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Search results - "antonia"
DenMAntonioLegIII.jpg
181 viewsLegionary Denarius - 32/31 BC. - Mint moving with Mark Anthony (Patrae?)
MARCVS ANTONIVS - Gens Antonia
Obv.: ANT AVG III VIR R P C, Praetorian galley right
Rev.: LEG III, eagle between standards.
Gs. 3,6 mm. 17,20x17,96
Craw. 544/15, Sear 1479, Grueber II (East) 193

2 commentsMaxentius
aajudaeabrit.jpg
31 viewsCaesarea, Paneas. AE23.
Obv : head of Claudius
Rev : His 3 children : Antonia, Britannicus and Octavia

Ref : RPC 4842
Hen-567
This coin type seems questionable to place under the coinage of Agrippa II since the legends do not mention Agrippa and the time of minting does not conform to the other Agrippa II coins. We will notice the absence of Agrippa's name in other issues as well. At the very least, though, it was struck at Caesarea-Paneas, so it is definitely part of the city coinage. It is catalogued in The Numismatic Legacy of the Jews in the city coinage section as #208.
R. Smits, Numismatist for Numismall
POSTUMUS-1.jpg
35 viewsPOSTUMUS - 260/268 AD -Billon Antonianius - Lugdunum mint
Obv:IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
REv: VIRTVS AVG, Mars standing right, holding spear and leaning on shield
Gms 3,1, mm. 23,3
RIC 93, Cohen 419
1 commentsMaxentius
antoniad.jpg
(0010) ANTONIA17 views(daughter of Mark Antony; mother of Claudius; grandmother of Caligula)
b. ca. 36 BC, d. 37 AD
AE ORICHALCUM DUPONDIUS 28.5 11.98 g
STRUCK BY CLAUDIUS, ca. 50 - 54 AD
O: ANTONIA AVGVSTA, bare-headed bust right, hair in long plait
R: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP (P P) S C, Claudius veiled and togate, standing left, holding simpulum
RIC 1 104
laney
Gordian_RIC_71.jpg
1 Gordian III23 viewsGORDIAN III
AR Antonianus, Rome Mint
240 AD

O: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right

R: VIRTVS AVG, Virtus standing front, head left, in military dress, holding branch and spear, shield resting against right foot

RIC IV-3 71; Cohen 388; Sear (5) 8669
Sosius
Gordian_RIC_71_no_2.jpg
1 Gordian III16 viewsGORDIAN III
AR Antonianus, Rome Mint
240 AD

O: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right

R: VIRTVS AVG, Virtus standing front, head left, in military dress, holding branch and inverted spear, shield resting against right foot

RIC IV-3 71 (var. due to inverted spear?); Cohen 388; Sear (5) 8669
Sosius
Gordian_III_Ant_1.jpg
1 Gordian III15 viewsGordian III
AR Antonianus, Rome Mint
238-239 AD

O: IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right

R: IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing front, with head left, thunderbolt in right hand, over Emperor standing left

RIC IV-3 2; Sear (5) 8614
1 commentsSosius
Gordian_III_RIC_143.jpg
1 Gordian III18 viewsGordian III
AR Antonianus, Rome Mint
243-4 AD

O: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG

R: FORTVNA REDVX, Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopiae, wheel under seat

RIC IV-3 144; Cohen 98 corr.; Sear (5) 8612
Sosius
Gordian_III_RIC_145.jpg
1 Gordian III9 viewsGordian III
AR Antonianus, Rome Mint
243-4 AD

O: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG

R: MARS PROPVG, Mars advancing right, holding transverse spear and shield

RIC IV-3 145; Cohen 155; Sear (5) 8623
Sosius
Gordian_III_RSC_105.jpg
1 Gordian III10 viewsGordian III
AR Antonianus, Rome Mint
238-239 AD

O: IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right

R: IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing front, with head left, thunderbolt in right hand, over Emperor standing left

RIC IV-3 2; Sear (5) 8614
Sosius
Gordian_III_RIC_37.jpg
1 Gordian III15 viewsGORDIAN III
AR Antonianus, Rome Mint
240 AD

O: IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG

R: PM TR P II COS PP, Emperor, standing front, head left by altar, togate and veiled, holding patera over altar and wand

RIC IV-3 37: Cohen 210; Sear 5 8637
Sosius
Gordian_III_Rsc_91.jpg
1 Gordian III12 viewsGORDIAN III
AR Antonianus, Rome Mint
241-243 AD

O: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG

R: PM TR P III COS II PP, Emperor standing right in military dress, holding transverse spear and globe

RIC IV-3 91; Cohen 242; Sear (5) 8644
Sosius
Gordian_III_RIC_145_2.jpg
1 Gordian III13 viewsGordian III
AR Antonianus, Rome Mint
243-4 AD

O: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG

R: MARS PROPVG, Mars advancing right, holding transverse spear and shield

RIC IV-3 145; Cohen 155; Sear (5) 8623
Sosius
tetricusII.jpg
Tetricus II, RIC 272 Colonia Agrippina, 273-274 CE.23 viewsAE Antonia Of Tetricus II as Caesar
Obverse: C PIV ESV TETRICVS CAES, draped and radiated bust right.
Reverse: SPES P VBLICA, Speas walking left, holding flower.
Mint (Koln) Colonia Agrippina RIC 272
Colonia20.8 mm., 3.1 g.
NORMAN K
postume-mars.JPG
RIC.57 Postumus: antoninianus (P M TR P IIII COS III P P)18 viewsPostumus, Gallic emperor (usurper) (260-269)
Antonianus: P M TR P IIII COS III P P (3rd émission, 1st phase, 263-265, Trèves)

Billon (150 ‰), 4.27 g, diameter 21 mm, die axis 1 h

A/ IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG; radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ PP M TR P-IIII-COS III PP; Mars walking right with spear and trophy.

