyenda "Adventus" nos indican que se celebraba la llegada a Roma del emperador. La leyenda "Profectio" con el caballo hacia la derecha, nos indicaría la partida de Roma del personaje.

Acuñada 4ta. Emisión 279 D.C.
Ceca: Roma (Off.4ta.)
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.V Parte II #157F Pag.35 - Cohen Vol.VI #37 Pag.260 - DVM #6 Pag.261
mdelvalle
RIC_157F_Antoniniano_Probo.jpg
A101-02 - PROBO (276 - 282 D.C.)9 viewsAE Antoniniano 22 x 25 mm 3.5 gr.

Anv: "IMP PROBVS AVG" - Busto radiado y con coraza, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "ADVENTVS AVG" - Emperador montado sobre un caballo, hacia la izquierda, saluda con su mano derecha levantada y portando cetro en brazo izquierdo. A los piés del caballo adelante, un prisionero sentado con sus manos atados a la espalda. "R creciente Δ" en exergo.
El caballo hacia la izquierda y leyenda "Adventus" nos indican que se celebraba la llegada a Roma del emperador. La leyenda "Profectio" con el caballo hacia la derecha, nos indicaría la partida de Roma del personaje.

Acuñada 4ta. Emisión 279 D.C.
Ceca: Roma (Off.4ta.)

Referencias: RIC Va III #157F (C) P.35, Sear RCTV III #11953 P.471, Cohen VI #37 P.260, DVM #6 P.261, Hunter #41
mdelvalle
Antoniniano Probo RIC 223.jpg
A101-06 - PROBO (276 - 282 D.C.)37 viewsAE Antoniniano 20 x 21 mm 3.4 gr.

Anv: "PROBVS P F AVG" - Busto radiado y con coraza, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "VICTORIA GERM" - Trofeo constituido por una coraza, dos escudos y varias lanzas, flanqueado por dos prisioneros sentados con sus manos atadas a la espalda. "R Relámpago A" en exergo.
Acuñación recordando la victoria sobre los Germanos en las Galias 278 D.C.

Acuñada 6ta. Emisión 281 D.C.
Ceca: Roma (Off.1ra.)
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.V Parte II #223F Pag.41 - Sear RCTV (1988) #3375 - Cohen Vol.VI #766 Pag.330 - DVM #52/1 Pag.262
mdelvalle
RIC_223F_Antoniniano_Probo.jpg
A101-06 - PROBO (276 - 282 D.C.)9 viewsAE Antoniniano 20 x 21 mm 3.4 gr.

Anv: "PROBVS P F AVG" - Busto radiado y con coraza, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "VICTORIA GERM" - Trofeo constituido por una coraza, dos escudos y varias lanzas, flanqueado por dos prisioneros sentados con sus manos atadas a la espalda. "R Relámpago A" en exergo.
Acuñación recordando la victoria sobre los Germanos en las Galias 278 D.C.

Acuñada 6ta. Emisión 281 D.C.
Ceca: Roma (Off.1ra.)
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.V Parte II #223F Pag.41 - Sear RCTV (1988) #3375 - Cohen Vol.VI #766 Pag.330 - DVM #52/1 Pag.262
mdelvalle
Follis Licinio II RIC Arles 203.jpg
A120-05 - LICINIO II Como Cesar de Licinio I (317 - 324 D.C.)50 viewsAE Centenional 19 x 18 mm 2.2 gr.

Anv: "[LICI]NIV-S IV[N N C]" - Busto radiado, con coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "VIRTVS EXERCITI" - Un estandarte militar Con su tela marcada VOT/XX , dos prisioneros sentados en el suelo a ambos lados. "PARL" en exergo.

Acuñada 320 D.C.
Ceca: Arles (Off.1ra.)
Rareza: R3

Referencias: RIC Vol.VII (Arles) #206 Pag.257 - Cohen Vol.VII #72 Pag.222 - DVM #11 Pag.286 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #8064 Pag.144
mdelvalle
Centenional_Constantino_I_RIC_VII_Ticinum_122.jpg
A121-23 - Constantino I "El Grande" (307 - 337 D.C.)70 viewsAE3 Centenional 19 mm 3.1 gr.

Anv: "CONST-ANTINVS AVG" - Busto con yelmo y cola rizada y con coraza, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "VIRTVS EXERCIT" – Dos prisioneros sentados a lados de un estandarte en el que se inscribe "VOT-XX", el de la izquierda tiene sus manos atadas a la espalda y el de la derecha mira hacia la izquierda. " T°T" en exergo.

Acuñada 319 - 320 D.C.
Ceca: Ticinum (Off.3ra.)
Rareza: R1

Referencias: RIC Vol.VII (Ticinum) #122 Pag.377 - Cohen Vol.VII #693 Pag.311 - DVM # Pag. - Salgado MRBI Vol.III # Pag.
mdelvalle
Centenional Constantino I RIC VII Constantinople 32A.jpg
A121-30 - Constantino I "El Grande" (307 - 337 D.C.)58 viewsAE3 Centenional 19 mm 3.0 gr.

Anv: "CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG" - Cabeza con diadema rosetada, viendo el cielo a derecha.
Rev: "CONSTANTINI-ANA DAFNE" - Victoria sentada a izquierda, portando hoja de palma en ambas manos, apoya su pié derecho sobre un prisionero arrodillado frente a ella. Victoria gira su cabeza a derecha para no verlo. Frente a ella un trofeo y un escudo al lado del cautivo. "CONS'" en exergo y "A" en campo izquierdo.
La serie refiere a la creación, por parte de Constantino, del complejo fortificado de Dafne en el limes danubiano.

Acuñada 328 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla (Off.1ra.)
Rareza: R1

Referencias: RIC Vol.VII (Constantinople) #32 Pag.574 - Cohen Vol.VII #91 Pag.238 - DVM #73 var Pag.291 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #8275.b. Pag.169
mdelvalle
Centenional Constantino I RIC VII Constantinople 38D.jpg
A121-31 - Constantino I "El Grande" (307 - 337 D.C.)57 viewsAE3 Centenional 19 mm 3.3 gr.

Anv: "CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG" - Busto con diadema rosetada, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "CONSTANTINI-ANA DAFNE" - Victoria sentada a izquierda, portando hoja de palma en ambas manos, apoya su pié derecho sobre un prisionero arrodillado frente a ella. Victoria gira su cabeza a derecha para no verlo. Frente a ella un trofeo y un escudo al lado del cautivo. "CONS' " en exergo y "Δ" en campo izquierdo.
La serie refiere a la creación, por parte de Constantino, del complejo fortificado de Dafne en el limes danubiano.

Acuñada 328 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla (Off.3ra.)
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.VII (Constantinople) #35 Pag.574 - Cohen Vol.VII #92 Pag.238 - DVM #73 Pag.291 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #8275.a. Pag.169
mdelvalle
Centenional Valentiniano I RIC IX Siscia 14a, type xi.jpg
A137-02 - Valentiniano I (364 - 375 D.C.)127 viewsAE3 Centenional 17 mm 2 gr.

Anv: "DN VALENTINI-ANVS P F AVG" - Busto con diadema de perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "GLORIA RO-MANORVM" - Emperador vestido militarmente avanzando a derecha, arrastrando por los pelos a un prisionero con el brazo derecho y portando un Labarum (Estandarte), con el signo Chi-Ro en su bandera, en su mano izquierda. " * BSISC" en exergo y "D" en campo derecho.

Acuñada 367 - 375 D.C.
Ceca: Siscia (Off.2da.)
Rareza: C2

Referencias: RIC Vol.IX (Siscia) #14a Pag.147 tipo xi - Cohen Vol.VIII #12 Pag.88 - DVM #42 Pag.308 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #9033.f.1. Pag.269 - Sear RCTV (1988) #4102
mdelvalle
Centenional Valente RIC IX Siscia 14b, type x.jpg
A138-02 - Valente (364 - 378 D.C.)73 viewsAE3 Centenional 17 x 16 mm 2.2 gr.

Anv: "DN VALEN-S P F AVG" - Busto con diadema de perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "GLORIA RO-MANORVM" - Emperador vestido militarmente avanzando a derecha, arrastrando por los pelos a un prisionero con el brazo derecho y portando un Labarum (Estandarte), con el signo Chi-Ro en su bandera, en su mano izquierda. "· BSISC" en exergo y "R" en campo derecho.

Acuñada 367 - 375 D.C.
Ceca: Siscia (Off.2da.)
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.IX (Siscia) #14b Pag.147 tipo xi - Cohen Vol.VIII #11 Pag.103 - DVM #46 Pag.309 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #9076.f.1. Pag.273 - Sear RCTV (1988) #4117
mdelvalle
Centenional Valente RIC IX Thessalonica 16b, type ii.jpg
A138-06 - Valente (364 - 378 D.C.)88 viewsAE3 Centenional 17 x 16 mm 2.5 gr.

Anv: "DN VALEN-S P F AVG" - Busto con diadema de perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "GLORIA RO-MANORVM" - Emperador vestido militarmente avanzando a derecha, arrastrando por los pelos a un prisionero con el brazo derecho y portando un Labarum (Estandarte), con el signo Chi-Ro en su bandera, en su mano izquierda. "TESΓ" en exergo.

Acuñada 364 - 367 D.C.
Ceca: Tessalonica (Off.3ra.)
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.IX (Thessalonica) #16b Pag.176 tipo i - Cohen Vol.VIII #11 Pag.103 - DVM #46 Pag.309 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #9076.h.1. Pag.273 - Sear RCTV (1988) #4117
mdelvalle
Centenional Valente RIC IX Thessalonica 26b, type xx.jpg
A138-07 - Valente (364 - 378 D.C.)67 viewsAE3 Centenional 16 x 15 mm 2.4 gr.

Anv: "DN VALEN-S P F AVG" - Busto con diadema de perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "GLORIA RO-MANORVM" - Emperador vestido militarmente avanzando a derecha, arrastrando por los pelos a un prisionero con el brazo derecho y portando un Labarum (Estandarte), con el signo Chi-Ro en su bandera, en su mano izquierda. "TES" en exergo, "Corona" en campo izquierdo y "B" en campo derecho.

Acuñada 367 - 375 D.C.
Ceca: Tessalonica (Off.2da.)
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.IX (Thessalonica) #26b Pag.178 tipo xx - Cohen Vol.VIII #11 Pag.103 - DVM #46 Pag.309 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #9076.h.2. Pag.274 - Sear RCTV (1988) #4117
mdelvalle
Centenional Graciano RIC IX Thessalonica 26c, type xv.jpg
A140-20 - Graciano (367 - 383 D.C.)56 viewsAE3 Centenional 18 x 17 mm 1.7 gr.
Hijo mayor y Co-Augusto de Valentiniano I

Anv: "DN GRATIANVS P F AVG" - Busto con diadema de perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "GLORIA RO-MANORVM" - Emperador vestido militarmente avanzando a derecha, arrastrando por los pelos a un prisionero con el brazo derecho y portando un Labarum (Estandarte), con el signo Chi-Ro en su bandera, en su mano izquierda. "TES" en exergo y " * / B " en campo derecho.

Acuñada 367 - 375 D.C.
Ceca: Tessalonica (Off.2da.)
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.IX (Thessalonica) #26c Pag.178 tipo xv - Cohen Vol.VIII #23 Pag.129 - DVM #43 Pag.310 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #9124.g. Pag.278 - Sear RCTV (1988) #4142
mdelvalle
Maiorina Arcadio RIC IX Heraclea 12 A.jpg
A147-15 - Arcadio (383 - 408 D.C.)54 viewsAE2 Maiorina 23 x 22 mm 5.1 gr.
Hijo mayor de Teodosio I y Aelia Flaccila, Co-augusto de su padre y su sucesor al mando de las provincias orientales.

Anv: "DN ARCADI - VS PF AVG " - Busto con diadema de perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, portando lanza y escudo, viendo a derecha. Sobre su cabeza una mano sostiene una corona de laureles.
Rev: "GLORIA RO - MANORVM" - Emperador vestido militarmente de pié de frente, viendo a izquierda, portando labarum (estandarte militar con signo Chi-Ro en su bandera) en mano derecha y descansando la izquierda en su escudo. A su izquierda un prisionero sentado a izquierda viendo a derecha. "SMHA" en exergo.

Acuñada 383 - 387 D.C.
Ceca: Heraclea (Off.1ra.)
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.X (Heraclea) #12 Pag.195 - DVM #24 Pag.325 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #9313.c. Pag.295 - Sabatier #29
mdelvalle
kymeNero.jpg
aa Aeolis, Kyme. AE19. Magistrate Sekoynda50 viewsO: Hd Amazon Kyme r.
R: Horse stepping r., KY above, EPI PR SEKOYNDAS around.
SNG Cop 116. RPC 1.2432

FORVM post from Curtis Clay:
The CEKOYNDAC issue "was attributed by BMC to the reign of Nero, because of the similarity of the reverse type with 2435 [a coin of Nero at Cyme with rev. unbridled trotting horse]. There are, however, differences of style, detail (bridled versus unbridled horse), technique (the die axis), metal (brass rather than bronze) and ethnic (only the abbreviated KY), which suggest that the issue cannot be exactly contemporaneous. Similar types were used on Hellenistic bronzes, so it does not seem clear when this issue was made, perhaps in either first century BC or the early first century AD."
ancientone
nerocorinth2.jpg
Achaea. Corinthia, Corinth. Nero Æ20. Claudius Anaxilaus and P. Ventidius Fronto151 viewsCorinthia, Corinth. Nero. 54-68 AD. Æ 20mm . Ti. Claudius Anaxilaus and P. Ventidius Fronto, Duovirs. Struck 67-68 AD. Laureate head of Nero left / Nero stands facing within tetrastyle temple. BCD Corinth 480. SNG Copenhagen 235-236. RPC I 1208.

Duoviri, "the two men" was the official style of two joint magistrates. Such pairs of magistrates were appointed at various periods of Roman history both in Rome itself and in the colonies and municipia.
2 commentsancientone
claudius_ae_as_minerva_spain.JPG
AE AS OF CLAUDIUS RV/MINERVA 52 viewsWEIGHT: 11.6GR, DIAMETER: 27MM
Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (1 August 10 BC – 13 October AD 54), born Tiberius Claudius Drusus, then Tiberius Claudius Nero Germanicus until his accession, was Roman Emperor from 41 to 54 AD.

1 commentsAntonivs Protti
NeroCyme.jpg
Aeolis, Cyme. Nero AE1920 viewsObv: NEΡΩNA CEBACTON, laureate head right.
Rev: KYMAIΩN KAICAΡEΩN, unbridled horse trotting right.
SNGCop 141, BMC 126.
ancientone
agrippina_II.jpg
Aezanis, Phrygia, AE 17.9; Head of Persephone r.18 viewsAgrippina II. Augusta 50-59 A.D. Daughter of Agrippina Sr. and Germanicus, sister of Caligula, wife of Claudius and mother of Nero, was born in 16 A.D. Aezanis, Phrygia, Bronze 2.50g. 17.9mm Obv: AGRIPPINAN SEBASTHN, Head of Agrippina II. r. Rev: AIZANITWN, Head of Persephone r. RPC 3102. Ex Gerhard RohdePodiceps
P1010250.JPG
Agrippa II PANIAS mint69 viewsAgrippa II, 56-95 AD, bronze of 17 mm.
Bust of Nero to right
Wreath with Greek legend naming BOTH Agrippa II and Nero within. ΠΙΕ\ΒΑΣΙΛΕ\ΑΓΡΙΠΠ\ΝΕΡΩ\ΝΙΕ

Hendin 582. This is the middle of three denominations of this early type of Agrippa II as king.
ΠΙΕ\ΒΑΣΙΛΕ\ΑΓΡΙΠΠ\ΝΕΡΩ\ΝΙΕ
Maritima
0035-510np_noir.jpg
Agrippa, As - *323 viewsPosthumous issue of Caligula, in honour of his grandfather (died 12 BC)
Rome mint, ca AD 37/41
M AGRIPPA L F COS III, head of Agrippa left with rostral crown
Neptun standing left, holding trident and dolphin. Large S C in fields
10.9 gr
Ref : RCV #1812, Cohen #3
Ex Alwin collection

The following commentary is a (quick) translation from CGB about a similar coin :

"Although Augustus associated his close friend Agrippa in his coinage, he didn't for him alone. Gaius honoured the memory of his grandfather, recalling he had been COS III in 27 BC while Augustus was COS VII at the same time.
Gaius, however, as the new emperor would like us to remember his double filiation : Through his father, Germanicus, he's descended from Nero Drusus and Antonia, thus from Tiberius ; through his mother Agrippina the elder, he tells us Agrippa and Julia are his grand parents and he's a grand grand son of Augustus. Agrippa remained prestigious all along the first century CE, although he had died 12 BC. Titus then Domitian will also strike this type, seemingly very succesfull towards population (see RCV 2589 and 2894)"
6 commentsPotator II
Agrippa.jpg
Agrippa, Military commander, friend of Augustus, grandfather of Caligula, great-grandfather of Nero155 viewsCopper as, RIC Caligula 58, S 556, gF, 11.830g, 28.7mm, 180o, Rome mint, struck under Caligula 38 A.D.;
obverse - M AGRIPPA L F COS III, bare head right;
reverse - S C, Neptune holding a dolphin and trident;
b70
CLAUDIUS-2~0.jpg
Agrippina the Younger, sister of Caligula, wife of Claudius, mother of Nero. Augusta, 50-59 CE.266 viewsBosporos, under King Kotys I with Claudius & Agrippina Jr. 50-54 AD.
Æ 12 nummia or Assarion (25 mm, 9.30 gm).
Obv: TI KLAUDIOU KAICAROC, Laureate head of Claudius right, IB below.
Rev: IOULIAN AGRIPPINAN CEBACTHN, Head of Agrippina Junior left, hair weaved and tied at back of head to make a loop ponytail; BAK (monogram of Kotys I) before.
SGI 5438; RPC 1925; BMC 13.52,7; Anokhin Bosporus 348; Vagi 670; SNG Vol IX, 971; SNG Copenhagen 31; W.Wroth p. XI, 14.
EmpressCollector
nero_tet.jpg
Alexandria - Nero Billon Tetracrachm108 viewsNero (Augustus)
Africa, Alexandria
Billon Tetracrachm 12.31g / 23.3mm / -
Ob: ΝΕΡΩ ΚΛΑΥ ΚΑΙΣ ΣΕΒ ΓΕΡ - radiate bust right wearing aegis
Rv: ΑΥΤΟΚΡΑ - eagle standing left holding palm under wing, L IA (year 11) left
Mint: 29 Aug 64 - 28 Aug 65 A.D
Refs: Dattari 270; Milne 228; Curtis 83; BMC Alexandria p. 20, 165; Geissen 163
Scotvs Capitis
Alexandria_AE_diobol_of_Nero,_66-67_AD.JPG
Alexandria AE diobol of Nero, 66-67 AD27 viewsNero
Egypt, Alexandria
AE diobol – 66-67 AD
laureate head r.
NEPΩ KΛAV KAIΣ ΣEB ΓER
eagle r.
AYTOKPA, LIΓ
Emmett 148(13)

Ex Harlan Berk
Ardatirion
Alexandria_BI_tetradrachm_of_Nero,_65-66_AD.jpg
Alexandria BI tetradrachm of Nero, 65-66 AD26 viewsNero
Egypt, Alexandria
BI tetradrachm – 24mm
65-66 AD
radiate bust r.
NEPΩ KΛAV KAIΣ ΣEB ΓER
Alexandria bust r., LIB
Emmett 110(12)
Ardatirion
Nero.jpg
Alexandria Nero and Tiberius.1 viewsAlexandria Nero and Tiberius.Ancient Aussie
chalk.jpg
Alexandria, Egypt. Nero. 54-68 AD. Æ Dichalkon 19 viewsObv: Anepigraphic; laureate head right.
Rev: Large I within wreath.
12mm. and 1.1gm.
RPC I 5262.