EG.36
Droger
antonia.jpg
(0010) ANTONIA55 views(daughter of Mark Antony; mother of Claudius; grandmother of Caligula)
b. ca. 36 BC, d. 37 AD
AE ORICHALCUM DUPONDIUS 28.5 11.98 g
STRUCK BY CLAUDIUS, ca. 50 - 54 AD
O: ANTONIA AVGVSTA, bare-headed bust right, hair in long plait
R: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP (P P) S C, Claudius veiled and togate, standing left, holding simpulum
RIC 1 104
laney
antoniadx.jpg
(0010) ANTONIA7 viewsANTONIA
(daughter of Mark Antony; mother of Claudius; grandmother of Caligula)
b. ca. 36 BC, d. 37 AD
AE ORICHALCUM DUPONDIUS 28.5 11.98 g
STRUCK BY CLAUDIUS, ca. 50 - 54 AD
O: ANTONIA AVGVSTA, bare-headed bust right, hair in long plait
R: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP (P P) S C, Claudius veiled and togate, standing left, holding simpulum
RIC 1 104
laney
Marcus-Antonius_AR-Den_LEG-II_ANT-AVG-III__VIR_R_P_C__Crafw-_Syd-_RSC-_Q-001_5h_17,5mm_3,29ga-s.jpg
001a Marc Antony ( 83-30 B.C.), Crawf 544-14, AR-denarius, LEG-II, ANT AVG III VIR•R•P•C•, Praetorian galley right,68 views001a Marc Antony ( 83-30 B.C.), Crawf 544-14, AR-denarius, LEG-II, ANT AVG III VIR•R•P•C•, Praetorian galley right,
avers:- LEG-II, legionary eagle (aquila) between two standards.
revers:- ANT-AVG-III-VIR•R•P•C•, Praetorian galley sailing right, mast with banners at prow.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5mm, weight: 3,29g, axes: 5h,
mint: Legionary Denarius, date: 32-31 B.C., ref: Crawford-544/14, Sydneham-1216, RSC-27, BMCRR East 185-225; Babelon: Antonia 101; Sydenham 1212 ; Catalli 2001,886.
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
7117LG.jpg
005a. Antonia74 viewsF/F Antonia Dupondis



Attribution: RIC 92
Date: 41-54 AD
Obverse: ANTONIA AVGVSTA, bust r.
Reverse: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P S C. Claudius standing left, holding simpulum
Size: 29.04 mm
Weight: 10.2 grams

Check
ecoli73
coin312.JPG
005a. Antonia35 viewsAntonia

she exposed a plot between her daughter Livilla and Sejanus, Tiberius's Praetorian Prefect. This led to Sejanus's downfall and to the death of Livilla. Claudius, her biggest disappointment (she once called him a "monster") was the only one of her children to survive her.

She committed suicide in 37 AD on Caligula's orders after expressing unhappiness over the murder of her youngest grandson, Tiberius Gemellus. There is a passage in Suetonius's "Life of Gaius" that mentions how Caligula may have given her poison himself. Renowned for her beauty and virtue, Antonia spent her long life revered by the Roman people and enjoyed many honors conferred upon her by her relatives.

Æ Dupondius (10.61 gm). Struck by Claudius. Draped bust right / Claudius standing left, holding simpulum. RIC I 92 (Claudius); BMCRE 166 (same); Cohen 6. Ex-CNG

Check
ecoli
4020447.jpg
005bb. Antonia, daughter of Claudius 5 viewsJUDAEA, Roman Administration. Claudius, with Britannicus, Antonia, and Octavia. AD 41-54. Æ (23mm, 12.02 g, 12h). Caesarea Panias mint. Struck before 49 CE. Laureate head of Claudius left / The children of Claudius: from left to right, Antonia, Britannicus, and Octavia, the two daughters each holding a cornucopia. Meshorer 350; Hendin 1259; Sofaer 83; RPC I 4842. Fair, green and brown patina with touches of red. Rare.ecoli
007_Antonia_ANTONIA_AVGVSTA_TI_CLAVDIVS_CAESAR_AVG_P_M_TR_P_IMP_RIC-I_92_(Claudius)_C-6_BMC-166_41-50-AD_Q-001_10h_26,5mm_9,54y-s.jpg
007 Antonia (?-37 A.D.), RIC I 092 (Claudius), Rome, AE-As(?), (Claudius) Claudius, togate, standing left, S C at sides,136 views007 Antonia (?-37 A.D.), RIC I 092 (Claudius), Rome, AE-As(?), (Claudius) Claudius, togate, standing left, S C at sides,
Antonia, mother of Claudius. Died 37 AD.
avers:- ANTONIA AVGVSTA, draped bust of Antonia right.
revers:- TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, S-C across field, Claudius, togate, standing left, holding simpulum.
exerg: S/C//--, diameter: 26,5mm, weight: 9,54g, axes:10h,
mint: Rome, date: Struck circa 41-50 A.D., ref: RIC I 92 (Claudius), Cohen 6, BMCRE 166 (Claudius),
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Personajes_Imperiales_1.jpg
01 - Personalities of the Empire82 viewsPompey, Brutus, Julius Caesar, Marc Antony, Augustus, Livia, Caius & Lucius, Agrippa, Nero Claudius Drusus, Germanicus, Agrippina Sr., Tiberius, Drusus and Antonia1 commentsmdelvalle
10a.jpg
010a Antonia. AE dupondus 14.4gm30 viewsrev: ANTONIA AVGVSTA drp. bust r.
rev: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TR P Imp. Claudius veiled and togate std. l.,
r. holding simpulem/ SC
"doughter of M. Antony, wife of N.C Drusus"
hill132
10b.jpg
010b Antonia. AE dupondus 19 viewsobv: ANTONIA AVGVSTA drp. bust r.
rev: TI CLAUDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TR P IMP Claudius veiled and togate,
holding simpulum/SC
hill132
11a.jpg
011a Germanicus. AE As 10.96gm38 viewsobv: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N bare head l.
rev: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG PM TR P IIII PP/SC
"son of N.C.Drusus and Antonia"
1 commentshill132
011_Caligula_and_Antonia,_(37-41_A_D_),_AE22,Thessalonika,Macedon,Q-001_22mm_9,07g-s.jpg
011p Gaius (Caligula) and Antonia??, (37-41 A.D.), Macedonia, Thessalonica, RPC 1573, AE22, Head of Antonia left,73 views011p Gaius (Caligula) and Antonia??, (37-41 A.D.), Macedonia, Thessalonica, RPC 1573, AE22, Head of Antonia left,
avers: Γ.KAIΣAP ΣEBAΣTOΣ, Laureate head of Gaius Caligula left,
reverse: ΓEPMANIKOΣ C(?)E.ΘEΣΣAΛONIKEΩN, Head of Antonia left.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 22mm, weight: 9,07g, axis: 5h,
mint: Macedonia, Thessalonica, date: 37-41 A.D., ref: RPC 1573 ???,
Q-001
quadrans
Antonia_03_portrait.jpg
036 BC - AD 037 - ANTONIA10 viewsAntonia

Antonia 36 BC - 37 was the younger of two daughters of Mark Antony and Octavia Minor. She was a niece of the Emperor Augustus, sister-in-law of the Emperor Tiberius, paternal grandmother of the Emperor Caligula and Empress Agrippina the Younger, mother of the Emperor Claudius, and both maternal great-grandmother and paternal great-aunt of the Emperor Nero

for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
007~1.JPG
041 Germanicus 18 viewsGermanicus Æ As struck under Claudius. GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N, bare head right / TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P around S-C



"Germanicus, Father of Gaius Caesar(Caligula), son of Drusus and Antonia the Younger, was adopted by Tiberius, his paternal uncle."
Randygeki(h2)
RIC_92_Dupondio_Antonia.jpg
12-01 - ANTONIA (36 A.C. - 37 D.C.)22 viewsAE Dupondio 27 mm 10.2 gr. (IMITACIÓN PROVINCIAL)
Hija de Marco Antonio y Octavia, nieta de Augusto, esposa de Nero Claudius Drusus y madre de Germánico y Claudio. Emisión póstuma acuñada por su hijo Claudio

Anv: "ANTONIA [AVG]VSTA" - Busto vestido viendo a derecha.
Rev: "TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM [TR P] IMP - S C" - Claudio de pié a izquierda, vistiendo toga y velo, portando Simpulum en mano derecha extendida y pergamino enrollado en izquierda.

Acuñada 41 - 42 D.C.
Ceca: Inicialmente acreditada por mí a Roma, pero finalmente corregida esta acreditación por el Sr. Curtis Clay como una imitación Provincial.

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #92 Pag.127 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 (Claudius) #1902 Pag.375 - BMCRE #166 - Cohen Vol.1 #6 Pag.223 - DVM #3 Pag.77 - CBN (Claudius) #143 - Von Kaenel Tipo 15 #292 (V216/R262)
mdelvalle
Dupondio ANTONIA RIC 92.jpg
12-1 - ANTONIA (36 A.C. - 37 D.C.)70 viewsAE Dupondio 27 mm 10.2 gr. (IMITACIÓN PROVINCIAL)
Hija de Marco Antonio y Octavia, nieta de Augusto, esposa de Nero Claudius Drusus y madre de Germánico y Claudio. Emisión póstuma acuñada por su hijo Claudio

Anv: "ANTONIA [AVG]VSTA" - Busto vestido viendo a derecha.
Rev: "TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM [TR P] IMP - S C" - Claudio de pié a izquierda, vistiendo toga y velo, portando Simpulum en mano derecha extendida y pergamino enrollado en izquierda.

Acuñada 41 - 42 D.C.
Ceca: Inicialmente acreditada por mí a Roma, pero finalmente corregida esta acreditación por el Sr. Curtis Clay como una imitación Provincial.

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #92 Pag.127 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 (Claudius) #1902 Pag.375 - BMCRE #166 - Cohen Vol.1 #6 Pag.223 - DVM #3 Pag.77 - CBN (Claudius) #143 - Von Kaenel Tipo 15 #292 (V216/R262)
mdelvalle
RI_132ye_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 084 var - Bust Type F (Lugdunum) (IIII)24 viewsAntonianus
Obv:– IMP C PROBVS • P • F • AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– MARS VICTOR, Mars walking right, holding spear and trophy
Minted in Lugdunum (//IIII) Emission 6, Officina 4. A.D. 278 - A.D. 279
Reference:– Cohen 334. Bastien –. Bastien Suppl. II 294B (this example). RIC 84 Bust Type F var (officina)

Paul Francis Jacquier - Auction 45 (2018) - Lot 1374
ex-Philippe Gysen Collection
Paul Francis Jacquier Auction 21 (1998), Lot 557

The only known example from this officina.
3 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_132wb_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 106 - Bust Type G (Lugdunum) (I)41 viewsAntonianus
Obv:– VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Radiate, helmeted, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield
Rev:– TEMPOR FELICI, Felicitas standing right, holding caduceus and cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (I) Emission 5, Officina 1. End A.D. 277 – Early A.D. 278
Reference:– Bastien 209 (11 examples cited). RIC 106 Bust Type G.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_132vo_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 157 Bust Type F18 viewsAntonianus
Obv:– IMP PROBVS AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– ADVENTVS AVG, Emperor on horseback left, raising hand and holding a sceptre, squashed captive underfoot
Minted in Rome (R crescent S) Emission 4 Officina 6. A.D. 279
Reference:– RIC 157 Bust type F
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_132vp_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 169 Bust Type F15 viewsAntonianus
Obv:– IMP PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– FIDES MILITVM, Fides standing left, holding two ensigns
Minted in Rome (R Thunderbolt E) Emission 6, Officina 5. A.D. 281
Reference:– RIC 169 Bust type F
maridvnvm
RI_132vr_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 170 Bust Type F17 viewsAntonianus
Obv:–PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:–FIDES MILITVM, Fides standing left, holding two ensigns
Minted in Rome (RIE) Emission 7 Officina 5. A.D. 282
Reference:– RIC 170 Bust type F

3.16g, 22.89mm, 180o
maridvnvm
RI_132vn_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 213 Bust Type F21 viewsAntonianus
Obv:– IMP PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– VICTORIA AVG, Victory walking left, holding wreath and trophy
Minted in Rome (//R thunderbolt Stigma) Emission 6 Officina 5. A.D. 281
Reference:– RIC 213 Bust type F
maridvnvm
RI_132xz_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 573 Bust Type F24 viewsAntonianus
Obv:–IMP C PROBVS AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SECVRIT PERP, Securitas standing left, legs crossed, leaning on column, right hand raised to head
Minted in Ticinum (Cursive Digamma XXI). 6th emission, second phase (with XXI), A.D. 279
Reference:– RIC 573 Bust type F (C).