ancientone
850D65C3-F08A-425E-A3C2-34CFB7A004B4.jpeg
Alfonso I of Aragon, 1104-1134 AD.2 viewsBillon dinero of Toledo. Obverse: Head left encircled by text. Reverse: Cross pattee with pierced stars in first and fourth quarters, encircled by text.Celticaire
Copy_(1)_of_ag2c~0.jpg
AN countermark in rectangle punch.75 viewsCopper as, RIC Caligula 58, BMC II 161, SRCV I 556, Rome mint, 10.2 g, 27.6 mm diam.
Obverse - M AGRIPPA L F COS II. Head left wearing a rostral crown.
Reverse - S - C . Neptune standing left, dolphin in right, trident vertical behind in left. A N in rectangle Counter mark above left.
Military commander, Friend of Augustus, Grandfather of Caligula, Great-grandfather of Nero.
NORMAN K
42823_ancyra_rule_of_nero.jpg
Ancyra; Bust of Senate r./ stele7 viewsAnkyra, Phrygia, Reign of Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D. Bronze AE 17, RPC I 3113, Ancyra mint, 3.231g, 16.6mm, 0o, 62 - 63 A.D.; obverse “ΘΕΟΝ ΣΥΝΚΛΗΤΟΝ”, draped bust of Senate right; reverse [“ΠΟ ΟΥΟΛΑΣΕΝΝΑ ΑΝΚΥΡΑΝΩΝ ΑΙΤΗΣΑΜΕ ΒΑΣΣΙΛΑ”], stele; rare. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
Antioch_Civic_Issue_Under_Nero~0.JPG
Antioch Civic Issue Under Nero25 viewsAntioch, Roman Syria under Nero, 59 - 60 A.D.
Bronze AE 19, McAlee 106(b), RPC I 4292, SNG Cop 102, VF, Antioch, 6.389g, 20.1mm, die axis 45o,
OBV: ANTIOXEΩN, turreted and veiled bust of Tyche right;
REV: burning, garlanded altar, on ground line, no dot below altar, ET HP (year 108) in ex;

EX: Forvm Ancient Coins
Romanorvm
nero_antioch~0.jpg
Antioch eagle, tetradrachm19 viewsNero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D., Antioch, Syria. Silver tetradrachm, Prieur 79 ff., F, Antioch mint, 14.238g, 25.9mm, 0o, c. 59 - 63 A.D.; obverse NERWNOS KAISAROS SEBASTOU, laureate beardless bust right wearing aegis; reverse , eagle standing on a thunderbolt, wings spread, palm frond left, date off-flan right. ex FORVMPodiceps
nero_antioch.jpg
Antioch eagle, tetradrachm, year 824 viewsNero Silver tetradrachm, Prieur 82, RPC I 4182, gF, Antioch mint, 14.079g, 25.4mm, 0o, 61 - 62 A.D.; obverse NERWNOS KAISAROS SEBASTOU; laureate beardless bust right wearing aegis; reverse eagle standing on a thunderbolt, wings spread, palm frond left, H / IP right (= regnal year 8 & year 110 of the Caesarian era); ex FORVMkaitsuburi
Antioch~0.JPG
Antioch, Syria, Civic Coinage under Nero, 59 - 60 A.D.21 viewsAntioch, Syria, Civic Coinage under Nero, 59 - 60 A.D. Ae 16.5~17.2mm. 4.60g. Antioch mint, Pseudo-autonomous issue. Obv: Diademed head of Apollo right. Rev: ANTIOXE ET HΡ (Antioch year 108 Caesarian Era), lyre. RPC I 4293, McAlee 107b.1 commentsddwau
V3254LG_Syria,_Antioch__AE_19mm_(5_16g),_Time_of_Nero,_dated_AD_66-67___Voting_scene.jpg
Antioch. AE 19mm, Zeus/ voting scene9 viewsSyria, Antioch. AE 19mm (5.16g), Time of Nero, dated AD 66-67 / Voting scene. ANTIOXEΩN; Laureate head of Zeus r./ ETO EIP; The Boule of Antioch seated l., placing pebble in voting urn. RPC 4305; McAlee 112a; Ex Gert Boersema, photo credit Gert BoersemaPodiceps
animal1.jpg
ANTIOCHA AD ORONTEM - SYRIA52 views"Star of Bethlehem" bronze of Antioch
Anonymous Issue under Nero, AE Small Denomination, 56/57 (Caesarean Year 105), Syria: Seleucis and Pieria-Antiochia ad Orontem ANTIOXEWN - Veiled, turreted head of Tyche right, countermark of star (of Bethlehem?) in left field - EPIKOUADRATOU Ram leaping right, looking back, star and crescent above
ET EP in exergue 16mm. Butcher Antioch 121; SNG Copenhagen 101
Michael Molnar, an astronomer, believes this coin depicts Jupiter's occultation of Aries in 6 B.C., the most probable "Star of Bethlehem."
dpaul7
antiochia_lyre.jpg
Antiochia ad Orontem, AE16, Artemis/ Lyre27 viewsAntiochia ad Orontem, Syria. Quasi-autonomous AE16, 59/60 A.D. (time of Nero), 15mm, 2.99g. Obv: diademed bust of Artemis right. Rev: ANTIOXE ET HP, Lyre. BMC 88, SNG Righetti 1899. Very fine, off center strike. Ex Rutten & WielandPodiceps
coins.jpg
ANTIQUITIES, Roman, Coin dies found in France203 viewsFrom: Bibliothèque Nationale - Catalogue des monnaies de l'Empire Romain - II De Tibère à Néron, 1988 ed.
Plate A
Roma_Orbis
Antonia~0.jpg
Antonia Augusta 66 viewsANTONIA AVGVSTA

Rev. TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP SC
Cladius veiled and togate stg left holding simpulum

Sear 1902

Antonia was the younger daughter of Mark Antony and Octavia and was born on January 31st 36B.C. She was married at age 20 to Tiberius' younger brother Nero Claudius Drusus and had two sons, the great Germanicus and the future emperor Claudius. She was widowed in 9 BC and refused to marry again and devoted her life to her families interests. Her wealth and status made her very influencial during Tiberius' reign and it was she who brought about the downfall of Sejanus.

On the accession of her grandson Caligula in 37 AD she received many honours but died later that year at the age of 73. She did not receive postumous honours until the reign of her son Claudius in 41 AD and all of the coinage in Antonia's name was issued by Claudius.

SOLD
Titus Pullo
Antonia~1.jpg
Antonia Augusta71 viewsANTONIA AVGVSTA
Head of Antonia right

TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP SC
Claudius veiled and togate standing left holding simpulum

11.47g

Sear 1902

Antonia was the younger daughter of Mark Antony and Octavia and was born on January 31st 36B.C. She was married at age 20 to Tiberius' younger brother Nero Claudius Drusus and had two sons, the great Germanicus and the future emperor Claudius. She was widowed in 9 BC and refused to marry again and devoted her life to her families interests. Her wealth and status made her very influencial during Tiberius' reign and it was she who brought about the downfall of Sejanus.

On the accession of her grandson Caligula in 37 AD she received many honours but died later that year at the age of 73. She did not receive postumous honours until the reign of her son Claudius in 41 AD and all of the coinage in Antonia's name was issued by Claudius.
Jay GT4
ANTONIA-1.jpg
Antonia, daughter of Marc Antony and Octavia, wife of Nero Claudius Drusus, mother of Claudius. Augusta, 37 and 41 AD.217 viewsÆ Dupondius under son, Claudius.
Obv: ANTONIA AVGVSTA, draped bust, right.
Rev: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, S-C across field, Claudius, togate, standing left, holding simpulum.
RIC 92 [Claudius]; Cohen 6; BMC 166; Sear 1902.
EmpressCollector
PIUS_BI__TETRA.png
ANTONINUS PIUS / SERAPIS , Alexandria BILLION TETRADRACHM39 viewsMINTED IN ALEXANDRIA , EGYPT FROM 138 - 161 AD
OBVERSE : ANTwNINO C CEBEUC CEB Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right.
REVERSE : Draped bust of Serapis right,modius on head. L K
References : SNG Cop 426 ( No, L K ?)

22.2 MM AND 13.15 GRAMS.

Alexandria ( of Egypt ) issued billon tetradrachms in large numbers between the reign of Augustus and the closing of the Alexandrian mint during the reign of Diocletian. These coins were no doubt mainly intended to pay the salaries of government officials, of the permanent garrison, and of the temporary troops stationed in Alexandria for purposes of war. They were probably also the form in which taxes in money were received, and were used for trade among the people within the city of Alexandria and other Graeco-Roman cities in Egypt. They also served the purpose of providing a subsidiary coinage with Greek legends which formed the vehicle for Roman imperial propaganda throughout Egypt. On the reverse of these coins were placed the Egyptian Hellenized deities, as an indication of the goodwill of the Roman emperors towards Egypt.
The greater part of the agricultural population of Egypt had scarcely any need for coins except to pay their taxes. The real currency and measure of value in the agricultural settlements was grain, wine or oil. The chief export of Egypt was grain, and this did not bring much money to the cultivators, for most of the grain was collected as tribute, not in trade, and they got nothing in return. Consequently, there is reason to suppose that considerably fewer coins circulated in Egypt generally than the region of Alexandria.
From the reign of Nero onwards, Egypt enjoyed an era of prosperity which lasted a century. Much trouble was caused by religious conflicts between the Greeks and the Jews, particularly in Alexandria, which after the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 AD become the world centre of Jewish religion and culture. Under Trajan a Jewish revolt occurred, resulting in the suppression of the Jews of Alexandria and the loss of all their privileges, although they soon returned. Hadrian, who twice visited Egypt, founded Antinoöpolis in memory of his drowned lover Antinous. From his reign onwards buildings in the Greco-Roman style were erected throughout the country. Under Marcus Aurelius, however, oppressive taxation led to a revolt (139 AD) of the native Egyptians, which was suppressed only after several years of fighting.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection.
2 commentsSam
antose63~0.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 623, Sestertius of AD 141-144 (Temple of Venus and Roma)45 viewsÆ sestertius (25.11, 6h) Rome mint. Struck AD 141-144.
ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right
ROMAE AETERNAE (around) S C (in field below) ornamented dekastyle temple with the statue of Roma inside; tympanum adorned with high relief statues; quadriga (suggested) at top and statues at each side.
RIC 623 (scarce); Cohen 703 (12 Fr.); BMCRE 1279; Strack 849; Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali III) 336 (4 spec.); Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 125:24a
ex CNG EAuction 52 (2002)

The temple of Roma was designed by Hadrian (himself) in AD 121 and completed by Antoninus Pius in 141. It stood facing the forum, and was built back to back with the temple of Venus, which faced the Flavian Amphitheater. The two temples in one building were referred to as the Temple of Venus and Roma ("Templum Veneris et Romae"). Hadrian had to have the colossal statue of Nero removed in order to make room for the temples, which were built on the site of the vestibule of Nero's golden house. (He had Nero's statue placed near the entrance to the Ampitheater, and this provided the nickname, "Colloseum".) Their ruins prove both temples consisted of ten colums, and the coins suggest many decorative details.
Charles S
AntoSe63-2.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 623, Sestertius of AD 141-144 (Temple of Venus and Roma)35 viewsÆ sestertius (25.11g, 31.5mm 6h) Rome mint. Struck AD 141-144.
ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right
ROMAE AETERNAE (around) S C (ex.) ornamented dekastyle temple with the statue of Roma inside; tympanum adorned with high relief statues; quadriga (suggested) at top and statues at each side.
RIC 623 (scarce); Cohen 703 (12 Fr.); BMCRE 1279; Strack 849; Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali II-3) 336 (4 spec.); Sear(Roman Coins and their Values II) 4212 var. (rev. no figure of Roma); Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 125:24a
ex CNG EAuction 52 (2002)

The temple of Roma was designed by Hadrian (himself) in AD 121 and completed by Antoninus Pius in 141. It stood facing the forum, and was built back to back with the temple of Venus, which faced the Flavian Amphitheater. The building with the two temples was referred to as the Temple of Venus and Roma ("Templum Veneris et Romae"). Hadrian had to have the colossal statue of Nero (Colossus) removed in order to make room for the temples, which were built on the site of the vestibule of Nero's golden house. (He had the Colossus placed near the entrance to the amphitheater, and this provided the nickname, "Colosseum".) The ruins show that both temples consisted of ten colums, and the coins suggest many decorative details.
1 commentsCharles S
AntoAs22-2.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 862a, As of AD 148-149 (elephant) 20 viewsÆ As (12.16g, 27mm, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 148-149.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XII, laureate head right.
Rev.: MVNIFICENTIA AVG around, COS IIII / [S C] in two lines in ex., Elephant walking right.
RIC 862a (C); Cohen 565
Ex Old Roman Coins , 2001; ex Bullowa, 8/49.

MVNIFICENTIA AVG = "The generosity of the Emperor"; struck when games and donative were held in conjunction with the celebration of the 900th anniversary of the founding of Rome on April 21st, AD.147.
1 commentsCharles S
Antonius_Felix_Prutah.jpg
Antonius Felix8 viewsOBV: NEPW KLAV KAICAP (Nero Claudius Caesar),
two oblong shields and two spears crossed
REV: BPIT (Brittanicus), six-branched palm bearing
two bunches of dates, L ID KAI (year 14 of Caesar)
AJC II, Supp. V,29. Hendin-652
A.D. 54 18mm 3.01g
goldenancients
J12O-Felix H-652.jpg
Antonius Felix, procurator under Claudius, Æ Prutah, 52-59 CE48 viewsBronze Prutah of Antonius Felix procurator under Claudius, 52-59 CE, 2.7g, 18 mm. Struck 54 C.E.

Obverse: Two oblong shields and two spears crossed, surrounded by legend NEPW KLAY KAICAP (Nero Claudius Caesar - son of Claudius)
Reverse: Six-branched palm tree bearing two bunches of dates, BPIT above (="Britanicus" - second son of Claudius), K-AI (= "Caesar") and date below L-ΙΔ (= Year 14 of Caesar = 54 CE.)

Reference: Hendin 652, SearGIC 5626, TJC 340, AJC II, Supp. V, p. 283, #29, Madden R136, RPC 4971.

Added to collection: April 21, 2006
Daniel Friedman
12_Caesar_portraits.jpg
Antony & The 12 Caesars256 viewsA variation on my other virtual coin trays. This one includes a lifetime portrait of Julius Caesar. It's difficult choosing which coin to include in this set, in some cases I only had one (Galba, Otho) but others I had many more to choose from. I do have better portraits of some but I thought these had more interesting reverse types or portrait styles:

Marcus Antonius denarius
Julius Caesar denarius
Augustus denarius
Tiberius denarius
Caligula AE As
Claudius AE As
Nero Dupondius
Galba AE As
Otho Tetradrachm
Vitellius denarius
Vespasian denarius
Titus denarius
Domitian denarius

Image is clickable for larger size.
To see the coins individually see them in my gallery.
9 commentsJay GT4
baaltars.jpg
AR Stater of Tarsos, Cilicia in the name of the Satrap Mazaios 361-334BC20 viewsOBVERSE: Baal of Tarsos enthroned left, holding eagle, corn-ear with bunch of grapes in right hand and lotus-headed scepter in left; Aramaic legend to right Baal Tarz.
REVERSE: Lion on the back of a kneeling bull which it attacks with teeth and claws., above is Aramaic legend Mazdai all within circles of dots.
Sear 5650 B.M.C. 21.171,21

Mazaios was the Satrap of Cilicia under the Persian monarchs. He made the wise decision of allying himself with Alexander when he showed up on the frontier of his territory. Alexander could be very generous to local rulers when they saw things his way and Mazaios was given a position in the new order. The coin is particularly interesting because the mage of Baal is clearly the prototype for 'Zeus Aetophoros' on the subsequent Alexandrine coinage.
Most test cuts are probably done by striking with a sharp chisel. The very deep and shaped cut here must have been done with some kind of highly levered tool like a modern bolt cutter.
Weight 10.8 grams
daverino
aragon_jaime_i.jpg
ARAGON - Jaime I192 viewsARAGON - Jaime I (1213-1276) Billon Dinero. Obv: Crude bust facing left, ARAGON. Rev.: Patriarchal cross, IACOBV REX. Reference: Cayon #1788.dpaul7
Aragón_ME-1845.jpg
Aragón: Jaime II el Justo (1291-1327) BI Dinero, Barcelona (ME-1845; Crusafont 180-3)11 viewsObv: +:IACOBVS: REX:; Crowned bust left
Rev: B´AQINONA; Cross pattée; three pellets and annulet in alternating quarters
Quant.Geek
07621q00.jpg
ARCH, NERO, (Lost Arch of Nero)1341 viewsOrichalcum sestertius, RIC 149, VF, 24.55g, 35.1mm, 45o, Rome mint, 64 A.D.; obverse NERO CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P, laureate head right wearing aegis; reverse S C, triumphal arch surmounted by statue of Nero in quadriga, Victory on left holds wreath & palm, Pax on right holds caduceus & cornucopia, wreath in archway, Mars nude helmeted statue in niche4 comments
3230b.jpg
Artukids of Mardin, Husam al-Din Yuluq Arslan bin Il-Ghazi, AE-Dirhem, 580-597 AH / 1184-1201 AD92 viewsHusam al-Din Yuluq Arslan bin Il-Ghazi "Hüsameddin Yoluk Arslan bin İlgazi" 580-597 AH, AE-Dirhem / AE 31, 13,01 g., 580-597 AH / 1184-1201 AD
Obv.: ﺮﻜﺑ ﺭﺎﻳﺩ ﻚﻠﻣ ﻦﻳﺪﻟ ﻡﺎﺴﺣ "Hüsameddin Melik-i Diyarbekir" , Large Roman-style head left, small Byzantine bust facing.
Rev.: ﻦﻳﺪﻟ ﺡﻼﺻ ﺮﺻﺎﻨﻟﺍ ﻚﻠﻤﻟﺍ ﺏﻮﻳﺍ ﻦﺑ ﻒﺳﻮﻳ ﻦﻴﻨﻣﺆﻤﻟﺍﺮﻴﻣﺍ ﻪﻟﻭﺩﻰﺤﻣ , "El Melik el-Nasır Salaheddin Muhiyyüd' Devle emir'ül müminin Yusuf bin Eyub"
Spengler/Sayles 34 ; UE-1457 .