4.98 gms, 23.65 mm. 180 degrees.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_132ya_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 722 var30 viewsAntonianus
Obv:–VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust left, with spear
Rev:– PROVIDENT AVG, Providentia standing left, holding globe and sceptre
Minted in Siscia (_ | Q / XXI). 7th emission, A.D. 280
Reference:– RIC 722 var. (Unlisted bust type). This bust type also unlisted in Alföldi as is this officina

3.93 gms.21.61 mm. 180 degrees.
3 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_132vt_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 862 Bust Type H21 viewsAntonianus
Obv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in a spread quadriga facing, radiate, cloak billowing out behind, raising right hand, holding whip in left
Minted in Serdica (KAB) Emission 4, Officina 2. Minted A.D. 277.
Reference:– RIC 862 Bust type H

Nearly filly silvered.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
GermanicusAsSC.jpg
1an Germanicus36 viewsAdopted by Tiberius in 4 AD, died mysteriously in 19

As, struck by Caligula

Bare head, left, GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N
C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT SC

RIC 57

Germanicus Julius Caesar (c16 BC-AD 19) was was born in Lugdunum, Gaul (modern Lyon). At birth he was named either Nero Claudius Drusus after his father or Tiberius Claudius Nero after his uncle. He received the agnomen Germanicus, in 9 BC, when it was posthumously awarded to his father in honour of his victories in Germania. Germanicus was the grandson-in-law and great-nephew of the Emperor Augustus, nephew and adoptive son of the Emperor Tiberius, father of the Emperor Caligula, brother of the Emperor Claudius, and the maternal grandfather of the Emperor Nero. He married his maternal second cousin Agrippina the Elder, a granddaughter of Augustus, between 5 and 1 BC. The couple had nine children. Two died very young; another, Gaius Julius Caesar, died in early childhood. The remaining six were: Nero Caesar, Drusus Caesar, the Emperor Caligula, the Empress Agrippina the Younger, Julia Drusilla, and Julia Livilla.

According to Suetonius: Germanicus, who was the son of Drusus the Elder and Antonia the Younger, was adopted (in 4AD) by Germanicus’s paternal uncle, Tiberius. He served as quaestor (in7AD) five years before the legal age and became consul (in12AD) without holding the intermediate offices. On the death of Augustus (in AD14) he was appointed to command the army in Germany, where, his filial piety and determination vying for prominence, he held the legions to their oath, though they stubbornly opposed Tiberius’s succession, and wished him to take power for himself.

He followed this with victory in Germany, for which he celebrated a triumph (in 17 AD), and was chosen as consul for a second time (18 AD) though unable to take office as he was despatched to the East to restore order there. He defeated the forces of the King of Armenia, and reduced Cappadocia to provincial status, but then died at Antioch, at the age of only thirty-three (in AD 19), after a lingering illness, though there was also suspicion that he had been poisoned. For as well as the livid stains which covered his body, and the foam on his lips, the heart was found entire among the ashes after his cremation, its total resistance to flame being a characteristic of that organ, they say, when it is filled with poison.

All considered Germanicus exceptional in body and mind, to a quite outstanding degree. Remarkably brave and handsome; a master of Greek and Latin oratory and learning; singularly benevolent; he was possessed of a powerful desire and vast capacity for winning respect and inspiring affection.

His scrawny legs were less in keeping with the rest of his figure, but he gradually fleshed them out by assiduous exercise on horseback after meals. He often killed enemy warriors in hand-to-hand combat; still pleaded cases in the courts even after receiving his triumph; and left various Greek comedies behind amongst other fruits of his studies.

At home and abroad his manners were unassuming, such that he always entered free or allied towns without his lictors.

Whenever he passed the tombs of famous men, he always offered a sacrifice to their shades. And he was the first to initiate a personal search for the scattered remains of Varus’s fallen legionaries, and have them gathered together, so as to inter them in a single burial mound.

As for Germanicus, Tiberius appreciated him so little, that he dismissed his famous deeds as trivial, and his brilliant victories as ruinous to the Empire. He complained to the Senate when Germanicus left for Alexandria (AD19) without consulting him, on the occasion there of a terrible and swift-spreading famine. It was even believed that Tiberius arranged for his poisoning at the hands of Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso, the Governor of Syria, and that Piso would have revealed the written instructions at his trial, had Tiberius not retrieved them during a private interview, before having Piso put to death. As a result, the words: ‘Give us back Germanicus!’ were posted on the walls, and shouted at night, all throughout Rome. The suspicion surrounding Germanicus’ death (19 AD) was deepened by Tiberius’s cruel treatment of Germanicus’s wife, Agrippina the Elder, and their children.
1 commentsBlindado
CaligulaAsVesta.jpg
1ao Caligula30 views37-41

As
Bare head, left, C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT
Vesta std, VESTA SC

RIC 38

The son of Germanicus, modern research suggests, was not as bad a ruler as history generally supposes, but the winners write the history, and Caligula had the dubious honor of being the first loser to die in the purple at the hand of assassins.