On December 19, 1189 AD the Artuqid region witnessed an occulation of jupiter as it passed behind the sun. So some think the large Roman-style head left allegorises the Sun and the small Byzantine bust facing allegorises Jupiter.
Maybe these are simple allusions to still well known coin types of Claudius/Nero and Heraclius to ease the money exchange with the Byzantine empire.

my ancient coin database
2 commentsArminius
NeroVictory.jpg
As Nero511 viewscopper As
NERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP
SC
Victory alighting left wings spread holding shield inscribed SPQR

Rome mint 65 AD

11.16g

Sear 1976 shows head facing right, this example is head facing left.
RIC 1 352
VF
ex-ANE
11 commentsTitus Pullo
Nero_As_Janus.JPG
As, Temple of Janus with closed doors5 viewsNero As, struck 66-68 AD in Rome. 27mm, 10.4g. Obverse: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG GERM; laureate head right. Reverse: PACE P R VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT / S - C; view of one front of the temple of Janus, with latticed window to l. and garland hung across closed double doors to r. Attribution: RIC² 347 (C); BMC 230; WCN 294, Romanatic-ID: 1314. ex areich, photo credit areichPodiceps
Gallienus_06.jpg
Asia Minor, Kilikia, Eirenopolis-Neronias, Gallienus13 viewsGallienus
Kilikia, Eirenopolis-Neronias
AE28, AD 258-59
Obv.: ΠOΥ ΛIK ΓAΛΛIHNOC, Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
Rev.: IΡHNOΠOΛE ZS, Cybele seated right, resting arm on tympanum, lion seated to either side
AE, 15.03g, 28mm
Ref.: SNG Von Aulock 5600, Karbach 147, SNG Levante 1629
shanxi
G_340_Hierocaesarea_fac.jpg
Asia Minor, Lydia, Hierocaesarea, Artemis, forepart of stag, without monogram4 viewsLydia, Hierokaisareia
Anonymous issue
Time of Nero (54-68), Kapito, high priest.
Obv.: IЄPOKAICAPЄωN, draped bust of Artemis right, bow and quiver over shoulder
Rev.: ЄΠΙ ΚΑΠΙΤωΝOC ΑΡXΙΕΡЄωC, forepart of stag right
AE, 3.86g, 17 mm
Ref.: RPC I 2390
shanxi
Nero_06.jpg
Asia Minor, Lydia, Hierocaesarea, Nero, Artemis right, stag 19 viewsLydia. Hierocaesaraea
Nero
Bronze, AE 18
Obv.: NEPWωN KΛAYΔIOC KAICAP CEBACTOC, draped bust right
Rev: IЄPOKAICAPЄωN ЄΠI KAΠITωNOC, Artemis standing right, holding bow, stag standing right.
Æ, 18mm, 4.66g
Ref.: RPC Suppl. 2384 A
shanxi
R661_Nero_Hierocaesareia_fac.jpg
Asia Minor, Lydia, Hierocaesarea, Nero, Artemis, stag7 viewsLydia. Hierocaesaraea
Nero, AD 54-68
Kapitonos, magistrate
Bronze, AE 17
Obv.: NEPWωN KΛAYΔIOC KAICAP CEBACTOC, bare-headed and draped bust right
Rev: IЄPOKAICAPЄωN ЄΠI KAΠITωNOC, Artemis Persica standing facing, drawing arrow from quiver on shoulder; stag to left.
Æ, 17mm, 5.90g
Ref.: RPC I 2385
shanxi
Hierocaesaraea_06.jpg
Asia Minor, Lydia, Hierocaesarea, Senate, stag18 viewsHierocaesarea, Lydia
Anonymus Issue
AD 56-138, Time of Nero-Hadrian
Obv.: CYNKΛHTOC, draped bust of the Senate right
Rev.: IЄPOKAICAPЄΩN, stag standing right
AE, 4.32g, 17.4mm
Ref.: BMC 13-4, Imhoof-Blumer LS 35
shanxi
G_299_Hierocaesarea_fac.jpg
Asia Minor, Lydia, Hierocaesarea, Senate, stag11 viewsHierocaesarea, Lydia
Anonymus Issue
AD 54-138, Time of Nero-Hadrian
Obv.: IЄPA CYNKΛHTOC, draped bust of the Senate right
Rev.: IЄPOKAICAPЄΩN, stag standing right
AE, 3.91g, 18mm
Ref.: Imhoof-Blumer LS 34
shanxi
G_309_Sardes_fac.jpg
Asia Minor, Lydia, Sardeis, Senate, Zeus9 viewsLydia, Sardeis
Pseudo-autonomous issue
Time of Nero
AE 18
Ti. Kl. Mnaseas, strategos.
Obv.: ΘЄON CVNKΛHTON, Draped youthful bust of the Senate right.
Rev.: ЄΠΙ ΤΙ ΜΝΑCЄΟΥ CΑΡΔΙΑΝΩΝ, Zeus standing left, holding eagle and sceptre.
AE, 4.39g, 17x18.5mm
Ref.: RPC I 3136
Ex Tom Vossen, Netherlands
shanxi
Nero_05.jpg
Asia Minor, Lydia, Thyateira, Nero, Double axe6 viewsNero
Lydia, Thyateira
AE 17
Obv.: NEPΩN KΛAVΔIOC KAICAP CEBA, Draped bust right.
Rev.: ΘYATEIPHNΩN, Double axe.
AE, 3.38g, 17mm
Ref.: RPC 2382
Ex Gitbud&Naumann
shanxi
148.jpg
Asklepios, hld. serpent-staff212 viewsPHRYGIA. Acmoneia. Nero. Æ 20. Circa A.D. 65. Obv: (NEPWNACE)BACTOИ-AKMONE(IC). Laureate head right, aegis on chest; above crescent; beneath winged caduceus (not visible); Countermark before. Rev: (CEP)OYHNIOYKAΠITWNO(CKAIIOYΛIACCEOYHPAC), EΠI APX TO Г in field to right. Zeus enthroned left, in right extended hand holding phiale over owl, resting left arm on sceptre. Ref: BMC 43; SNG Cop 29; RPC 3176. Axis: 330°. Weight: 4.27 g. Magistrate: L. Servinius Capito (archon). Third issue. CM: Asklepios standing, holding serpent-encircled staff, in rectangular punch, 4.5 x 9 mm. Howgego 241 (12 pcs). Note: There was a local cult of Asklepios. Collection Automan.1 commentsAutoman
w0032.jpg
Athena (helmeted head of)167 viewsIonia, Erythrai, Trajanus, 98-117. AE-26 mm, 9.33 grs. AV: AU NERO[...] TRAIANON, Lor. bust of Trajan to right, dotted border. RV: ERUQ - AIWN - EPICTRA[..], in field: PRE[...] Goddess standing to right. Round CM: head of Athena with a greek helmet. Collection: Mueller.Automan
192.jpg
Athena (standing)181 viewsSYRIA: SELEUCIS & PIERIA. Antiochia ad Orontem. Nero. Æ 20 (Medium denomination, as?). A.D. 66-68. Obv: (IMNERCLAVCAESAR) or similar. Laureate head right; countermark on neck. Rev: SC within circle within laurel-wreath of eight leaves. Ref: RPC 4297, 4308, 4310 or 4312. Axis: 360°. Weight: 7.13 g. CM: Athena standing right, holding spear and shield, in rectangular punch, 3.5 x 5.5 mm. Howgego 245 (139 pcs). Note: May be an imperial countermark due to Domitian's association with Athena/Minerva, likely applied between A.D. 83-96 in Antioch. Collection Automan.Automan
41286_Livia,_Wife_of_Augustus_and_Mother_of_Tiberius,_Augusta,_Cilicia,_Time_of_Nero.jpg
Augusta, Cilicia, Time of Nero. AE 18, Tyche seated on throne, holding grain, river god Saros4 viewsLivia, Wife of Augustus and Mother of Tiberius, Augusta, Cilicia, Time of Nero. Bronze AE 18, RPC I 4013, SNG Levante 1238, SNG Cop -, aF, porous, Augusta mint, 6.084g, 18.2mm, 0o, 67 - 68 A.D.; obverse “ΣΕΒΑΣΤΗ ΛΙΟΥΙΑ”, draped bust right; reverse “ΑΥΓΟΥΣΤΑΝΩΝ”, Tyche seated on throne, holding grain, river god Saros at feet; rare. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
VICAVG.jpg
Augustus51 viewsVIC - AVG
Victory standing left on base holding wreath and palm

COHOR PRAE PHIL
three standards

Philippi, Macedonia mint

27 B.C. - 14 A.D. or later

2.81g 17mm

SGIC 32, RPC 1651

Typically attributed to Octavian to commemorate the defeat of Cassius and Brutus at the battle of Philippi. It is also suggested it may be from the time of Claudius or Nero


Jay GT4
nsobORrpci4287.jpg
Autonomous (Reign of Nero), RPC I 4287 (or similar)80 viewsAntioch mint, Reign of Nero, 54-68 A.D. AE, 19mm 4.02g, RPC I 4287 (or similar)
O: ANTIOXEΩN, Veiled and turreted head of Tyche r.
R: (EΠI KOYAΔPATOY), Ram leaping r., looking back, crescent and star above
("Star of Bethlehem" issue)
casata137ec
Autonomous_Antioch_Nero_Star_of_Bethlehem.jpg
Autonomous Issue Under Nero "Star of Bethlehem Issue"42 viewsAutonomous issue under Nero, 54 - 68 AD
Issued under Nero by Caius Ummidus Quadratus,
5.46g, 17mm, Hendin 934 - Star of Baysan (Bethlehem?), RPC I 4287,
BMC Galatia pg 160, 70,
OBV: ANTIOXEΩN, Veiled and turreted head of Tyche right
REV: EΠI KOYAΔPATOY, Ram leaping right, looking back at crescent and large star, ETEP below.
1 commentsRomanorvm
238.jpg
B▪AV in rectangular punch211 viewsEPIRUS. Buthrotum. Nero. Æ 21 (As). A.D. 54-68. Obv: (NER)OCLAVDIV(SCAESARAVGGERM) or sim. Radiate head right; countermark on neck. Rev: (EXCONSENSVD, CCIB in ex) or similar. Butting bull right. Ref: RPC 1406 (or possibly 1403, 1408 or 1410). Axis: 180°. Weight: 5.38 g. CM: B▪AV in rectangular punch, 9 x 4 mm. Howgego 579 (19 pcs). Note: The countermark may possibly be read "Bvthrotvm Avgvsta". Collection Automan.Automan
nero_caesarea_c_m_LX.jpg
BCC CM1x58 viewsRoman Provincial
Caesarea Maritima
Nero 54-68 CE
Obv:[ΣΕΒΑΣΤΟΣ ΝΕΡWΝ ΚΑΙΣΑΡ]
Laureate, undraped bust right.
Countermark: XF (Legio Decima Fretensis) in incuse square. Probably applied between 68 and 132 CE (Hendin GBC III).
Rev: [ΣΕΒΑΣΤW ΛΙΜΕΝΙ ΚΑΙΣΑΡΙΑ ΠΡΟΣ]
"Caesarea (the one) near the port of Augustus"
Tyche standing left, foot on prow, holding bust in right
hand, standard in left. In field date: LIΔ (year 14).
AE 23mm 10.4g. Axis 0
Hendin 3, coin 834; C/M see coin 807.
v-drome
Nero_BCC_J25.jpg
BCC J2523 viewsJudaea - Procurators
Nero - Porcius Festus
59-62 C.E.
Obv:NEP/WNO/C
Within wreath
Rev:Date LE KAICAPOC
around palm branch. (year five)
15.5mm. 1.60gm. Axis:0
AE Prutah Hendin III 653a
v-drome
Nero_BCC_J26_Festus.jpg
BCC J2616 viewsJudaea - Procurators
Nero - Porcius Festus
59-62 C.E.
Obv:NE[P]/WN[O/C]
Within crudely rendered
wreath, with retrograde “N”s
Rev:Date LE KAICAPOC
around palm branch. (year five)
15.5mm. 1.68gm. Axis:120
AE Prutah Hendin III 653 (1351)v.
v-drome
Nero_BCC_J27.jpg
BCC J2716 viewsJudaea - Procurators
Nero - Porcius Festus
AE Prutah 59-62 C.E.
Obv:NEP/WNO/[C]
Within wreath.
Rev:Date [LE] KAICAPOC around
palm branch. (year 5 = 58/59CE)
16mm. 2.18gm. Axis:0
Hendin III 653 (1351).
v-drome
Nero_BCC_J28_festus.jpg
BCC J2817 viewsJudaea - Procurators
Nero - Porcius Festus
AE Prutah 59-62 C.E.
Obv:NEP/WNO/C
within wreath.
Rev:Date LE KAICAPOC
(year five = 58/59CE) around palm branch.
16.5x18mm. 2.77gm. Axis:0
Hendin III 653 (1351).
v-drome
Nero_BCC_j29_Festus.jpg
BCC J2914 viewsJudaea - Procurators
Nero - Porcius Festus
AE Prutah 59-62 C.E.
Obv:NEP/WNO/C
within wreath.
Rev:Date LE KAICAPOC
(year five = 58/59CE) around
palm branch.
16.0mm. 1.54gm. Axis:330
Hendin III 653 (1351).
v-drome
Nero_BCC_J30_Festus.jpg
BCC J3018 viewsJudaea - Procurators
Nero - Porcius Festus
AE Prutah 59-62 C.E.
Obv:NEP/WNO/C
within wreath.
Rev:Date LE KAICAPOC
(year five = 58/59CE) around
palm branch.
17.0mm. 3.12gm. Axis:330
Hendin III 653 (1351).
v-drome
Nero_BCC_J31_Festus.jpg
BCC J3118 viewsJudaea - Procurators
Nero - Porcius Festus
AE Prutah 59-62 C.E.
Obv:NEP/WNO/C
within wreath.
Rev:Date LE KAICAPOC
(year five = 58/59CE) around
palm branch.
15.0mm. 1.41gm. Axis:330
Hendin III 653 (1351).
v-drome
Nero_BCC_J32_Festus.jpg
BCC J3214 viewsJudaea - Procurators
Nero - Porcius Festus
AE Prutah 59-62 C.E.
Obv:[NEP/WNO/C],
(blundered) within wreath.
Rev:Date LE KAICAPOC
(year five = 58/59CE) around
palm branch.
16.0mm. 2.39gm. Axis:330
Hendin III 653 (1351).
v-drome
BCC_RGP38.jpg
BCC rgp3837 viewsRoman Provincial
Dora-Phoenicia, semi-autonomous
under Nero 65/6 CE
Obv: Veiled bust of Tyche right.
Rev: ΔWΡΙΤWΝ and date L PKH (CY128)
Astarte standing facing, head right,
holding cornucopia and staff.
Meshorer 18a; Rosenberger 9
17.5x16.5mm.5.14gm. Axis:0
v-drome
Milne226nero.jpg
Billion Tetradrachm of Nero14 viewsA Billion Tetradrachm of Nero, possibly Milne 226?chuy1530
Nero2.jpg
Billion Tetradrachm of Nero11 viewschuy1530
4Nero.jpg
Britain, Bath, Aquae Sulis, Coins47 viewsFour Dupondii of Nero found at the Baths.maridvnvm
060717f.jpg
Bronze prutah, Judas Festus under Nero 58-59 CE19 viewsObverse - NEP WNO C (Nero) in wreath tied at the bottom with an X
Reverse - -KAICAPO (caesar) and date LE (year 5), palm fond
mint - Caesarea, 16.7 mm diam. 2.3 g. Hendin 1351 (Acts 25:9-12)
sold1-2018
NORMAN K
5_senti_1931.jpg
Bronze Viis Senti52 viewsEstonia. Republic (1918-1941) Bronze 5 Senti
Denomination: 5 Senti
Date Struck 1931
Mint Tallinn
Obv: EESTI VABARIIK, VIIS SENTI
Rev: Arms of State, date in exe.
Weight 3.5 gm.
Diameter 23.3 mm
Grade VF.
Material Bronze
Mintage 5500000?, Reference Eesti Vabariigi mündid ja paberrahad, Gunnar Haljak. Väljaandja Tallinn 2008

Generously donated by Pekka K.
Will Hooton
IMG_4618.JPG
caesarea maritima Nero36 viewsNero and Agrippina II, circa 55 AD
Obv. [NEΡωNOC KΛAΥΔIOC ΓEΡMAN]IKOΥ KAICAΡOCCE – Laureate head of Claudius r.
Rev. AGRIPPEINH[C] CEBACTH – Agrippina II, veiled, seated l, holding branch and cornucopia above, crescent.
Maritima
P1010020.JPG
Caesarea maritima,Nero 68 A.D.115 viewsCaesarea Maritima, under Nero AE 14.5
Dated Year 14 of Nero = 68 AD
Obverse: Rudder
Reverse: Anchor and date.
Reference: RPC-4864
Very Rare
amibosam
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-jL32v9k6T0fUkE3l-Agrippa.jpg
Caligula (Agrippa) (Augustus) Coin: Bronze AS6 viewsM AGRIPPA. L. F. COS. III - Head left, wearing rostral crown
S-C across field - Neptune standing left, holding small dolphin and trident.
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (37-41 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 11.70g / 28.45mm / 6h
Rarity: Common
References:
RIC I 58 (Gaius)
BMCRE 161 (Tiberius)
Cohen 3
Acquisition/Sale: 22noelnoel22 Ebay $0.00 08/18
Notes: Aug 24, 18 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Agrippa, Military Commander, Friend of Augustus, Grandfather of Caligula, Great-grandfather of Nero
Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa was a boyhood friend of Augustus and a renowned military commander on land and sea, winning the famous battle of Actium against the forces of Marcus Antonius and Cleopatra. Declared Augustus' successor, Agrippa's brilliant career ended when he predeceased Augustus in 12 B.C. He was married to Augustus' daughter Julia; father of Gaius and Lucius Caesars, Agrippa Postumus, Julia and Agrippina Senior; grandfather of Caligula, and great-grandfather of Nero.
Gary W2
Agrippa-Brass_As_of_Roman_Co.jpg
Caligula (Agrippa) (Augustus) Coin: Bronze As 5 viewsM AGRIPPA L F COS III - Head of Agrippa, left, wearing rostral crown
S C - Neptune stg. l. holding dolphin and trident
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (37-41AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 10.00g / 27mm / 180
Rarity: Common
References:
BMC 161
RIC 1 58
Acquisition/Sale: servuscoins Ebay $0.00 8/17
Notes: Jun 13, 18 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Agrippa, Military Commander, Friend of Augustus, Grandfather of Caligula, Great-grandfather of Nero
Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa was a boyhood friend of Augustus and a renowned military commander on land and sea, winning the famous battle of Actium against the forces of Marcus Antonius and Cleopatra. Declared Augustus' successor, Agrippa's brilliant career ended when he predeceased Augustus in 12 B.C. He was married to Augustus' daughter Julia; father of Gaius and Lucius Caesars, Agrippa Postumus, Julia and Agrippina Senior; grandfather of Caligula, and great-grandfather of Nero.
Gary W2
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-3qs59GR6xcPDlCaligula_2.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Dupondius 12 viewsNERO ET DRVSVS CAESARES - Nero and Drusus on horseback riding right
C. CAESAR. DIVI. AVG. PRON. AVG. P. M. TR. P. III. P. P. around large S. C. - Legend surrounding large S C
Mint: Rome (39-40 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 13.04g / 32mm / 6h
Rarity: R3
References:
RIC I 42 (Gaius)
BMCRE p. 156, n. ‡
Provenances:
Artemide Aste
Acquisition/Sale: Artemide Aste Internet 46e #266 $0.00 02/19

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

The TR P III (39-40 AD) date of Caligula's base coinage is the scarcest of all his dates. The TR P (37-38 AD) is the most common followed by his TR P IIII (40-41 AD). Caligula did not issue base coinage from Rome with the TR P II (38-39 AD) date.

From: Incitatus Coins
Nero and Drusus were the elder brothers of Caligula, and the sons of Germanicus. Both were heirs of Tiberius and both were killed by the machinations of Sejanus. Caligula survived Sejanus, and the subsequent years, to become emperor. He immediately proclaimed his informed uncle Claudius as his co-consul, an appointment made so that Caligula could, in essence, rule as sole consul. Claudius was given the modest
task of preparing a celebration of Caligula's brothers, including statues in their honor. According to 'I Claudius', Claudius encountered difficulty in completing these statues on time. The completed statues appear on this coinage.

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA


From Joe Geranio:
The dupondii issues of the brothers of Caligula , Nero and Drusus Caesar was no doubt to remind the Roman populace about the Dioscuri the saviors of the Roman state. The Dioscuri won a miraculous battle in 496 B.C. and then on the same day appear in the Roman Forum to tell the populace about the victory, no doubt Caligula wanted to associate himself with the Dioscuri with this issue of the gods represented as Nero and Drusus Caesars galloping on their horses with ease as though the wind is blowing in their hair. This familial propaganda would cement that the sons of Germanicus and Agrippina would reign and were in control.

This type was issued by Caligula for his two deceased brothers, Nero Julius Caesar and Drusus Julius Caesar Germanicus. Nero Caesar was Tiberius' oldest adoptive grandson and was the emperor's most obvious successor until 29 A.D. when he was accused of treason along with his mother, Agrippina the Elder. He was exiled to the island of Ponza where he was either induced to commit suicide or starved to death before October 31. In 30, his brother Drusus Caesar was also accused of treason and exiled and imprisoned. He starved to death in prison in 33, reduced to chewing the stuffing of his bed.

From Suetonius:
But he (Claudius) was exposed also to actual dangers. First in his very consulship, when he was all but deposed, because he had been somewhat slow in contracting for and setting up the statues of Nero and Drusus, the emperor's brothers.


From COINWEEK:
THE ANNALS OF THE ROMAN HISTORIAN TACITUS (56 – 117 CE) survived in one damaged medieval manuscript at the Monte Cassino monastery. The section covering the reign of Emperor Caligula is missing, and we rely largely on fragmentary chapters of Cassius Dio’s Roman History (155-235 CE) and the Twelve Caesars of Suetonius (c.69 – 140 CE), a gossip writer who was the Perez Hilton of Imperial Rome. There are few contemporary eyewitness sources – some passages in the writings of Seneca (4 BCE – 65 CE) and Philo of Alexandria (c. 25 BCE – 50 CE ).

The story is not a happy one.

The future emperor was born on August 31 in the year 12, probably at Antium (Anzio) south of Rome. His father Germanicus, nephew of Emperor Tiberius, was a successful and popular general. His mother, Agrippina “the Elder”, was the daughter of Marcus Agrippa, the brilliant organizer who was largely responsible for Octavian’s victory in the Roman civil war (32-30 BCE).

“Caligula” is a nickname. It means “little boot” in Latin, because as a child he wore a miniature military uniform including tiny hobnailed boots, much to the delight of his father’s veteran legionaries. He grew up to dislike it. His given name, which appears on his coins, variously abbreviated, was Gaius (or Caius) Julius Caesar Germanicus. “Caesar” here is not a title, but a personal name, inherited through Germanicus Julius Caesar, grandson of Emperor Augustus, the adopted son of the famous Julius Caesar (100 – 44 BCE).