Suetonius recorded: Gaius Caesar (Caligula) was born on the 31st of August AD12, in the consulship of his father, Germanicus, and Gaius Fonteius Capito. The sources disagree as to his place of birth. Gnaeus Lentulus Gaetulicus claims it was Tibur (Tivoli), Pliny the Elder, says it was among the Treveri in the village of Ambitarvium, above Confluentes (the site of Koblenz) at the junction of the Moselle and Rhine. . . . His surname Caligula (‘Little Boot’) was bestowed on him affectionately by the troops because he was brought up amongst them, dressed in soldier’s gear.

Caligula accompanied his father, Germanicus, to Syria (in AD 19). On his return, he lived with his mother, Agrippina the Elder until she was exiled (in 29 AD), and then with his great-grandmother Livia. When Livia died (in 29 AD), he gave her eulogy from the rostra even though he was not of age. He was then cared for by his grandmother Antonia the Younger, until at the age of eighteen Tiberius summoned him to Capreae (Capri, in AD 31). On that day he assumed his gown of manhood and shaved off his first beard, but without the ceremony that had attended his brothers’ coming of age.

On Capraea, though every trick was tried to lure him, or force him, into making complaints against Tiberius, he ignored all provocation, . . . behaving so obsequiously to his adoptive grandfather, Tiberius, and the entire household, that the quip made regarding him was well borne out, that there was never a better slave or a worse master.

Even in those days, his cruel and vicious character was beyond his control, and he was an eager spectator of torture and executions meted out in punishment. At night, disguised in wig and long robe, he abandoned himself to gluttony and adulterous behaviour. He was passionately devoted it seems to the theatrical arts, to dancing and singing, a taste in him which Tiberius willingly fostered, in the hope of civilizing his savage propensities.

And came near to assuming a royal diadem at once, turning the semblance of a principate into an absolute monarchy. Indeed, advised by this that he outranked princes and kings, he began thereafter to claim divine power, sending to Greece for the most sacred or beautiful statues of the gods, including the Jupiter of Olympia, so that the heads could be exchanged for his own. He then extended the Palace as far as the Forum, making the Temple of Castor and Pollux its vestibule, and would often present himself to the populace there, standing between the statues of the divine brothers, to be worshipped by whoever appeared, some hailing him as ‘Jupiter Latiaris’. He also set up a special shrine to himself as god, with priests, the choicest sacrificial victims, and a life-sized golden statue of himself, which was dressed each day in clothes of identical design to those he chose to wear.

He habitually committed incest with each of his three sisters, seating them in turn below him at large banquets while his wife reclined above. . . . His preferred method of execution was by the infliction of many slight wounds, and his order, issued as a matter of routine, became notorious: ‘Cut him so he knows he is dying.’
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1ao3 Julia Drusilla33 viewsAE 20 of Smyrna (Izmir, Turkey)
Laureate head of Caligula, right, ΓAION KAICAPA EΠI AOYIOΛA
Drusilla as Persephone seated left, poppies between two stalks of grain in right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left hand, ∆POYCIΛΛAN ZMYPNAIΩN MHNOΦANHC

Caligula’s sister

Klose XXVIII, 27 (Vs4/Rs10); RPC I 2472; SNG Cop 1343; SNGvA 2202; BMC Ionia p. 269, 272

According to Suetonius’ salacious account: Germanicus had married Agrippina the Elder, daughter of Marcus Agrippa and Julia the Elder, and she had borne him nine children. Two died in infancy, another in early childhood. . . .

The other children survived their father: three girls, Agrippina the Younger, Drusilla and Livilla, born in successive years; and three boys, Nero, Drusus, and Gaius Caesar (Caligula). . . . [Caligula] habitually committed incest with each of his three sisters, seating them in turn below him at large banquets while his wife reclined above. It is believed that he violated Drusilla’s virginity while a minor, and been caught in bed with her by his grandmother Antonia, in whose household they were jointly raised. Later, when Drusilla was married to Lucius Cassius Longinus, an ex-consul, he took her from him and openly treated her as his lawful married wife. When he fell ill he made her heir to his estate and the throne.

When Drusilla died (in 38AD) he declared a period of public mourning during which it was a capital offense to laugh, or bathe, or to dine with parents, spouse or children. Caligula himself was so overcome with grief that he fled the City in the middle of the night, and travelled through Campania, and on to Syracuse, returning again with the same degree of haste, and without cutting his hair or shaving. From that time forwards whenever he took an important oath, even in public or in front of the army, he always swore by Drusilla’s divinity.
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1ap Claudius29 views41-54

As
Bare head, left, TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP
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RIC 97

According to Suetonius: Claudius was born at Lugdunum (Lyon) on the 1st of August 10BC in the consulship of Iullus Antonius and Fabius Africanus, on the day when the very first altar to Augustus was dedicated there, the child being given the name Tiberius Claudius Drusus. When his elder brother Germanicus was adopted into the Julian family (in 4 AD), he added the name Germanicus also. He lost his father when still an infant (in 9 BC), and throughout his childhood and youth was severely afflicted by various stubborn ailments so that his mind and body lacked vigour, and even when he attained his majority he was not considered capable of a public or private career.

Nevertheless, he applied himself to liberal studies from his earliest youth, and often published examples of his proficiency in each area, though even so he was excluded from public office and failed to inspire any brighter hopes for his future. His mother Antonia the Younger often condemned him as an unfinished freak of Nature, and when accusing someone of stupidity would say: ‘He’s a bigger fool than my son Claudius.’ His grandmother Augusta (Livia) always treated him with utter contempt, and rarely even spoke to him, admonishing him, when she chose to do so, in brief harsh missives, or via her messengers. When his sister Livilla heard the prophecy that he would be Emperor some day, she prayed openly and loudly that Rome might be spared so cruel and unmerited a fate.

Having spent the larger part of his life in such circumstances, he became emperor at the age of fifty (in AD41) by a remarkable stroke of fate. Caligula’s assassins had dispersed the crowd on the pretext that the Emperor wished for solitude, and Claudius, shut out with the rest, retired to a room called the Hermaeum, but shortly afterwards, terrified by news of the murder, crept off to a nearby balcony and hid behind the door-curtains. A Guard, who was wandering about the Palace at random, spotting a pair of feet beneath the curtain where Claudius was cowering, dragged the man out to identify him, and as Claudius fell to the ground in fear, recognised him, and acclaimed him Emperor.