A New Hope
“TO MAKE AN INEXPERIENCED AND ALMOST UNKNOWN YOUNG MAN, BROUGHT UP UNDER A SERIES OF AGED AND REPRESSIVE GUARDIANS, MASTER OF THE WORLD, ALMOST LITERALLY OVERNIGHT, ON THE SOLE RECOMMENDATION THAT HIS FATHER HAD BEEN A THOROUGHLY DECENT FELLOW WAS TO COURT DISASTER IN A QUITE IRRESPONSIBLE FASHION.”
–BARRETT, CALIGULA: THE CORRUPTION OF POWER (1990)

When the reclusive, miserly and increasingly paranoid Emperor Tiberius died on March 16, 37 CE at the age of 78, most Romans greeted Caligula’s accession joyfully. Caligula’s early coinage celebrates his descent from his great-grandfather, the deified Augustus.

Caligula’s laurel-crowned portrait appears on the obverse of his gold aurei and silver denarii surrounded by his titles. On one reverse, which bears no inscription, the head of Augustus, wearing the sun god’s spiky radiate crown, appears between two stars. Another type omits the stars and adds the inscription, “Divine Augustus, Father of the Nation”. On some examples, the portrait seems to have the features of the unpopular Tiberius, who was never deified by the Senate. Perhaps the mint engravers, who had copied and recopied the portrait of Tiberius for 22 years, automatically reproduced a familiar face.

On his birthday in the year 37, Caligula dedicated the Temple of Augustus, which had been under construction for over two decades in the Roman forum. The event is commemorated on a magnificent brass sestertius. On the obverse a veiled seated figure is labeled PIETAS (“piety”) – an untranslatable Latin term for the Roman virtue that combined profound respect for ancestral traditions and meticulous observance of ritual obligations. The reverse shows Caligula in his role as Pontifex Maximus, high priest of the state religion, sacrificing an ox before a richly decorated temple. The finest known example of this coin sold for over $269,000 USD in a November 2013 Swiss auction.

Addressing the Guards
The orderly succession and survival of any Roman emperor depended on the Praetorian Guard, an elite force of bodyguards stationed in the capital. It was organized into nine battalions, or “cohorts”, each of 500 to 1,000 men.

On his accession, one of Caligula’s first official acts was to present each guardsman with a thousand sestertii bequeathed by Tiberius in his will, adding another thousand of his own. The reverse of a rare bronze sestertius, which may have been specially struck for this payment, shows Caligula standing on a platform with his arm raised in a formal gesture of greeting to a rank of guards. The abbreviated inscription ADLOCUT COH means “Address to the Cohorts”. Remarkably, this coin lacks the inscription SC (“by decree of the Senate”), which normally appeared on all Roman bronze coinage. An outstanding example of this type (“undoubtedly the finest specimen known”) brought over $634,000 in a 2014 European auction.

Family Ties
Caligula issued numerous types honoring the memory of his parents. Some of these continued under the reign of his uncle and successor, Claudius.

A handsome brass dupondius (worth half a sestertius or two asses) shows Germanicus riding in a chariot, celebrating his triumph (May 26, 17 CE) over German tribes. On the reverse, Germanicus stands in armor, holding an eagle-tipped scepter as a symbol of command. The inscription reads, “Standards Regained From the Defeated Germans”. This commemorates the return of sacred eagle standards captured when Roman legions of P. Quinctilius Varus were ambushed and annihilated eight years previously (September, 9 CE) in the Teutoburg Forest of north-central Germany. Examples of this type have sold for $500 to $3,000 in recent auctions.

Agrippina the Elder, mother of Caligula, was honored on a bronze sestertius. The obverse inscription surrounding her strong, dignified portrait translates: “Agrippina, daughter of Marcus, mother of emperor Gaius Caesar”. On the reverse, the legend “To the Memory of Agrippina” appears beside a carpentum, a ceremonial cart drawn by two mules that paraded an image of Agrippina on special occasions.

A superb, pedigreed example of this coin (“Very rare and among the finest specimens known. A delicate portrait of sublime style, Tiber tone”) sold for over $98,000 in a November 2013 Swiss auction. More typical examples sell for $1,000 to $3,000.

Perhaps the best-known coin of Caligula is a rare sestertius that depicts his three sisters, Agrippina the Younger, Drusilla and Julia Livilla as the personifications of Securitas, Concordia and Fortuna respectively. Caligula was close to his sisters, and lavished public honors on them in a way that shocked traditional Roman values. This inevitably led later writers to charge the emperor with incestuous relations, a rumor that is almost certainly false.

In recent auctions, exceptional examples of this type have sold for prices ranging from $15,000 to 21,000. Worn or corroded examples that have been “tooled” to improve the detail can sometimes be found for under $2,000. Cast forgeries are common, mostly modern, some dating back to the Renaissance that are collectable in their own right.

Small Change
Perhaps the most enigmatic coin of Caligula’s reign was the smallest regular Roman denomination, the quadrans. It took 64 of these little coppers to equal the value of one silver denarius – a day’s pay for a manual worker. On the obverse, the emperor’s name and titles surround a “liberty cap” – the felt hat worn by freed slaves – bracketed by the letters “SC”. The reverse inscription continues the emperor’s titles, surrounding the large letters “RCC”.

For many years, the consensus of numismatic scholars was that this abbreviation stood for remissa ducentesima, celebrating Caligula’s repeal of an unpopular one-half percent sales tax (“one part in two hundred” – “CC” being the Roman numeral for 200). A brilliant 2010 study by David Woods argues that this interpretation is unlikely, and RCC probably stands for something like res civium conservatae (“the interests of citizens have been preserved”).

The quadrans is probably the most affordable coin of Caligula, with decent examples appearing at auction for under $100.

The Making of a Monster
SO MUCH FOR CALIGULA THE EMPEROR; THE REST OF THIS HISTORY MUST NEEDS DEAL WITH CALIGULA THE MONSTER.
— SUETONIUS, THE TWELVE CAESARS, 22.1

Caligula fell seriously ill in October, 37 CE. After he recovered, his personality (always rather dark) took a decided turn for the worse. He became increasingly paranoid, ordering the execution or forcing the suicide of many who were previously close to him. He reportedly took special delight in having people tortured to death in his presence. As his increasingly bizarre expenditures emptied the treasury, he had wealthy Romans executed in order to seize their assets. Nevertheless, Suetonius reports that Caligula was devoted and faithful to his fourth and last wife, Milonia Caesonia, “who was neither beautiful nor young”.



The Death of Caligula

On January 24, 41 CE, conspirators including Cassius Chaerea, an officer of the Praetorian Guard, stabbed Caligula to death as he left a theatrical performance. Caesonia and her young daughter were also murdered. The only certainly identifiable contemporary portrait of Caesonia appears on a rare provincial bronze issued by Caligula’s childhood friend, Herod Agrippa I (11 BCE – 44 CE), the Roman client-king of Judaea.

Collecting the Monster
Gold and silver issues of Caligula are scarce, and in high demand from collectors, especially those determined to complete a set of the “Twelve Caesars” – all the Roman rulers from Julius Caesar to Domitian. Some of the bronzes are quite common, particularly the bronze as with Vesta reverse – decent examples can be found at auction for well under $200. For bronzes in the highest grades, with pristine surfaces and untouched patinas, the sky’s the limit.

For an emperor who was supposedly feared and hated by the Romans by the end of his short reign – only three years and 10 months – Caligula’s coins seem to have a good survival rate, and few that reach the numismatic market are mutilated. Some have the first ‘C’ of the emperor’s personal name filed off or scratched out, but it is rare to find deliberate ancient gouges or cuts across the portrait.

Any collector approaching the coinage of Caligula seeking evidence of madness, decadence and depravity will be disappointed. Coinage is conservative, and these coins present an idealized portrait of a rather dorky young man, along with a series of stock images reflecting the conventions of classical art that the Romans adopted from the Greeks
Gary W2
Nero_and_Drusus_Caes.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Dupondius 9 viewsNERO ET DRVSVS CAESARES - Nero and Drusus Caesar on horseback riding r., cloaks flying behind them.
C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P IIII PP - Legend around S C
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (40-41AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 15.99g / 29mm / 180
Rarity: R2
References:
Cohen 2
RIC Gaius 49
BMC Gaius 70
CBN Gaius 120
Provenances:
Bertolami Fine Arts
Acquisition/Sale: Bertolami Finearts Vcoins

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

From: Incitatus Coins
Nero and Drusus were the elder brothers of Caligula, and the sons of Germanicus. Both were heirs of Tiberius and both were killed by the machinations of Sejanus. Caligula survived Sejanus, and the subsequent years, to become emperor. He immediately proclaimed his informed uncle Claudius as his co-consul, an appointment made so that Caligula could, in essence, rule as sole consul. Claudius was given the modest
task of preparing a celebration of Caligula's brothers, including statues in their honor. According to 'I Claudius', Claudius encountered difficulty in completing these statues on time. The completed statues appear on this coinage.

From Joe Geranio:
The dupondii issues of the brothers of Caligula , Nero and Drusus Caesar was no doubt to remind the Roman populace about the Dioscuri the saviors of the Roman state. The Dioscuri won a miraculous battle in 496 B.C. and then on the same day appear in the Roman Forum to tell the populace about the victory, no doubt Caligula wanted to associate himself with the Dioscuri with this issue of the gods represented as Nero and Drusus Caesars galloping on their horses with ease as though the wind is blowing in their hair. This familial propaganda would cement that the sons of Germanicus and Agrippina would reign and were in control.

Historical Context

Suetonius states in (Caligula 22.1-2) “Up until now I have been discussing Caligula in his capacity as an emperor; we must now consider him in his capacity as a monster….

Eventually Caligula began to claim for himself a Divine majesty;…..he extended a part of the Palatine palace all the way out to the Forum, transforming the Temple of Castor and Pollux into an entrance hall for the Palace. There in the Temple he would often take his seat between the twin gods, presenting himself for worship to those he approached.”

Dio, (History 59.28.5) states, “ Caligula went so far as to divide in two the Temple of the Dioscuri in the Roman Forum, making a passageway to the Palatine that went right between the two cult statues. As a result, he was fond of saying that he regarded the Dioscuri as his gate-keepers. NEW ARCHAEOLOGY: Regarding the extension from the palace - http://news.stanford.edu/news/2003/september10/caligula-910.html Stanford Report, September 10, 2003, this was thought for years until 2003 to have been impossible.
Did Caligula have a God complex?

From Suetonius:
But he (Claudius) was exposed also to actual dangers. First in his very consulship, when he was all but deposed, because he had been somewhat slow in contracting for and setting up the statues of Nero and Drusus, the emperor's brothers.

From Roma:
Nero and Drusus were the brothers of the future emperor Caligula, and the children of Germanicus and Agrippina the Elder. More significantly Tiberius adopted both sons as grandchildren, and it was thought that Nero, being the oldest, would succeed Tiberius. However, Nero and his mother were accused of treason in 29 AD, and Nero’s demise quickly followed when he was exiled to the island of Ponza. Drusus suffered a similar fate a year later in 30 AD and, having been accused of plotting against his Grandfather and Emperor, he was thrown into prison in 33 AD where he was left to starve.

Additional images:
The Circus of Caligula and Nero

Circus of Nero (or Circus of Gaius (Caligula)) was a circus in ancient Rome placed at the location of today's Basilica of St. Peter in Vatican. All that is left today of this circus is obelisk that stood at its center.

Caligula (31 August 12 AD - 22 January 41 AD), a Roman emperor, began construction of this circus in the year 40 AD on the land of his mother, Agrippina. Claudius, who succeeded him, finished construction. Grimaldi says that the circus was 90 meters wide and 161 long. It was a place where Caligula and Nero trained racing with four horse chariots. In 65 AD, the first fist public persecution of Christians happened in this circus and Christian tradition says that Saint Peter lost his life there two years later. Saint Peter's tomb is in this area, in the cemetery near where the Circus was. Obelisk that stood in the center was placed there by Caligula. It was later (in 16th century) moved to Saint Peter's Square by the architect Domenico Fontana.

The Circus was abandoned by the middle of the 2nd century AD so Constantine built the first basilica (Old St. Peter) at the site of the Circus using some of the existing structure. Most of the ruins of the Circus survived until mid-15th century. They were finally destroyed to make a space for the construction of the new St. Peter's Basilica.
Gary W2
40_AD_NERO___DRUSUS_.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Dupondius 9 viewsNERO ET DRVSVS CAESARES - Statue of Nero and Drusus Caesar riding right cloaks flying
C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT - Legend surrounding S C
Mint: Rome (37-38AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 12.50g / 29mm / 180
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC 1-Gaius 34
BMCRE 44 (Caligula
BN 52 (Caligula)
Provenances:
Incitatus Coins
Acquisition/Sale: Incitatus Coins Vcoins

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

From: Incitatus Coins
Nero and Drusus were the elder brothers of Caligula, and the sons of Germanicus. Both were heirs of Tiberius and both were killed by the machinations of Sejanus. Caligula survived Sejanus, and the subsequent years, to become emperor. He immediately proclaimed his informed uncle Claudius as his co-consul, an appointment made so that Caligula could, in essence, rule as sole consul. Claudius was given the modest
task of preparing a celebration of Caligula's brothers, including statues in their honor. According to 'I Claudius', Claudius encountered difficulty in completing these statues on time. The completed statues appear on this coinage.

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA


From Joe Geranio:
The dupondii issues of the brothers of Caligula , Nero and Drusus Caesar was no doubt to remind the Roman populace about the Dioscuri the saviors of the Roman state. The Dioscuri won a miraculous battle in 496 B.C. and then on the same day appear in the Roman Forum to tell the populace about the victory, no doubt Caligula wanted to associate himself with the Dioscuri with this issue of the gods represented as Nero and Drusus Caesars galloping on their horses with ease as though the wind is blowing in their hair. This familial propaganda would cement that the sons of Germanicus and Agrippina would reign and were in control.

This type was issued by Caligula for his two deceased brothers, Nero Julius Caesar and Drusus Julius Caesar Germanicus. Nero Caesar was Tiberius' oldest adoptive grandson and was the emperor's most obvious successor until 29 A.D. when he was accused of treason along with his mother, Agrippina the Elder. He was exiled to the island of Ponza where he was either induced to commit suicide or starved to death before October 31. In 30, his brother Drusus Caesar was also accused of treason and exiled and imprisoned. He starved to death in prison in 33, reduced to chewing the stuffing of his bed.

From Suetonius:
But he (Claudius) was exposed also to actual dangers. First in his very consulship, when he was all but deposed, because he had been somewhat slow in contracting for and setting up the statues of Nero and Drusus, the emperor's brothers.

From Roma:
Nero and Drusus were the brothers of the future emperor Caligula, and the children of Germanicus and Agrippina the Elder. More significantly Tiberius adopted both sons as grandchildren, and it was thought that Nero, being the oldest, would succeed Tiberius. However, Nero and his mother were accused of treason in 29 AD, and Nero’s demise quickly followed when he was exiled to the island of Ponza. Drusus suffered a similar fate a year later in 30 AD and, having been accused of plotting against his Grandfather and Emperor, he was thrown into prison in 33 AD where he was left to starve.
Gary W2
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-3qs59GR6xcPDlCaligula_2~0.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Dupondius12 viewsNERO ET DRVSVS CAESARES - Nero and Drusus on horseback riding right
C. CAESAR. DIVI. AVG. PRON. AVG. P. M. TR. P. III. P. P. around large S. C. - Legend surrounding large S C
Mint: Rome (39-40 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 13.04g / 32mm / 6h
Rarity: R3
References:
RIC I 42 (Gaius)
BMCRE p. 156, n. ‡
Provenances:
Artemide Aste
Acquisition/Sale: Artemide Aste Internet 46e #266 $0.00 02/19

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

The TR P III (39-40 AD) date of Caligula's base coinage is the scarcest of all his dates. The TR P (37-38 AD) is the most common followed by his TR P IIII (40-41 AD). Caligula did not issue base coinage from Rome with the TR P II (38-39 AD) date.

Per RIC-Rarity 3
Gary W2
Nero_and_Drusus_Caes~0.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Dupondius13 viewsNERO ET DRVSVS CAESARES - Nero and Drusus Caesar on horseback riding r., cloaks flying behind them.
C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P IIII PP - Legend around S C
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (40-41AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 15.99g / 29mm / 180
Rarity: R2
References:
Cohen 2
RIC Gaius 49
BMC Gaius 70
CBN Gaius 120
Provenances:
Bertolami Fine Arts
Acquisition/Sale: Bertolami Finearts Vcoins

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

From: Incitatus Coins
Nero and Drusus were the elder brothers of Caligula, and the sons of Germanicus. Both were heirs of Tiberius and both were killed by the machinations of Sejanus. Caligula survived Sejanus, and the subsequent years, to become emperor. He immediately proclaimed his informed uncle Claudius as his co-consul, an appointment made so that Caligula could, in essence, rule as sole consul. Claudius was given the modest
task of preparing a celebration of Caligula's brothers, including statues in their honor. According to 'I Claudius', Claudius encountered difficulty in completing these statues on time. The completed statues appear on this coinage.

From Joe Geranio:
The dupondii issues of the brothers of Caligula , Nero and Drusus Caesar was no doubt to remind the Roman populace about the Dioscuri the saviors of the Roman state. The Dioscuri won a miraculous battle in 496 B.C. and then on the same day appear in the Roman Forum to tell the populace about the victory, no doubt Caligula wanted to associate himself with the Dioscuri with this issue of the gods represented as Nero and Drusus Caesars galloping on their horses with ease as though the wind is blowing in their hair. This familial propaganda would cement that the sons of Germanicus and Agrippina would reign and were in control.

Historical Context

Suetonius states in (Caligula 22.1-2) “Up until now I have been discussing Caligula in his capacity as an emperor; we must now consider him in his capacity as a monster….

Eventually Caligula began to claim for himself a Divine majesty;…..he extended a part of the Palatine palace all the way out to the Forum, transforming the Temple of Castor and Pollux into an entrance hall for the Palace. There in the Temple he would often take his seat between the twin gods, presenting himself for worship to those he approached.”

Dio, (History 59.28.5) states, “ Caligula went so far as to divide in two the Temple of the Dioscuri in the Roman Forum, making a passageway to the Palatine that went right between the two cult statues. As a result, he was fond of saying that he regarded the Dioscuri as his gate-keepers. NEW ARCHAEOLOGY: Regarding the extension from the palace - http://news.stanford.edu/news/2003/september10/caligula-910.html Stanford Report, September 10, 2003, this was thought for years until 2003 to have been impossible.
Did Caligula have a God complex?

From Suetonius:
But he (Claudius) was exposed also to actual dangers. First in his very consulship, when he was all but deposed, because he had been somewhat slow in contracting for and setting up the statues of Nero and Drusus, the emperor's brothers.

From Roma:
Nero and Drusus were the brothers of the future emperor Caligula, and the children of Germanicus and Agrippina the Elder. More significantly Tiberius adopted both sons as grandchildren, and it was thought that Nero, being the oldest, would succeed Tiberius. However, Nero and his mother were accused of treason in 29 AD, and Nero’s demise quickly followed when he was exiled to the island of Ponza. Drusus suffered a similar fate a year later in 30 AD and, having been accused of plotting against his Grandfather and Emperor, he was thrown into prison in 33 AD where he was left to starve.

Additional images:
The Circus of Caligula and Nero

Circus of Nero (or Circus of Gaius (Caligula)) was a circus in ancient Rome placed at the location of today's Basilica of St. Peter in Vatican. All that is left today of this circus is obelisk that stood at its center.

Caligula (31 August 12 AD - 22 January 41 AD), a Roman emperor, began construction of this circus in the year 40 AD on the land of his mother, Agrippina. Claudius, who succeeded him, finished construction. Grimaldi says that the circus was 90 meters wide and 161 long. It was a place where Caligula and Nero trained racing with four horse chariots. In 65 AD, the first fist public persecution of Christians happened in this circus and Christian tradition says that Saint Peter lost his life there two years later. Saint Peter's tomb is in this area, in the cemetery near where the Circus was. Obelisk that stood in the center was placed there by Caligula. It was later (in 16th century) moved to Saint Peter's Square by the architect Domenico Fontana.

The Circus was abandoned by the middle of the 2nd century AD so Constantine built the first basilica (Old St. Peter) at the site of the Circus using some of the existing structure. Most of the ruins of the Circus survived until mid-15th century. They were finally destroyed to make a space for the construction of the new St. Peter's Basilica.

Per RIC-Rarity 2
Gary W2
Caligula_Three_Siste.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 14 viewsC CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT - Laureate head left
AGRIPPINA DRVSILLA IVLIA - AGRIPPINA DRVSILLA IVLIA, the three sisters of Caligula standing, in the guises of Securitas, Concordia, and Fortuna, S C (senatus consulto) in exergue
Exergue: SC


Mint: Rome (37-38AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 27.88g / 35.6mm / 180
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC I 33
BMCRE p. 152, 36
BnF II 47
Cohen I 4
SRCV I 1800
Provenances:
Forvm Ancient Coins
Acquisition/Sale: Forvm Ancient Coins Internet

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

From Numismatica Ars Classica:
Many aspects of Caligula's reign have captured the imagination of historians, but the sexual relationships he is said to have pursued with his sisters is perhaps most shocking of all. It is on par with the exploits of Elagabalus or the alleged seduction of young Nero by his deranged mother Agrippina Jr., who, by no mere coincidence, was one of Caligula's sisters.
Caligula's incestuous relationships with his sisters are alleged by the relatively contemporary historians Suetonius and Josephus. Much later, in the fourth and fifth centuries, these original claims were echoed by various writers, including Eutropius, Aurelius Victor, St. Jerome, Orosius and the anonymous compiler of the Epitome de caesaribus. The truth of the claims, of course, is impossible to confirm, and there is a healthy dose of scepticism among modern scholars.
Whatever personal or sexual affection Caligula may have felt toward his sisters, this coinage is purely political and dynastic in flavour. His sisters are each named and are shown in the guise of personifications: the eldest, Agrippina Junior, as Securitas, the middle-sister, Drusilla, as Concordia, and the youngest, Julia Livilla, as Fortuna.
This remarkable type was produced on two occasions, his initial coinage of 37-38, and again in 39-40. The example offered here belongs to the first coinage, which was issued when all three of the imperial women were alive. Drusilla, Caligula's favourite sister (and the one with whom he is said to have had an enduring incestuous relationship), died tragically on June 10, 38, nearly three months after the last coins of the initial issue were struck.
By the time the last issue was produced (beginning March 18, 39), Drusilla had been accorded the status of a goddess, providing the curious circumstance of a goddess being portrayed in the guise of a personification. Life in the palace worsened after Drusilla's death and Caligula's affection for his remaining two sisters declined.
The circumstances reported by the ancient sources are nothing short of bizarre: Drusilla had been married to Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, who had also been Caligula's lover. After Drusilla died, Lepidus extended his sexual liaisons to include Agrippina and Julia Livilla, his former sisters-in-law. By late in 39 this web of relationships seems to have evolved into a failed plot by Lepidus against Caligula, who executed Lepidus and sent his two sisters into exile out of their suspected complicity.
All of this palace intrigue occurred in the midst of the second issue of 'three sisters' sestertii, the production of which Caligula probably halted immediately since of the three sisters shown, one was dead and two were in exile for having plotted against his life.

From Wikisource:
It is easy to understand why the peace and harmony which had been reestablished for a moment in the troubled imperial family by the advent of Caligula should have been of brief duration. His grandmother and his sisters were Romans, educated in Roman ideals, and this exotic madness of his could inspire in them only an irresistible horror. This brought confusion into the imperial family, and after having suffered the persecutions of Sejanus and his party, the unhappy daughters of Germanicus found themselves in the toils of the exacting caprices of their brother. In fact, in 38, Caligula had already broken with his grandmother, whom the year before he had had proclaimed Augusta; and between the years 38 and 39, catastrophes followed one another in the family with frightful rapidity. His sister Drusilla, whom, as Suetonius tells us, he already treated as a lawful wife, died suddenly of some unknown malady while still very young. It is not improbable that her health may have been ruined by the horror of the wild adventure, which was neither human nor Roman, into which her brother sought to drag her by marriage. Caligula suddenly declared her a goddess, to whom all the cities must pay honors. He had a temple built for her, and appointed a body of twenty priests, ten men and ten women, to celebrate her worship; he decreed that her birthday should be a holiday, and he wished the statue of Venus in the Forum to be carved in her likeness.

But in proportion as Caligula became more and more fervid in this adoration of his dead sister, the disagreement between himself and his other two sisters became more embittered. Julia Livilla was exiled in 38; Agrippina, the wife of Domitius Enobarbus°, in 39, and about this same time the venerable Antonia died. It was noised about that Caligula had forced her to commit suicide, and that Agrippina and Livilla had taken part in a conspiracy against the life of the emperor. How much truth there may be in these reports it is difficult to say, but the reason for all these catastrophes may be affirmed with certainty. Life in the imperial palace was no longer possible, especially for women, with this madman who was transforming Rome into Alexandria and who wished to marry a sister. Even Tiberius, the son of Drusus and co-heir to the empire with Caligula, was at about this time defeated in some obscure suit and disappeared.

Many aspects of Caligula’s reign have captured the imagination of historians, but the sexual relationships he is said to
have pursued with his sisters is perhaps most shocking of all. It is on par with the exploits of Elagabalus or the alleged
seduction of young Nero by his deranged mother Agrippina Jr., who, by no mere coincidence, was one of Caligula’s
sisters.
Caligula’s incestuous relationships with his sisters are alleged by the relatively contemporary historians Suetonius and
Josephus. Much later, in the fourth and fifth centuries, these original claims were echoed by various writers, including
Eutropius, Aurelius Victor, St. Jerome, Orosius and the anonymous compiler of the Epitome de caesaribus. The truth of
the claims, of course, is impossible to confirm, and there is a healthy dose of skepticism among modern scholars.
Whatever personal or sexual affection Caligula may have felt toward his sisters, this coinage is purely political and
dynastic in flavour. His sisters are each named and are shown in the guise of personifications: the eldest, Agrippina Junior,
as Securitas, the middle-sister, Drusilla, as Concordia, and the youngest, Julia Livilla, as Fortuna.
This remarkable type was produced on two occasions, his initial coinage of 37-38, and again in 39-40. The example
offered here belongs to the first coinage, which was issued when all three of the imperial women were alive. Drusilla,
Caligula’s favourite sister (and the one with whom he is said to have had an enduring incestuous relationship), died
tragically on June 10, 38, nearly three months after the last coins of the initial issue were struck.
By the time the last issue was produced (beginning March 18, 39), Drusilla had been accorded the status of a goddess,
providing the curious circumstance of a goddess being portrayed in the guise of a personification. Life in the palace
worsened after Drusilla’s death and Caligula’s affection for his remaining two sisters declined.
The circumstances reported by the ancient sources are nothing short of bizarre: Drusilla had been married to Marcus
Aemilius Lepidus, who had also been Caligula’s lover. At least after Drusilla died, Lepidus extended his sexual liaisons to
include Agrippina and Julia Livilla, his former sisters-in-law. By late in 39 this web of relationships seems to have evolved
into a failed plot by Lepidus against Caligula, who executed Lepidus and sent his two sisters into exile out of their
suspected complicity.
All of this palace intrigue occurred in the midst of the second issue of ‘three sisters’ sestertii, the production of which
Caligula probably halted immediately since of the three sisters shown, one was dead and two were in exile for having
plotted against his life.
Gary W2
Caligula_Three_Siste~0.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius61 viewsC CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT - Laureate head left
AGRIPPINA DRVSILLA IVLIA - AGRIPPINA DRVSILLA IVLIA, the three sisters of Caligula standing, in the guises of Securitas, Concordia, and Fortuna, S C (senatus consulto) in exergue
Exergue: SC


Mint: Rome (37-38AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 27.88g / 35.6mm / 180
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC I 33
BMCRE p. 152, 36
BnF II 47
Cohen I 4
SRCV I 1800
Provenances:
Forvm Ancient Coins
Acquisition/Sale: Forvm Ancient Coins Internet

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

From Numismatica Ars Classica:
Many aspects of Caligula's reign have captured the imagination of historians, but the sexual relationships he is said to have pursued with his sisters is perhaps most shocking of all. It is on par with the exploits of Elagabalus or the alleged seduction of young Nero by his deranged mother Agrippina Jr., who, by no mere coincidence, was one of Caligula's sisters.
Caligula's incestuous relationships with his sisters are alleged by the relatively contemporary historians Suetonius and Josephus. Much later, in the fourth and fifth centuries, these original claims were echoed by various writers, including Eutropius, Aurelius Victor, St. Jerome, Orosius and the anonymous compiler of the Epitome de caesaribus. The truth of the claims, of course, is impossible to confirm, and there is a healthy dose of scepticism among modern scholars.
Whatever personal or sexual affection Caligula may have felt toward his sisters, this coinage is purely political and dynastic in flavour. His sisters are each named and are shown in the guise of personifications: the eldest, Agrippina Junior, as Securitas, the middle-sister, Drusilla, as Concordia, and the youngest, Julia Livilla, as Fortuna.
This remarkable type was produced on two occasions, his initial coinage of 37-38, and again in 39-40. The example offered here belongs to the first coinage, which was issued when all three of the imperial women were alive. Drusilla, Caligula's favourite sister (and the one with whom he is said to have had an enduring incestuous relationship), died tragically on June 10, 38, nearly three months after the last coins of the initial issue were struck.
By the time the last issue was produced (beginning March 18, 39), Drusilla had been accorded the status of a goddess, providing the curious circumstance of a goddess being portrayed in the guise of a personification. Life in the palace worsened after Drusilla's death and Caligula's affection for his remaining two sisters declined.
The circumstances reported by the ancient sources are nothing short of bizarre: Drusilla had been married to Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, who had also been Caligula's lover. After Drusilla died, Lepidus extended his sexual liaisons to include Agrippina and Julia Livilla, his former sisters-in-law. By late in 39 this web of relationships seems to have evolved into a failed plot by Lepidus against Caligula, who executed Lepidus and sent his two sisters into exile out of their suspected complicity.
All of this palace intrigue occurred in the midst of the second issue of 'three sisters' sestertii, the production of which Caligula probably halted immediately since of the three sisters shown, one was dead and two were in exile for having plotted against his life.

From Wikisource:
It is easy to understand why the peace and harmony which had been reestablished for a moment in the troubled imperial family by the advent of Caligula should have been of brief duration. His grandmother and his sisters were Romans, educated in Roman ideals, and this exotic madness of his could inspire in them only an irresistible horror. This brought confusion into the imperial family, and after having suffered the persecutions of Sejanus and his party, the unhappy daughters of Germanicus found themselves in the toils of the exacting caprices of their brother. In fact, in 38, Caligula had already broken with his grandmother, whom the year before he had had proclaimed Augusta; and between the years 38 and 39, catastrophes followed one another in the family with frightful rapidity. His sister Drusilla, whom, as Suetonius tells us, he already treated as a lawful wife, died suddenly of some unknown malady while still very young. It is not improbable that her health may have been ruined by the horror of the wild adventure, which was neither human nor Roman, into which her brother sought to drag her by marriage. Caligula suddenly declared her a goddess, to whom all the cities must pay honors. He had a temple built for her, and appointed a body of twenty priests, ten men and ten women, to celebrate her worship; he decreed that her birthday should be a holiday, and he wished the statue of Venus in the Forum to be carved in her likeness.

But in proportion as Caligula became more and more fervid in this adoration of his dead sister, the disagreement between himself and his other two sisters became more embittered. Julia Livilla was exiled in 38; Agrippina, the wife of Domitius Enobarbus°, in 39, and about this same time the venerable Antonia died. It was noised about that Caligula had forced her to commit suicide, and that Agrippina and Livilla had taken part in a conspiracy against the life of the emperor. How much truth there may be in these reports it is difficult to say, but the reason for all these catastrophes may be affirmed with certainty. Life in the imperial palace was no longer possible, especially for women, with this madman who was transforming Rome into Alexandria and who wished to marry a sister. Even Tiberius, the son of Drusus and co-heir to the empire with Caligula, was at about this time defeated in some obscure suit and disappeared.

Many aspects of Caligula’s reign have captured the imagination of historians, but the sexual relationships he is said to
have pursued with his sisters is perhaps most shocking of all. It is on par with the exploits of Elagabalus or the alleged
seduction of young Nero by his deranged mother Agrippina Jr., who, by no mere coincidence, was one of Caligula’s
sisters.
Caligula’s incestuous relationships with his sisters are alleged by the relatively contemporary historians Suetonius and
Josephus. Much later, in the fourth and fifth centuries, these original claims were echoed by various writers, including
Eutropius, Aurelius Victor, St. Jerome, Orosius and the anonymous compiler of the Epitome de caesaribus. The truth of
the claims, of course, is impossible to confirm, and there is a healthy dose of skepticism among modern scholars.
Whatever personal or sexual affection Caligula may have felt toward his sisters, this coinage is purely political and
dynastic in flavour. His sisters are each named and are shown in the guise of personifications: the eldest, Agrippina Junior,
as Securitas, the middle-sister, Drusilla, as Concordia, and the youngest, Julia Livilla, as Fortuna.
This remarkable type was produced on two occasions, his initial coinage of 37-38, and again in 39-40. The example
offered here belongs to the first coinage, which was issued when all three of the imperial women were alive. Drusilla,
Caligula’s favourite sister (and the one with whom he is said to have had an enduring incestuous relationship), died
tragically on June 10, 38, nearly three months after the last coins of the initial issue were struck.
By the time the last issue was produced (beginning March 18, 39), Drusilla had been accorded the status of a goddess,
providing the curious circumstance of a goddess being portrayed in the guise of a personification. Life in the palace
worsened after Drusilla’s death and Caligula’s affection for his remaining two sisters declined.
The circumstances reported by the ancient sources are nothing short of bizarre: Drusilla had been married to Marcus
Aemilius Lepidus, who had also been Caligula’s lover. At least after Drusilla died, Lepidus extended his sexual liaisons to
include Agrippina and Julia Livilla, his former sisters-in-law. By late in 39 this web of relationships seems to have evolved
into a failed plot by Lepidus against Caligula, who executed Lepidus and sent his two sisters into exile out of their
suspected complicity.
All of this palace intrigue occurred in the midst of the second issue of ‘three sisters’ sestertii, the production of which
Caligula probably halted immediately since of the three sisters shown, one was dead and two were in exile for having
plotted against his life.

Per RIC-Rare
3 commentsGary W2
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-8hDqgyvl4MzVjv-Agrippina.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius (Agrippina I)9 viewsAGRIPPINA M F MAT C CAESARIS AVGVSTI - Bust of Agrippina the Elder, right, her hair falling in queue down her neck
SPQR MEMORIAE AGRIPPINAE - Carpentum, with ornamented cover and sides, drawn right by two mules
Mint: Rome (37-41AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 22.00g / 34mm / 180
Rarity: Common
References:
RIC 1-Gaius 55
Trillmich Group II; BMCRE 81-5 (Caligula)
BN 128 (Caligula)
BMCRE 86-7 (Caligula)
Cohen 1
Acquisition/Sale: sesterc1975 Ebay

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Caligula's mother.

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

Agrippina Sr.,one of the most tragically unfortunate women of Roman history. Agrippina was destined to achieve the highest possible status that did not happen. In 29AD she was deprived of her freedom, and in 33AD of life itself. This sestertii dedicated to Agrippina was produced by her son Caligula, The inscription, SPQR MEMORIAE AGRIPPINAE, is itself dedicatory from the Senate and the Roman people to the memory of Agrippina.

Of this coin, minted at Rome, in gold and silver, Agrippina occupies the most distinguished place, namely the obverse side. She styles herself (by implication) the wife of Claudius, and, in direct terms, the mother of Nero; as though the government of the empire had been in her hands, and her son only Caesar. It is on this account that Tacitus (Ann. 23), asks -- What help is there in him, who is governed by a woman? It is not to be wondered at therefore, adds Vaillant, if the oaken garland was decreed to this woman and to her son, as it had already been to Caligula and to Claudius, ob cives servatos, by the Senate, whom she assembled in the palace, where she sat discreetly veiled. Praest. Num. Impp. ii. 60.

Agrippina the Elder, mother of Caligula, was honored on a bronze sestertius. The obverse inscription surrounding her strong, dignified portrait translates: “Agrippina, daughter of Marcus, mother of emperor Gaius Caesar.” On the reverse, the legend “To the Memory of Agrippina” appears beside a carpentum, a ceremonial cart drawn by two mules that paraded an image of Agrippina on special occasions.

Three issues of sestertii were struck in honour of Agrippina Senior, one of the most tragically unfortunate women of
Roman history. She began life as a favoured member of the Julio-Claudian family during the reign of her grandfather
Augustus, and upon her marriage to Livia’s grandson Germanicus, she seemed destined to achieve the highest possible
status.
However, upon the death of Augustus and the accession of Tiberius, her life took a turn for the worse: supreme power had
shifted from the bloodlines of the Julii to the Claudii. Though her marriage represented and ideal union of Julian and
Claudian, it was not destined to survive Tiberius’ reign. Germanicus died late in 19 under suspicious circumstances, after
which Agrippina devoted the next decade of her life to openly opposing Tiberius until in 29 he deprived her of freedom,
and in 33 of life itself.
The sestertii dedicated to Agrippina are easily segregated. The first, produced by her son Caligula, shows on its reverse a
carpentum; the second, issued by her brother Claudius, shows SC surrounded by a Claudian inscription, and the third is
simply a restoration of the Claudian type by Titus, on which the reverse inscription is instead dedicated to that emperor.
Though both Caligula and Claudius portrayed Agrippina, each did so from their own perspective, based upon the nature of
their relationship with her. The inscription on Caligula’s coin, AGRIPPINA M F MAT C CAESARIS AVGVSTI, describes
her as the daughter of Marcus (Agrippa) and the mother of Gaius (Caligula). While Claudius also identifies her as
Agrippa’s daughter, his inscription ends GERMANICI CAESARIS, thus stressing her role as the wife of his brother
Germanicus. It is also worth noting that on the issue of Caligula Agrippina has a slender profile like that of her son,
whereas on Claudius’ sestertii her face is more robust, in accordance with his appearance.
The carpentum reverse is not only a superbly executed type, but has a foundation in the recorded events of the day.
Suetonius (Gaius 15) describes the measures taken by Caligula to honour his family at the outset of his reign, which
included gathering the ashes of his mother and brothers, all victims of persecution during the reign of Tiberius. Upon
returning to Rome, Caligula, with his own hands, transferred to an urn his mother’s ashes “with the utmost reverence”; he
then instituted Circus games in her honour, at which “…her image would be paraded in a covered carriage.”
There can be little doubt that the carpentum on this sestertius relates to the special practice initiated by Caligula. The
inscription, SPQR MEMORIAE AGRIPPINAE, is itself dedicatory from the Senate and the Roman people to the memory
of Agrippina.
Gary W2
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-zg2aP0ewwCVrhb-Caligula_damnatio.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze AS13 viewsC CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT - Bare head left
Vesta SC - Vesta, veiled and draped, seated left, on throne with ornamented back and legs, holding patera in right hand and long transverse sceptre in left
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (37-38 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 10.40g / 28mm / 6h
Rarity: Common
References:
RIC I 38
BMCRE 46
BN 54
Cohen 27
Acquisition/Sale: indalocolecciones eBay

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

DAMNATIO MEMORIAE: This coin seems to have suffered a 'Damnatio Memoriae'. It looks as if the portrait has had cut marks applied to the jaw and neck areas. Interestingly, the ancient writers said that on his assassination, the first strike to Caligula was to his jaw or neck/shoulder areas. Damnatio memoriae is a modern Latin phrase meaning "condemnation of memory", i.e., that a person is to be excluded from official accounts.


ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

From The Dictionary of Roman Coins:
Caligula, the grand nephew and murderer of Tiberius, most worthy to succeed that emperor, because of an equally infamous, though not so able a tyrant, reigned from A.D. 37 to A.D. 41.

His real appellation was Caius Caesar, but about the time of Augustus' death, he, still a child, being with the army of the lower Rhine, the soldiers, with whom he was a great favorite, were accustomed in the joking parlance of the camp, to give him the nickname of Caligula (from Caligae) because he constantly appeared in the usual military leggings.

Hence Ausonius, in his poem, referring to this cruel wretch, says --

Post hunc castrensis caligae cognomine
Caesar Successit, saevo saevior ingenio.

As emperor, however, he was always called Caius, and he considered himself insulted by the name of Caligula.