Eutropius summarizes: His reign was of no striking character; he acted, in many respects, with gentleness and moderation, in some with cruelty and folly. He made war upon Britain, which no Roman since Julius Caesar had visited; and, having reduced it through the agency of Cnaeus Sentius and Aulus Plautius, illustrious and noble men, he celebrated a magnificent triumph. Certain islands also, called the Orcades, situated in the ocean, beyond Britain, he added to the Roman empire, and gave his son the name of Britannicus. . . . He lived to the age of sixty-four, and reigned fourteen years; and after his death was consecrated3 and deified.

This was the first "good" coin I ever bought and therefore marks the begiining of an addiction.
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1ap_2 Messalina36 viewsThird wife of Claudius, married in 38 (?)

AE 20, Knossos mint

Bare head of Claudius left, CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS

Draped bust of Messalina right, VALERIA MESSALINA [CAPITONE CYTHERONTE IIVIR] or [CYTHERO CAPITONE] (end of legend off flan)

According to Suetonius: [Claudius] was betrothed twice at an early age: to Aemilia Lepida, great-granddaughter of Augustus, and to Livia Medullina, who also had the surname of Camilla and was descended from the ancient family of Camillus the dictator. He put away the former before their marriage, because her parents had offended Augustus; the latter was taken ill and died on the very day which had been set for the wedding. He then married Plautia Urgulanilla, whose father had been honoured with a triumph, and later Aelia Paetina, daughter of an ex-consul. He divorced both these, Paetina for trivial offences, but Urgulanilla because of scandalous lewdness and the suspicion of murder. Then he married Valeria Messalina, daughter of his cousin Messala Barbatus. But when he learned that besides other shameful and wicked deeds she had actually married Gaius Silius, and that a formal contract had been signed in the presence of witnesses, he put her to death and declared before the assembled praetorian guard that inasmuch as his marriages did not turn out well, he would remain a widower, and if he did not keep his word, he would not refuse death at their hands. . . . [He later married Agrippina Jr.]

He had children by three of his wives: by Urgulanilla, Drusus and Claudia; by Paetina, Antonia; by Messalina, Octavia and a son, at first called Germanicus and later Britannicus. . . .

But it is beyond all belief, that at the marriage which Messalina had contracted with her paramour Silius he signed the contract for the dowry with his own hand, being induced to do so on the ground that the marriage was a feigned one, designed to avert and turn upon another a danger which was inferred from certain portents to threaten the emperor himself. . . .

He was so terror-stricken by unfounded reports of conspiracies that he had tried to abdicate. When, as I have mentioned before, a man with a dagger was caught near him as he was sacrificing, he summoned the senate in haste by criers and loudly and tearfully bewailed his lot, saying that there was no safety for him anywhere; and for a long time he would not appear in public. His ardent love for Messalina too was cooled, not so much by her unseemly and insulting conduct, as through fear of danger, since he believed that her paramour Silius aspired to the throne. . . .

Appius Silanus met his downfall. When Messalina and Narcissus had put their heads together to destroy him, they agreed on their parts and the latter rushed into his patron's bed-chamber before daybreak in pretended consternation, declaring that he had dreamed that Appius had made an attack on the emperor. Then Messalina, with assumed surprise, declared that she had had the same dream for several successive nights. A little later, as had been arranged, Appius, who had received orders the day before to come at that time, was reported to be forcing his way in, and as if were proof positive of the truth of the dream, his immediate accusation and death were ordered. . . .


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41-54 AD - ANTONIA AE16 of Thessalonica - struck under Claudius 29 viewsobv: ANTWNIA (draped bust right, hair tied in queue down neck)
rev: TECCALO-NEIKEWN (Nike on globe left, holding wreath and palm)
ref: RPC 1582, SNG ANS 840
mint: Thessalonica, Macedonia
4.74 gms, 16 mm
Very rare - original green patina

Antonia was daughter of Marc Antony and Octavia, wife of Nero Claudius Drusus, sister-in-law of Tiberius, mother of Claudius, and grandmother of Caligula.
berserker
VespasianPax_RICii10.jpg
710a, Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.134 viewsSilver denarius, RIC II, 10, aVF, 3.5 g, 18mm, Rome mint, 69-71 AD; Obverse: IMP CAESA[R] VESPASIANV[S AV]G - Laureate head right; Reverse: COS ITER [T]R POT - Pax seated left holding branch and caduceus. Ex Imperial Coins.


De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espèrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.





Cleisthenes
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82-83 BC* Q ANTONIUS BALBUS102 viewsLaureate head of Jupiter right; S•C behind

Victory in quadriga right; I below horses, Q ANTO BALB/PR in two lines in exergue.

Rome, 83 BC

3.99g

Crawford 364/1d; Sydenham 742b; Antonia 1. Sear 279

Lustrous Choice VF. Slight Flan flaw (weight reduction) on obverse in field.

ex-ANE

Anti Sullan Issue Struck by Order of the Senate SC.
Q. Antonius Balbus was a member of the Marian party, and in 82 BC was appointed praetor of Sardinia. Before leaving for Sardinia, this issue was struck by order of the Senate which was dominated by members of the Marian party to pay the army preparing to resist the return of Sulla. The reverse imagery reflects the expectations of Q. Antonius Balbus. Sulla was victorius in the battle of the Colline gate, and in 82 BC, Q. Antonius Balbus was removed from his position as praetor by L. Philippus and killed.

New photo of the very first denarius I bought.