He was the youngest son of Germanicus, the nephew of Tiberius and Agrippina; born in 12 A.D. on the day before the calends of September, at Antium, as Suetonius has proved at great length (in Caligula, ch. 8). In 17 A.D., he went into Syria with his father, at whose death, within two years, he returned to Rome with his mother. After she was banished, he was transferred to his great grand-mother Julia and when she diet to his grand-mother Antonia.

In 31 A.D., after the violent deaths of his brothers Nero and Drusus, and also of Sejanus, whose plots he alone had escaped he was he was the apparent successor to the empire and invested with the Pontificate.

In 33 A.D., on the same day he assumed the toga he laid aside his beard, he was nominated questor and Tiberius invited him to Capraea. He moved in with Tiberius, feigning ignorance or indifference, regarding the murder of his relations, as though it did not concern him. He so obsequiously obeyed Tiberius the it was a common expression, that "there never was a better servant, or a worse master." (Sueton, ch. 10)

In 37 A.D., Tiberius was attacked with a severe illness from which he was recovering when Caligula, at the instigation of Maero, the praetorian prefect, put and end to his life by smothering him.

Caligula entered Rome after Tiberius' death and compelled the Senate to join him, by a Senatus Consultum, in depriving Tiberius, son Drusus junior and the elder Tiberius' heir in his last will, of his right to the empire.

The funeral ceremonies of were performed with due pomp by Caligula.

On the eighth month of his reign he was attacked with severe sickness. On his recovery, he adopted his brother Tiberius, gave him the title of Princeps Juventutis, and afterwards put him to death.

In the calends of July he entered upon the office of Consul Suffectus, as colleague to his uncle Claudius, and after two months resigned it.

In 38 A.D. he conceded to Soaemus, the kingdom of Arabians of Ituraea; to Cotys, Armenia Minor; to Polemon, the son of Polemon, his father's dominions.

Dion wrote, "In a short time he assumed so much the air of a king, that all those honors, which Augustus had accepted only when duly arrived at the sovereignty, and even then with hesitation as they were decreed from time to time, and many of which Tiberius altogether declined, were by Caligula grasped in one day, with the exception only of Pater Patriae, which, however was not long deferred."

In 39 A.D., in the calends of January, he entered his second Consulate and resigned the office in thirty days. (Sueton ch. 17)

Having exhausted the treasury by his profuse expenditure on public spectacles and other extravagances, he endeavoured to repair the deficiency by the slaughter of wealthy citizens; and then proceeded to Gaul, their to practice the like system of murder and spoliation.

The name of Germanicus does not appear on coins of this year, nor ever subsequently.

In 40 A.D., Caligula, without a colleague, entered his third consulate, at Lugdunum (Lyon), in Gaul; and resigned it on the ides of January. (Sueton. ch. 17)

Having invited over from Africa, Ptolemy, the son of Juba, he put him to death on the pretence of the young prince's ostentatious bearing. (Dion, B. lix. 25)

Proceeding to the ocean, as if about to invade Britain, he ordered his soldiers to gather shell-fish, and returned as a conqueror, laden with the spoils of the sea. (Sueton. ch. 46)

L. Vitellius, prefect of Syria, the same year, gave such a lesson to Artabanus, the Persian, who was threatening an invasion of Armenia that the later abandoned his design, and paid his adoration to the statues of Augustus and of Caligula. (Dion, I. e.)

In 41 A.D., he began hid fourth consulate, on the 7th of the ides of January. Shortly afterwards (viz. on the 9th of the calends of February), he was assassinated by the conspirators Cassius Chaerea and Cornelius Sabinus.

Caligula's accession to the empire was hailed with joy by the Roman people; but their satisfaction was based on no solid foundations, being the result rather of their deep-rooted attachment to his father Germanicus. He seeming, indeed, responded to the fond wishes of the nation, by many acts of piety, justice, and moderation. But it too soon became apparent that these virtues were not of natural growth but owed their exhibition to the policy of Tiberius, who wished through their influences to consolidate his own power in the empire. For there was not act of cruelty, folly, meanness or infamy, which this monster and madman did not delight in perpetrating. He caused his horse, whom he called Incitatus, to be introduced at dinner time, setting before him gilded corn, and drinking his health in golden cups; and he would have created him consul, had he lived long enough. He imitated all the gods and goddesses, in the adoration which he caused to be paid to him, becoming by turns Jupiter, Bacchus, Hercules, Juno, Diana, and Venus. He constructed a bridge of vessels joined together from Puteoli to Baiae, and crossing over with his troops invaded puteoli and then recrossed it in a kind of triumph, delighting in hearing himself called Alexander the Great. By his absurd and extravagant undertakings of this kind, before the year was fully expired, he had squandered the enormous sums of money left by Tiberius. (Vicies ae septics millies IIS. -- See Sestertium).

He both claimed and receive divine worship, and was the greatest blasphemer that ever lived; yet he quailed in the conviction of a deity, and crept under his bed whenever he heard thunder. With savage inhumanity he attended executions in person, and made parents behold the merciless torments inflicted on their children. He contracted and dissolved marriages with equal caprice and dishonesty. Besides his incestuous union with Drusilla, he seized and repudiated three wives, and was at last permanently attached to Caesonia a mother of children by another man, and without your or beauty, but of depravity corresponding with his own.

Other instances of his incredible cruelty and lust may be found in Suetonius, Philo, and Dion. Such infatuations are evident tokens not only of a brutal nature, but also of a distempered intellect. Nor is it possible to entertain other than supreme contempt for the base servility of the Romans, who could offer solemn adoration to a wretch openly guilty of the most detestable and unnatural crimes; and whose adage was oderint, dum metuant (Let them hate so long as they fear).

The gold and silver coins of Caligula are of considerable rarity. Sestertii are also rare. Ases are more common, yet still expensive due to popularity of collecting the infamous emperor and because they generally exhibit good workmanship. When Caligula was destroyed, the dastardly senators, who had so recently sacrificed to him, ordered all his statues to be demolished, his acts abrogated, his money melted down and his inscriptions defaced, in order that his memory might be extinguished forever. Yet this sentence has not prevented a considerable number of his coins from reaching us, though consequently, except for ases, they are of considerable rarity when in good preservation. The coins of Caligula, minted at Rome, do not exhibit Imperator as a surname. This title is used on colonial coins. The only imperial coin of Caligula bearing IMP is a denarius.

On his coins, Caligula resembles his grandfather, but is less noble and has a malignant expression. He was at great pains to cherish this horrid index of his cruel disposition.

Gary W2
Gary W2
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-2WcIZv40JXVImci-Caligula_69.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze As11 viewsC CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT - Bare head left
VESTA SC - Vesta Seated Left, Holding Patera & Sceptre
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (37-38AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 11.61g / 29mm / 180
Rarity: Common
References:
RIC I 38
Acquisition/Sale: timeman21 Ebay

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

From The Dictionary of Roman Coins:
Caligula, the grand nephew and murderer of Tiberius, most worthy to succeed that emperor, because of an equally infamous, though not so able a tyrant, reigned from A.D. 37 to A.D. 41.

His real appellation was Caius Caesar, but about the time of Augustus' death, he, still a child, being with the army of the lower Rhine, the soldiers, with whom he was a great favorite, were accustomed in the joking parlance of the camp, to give him the nickname of Caligula (from Caligae) because he constantly appeared in the usual military leggings.

Hence Ausonius, in his poem, referring to this cruel wretch, says --

Post hunc castrensis caligae cognomine
Caesar Successit, saevo saevior ingenio.

As emperor, however, he was always called Caius, and he considered himself insulted by the name of Caligula.

He was the youngest son of Germanicus, the nephew of Tiberius and Agrippina; born in 12 A.D. on the day before the calends of September, at Antium, as Suetonius has proved at great length (in Caligula, ch. 8). In 17 A.D., he went into Syria with his father, at whose death, within two years, he returned to Rome with his mother. After she was banished, he was transferred to his great grand-mother Julia and when she diet to his grand-mother Antonia.

In 31 A.D., after the violent deaths of his brothers Nero and Drusus, and also of Sejanus, whose plots he alone had escaped he was he was the apparent successor to the empire and invested with the Pontificate.

In 33 A.D., on the same day he assumed the toga he laid aside his beard, he was nominated questor and Tiberius invited him to Capraea. He moved in with Tiberius, feigning ignorance or indifference, regarding the murder of his relations, as though it did not concern him. He so obsequiously obeyed Tiberius the it was a common expression, that "there never was a better servant, or a worse master." (Sueton, ch. 10)

In 37 A.D., Tiberius was attacked with a severe illness from which he was recovering when Caligula, at the instigation of Maero, the praetorian prefect, put and end to his life by smothering him.

Caligula entered Rome after Tiberius' death and compelled the Senate to join him, by a Senatus Consultum, in depriving Tiberius, son Drusus junior and the elder Tiberius' heir in his last will, of his right to the empire.

The funeral ceremonies of were performed with due pomp by Caligula.

On the eighth month of his reign he was attacked with severe sickness. On his recovery, he adopted his brother Tiberius, gave him the title of Princeps Juventutis, and afterwards put him to death.

In the calends of July he entered upon the office of Consul Suffectus, as colleague to his uncle Claudius, and after two months resigned it.

In 38 A.D. he conceded to Soaemus, the kingdom of Arabians of Ituraea; to Cotys, Armenia Minor; to Polemon, the son of Polemon, his father's dominions.

Dion wrote, "In a short time he assumed so much the air of a king, that all those honors, which Augustus had accepted only when duly arrived at the sovereignty, and even then with hesitation as they were decreed from time to time, and many of which Tiberius altogether declined, were by Caligula grasped in one day, with the exception only of Pater Patriae, which, however was not long deferred."

In 39 A.D., in the calends of January, he entered his second Consulate and resigned the office in thirty days. (Sueton ch. 17)

Having exhausted the treasury by his profuse expenditure on public spectacles and other extravagances, he endeavoured to repair the deficiency by the slaughter of wealthy citizens; and then proceeded to Gaul, their to practice the like system of murder and spoliation.

The name of Germanicus does not appear on coins of this year, nor ever subsequently.

In 40 A.D., Caligula, without a colleague, entered his third consulate, at Lugdunum (Lyon), in Gaul; and resigned it on the ides of January. (Sueton. ch. 17)

Having invited over from Africa, Ptolemy, the son of Juba, he put him to death on the pretence of the young prince's ostentatious bearing. (Dion, B. lix. 25)

Proceeding to the ocean, as if about to invade Britain, he ordered his soldiers to gather shell-fish, and returned as a conqueror, laden with the spoils of the sea. (Sueton. ch. 46)

L. Vitellius, prefect of Syria, the same year, gave such a lesson to Artabanus, the Persian, who was threatening an invasion of Armenia that the later abandoned his design, and paid his adoration to the statues of Augustus and of Caligula. (Dion, I. e.)

In 41 A.D., he began hid fourth consulate, on the 7th of the ides of January. Shortly afterwards (viz. on the 9th of the calends of February), he was assassinated by the conspirators Cassius Chaerea and Cornelius Sabinus.

Caligula's accession to the empire was hailed with joy by the Roman people; but their satisfaction was based on no solid foundations, being the result rather of their deep-rooted attachment to his father Germanicus. He seeming, indeed, responded to the fond wishes of the nation, by many acts of piety, justice, and moderation. But it too soon became apparent that these virtues were not of natural growth but owed their exhibition to the policy of Tiberius, who wished through their influences to consolidate his own power in the empire. For there was not act of cruelty, folly, meanness or infamy, which this monster and madman did not delight in perpetrating. He caused his horse, whom he called Incitatus, to be introduced at dinner time, setting before him gilded corn, and drinking his health in golden cups; and he would have created him consul, had he lived long enough. He imitated all the gods and goddesses, in the adoration which he caused to be paid to him, becoming by turns Jupiter, Bacchus, Hercules, Juno, Diana, and Venus. He constructed a bridge of vessels joined together from Puteoli to Baiae, and crossing over with his troops invaded puteoli and then recrossed it in a kind of triumph, delighting in hearing himself called Alexander the Great. By his absurd and extravagant undertakings of this kind, before the year was fully expired, he had squandered the enormous sums of money left by Tiberius. (Vicies ae septics millies IIS. -- See Sestertium).

He both claimed and receive divine worship, and was the greatest blasphemer that ever lived; yet he quailed in the conviction of a deity, and crept under his bed whenever he heard thunder. With savage inhumanity he attended executions in person, and made parents behold the merciless torments inflicted on their children. He contracted and dissolved marriages with equal caprice and dishonesty. Besides his incestuous union with Drusilla, he seized and repudiated three wives, and was at last permanently attached to Caesonia a mother of children by another man, and without your or beauty, but of depravity corresponding with his own.

Other instances of his incredible cruelty and lust may be found in Suetonius, Philo, and Dion. Such infatuations are evident tokens not only of a brutal nature, but also of a distempered intellect. Nor is it possible to entertain other than supreme contempt for the base servility of the Romans, who could offer solemn adoration to a wretch openly guilty of the most detestable and unnatural crimes; and whose adage was oderint, dum metuant (Let them hate so long as they fear).

The gold and silver coins of Caligula are of considerable rarity. Sestertii are also rare. Ases are more common, yet still expensive due to popularity of collecting the infamous emperor and because they generally exhibit good workmanship. When Caligula was destroyed, the dastardly senators, who had so recently sacrificed to him, ordered all his statues to be demolished, his acts abrogated, his money melted down and his inscriptions defaced, in order that his memory might be extinguished forever. Yet this sentence has not prevented a considerable number of his coins from reaching us, though consequently, except for ases, they are of considerable rarity when in good preservation. The coins of Caligula, minted at Rome, do not exhibit Imperator as a surname. This title is used on colonial coins. The only imperial coin of Caligula bearing IMP is a denarius.

On his coins, Caligula resembles his grandfather, but is less noble and has a malignant expression. He was at great pains to cherish this horrid index of his cruel disposition.
Gary W2
Caligula_and_Agripin.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze Fourre Denarius Fourree6 viewsC CAESAR AVG PON M TR POT III COS III - Laureate head right
AGRIPPINA MAT C CAES AVG GERM - Draped bust of Agrippina right
Mint: Rome (40AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 2.85g / 18mm / 180
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC I 22 (official)
Lyon 179 (official)
RSC 6 (official)
Acquisition/Sale: numismaticaprados Ebay

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

The reverse legend translates: 'Agrippina mother of Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus'

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

The accession of Gaius (Caligula) to the imperial throne on the death of his great-uncle Tiberius signalled a kind of "golden age" in that for the first time, not only did a direct biological descendant of Augustus become emperor, but one who could also claim a direct link with several important Republican figures. Through his mother, Agrippina Sr., Gaius was descended from Augustus, and also Agrippa, the victor of Actium. Gaius' father Germanaicus was the son of Nero Claudius Drusus and nephew of Tiberius, sons of Augustus' widow, Livia. Through his mother Antonia, Germanicus was the grandson of Mark Antony and Octavia, the sister of Augustus. Accordingly, many of his coins recall his dynastic connections to both the Julians and the Claudians as well as his own family, and included in their designs his mother and his three sisters.

“TO MAKE AN INEXPERIENCED AND ALMOST UNKNOWN YOUNG MAN, BROUGHT UP UNDER A SERIES OF AGED AND REPRESSIVE GUARDIANS, MASTER OF THE WORLD, ALMOST LITERALLY OVERNIGHT, ON THE SOLE RECOMMENDATION THAT HIS FATHER HAD BEEN A THOROUGHLY DECENT FELLOW WAS TO COURT DISASTER IN A QUITE IRRESPONSIBLE FASHION.”
–BARRETT, CALIGULA: THE CORRUPTION OF POWER (1990)

THE ASSASSINATION OF CALIGULA
THE emperor Caligula came to his death in the following manner:

Of course his wanton and remorseless tyranny often awakened very deep feelings of resentment, and very earnest desires for revenge in the hearts of those who suffered by it; but yet so absolute and terrible was his power, that none dared to murmur or complain. The resentment, however, which the cruelty of the emperor awakened, burned the more fiercely for being thus restrained and suppressed, and many covert threats were made, and many secret plots were formed, from time to time, against the tyrant's life.

Among others who cherished such designs, there was a man named Cassius Chærea, an officer of the army, who, though not of high rank, was nevertheless a man of considerable distinction. He was a captain, or, as it was styled in those days, a centurion. His command, therefore, was small, but it was in the prætorian cohort, as it was called, a sort of body-guard of the commander-in-chief, and consequently a very honorable corps. Chærea was thus a man of considerable distinction on account of the post which he occupied, and his duties, as captain in the life guards, brought him very frequently into communication with the emperor. He was a man of great personal bravery, too, and was on this account held in high consideration by the army. He had performed an exploit at one time, some years before, in Germany, which, had gained him great fame. It was at the time of the death of Augustus, the first emperor. Some of the German legions, and among them one in which Chærea was serving, had seized upon the occasion to revolt. They alledged many and grievous acts of oppression as the grounds of their revolt, and demanded redress for what they had suffered, and security for the future. One of the first measures which they resorted to in the frenzy of the first outbreak of the rebellion, was to seize all the centurions in the camp, and to beat them almost to death. They gave them sixty blows each, one for each of their number, and then turned them, bruised, wounded, and dying, out of the camp. Some they threw into the Rhine. They revenged themselves thus on all the centurions but one. That one was Chærea. Chærea would not suffer himself to be taken by them, but seizing his sword he fought his way through the midst of them, slaying some and driving others before him, and thus made his escape from the camp. This feat gained him great renown.

One might imagine from this account that Chærea was a man of great personal superiority in respect to size and strength, inasmuch as extraordinary muscular power, as well as undaunted courage, would seem to be required to enable a man to make his way against so many enemies. But this was not the fact. Chærea was of small stature and of a slender and delicate form. He was modest and unassuming in his manners, too, and of a very kind and gentle spirit. He was thus not only honored and admired for his courage, but he was generally beloved for the amiable and excellent qualities of his heart.

The possession of such qualities, however, could not be expected to recommend him particularly to the favor of the emperor. In fact, in one instance it had the contrary effect. Caligula assigned to the centurions of his guard, at one period, some duties connected with the collection of taxes. Chærea, instead of practicing the extortion and cruelty common on such occasions, was merciful and considerate, and governed himself strictly by the rules of law and of justice in his collections. The consequence necessarily was that the amount of money received was somewhat diminished, and the emperor was displeased. The occasion was, however, not one of sufficient importance to awaken in the monarch's mind any very serious anger, and so, instead of inflicting any heavy punishment upon the offender, he contented himself with attempting to tease and torment him with sundry vexatious indignities and annoyances.

It is the custom sometimes, in camps, and at other military stations, for the commander to give every evening, what is called the parole or password, which consists usually of some word or phrase that is to be communicated to all the officers, and as occasion may require to all the soldiers, whom for any reason it may be necessary to send to and fro [38] about the precincts of the camp during the night. The sentinels, also, all have the password, and accordingly, whenever any man approaches the post of a sentinel, he is stopped and the parole is demanded. If the stranger gives it correctly, it is presumed that all is right, and he is allowed to pass on,—since an enemy or a spy would have no means of knowing it.

Now, whenever it came to Chærea's turn to communicate the parole, the emperor was accustomed to give him some ridiculous or indecent phrase, intended not only to be offensive to the purity of Chærea's mind, but designed, also, to exhibit him in a ridiculous light to the subordinate officers and soldiers to whom he would have to communicate it. Sometimes the password thus given was some word or phrase wholly unfit to be spoken, and sometimes it was the name of some notorious and infamous woman; but whatever it was, Chærea was compelled by his duty as a soldier to deliver it to all the corps, and patiently to submit to the laughter and derision which his communication awakened among the vile and wicked soldiery.

If there was any dreadful punishment to be inflicted, or cruel deed of any kind to be performed, Caligula took great pleasure in assigning the duty to Chærea, knowing how abhorrent to his nature it must be. At one time a senator of great distinction named Propedius, was accused of treason by one of his enemies. His treason consisted, as the accuser alledged, of having spoken injurious words against the emperor. Propedius denied that he had ever spoken such words. The accuser, whose name was Timidius, cited a certain Quintilia, an actress, as his witness. Propedius was accordingly brought to trial, and Quintilia was called upon before the judges to give her testimony. She denied that she had ever heard Propedius utter any such sentiment as Timidius attributed to him. Timidius then said that Quintilia was testifying falsely: he declared that she had heard Propedius utter such words, and demanded that she should be put to the torture to compel her to acknowledge it. The emperor acceded to this demand, and commanded Chærea to put the actress to the torture.