5 commentsJay GT4
Hendin1240web.jpg
Agrippa I170 viewsAgrippa I. 37-44 AD. AE 23, 11.45g. Caesarea Paneas Mint, Year 5, 40/1 AD.
O: [ΓΑΙΩ ΚΑΙΣΑΡΙ ΣΕΒΑΣΤΩ ΓΕΡΜΑΝΙΚΩ] (For Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus), Laureate head of Caligula left.
R: [ΝΟΜΙΣΜΑ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΓΡΙΠΠΑ] (coin of King Agrippa). LE (Year 5=40/41) in exergue; Germanicus stands in triumphal quadriga in honor of his recovery of the standards lost by Varus, car decorated with Nike standing right.
- Hendin 1240. TJC 230-1,116. AJC II 2. RPC 4976.

One of the rarest coin types of Agrippa I (26 listed?).

The grandson of Herod I, Agrippa I, so-named in honor of the victor of Actium, spent much of his youth in the Roman imperial court. Popular with the imperial family, including the emperor Tiberius, Agrippa passed much of his time in the home of Antonia Minor, the mother of Germanicus and the future emperor Claudius.

There, the boys became great friends, and as an older man, Agrippa became attached to the future emperor Gaius, being appointed governor of the territories of Batanaea and Trachonitis upon Gaius’ accession. Unfortunately contemporary politics placed a significant strain on the relationship between the king and Rome.

In AD 39 Agrippa’s uncle, Antipas, was accused of plotting with the Parthians and was exiled. Agrippa’s loyalty gained him his uncle’s forfeited territories. In AD 40 renewed riots between Greeks and Jews broke out in Alexandria, and Gaius, clearly unhappy with his Jewish subjects, provocatively ordered the installation of a statue of himself within the Holy of Holies in Jerusalem.

Agrippa, who had been unsuccessfully involved in trying to quell similar riots in Alexandria before, sought to emphasize his loyalty to local Roman officials by striking coinage which commemorated his long-standing friendship with Gaius and, especially, Germanicus.

Based on the dupondii struck in honor of the emperor’s father Germanicus, this coin includes the great general riding in his triumphal car in honor of his recovery of the standards lost by Varus, rather than portraying Agrippa himself, an identification emphasized by the specific inclusion of the word NOMISMA (Coin) in the legend.

By avoiding self promotion, Agrippa hoped to successfully navigate the treacherous waters which might result in his own removal from power.
4 commentsNemonater
0035-510np_noir.jpg
Agrippa, As - *323 viewsPosthumous issue of Caligula, in honour of his grandfather (died 12 BC)
Rome mint, ca AD 37/41
M AGRIPPA L F COS III, head of Agrippa left with rostral crown
Neptun standing left, holding trident and dolphin. Large S C in fields
10.9 gr
Ref : RCV #1812, Cohen #3
Ex Alwin collection

The following commentary is a (quick) translation from CGB about a similar coin :

"Although Augustus associated his close friend Agrippa in his coinage, he didn't for him alone. Gaius honoured the memory of his grandfather, recalling he had been COS III in 27 BC while Augustus was COS VII at the same time.
Gaius, however, as the new emperor would like us to remember his double filiation : Through his father, Germanicus, he's descended from Nero Drusus and Antonia, thus from Tiberius ; through his mother Agrippina the elder, he tells us Agrippa and Julia are his grand parents and he's a grand grand son of Augustus. Agrippa remained prestigious all along the first century CE, although he had died 12 BC. Titus then Domitian will also strike this type, seemingly very succesfull towards population (see RCV 2589 and 2894)"
6 commentsPotator II
republick.JPG
Antonia 16 viewsQ Antonius Balbus AR Serrate Denarius. 83-82 BC. Laureate head of Jupiter right; SC behind and (letter)(•) before
Victory in quadriga right, Q ANTO BALB below, PR in ex. Cr364/1c; Syd 742a.
Britanikus
normal_coin11~0.jpg
Antonia22 views
Q Antonius Balbus AR Serrate Denarius. 83-82 BC. Laureate head of Jupiter right; SC behind and (letter)(•) before / Victory in quadriga right, Q ANTO BALB below, PR in ex. Cr364/1c; Syd 742a.
Britanikus
Antonia_def.jpg
Antonia27 viewsAntonia, dupondius.
26,8 mm, 13,82 g.
Obv. ANTONIA AVGVSTA, draped bust right.
Rev. TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP S-C, Claudius, togate, standing left, holding simpulum.
RIC 92
3 commentsMarsman
00421.jpg
Antonia (RIC 92, Coin #421)19 viewsAntonia, RIC 92 (C), Orichalcum Sestertius, Rome, 41 - 50 AD.
Obv: ANTONIA AVGVSTA Bare-headed bust right, hair in long plait.
Rev: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP S C Claudius veiled
and togate, standing left, holding simpulum.
Size: 28.4mm 14.32gm
MaynardGee
00712.jpg
Antonia (RIC 92, Coin #712)8 viewsRIC 92 (C), Orichalcum Dupondius, minted under Clausius, Rome, 41 - 50 AD.
OBV: ANTONIA AVGVSTA; Bare-headed bust right, hair in long plait.
REV: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP S C; Claudius standing left, veiled and togate, simpulum in right.
SIZE: 27.5mm, 13.04g
MaynardGee
Antonia1R2D+R.jpg
ANTONIA 133 viewsQ. Antonius Balbus (c. BC 83-2)Rugser
Antonia1R1D+R.jpg
ANTONIA 124 viewsQ. Antonius Balbus (c. BC 83/82)Rugser
Antonia.jpg
Antonia AE Dupondius51 viewsAntonia (Augusta)
AE Dupondius 17.01g / 31mm
Ob: ANTONIA AVGVSTA - Draped bust right
Rv: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP PP - Claudius standing left, veiled ang togate, holding a simplum, S - C
Mint: Rome 41-54AD
Ref: RIC 92
Scotvs Capitis
Antonia_AE_Dupondius.JPG
Antonia AE Dupondius. c50-54 AD. Daughter of Mark Antony & Augustus' sister Octavia, all coins struck posthumously by her son Claudius.32 viewsANTONIA AVGVSTA, draped bust right / TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P S C, Claudius, togate, standing left with simpulum. Cohen 6. RIC 104 [Claudius], Cohen 6, BMC 213.
sold

Antonivs Protti
Antonia~0.jpg
Antonia Augusta 66 viewsANTONIA AVGVSTA

Rev. TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP SC
Cladius veiled and togate stg left holding simpulum

Sear 1902

Antonia was the younger daughter of Mark Antony and Octavia and was born on January 31st 36B.C. She was married at age 20 to Tiberius' younger brother Nero Claudius Drusus and had two sons, the great Germanicus and the future emperor Claudius. She was widowed in 9 BC and refused to marry again and devoted her life to her families interests. Her wealth and status made her very influencial during Tiberius' reign and it was she who brought about the downfall of Sejanus.