It is, of course, always difficult to ascertain the precise truth in respect to such transactions as those that are connected with plots and conspiracies against tyrants, since every possible precaution is, of course, taken by all concerned to conceal what is done. It is probable, however, in this case, that Propedius had cherished some hostile designs against Caligula, if he had not uttered injurious words, and that Quintilia was in some measure in his confidence. It is even possible that Chærea may have been connected with them in some secret design, for it is said that when he received the orders of Caligula to put Quintilia to the torture he was greatly agitated and alarmed. If he should apply the torture severely, he feared that the unhappy sufferer might be induced to make confessions or statements at least, which would bring destruction on the men whom he most relied upon for the overthrow of Caligula. On the other hand, if he should attempt to spare her, the effect would be only to provoke the anger of Caligula against himself, without at all shielding or saving her. As, however, he was proceeding to the place of torture, in charge of his victim, with his mind in this state of anxiety and indecision, his fears were somewhat relieved by a private signal given to him by Quintilia, by which she intimated to him that he need feel no concern,—that she would be faithful and true, and would reveal nothing, whatever might be done to her.

This assurance, while it allayed in some degree Chærea's anxieties and fears, must have greatly increased the mental distress which he endured at the idea of leading such a woman to the awful suffering which awaited her. He could not, however, do otherwise than to proceed. Having arrived at the place of execution, the wretched Quintilia was put to the rack. She bore the agony which she endured while her limbs were stretched on the torturing engine, and her bones broken, with patient submission, to the end. She was then carried, fainting, helpless, and almost dead, to Caligula, who seemed now satisfied. He ordered the unhappy victim of the torture to be taken away, and directed that Propedius should be acquitted and discharged.

Of course while passing through this scene the mind of Chærea was in a tumult of agitation and excitement,—the anguish of mind which he must have felt in his compassion for the sufferer, mingling and contending with the desperate indignation which burned in his bosom against the author of all these miseries. He was wrought up, in fact, to such a state of frenzy by this transaction, that as soon as it was over he determined immediately to take measures to put Caligula to death. This was a very bold and desperate resolution. Caligula was the greatest and most powerful potentate on earth. Chærea was only a captain of his guard, without any political influence or power, and with no means whatever of screening himself from the terrible consequences which might be expected to follow from his attempt, whether it should succeed or fail.

So thoroughly, however, was he now aroused, that he determined to brave every danger in the attainment of his end. He immediately began to seek out among the officers of the army such men as he supposed would be most likely to join him,—men of courage, resolution, and faithfulness, and those who, from their general character or from the wrongs which they had individually endured from the government, were to be supposed specially hostile to Caligula's dominion. From among these men he selected a few, and to them he cautiously unfolded his designs. All approved of them. Some, it is true, declined taking any active part in the conspiracy, but they assured Chærea of their good wishes, and promised solemnly not to betray him.

The number of the conspirators daily increased. There was, however, at their meetings for consultation, some difference of opinion in respect to the course to be pursued. Some were in favor of acting promptly and at once. The greatest danger which was to be apprehended, they thought, was in delay. As the conspiracy became extended, some one would at length come to the knowledge of it, they said, who would betray them. Others, on the other hand, were for proceeding cautiously and slowly. What they most feared was rash and inconsiderate action. It would be ruinous to the enterprise, as they maintained, for them to attempt to act before their plans were fully matured.

Chærea was of the former opinion. He was very impatient to have the deed performed. He was ready himself, he said, to perform it, at any time; his personal duties as an officer of the guard, gave him frequent occasions of access to the emperor, and he was ready to avail himself of any of them to kill the monster. The emperor went often, he said, to the capitol, to offer sacrifices, and he could easily kill him there. Or, if they thought that that was too public an occasion, he could have an opportunity in the palace, at certain religious ceremonies which the emperor was accustomed to perform there, and at which Chærea himself was usually present. Or, he was ready to throw him down from a tower where he was accustomed to go sometimes for the purpose of scattering money among the populace below. Chærea said that he could easily come up behind him on such an occasion, and hurl him suddenly over the parapet down to the pavement below. All these plans, however, seemed to the conspirators too uncertain and dangerous, and Chærea's proposals were accordingly not agreed to.

At length, the time drew near when Caligula was to leave Rome to proceed to Alexandria in Egypt, and the conspirators perceived that they must prepare to act, or else abandon their design altogether. It had been arranged that there was to he a grand celebration at Rome previous to the emperor's departure. This celebration, which was to consist of games, and sports, and dramatic performances of various kinds, was to continue for three days, and the conspirators determined, after much consultation and debate, that Caligula should be assassinated on one of those days.

After coming to this conclusion, however, in general, their hearts seemed to fail them in fixing the precise time for the perpetration of the deed, and two of the three days passed away accordingly without any attempt being made. At length, on the morning of the third day, Chærea called the chief conspirators together, and urged them very earnestly not to let the present opportunity pass away. He represented to them how greatly they increased the danger of their attempts by such delays, and he seemed himself so full of determination and courage, and addressed them with so much eloquence and power, that he inspired them with his own resolution, and they decided unanimously to proceed.

The emperor came to the theater that day at an unusually early hour, and seemed to be in excellent spirits and in an excellent humor. He was very complaisant to all around him, and very lively, affable, and gay. After performing certain ceremonies, by which it devolved upon him to open the festivities of the day, he proceeded to his place, with his friends and favorites about him, and Chærea, with the other officers that day on guard, at a little distance behind him.

The performances were commenced, and every thing went on as usual until toward noon. The conspirators kept their plans profoundly secret, except that one of them, when he had taken his seat by the side of a distinguished senator, asked him whether he had heard any thing new. The senator replied that he had not. "I can then tell you something," said he, "which perhaps you have not heard, and that is, that in the piece which is to be acted to-day, there is to be represented the death of a tyrant." "Hush!" said the senator, and he quoted a verse from Homer, which meant, "Be silent, lest some Greek should overhear."

It had been the usual custom of the emperor, at such entertainments, to take a little recess about noon, for rest and refreshments. It devolved upon Chærea to wait upon him at this time, and to conduct him from his place in the theater to an adjoining apartment in his palace which was connected with the theater, where there was provided a bath and various refreshments. When the time arrived, and Chærea perceived, as he thought, that the emperor was about to go, he himself went out, and stationed himself in a passage-way leading to the bath, intending to intercept and assassinate the emperor when he should come along. The emperor, however, delayed his departure, having fallen into conversation with his courtiers and friends, and finally he said that, on the whole, as it was the last day of the festival, he would not go out to the bath, but would remain in the theater; and then ordering refreshments to be brought to him there, he proceeded to distribute them with great urbanity to the officers around him.

In the mean time, Chærea was patiently waiting in the passage-way, with his sword by his side, all ready for striking the blow the moment that his victim should appear. Of course the conspirators who remained behind were in a state of great suspense and anxiety, and one of them, named Minucianus, determined to go out and inform Chærea of the change in Caligula's plans. He accordingly attempted to rise, but Caligula put his hand upon his robe, saying, "Sit still, my friend. You shall go with me presently." Minucianus accordingly dissembled his anxiety and agitation of mind still a little longer, but presently, watching an opportunity when the emperor's attention was otherwise engaged, he rose, and, assuming an unconcerned and careless air, he walked out of the theater.

He found Chærea in his ambuscade in the passage-way, and he immediately informed him that the emperor had concluded not to come out. Chærea and Minucianus were then greatly at a loss what to do. Some of the other conspirators, who had followed Minucianus out, now joined them, and a brief but very earnest and solemn consultation ensued. After a moment's hesitation, Chærea declared that they must now go through with their work at all hazards, and he professed himself ready, if his comrades would sustain him in it, to go back to the theater, and stab the tyrant there in his seat, in the midst of his friends. Minucianus and the others concurred in this design, and it was resolved immediately to execute it.

The execution of the plan, however, in the precise form in which it had been resolved upon was prevented by a new turn which affairs had taken in the theater. For while Minucianus and the two or three conspirators who had accompanied him were debating in the passage-way, the others who remained, knowing that Chærea was expecting Caligula to go out, conceived the idea of attempting to persuade him to go, and thus to lead him into the snare which had been set for him. They accordingly gathered around, and without any appearance of concert or of eagerness, began to recommend him to go and take his bath as usual. He seemed at length disposed to yield to these persuasions, and rose from his seat; and then, the whole company attending and following him, he proceeded toward the doors which conducted to the palace. The conspirators went before him, and under pretense of clearing the way for him they contrived to remove to a little distance all whom they thought would be most disposed to render him any assistance. The consultations of Chærea and those who were with him in the inner passage-way were interrupted by the coming of this company.

Among those who walked with the emperor at this time were his uncle Claudius and other distinguished relatives. Caligula advanced along the passage, walking in company with these friends, and wholly unconscious of the fate that awaited him, but instead of going immediately toward the bath he turned aside first into a gallery or corridor which led into another apartment, where there were assembled a company of boys and girls, that had been sent to him from Asia to act and dance upon the stage, and who had just arrived. The emperor took great interest in looking at these performers, and seemed desirous of having them go immediately into the theater and let him see them perform. While talking on this subject Chærea and the other conspirators came into the apartment, determined now to strike the blow.

Chærea advanced to the emperor, and asked him in the usual manner what should be the parole for that night. The emperor gave him in reply such an one as he had often chosen before, to insult and degrade him. Chærea instead of receiving the insult meekly and patiently in his usual manner, uttered words of anger and defiance in reply; and drawing his sword at the same instant he struck the emperor across the neck and felled him to the floor. Caligula filled the apartment with his cries of pain and terror; the other conspirators rushed in and attacked him on all sides; his friends,—so far as the adherents of such a man can be called friends,—fled in dismay. As for Caligula's uncle Claudius, it was not to have been expected that he would have rendered his nephew any aid, for he was a man of such extraordinary mental imbecility that he was usually considered as not possessed even of common sense; and all the others who might have been expected to defend him, either fled from the scene, or stood by in consternation and amazement, leaving the conspirators to wreak their vengeance on their wretched victim, to the full.

In fact though while a despot lives and retains his power, thousands are ready to defend him and to execute his will, however much in heart they may hate and detest him, yet when he is dead, or when it is once certain that he is about to die, an instantaneous change takes place and every one turns against him. The multitudes in and around the theater and the palace who had an hour before trembled before this mighty potentate, and seemed to live only to do his bidding, were filled with joy to see him brought to the dust. The conspirators, when the success of their plans and the death of their oppressor was once certain, abandoned themselves to the most extravagant joy. They cut and stabbed the fallen body again and again, as if they could never enough wreak their vengeance upon it. They cut off pieces of the body and bit them with their teeth in their savage exultation and triumph. At length they left the body where it lay, and went forth into the city where all was now of course tumult and confusion.

The body remained where it had fallen until late at night. Then some attendants of the palace came and conveyed it away. They were sent, it was said, by Cæsonia, the wife of the murdered man. Cæsonia had an infant daughter at this time, and she remained herself with the child, in a retired apartment of the palace while these things were transpiring. Distracted with grief and terror at the tidings that she heard, she clung to her babe, and made the arrangements for the interment of the body of her husband without leaving its cradle. She imagined perhaps that there was no reason for supposing that she or the child were in any immediate danger, and accordingly she took no measures toward effecting an escape. If so, she did not understand the terrible frenzy to which the conspirators had been aroused, and for which the long series of cruelties and indignities which they had endured from her husband had prepared them. For at midnight one of them broke into her apartment, stabbed the mother in her chair, and taking the innocent infant from its cradle, killed it by beating its head against the wall.
Atrocious as this deed may seem, it was not altogether wanton and malignant cruelty which prompted it. The conspirators intended by the assassination of Caligula not merely to wreak their vengeance on a single man, but to bring to an end a hated race of tyrants; and they justified the murder of the wife and child by the plea that stern political necessity required them to exterminate the line, in order that no successor might subsequently arise to re-establish the power and renew the tyranny which they had brought to an end. The history of monarchies is continually presenting us with instances of innocent and helpless children sacrificed to such a supposed necessity as this.
Gary W2
new_caius_combined.jpg
Caligula RIC 001433 viewsCaligula and Agrippina AR Denarius, aF, toned, bumps and marks,
(17.84 mm, 2.680g) 180o
Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, end of 37 - early 38 A.D.;
Obv: C CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR POT (counterclockwise), laureate head of Gaius right;
Rev: AGRIPPINA MAT C CAES AVG GERM (counterclockwise), draped bust of Agrippina Senior (his mother), her hair in a queue behind, one curly lock falls loose on the side of her neck,
RIC I 14 (R) (Rome), RSC II 2; BMCRE I 15 (Rome), BnF II 24, Hunter I 7 (Rome), SRCV I 1825
Ex: the Jyrki Muona Collection, Ex: Forvm Ancient Coins.




As you can tell from the photo, this is a worn coin. All denarii of Gaius (Caligula) are scarce, and some are harder to find than others. Denarii of Claudius are also scarce. The speculation is that after Nero debased the denarii, people hoarded all of the good silver coins, and this included denarii of Claudius and Gaius. According to Gresham's law bad money drives out good money. However, this does not explain why there appears to be plenty of earlier denarii available of figures such as Tiberius and Augustus but very few of Claudius and Gaius. We may never have a satisfactory answer.

Now why do I call him Gaius. Caligula (meaning little boots) was a nickname given to Gaius when he was young and travelling with his father's (Germanicus) army. According to contemporary or near contemporary accounts he detested the name. If you were emperor I am sure you would not want to be called "Bootykins".

The reverse of this coin has a portrait of Agrippina the Elder , Gaius' mother. She reportedly starved herself to death 4 years before Gaius became emperor.
orfew
Caligula_RIC_16.jpg
Caligula RIC 001674 viewsSH86638. Silver denarius, RIC I 16 (R2, Rome), RSC I 2, Lyon 167, BnF II 21, BMCRE I 17, cf. SRCV I 1807 (aureus), VF, toned, attractive portraits, bumps and marks, some pitting, lamination defects, ex jewelry, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, weight 3.443g, maximum diameter 18.2mm, die axis 180o, 2nd emission, 37 - 38 A.D.; obverse C CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR POT (counterclockwise from lower right), laureate head of Caligula right; reverse DIVVS AVG PATER PATRIAE (counterclockwise from lower right), radiate head of Divus Augustus right; ex Classical Numismatic Group, e-auction 69 (23 July 2003), lot 90
Ex: Forum Ancient coins, March 2, 2018.


This is my second denarius of Gaius. I was extremely happy to get this one. I know the surfaces are a bit rough, but it is still a VF example of a rare coin. Denarii of Caligula do not show up for sale very often outside of large auction houses. When they do appear they are often very expensive. I waited for about 2 1/2 years for a coin like this to show up. As soon as it did I bought it.

I want to share a quick word about where I bought this coin. It was a purchase from Forum Ancient Coins. Coins are guaranteed authentic for eternity, and the service is second to none. Forum is also an incredible source of information concerning ancient coins. If you have a question about ancient coins, chances are that question has been asked and answered on Forum Ancient Coins. Many experts frequent this site and they are always willing to share their expertise.

Anyone trying to assemble a set of the 12 Caesars in silver will need to find a denarius of Gaius. His is one of the most difficult to add along with denarii of Claudius and Otho. It has also been suggested by some that it is the fault of 12 Caesars collectors that drives the prices so high. While true that there is a lot of competition for these coins when they appear, it is also true that there are alternatives to the denarii of Gaius. One popular choice is the Vesta As. These are quite common and can be had in nice condition for reasonable prices.

On the obverse we have the typical portrait of Gaius, while on the reverse we see a portrait of his great grandfather Augustus. Augustus is depicted as a Divus or god. The reverse legend "Pater Patriae" refers to Augustus as the father of the country. One reason Augustus was on the reverse was to remind the people of Rome of their emperor's connection to the Julio-Claudian ruling dynasty.

Why are denarii of Gaius so scarce? One explanation is has to do with Gresham's law or bad money drives out good money. The theory is that the monetary reforms of Nero, which debased to coinage in both weight and fineness, caused people to hoard the older more valuable coins of emperors like Caligula and Claudius. The problem with this explanation is that there are plenty of "tribute penny" denarii of Tiberius. The other possibility is that perhaps smaller numbers of Gaius' denarii were originally minted. Maybe there was already enough silver coinage circulating and therefore fewer were needed. Whatever the real reason, we are unlikely to ever get a satisfactory answer.
5 commentsorfew
coin108.JPG
Cappadocia, Caesarea; Nero25 viewsCappadocia, Caesarea

Obv: Head of Nero
Rev: Victory Seated r. on globe
ecoli
tyana_trajan_BMC3.jpg
Cappadocia, Tyana, Trajan, BMC 336 viewsTrajan, AD 98-117
AE 26, 13.86g
struck under legate T. Pomponius Bassus AD 98/99 (year 1)
obv. AVT NEROVAC TRAIAN KAICAR GER (from 1 o'clock)
Bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. EPI BA - CCOV PRECBEVT - TVANEWN (from 4 o'clock)
Tyche of Tyana, in long garment and wearing mural-crown, std. l. on cippus,
holding two grain-ears in outstretched r. hand and resting with l. hand on
cippus; beneath river-god Lamus swimming r.
in l. and r. field ET - A (year A)
BMC 3
rare, F/good F

Tyana was situated on a tributary of the river Lamus. Because the river-god sometimes holds a torch it seems to be the river Phoibos (Note of Prof.Nolle in R. Falter, Fluß- und Berggötter in der Antike)
Jochen
ireno-caracalla.jpg
Caracalla AE 27 - Irenopolis-Neronias27 viewsIrenopolis-Neronias
Cilicia
Caracalla
Obv.: [AYT KAI M AYP CЄY ANTΩNЄINOC]
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev.: [ЄIPHNOΠOΛЄITΩN ЄTOYC; ΓΞP]
Tyche standing right, presenting wreath to emperor standing left, holding spear
27 mm, 15.59 gr, 5 h
Karbach 94; SNG Pfalz 6, 638-9
Thanks to Marguerite Spoerri for attribution
2 commentsVladimir P
criciv214ORweb.jpg
Caracalla denarius, RIC IV 21413 viewsRome mint, Caracalla denarius, 212 A.D. AR, 3.248g, 19.3mm, RIC IV 214, RSC III 104, BMCRE V 73
O: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG BRIT, laureate bust right, from behind;
R: INDVLG FECVNDAE, Julia Domna as Indulgentia seated left on curule chair, wearing polos, extending right hand, scepter on left arm

Note: Curtis Clay has a theory about the type: "This type probably commemorates Caracalla's generosity (Indulgentia) in extending the Roman citizenship to all inhabitants of the Roman empire. Hence the World, towered as on Hadrian's RESTITVTORI ORBIS TERRARVM sestertius, is depicted sitting on the curule chair, symbolic of the consulship, praetorship, and curule aedileship, the highest offices open to Roman citizens."
casata137ec
ccontainerORweb.jpg
Caracalla, Schönert-Geiss, Traianopolis 125 var19 viewsTrajanopolis mint, Caracalla, 198-217 A.D. AE, 17mm 2.71g, BMC 21, Schönert-Geiss, Traianopolis 125 var.
O: AVT K M AVP ANTWNEINOC, laureate bust right
R: TPAIANOPOLEITWN Amphora with two stalks (ähren) of grain
1 commentscasata137ec
9965.jpg
Carrhae in Mesopotamia, Septimius Severus, AE 24, Lindgren 2557122 viewsCarrhae in Mesopotamia, Septimius Severus, AE 24, 193-211 AD
Av.: CEΠTIMIOC [CE]OY.... , naked (laureate?) bust of Septimius Severus right
Rv.: ..Λ]OY KAPPH ΛKA... , front view of a tetrastyle temple, the temple of the moon god Sin, in the middle a sacred stone on tripod, on top of stone: crescent, standards (with crescents on top) on both sides inside the building; another crescent in the pediment.
Lindgren 2557 ; BMC p. 82, #4

The city and the region played an important role in roman history.

Carrhae / Harran, (Akkadian Harrânu, "intersecting roads"; Latin Carrhae), an ancient city of strategic importance, an important town in northern Mesopotamia, famous for its temple of the moon god Sin, is now nothing more than a village in southeastern Turkey with an archeological site.
In the Bible it is mentioned as one of the towns where Abraham stayed on his voyage from Ur to the promised land. Abraham's family settled there when they left Ur of the Chaldeans (Genesis 11:31-32).
Inscriptions indicate that Harran existed as early as 2000 B.C. In its prime, it controlled the point where the road from Damascus joins the highway between Nineveh and Carchemish. This location gave Harran strategic value from an early date. It is frequently mentioned in Assyrian inscriptions about 1100 BC, under the name Harranu, or "Road" (Akkadian harrānu, 'road, path, journey' ).
During the fall of the Assyrian Empire, Harran became the stronghold of its lasts king, Ashur-uballit II, being besiged and conquered by Nabopolassar of Babylon at 609 BC. Harran became part of Median Empire after the fall of Assyria, and subsequently passed to the Persian Achaemenid dynasty.
The city remained Persian untill in 331 BC when the soldiers of the Macedonian king Alexander the Great entered the city.
After the death of Alexander on 11 June 323 BC, the city was claimed by his successors: Perdiccas, Antigonus Monophthalmus and Eumenes. These visited the city, but eventually, it became part of the Asian kingdom of Seleucos I (Nicator), the Seleucid empire, and capital of a province called Osrhoene (the Greek term for the old name Urhai).
The Seleucids settled Macedonian veterans at Harran. For a century-and-a-half, the town flourished, and it became independent when the Parthian dynasty of Persia occupied Babylonia. The Parthian and Seleucid kings both needed the buffer state of Osrhoene which was part of the larger Parthian empire and had nearby Edessa as its capital. The dynasty of the Arabian Abgarides, technically a vassal of the Parthian "king of kings" ruled Osrhoene for centuries.

Carrhae was the scene of a disastrous defeat of the Roman general Crassus by the Parthians. In 53 BC. Crassus, leading an army of 50.000, conducted a campaign against Parthia. After he captured a few cities on the way, he hurried to cross the Euphrates River with hopes of receiving laurels and the title of “Emperor”. But as he drove his forces over Rakkan towards Harran, Parthian cavalry besieged his forces in a pincers movement. In the ensuing battle, the Roman army was defeated and decimated. The battle of Carrhae was the beginning of a series of border wars with Parthia for many centuries. Numismatic evidence for these wars or the corresponding peace are for instance the "Signis Receptis" issues of Augustus and the “Janum Clusit” issues of Nero.
Later Lucius Verus tried to conquer Osrhoene and initially was successful. But an epidemic made an annexation impossible. However, a victory monument was erected in Ephesus, and Carrhae/Harran is shown as one of the subject towns.
Septimius Severus finally added Osrhoene to his realms in 195. The typical conic domed houses of ancient Harran can be seen on the Arch of Septimius Severus on the Forum Romanum.
Harran was the chief home of the moon-god Sin, whose temple was rebuilt by several kings. Sin was one of the great gods of the Assurian-Babylonian pantheon.
Caracalla gave Harran the status of a colonia (214 AD) and visited the city and the temple of the moon god in April 217. Meanwhile the moon god (and sacred stones) had become a part of the Roman pantheon and the temple a place to deify the roman emperors (as the standards on both sides of the temple indicate).

Caracalla was murdered while he was on his way from Temple to the palace. If this had been arranged by Macrinus - the prefect of the Praetorian guard who was to be the new emperor – is not quite clear. On the eighth of April, the emperor and his courtiers made a brief trip to the world famous temple of the moon god. When Caracalla halted to perform natural functions, he was assassinated by one of his bodyguards, Julius Martialis, who had a private grudge against the ruler, because he had not been given the post of centurion.

In 296 AD Roman control was again interrupted when nearby Carrhae the emperor Galerius was defeated by the king Narses / the Sasanid dynasty of Persia. The Roman emperor Julianus Apostata sacrificed to the moon god in 363 AD, at the beginning of his ill-fated campaign against the Sassanid Persians. The region continued to be a battle zone between the Romans and Sassanids. It remained Roman (or Byzantine) until 639, when the city finally was captured by the Muslim armies.

At that time, the cult of Sin still existed. After the arrival of the Islam, the adherents of other religions probably went to live in the marshes of the lower Tigris and Euphrates, and are still known as Mandaeans.
The ancient city walls surrounding Harran, 4 kilometer long and 3 kilometer wide, have been repaired throughout the ages (a.o. by the Byzantine emperor Justinian in the sixth century), and large parts are still standing. The position of no less than 187 towers has been identified. Of the six gates (Aleppo gate, Anatolian, Arslanli, Mosul, Baghdad, and Rakka gate), only the first one has remained.

A citadel was built in the 14th century in place of the Temple of Sin. This lies in the south-west quarter of the ancient town. Its ruin can still be visited.

my ancient coin database
1 commentsArminius
2012-07-1511.jpg
Cast Copy of Nero As27 viewsThis is a cast copy of a Nero PACE PR TERRA MARIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT, Temple of janus reverse As, RIC-65, circa AD65. It was found in France, however, a similar cast imitation was found at Carnuntum (Numismata Carnuntina, imitations #28). In the right-most image you can see a casting fault. This is not a usual casting spur as it is too wide and thin and uneven. It appears to be where metal slightly flowed out of a faulty mould.otlichnik
Castile_León_ME-1718.jpg
Castile & León: Enrique IV el Impotente (1454-1474) BI Dinero, Sevilla (ME 1718; Burgos 784)11 viewsObv: Three-towered castle; S below; all within lozenge
Rev: Crowned lion rampant left; all within lozenge
Quant.Geek
CASTILLE_--_ALFONSO_VIII_DINERO_2.jpg
CASTILLE -- ALFONSO VIII39 viewsCASTILLE -- ALFONSO VIII (1158-1214). Dinero. Obv.: Crowned bust left. ANFVS REX. Rev.: Castle with central cross and sides adorned with mintmark 5-point star. Toledo mint. Ve ABM-15. dpaul7
CASTILLE_--_ALFONSO_VIII_DINERO_1.jpg
CASTILLE -- ALFONSO VIII43 viewsCASTILLE -- ALFONSO VIII (1158-1214). Dinero. Obv.: Crowned bust left. ANFVS REX. Rev.: Castle with central cross and sides adorned with mintmark 5-point star. Toledo mint. Ve ABM-15. dpaul7
Harness_7a.jpg
Cavalry Harness Decoration - obverse75 viewsThis large harness decoration, circa early- to mid-1st century AD has extensive incised decorations which were likely filled with niello. It is often called a phalera though differes from the phalera worn on soldiers armour or belts. Exact parallels can be seen in the Romisches Museum Germany from Vindonissa and Colchester (believed to have belonged to Ala I Thracia attached to Legio XX); and in Feugere, figure 187, #2 from Hod Hill UK dating to the Neronian era. The centre hole was for a lost attachment - possibly a silver medallion.otlichnik
augusta_julia_RPC4014.jpg
Cilicia, Augusta, Julia-Livia, RPC 401433 viewsLivia, wife of Augustus, AD 14-29
AE 19, 5.2g
struck AD 67/8 (year 48), in the time of Nero
obv. IOVLIA - SEBASTH
Bust of Livia, draped, r.; hair bound in small bun in the neck
rev. AYGOYSTA - NW - N DP (year 48)
Tyche, in long garment and wearing mural-crown, std. r. on ornated throne,
holding long grain-ears in both hands; at her feet river-god Saros swimming r.
RPC 4014; cf. SNG Paris 1893; cf. SNG Levante 1238; Karbach 25.1
very rare, about VF

Saros, today Seyhan river in Turkey
Jochen
coin109.JPG
Cilicia, Mallus; Nero24 viewsCilicia Mallus
Nero
Obv Laureate Head
Rev: Facing Figure of Athena Magarsis with Shield and holding snakes
ecoli
Valerian_I,_Cilicia-Irenopolis-Neronias,_biga_of_panthers.JPG
Cilicia-Irenopolis-Neronias, biga of panthers9 viewsValerian I, Cilicia-Irenopolis-Neronias, biga of panthers. 27mm, 15.95g. Obverse: radiate and cuirassed bust right. Reverse: Dionysos facing, head left, thyrsus in left hand, kantharos in right, in split biga of panthers. SNG Levante 1623; SNG BN 2271-2. ex areich, photo credit areichPodiceps
CivilWarRIC12.jpg
Civil Wars RIC 12172 viewsCivil Wars 68-69 CE. AR Denarius (17.50 mm, 3.39 g). Spanish mint, April-June 68 CE.
O: BONI EVENTVS, Female bust right, wearing fillet; hair rolled and looped above neck
R: VICTORIA P R, Victory standing left on globe, holding wreath in right hand and palm in left
- BMCRE I 292 Note + Taf 50.2; P.-H. Martin, the anonymous coins of the year 68 AD (1974) 82 # 99 PL 9; E. P. Nicolas, De Néron à Vespasien (1979) 1308 No. 31; 1435 f 1456 # 107 Taf 14.107 B; RIC I² Nr. 12 (Spain, 68 n. Chr.) R5 (Group I). Evidently the second known. The above references are all to one example found in Münzkabinett Berlin.

Likely struck by Galba in Spain between April 6 and early June, 68 AD, that is, between the dates of his acceptance of the offer from Vindex and of his receiving news of his recognition by the Senate.

The civil wars at the end of Nero’s reign began with the revolt of the governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, Gaius Julius Vindex, probably around the beginning of March of AD 68. Vindex had claimed that he had a force of 100,000 men, and a substantial coinage was certainly needed to pay them.

Vindex offered the leadership of the revolt to Servius Sulpicius Galba, then governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, who was hailed imperator by the Spanish legions at Carthago Nova in April of the same year. The title was cautiously refused, but Galba did declare himself the legatus of the senate and people of Rome. Just a month later, Galba’s confidence would be shaken by the crushing defeat of Vindex near Besançon by the general Lucius Verginius Rufus, governor of Germania Superior. By 9 June Nero was dead, having taken his own life. Galba began his march to Rome, and his brief reign was underway.

Without an emperor to strike in the name of (save for that in honor of the “model emperor” of Roman history, Augustus) the coinage was struck with messages suiting the political climate. The coinage under Vindex possesses a more aggressive air that underscores the militant nature of his revolt, while Galba’s tends to be more constitutional and optimistic in tone. Originally struck in large numbers, as indicated by the number of types employed, the coins of the civil wars are all rare today, having been recalled after the final victory of Vespasian in 69 AD.
5 commentsNemonater
CLAUDIA5R1D+R.jpg
CLAUDIA 522 viewsTi. Claudius Ti.f. Ap.Nero (c. BC 79)Rugser
POPPAEA-1.jpg
Claudia Neronis (Lived 4 months). Daughter of Nero and Poppaea. Augusta, 63 CE.228 viewsSyria, Trachonitis. Caesarea Panias.
Æ 19mm (5.34g), struck AD 65 under Nero.
Obv: DIVA POPPAEA AVG, distyle temple of Diva Poppaea, female figure within.
Rev: DIVA CLAVD NER F, round hexastyle temple of Diva Claudia, female figure within.
RPC I 4846; Hendin 578; Sear 2058; Vagi 746.

The only coin issued for baby Claudia.
EmpressCollector
Claudia Octavia.jpg
Claudia Octavia, daughter of Claudius and Valeria Messalina, first wife of Nero. Augusta, 54-62 CE.250 viewsAlexandria, Egypt, Billon tetradrachm (25mm, 11.1gm), struck AD 56-7.
Obv: NER KLAU KAIS SEB GER AUTO, laur. hd. of Nero, r.
Rev: OKTAOUIA SEBASTOU, dr. bust of Octavia, r., L Gamma (=regnal year 3) before.
RPC 5202; BMCG 119; SGI 657; Cologne 122; Milne 133.
1 commentsEmpressCollector
48.jpg
CLAUDIO, asse (41-50 d.C.)83 viewsClaudio (Tiberius Claudius Nero Germanicus) augusto (41-54 d.C.). Asse, zecca di Roma (41-50 d.C.)
AE, gr. 9,4; mm. 29,0; 180°; porosità, altrimenti MB
D/ TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, testa laureata a sin
R/ LIBERTAS AVGVSTA, SC nel campo. Libertas stante a dx. con pileus nella mano dx e mano sin. distesa
BMC 185.145, Cohen 47, Sear 638
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (14 maggio 2008, numero catalogo 68d); ex collezione A. B. (Venezia, Italia, fino al 2008).
paolo
Keizer_Claudius_RIC_83.jpg
Claudius54 viewsClaudius, denarius.
RIC 83.
17 mm, 3.62 g.
Obv. TI CLAVD CAESAR AVG GERM P M TRIB POT PP, laureate head of Claudius right.
Rev. NERO CLAVD CAES DRVSVS GERM PRINC IVVENT, draped bust of Nero right.
2 commentsMarsman
ClaudAntoniaTet.jpg
Claudius & Antonia Tetradrachm171 viewsTI KΛAY∆I KAIΣ ΣEBA ΓEPMANI AYTOKP
laureate head right, date LB (year 2) before

ANTΩNIA ΣEBAΣTH
bust of Antonia right, hair in queue

29 Sep 41 - 28 Sep 42 A.D.

Alexandria mint

11.054g, 23.2mm, die axis 0o,

RPC 5117; Geissen 62; Milne 61; BMC Alexandria p. 9, 65; Dattari 114; SNG Milan 620, SNG Cop 57; Sommer 12.3, Emmett 73

Scarce

Ex-Forum

Antonia was the youngest daughter of Mark Antony and Octavia. She was a niece of the Emperor Augustus, sister-in-law of the Emperor Tiberius, paternal grandmother of the Emperor Caligula and Empress Agrippina the Younger, mother of the Emperor Claudius, and both maternal great-grandmother and paternal great-aunt of the Emperor Nero. She was additionally the maternal great-aunt of the Empress Valeria Messalina and Faustus Cornelius Sulla Felix, and paternal grandmother of Claudia Antonia, Claudia Octavia, and Britannicus.
3 commentsJay GT4
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-RxkXwWaOx2TyMMi-Claudius_Spes.jpg
Claudius (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius5 viewsTI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TR P IMP - Head of Claudius, laureate, right
SPES AVGVSTA S C - Spes, draped, advancing left, holding flower in right hand and raising skirt with left
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (41-50AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 24.20g / 33mm / 180
Rarity: Common
References:
RIC 1-Claudius 99
Acquisition/Sale: numismatellussxtabilita Ebay

The Gary R. Wilson Collection
"Nobody is familiar with his own profile, and it comes as a shock, when one sees it in a portrait, that one really looks like that to people standing beside one. For one's full face, because of the familiarity that mirrors give it, a certain toleration and even affection is felt; but I must say that when I first saw the model of the gold piece that the mint-masters were striking for me I grew angry and asked whether it was intended to be a caricature. My little head with its worried face perched on my long neck, and the Adam's apple standing out almost like a second chin, shocked me. But Messalina said: "No, my dear, that's really what you look like. In fact, it is rather flattering than otherwise." -- From the novel "Claudius the God: And His Wife Messalina" by Robert Graves

The fact that Claudius choses Spes, the goddess of hope, to occupy such a prominent place on his coinage, makes it clear
that she was present in his thoughts. Carson suggests the type was introduced in the accession year of 41 because his own
birthday, August 1, was the day of the vota to Spes, and in that accession year, Claudius invoked her assistance on behalf
of his newborn son, Britannicus.
Spes was also the goddess of the future, which gave her a prominent role in certain kinds of occasions, especially weddings
and births, the latter of which made her valuable to children. With all of this in mind, his choice of Spes was especially
appropriate during the event-filled year of 41.
Carson notes that the Spes type afterward became a standard dynastic type for imperial heirs. In this case the reverse
inscription, SPES AVGVSTA, takes on a more complete dimension by suggesting hope for the empire through the
imperial family. Kent notes that by the time the later Spes sestertii were minted by Claudius, the “hope” of the Imperial
succession had been transferred from Britannicus to his adopted son, Nero.
The existence of numerous temples and altars to Spes in the capital, and the fine renderings of the goddess on Claudius’
sestertii suggest they are based upon a statuary prototype – perhaps one of great antiquity, considering its archaizing
qualities.
Gary W2
Claudius_Æ_Sestertiu.jpg
Claudius (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 6 viewsTI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P - Laureate head right, NCAPR counterstamp behind bust
EX S C / P P / OB CIVES / SERVATOS - Legend within wreath
Mint: Rome (50-54AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 23.42g / 36.39mm / 180
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC² 112
Cohen 38
BMC 185
Sear 1850
Provenances:
Marc Breitsprecher
Old Roman Coins.Com
Acquisition/Sale: Ancient Imports Internet $0.00 8/17
The Gary R. Wilson Collection


The countermark NCAPR was applied to numerous orichalcum coins of the reigns of Tiberius and Claudius. NCAPR is most often explained as "Nero Caesar Augustus Populo Romano." Others believe NCAPR abbreviates "Nummus Caesare Augusto Probatus" or "Nero Caesar Augustus Probavit" (probavit means approved). Excavations of the Meta Sudans and the northeastern slope of the Palatine Hill in Rome indicate that this countermark was applied for Nero's congiarium (distribution to the people) in 57 A.D., which supports the Populo Romano interpretation. Varieties of this relatively common countermark are identified by some authors as applied in either Italy, Spain or Gaul. The countermark is not found on coins bearing the name or portrait of Caligula. Clearly any coins of Caligula that were still in circulation and collected for application of the countermark were picked out and melted down, in accordance with his damnatio, rather than being countermarked and returned to circulation. A NCAPR countermark has, however, been found on a Vespasian dupondius which, if genuine and official, seems to indicate the N may refer to Nerva, not Nero.



The wreath on the reverse is the corona civica, the oak wreath awarded to Roman citizens ex senatus consulto (by special decree of the Senate) for saving the life of another citizen by slaying an enemy in battle. It became a prerogative for Roman emperors to be awarded the Civic Crown, originating with Augustus, who was awarded it in 27 B.C. for saving the lives of citizens by ending the series of civil wars.

NCAPR counterstamp of Nero behind bust.

From The Museum of Countermarks on Roman Coins website:
There are several interpretations of what this, the most interesting of all Julio-Caludian ctmk., means. The two most likely are:
1. Nero Ceasar Augustus Populi Romani
2. Nero Caesar Augustus Probavit
In the first instance it is a congiarium or public dole given by Nero to the people of Rome. In the second, it is a revalidation of the earlier coins of ones predecessors still in circulation.
Possible is also a later use, eg. by Nerva, or that no emperors name was part of the countermark.

Previously believed to be applied during the reign of Nero, a specimen in the Pangerl collection appears on an as of Vespasian, necessitating a later date for the series. Three distinct production centers can be identified for this issue, in Spain, Gaul, and Italy. The Italian type is distinguished by the frequent joining of the letters NC at the base.

NCAPR (Nummus Caesare Augusto PRobatus?) in rectangular countermark-Translated-'Money Caesar Augustus Approved'
Gary W2
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-oXfGCiAQjcBiF-Claudius_arch.jpg
Claudius (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius5 viewsTI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P - Laureate head right with NCAPR countermark behind head.
NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMAN IMP, S C - Arch of Nero Claudius Drusus: triumphal arch consisting of single arch & decorated piers set on raised base with four columns supporting ornate attic.
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (42AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 24.20g / 35mm / 180
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC 114
Cohen 48
BMC 187
Acquisition/Sale: shpadoinkle24 Ebay $0.00 8/17
Notes: Jan 9, 19 - NCAPR Countermark

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Nero Claudius Drusus was Tiberius' younger brother. He was a successful general but died at only 29 after a fall from his horse. He married Antonia, daughter of Mark Antony and Octavia. Their sons were Germanicus and Claudius. Claudius issued his coins.

From CNG:
The Arch of Nero Claudius Drusus was erected by order of the Senate sometime after the death of Drusus in 9 BC. Located on the Via Appia, it commemorated his victories along the German frontier. Eventually, the presence of the arch may have lent its name to the surrounding region, known colloquially as the vicus Drusianus (Drusus' district). By the late fourth century AD, the arch may have survived as the arch then known as the arcus Recordationis (Arch of Remembrance).

Claudius, 25 January 41 - 13 October 54 A.D.
Claudius was one of the most capable, yet unlikely emperors. Shunned as an idiot by his family due to a limp and embarrassing stutter, Claudius spent the first decades of his life absorbed in scholarly studies until the death of his nephew Caligula. After Caligula's murder, the Praetorian Guard found him hiding behind a curtain in the Imperial Palace, expecting to be murdered. Instead, the guard proclaimed him emp