On the accession of her grandson Caligula in 37 AD she received many honours but died later that year at the age of 73. She did not receive postumous honours until the reign of her son Claudius in 41 AD and all of the coinage in Antonia's name was issued by Claudius.

SOLD
Titus Pullo
Antonia~1.jpg
Antonia Augusta72 viewsANTONIA AVGVSTA
Head of Antonia right

TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP SC
Claudius veiled and togate standing left holding simpulum

11.47g

Sear 1902

Antonia was the younger daughter of Mark Antony and Octavia and was born on January 31st 36B.C. She was married at age 20 to Tiberius' younger brother Nero Claudius Drusus and had two sons, the great Germanicus and the future emperor Claudius. She was widowed in 9 BC and refused to marry again and devoted her life to her families interests. Her wealth and status made her very influencial during Tiberius' reign and it was she who brought about the downfall of Sejanus.

On the accession of her grandson Caligula in 37 AD she received many honours but died later that year at the age of 73. She did not receive postumous honours until the reign of her son Claudius in 41 AD and all of the coinage in Antonia's name was issued by Claudius.
Jay GT4
Antonia_Dupondius.jpg
Antonia Dupondius126 viewsObv.
ANTONIA AVGVSTA
Draped bust right

Rev.
TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P
SC
Claudius togate, standing left holding simpulum

RIC 104
9 commentsancientdave
antonia.jpg
Antonia Mother of Claudius, Dupondius6 viewsObv. ANTONIA AVGVSTA bare head right
Rev. TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP PP SC Claudius, togate, standing left with simpulum
Skyler
antonia_claudius_104.jpg
Antonia RIC I, 104137 viewsAntonia, died 37, Augusta 41, mother of Claudius
AE - Dupondius, 15.49g, 30mm
Rome 42/43 (struck under Claudius)
obv. ANTONIA AVGVSTA
draped bust, bare head r.
rev. TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TRP IMP PP
Claudius standing l., in toga, draped over head, holding
simpulum in r. hand and roll in l. hand
between S-C
RIC I, Claudius 104; C.6; von Kaenel 595 (same die!)
nice VF
2 commentsJochen
antonia.jpg
Antonia Æ dupondius48 viewsAntonia Æ dupondius. Rome mint, under Claudius 41-50 A.D. ANTONIA AVGVSTA - Draped bust right, wearing hair in long plait down neck / TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP S-C - Claudius standing left, holding simpulum. RIC 92 (Claudius); BMC 166 (Claudius); Cohen 6
3 commentsHolding_History
Antonia, 50-54 AD, Rome.JPG
Antonia, 50-54 AD, Rome41 viewsAntonia
AE dupondius – 27mm
Rome, 50-54 AD
ANTONIA AVGVSTA
draped bust r.
TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P S-C
Claudius, togate, standing l. with simpulum
RIC Claudius 104, C 6
S
Ardatirion
Antonia_Dupondius.jpg
Antonia, AE Dupondius - by Claudius9 viewsAntonia AE Dupondius. c50-54 AD. ANTONIA AVGVSTA, draped bust right / TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P S C, Claudius, togate, standing left with simpulum. Cohen 6. RIC 104. sear5 #1903
WEIGHT 11.18 gr.
DIAMETER 28 mm
2 commentsAntonivs Protti
0042-510np_noir.jpg
Antonia, As - *188 viewsRestitution of Claudius
ANTONIA AVGVSTA, bust of Antonia right
TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TRP IMP, Claudius standing left, holding simpulum. SC in field
11,37 gr
Ref : RCV #1902, Cohen #6
2 commentsPotator II
ANTONIA-1.jpg
Antonia, daughter of Marc Antony and Octavia, wife of Nero Claudius Drusus, mother of Claudius. Augusta, 37 and 41 AD.218 viewsÆ Dupondius under son, Claudius.
Obv: ANTONIA AVGVSTA, draped bust, right.
Rev: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, S-C across field, Claudius, togate, standing left, holding simpulum.
RIC 92 [Claudius]; Cohen 6; BMC 166; Sear 1902.
EmpressCollector
1-2014-11-15_coinsnov20142.jpg
Antonia, Dupondius37 viewsAntonia Minor
Ae Dupondius; 25-26mm; 9.25g

ANTONIA-AVGVSTA
draped bust right

[TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TR P IMP]
S-C across fields
Claudius togate, standing left with simpulum

official? poss. RIC 92 or 104
2 commentsRobin Ayers
Antonia_RIC_92.JPG
Antonia, RIC 9218 viewsANTONIA AVGVSTA
TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM T RP IMP
AE dupondius, 26mm, 12.00g
Draped bust right
Cladius, togate, standing left, holding simpulum, SC to sides

very worn example
novacystis
AntoniaClaudius.jpg
Antonia/Claudius mule55 viewsANTONIA AVGVSTA
Bare head of Antonia right

CERES AVGVSTA SC
Ceres enthroned left holding corn ears and torch

Provincial mint? 41-2 AD

10.83g
Die axis 180

Obverse Sear 1902 or 1903, RIC 92 or 104
Reverse Sear 1855 or 1856, RIC 94 or RIC 110

SOLD!


An interesting and rare dupondius. The obverse from Claudius in honor of his mother Antonia, daughter of Mark Antony and Octavia. The reverse is from a dupondius of Claudius. Both dies were in use at the same time giving rise to speculation, was this an "official" mistake from the mint or is this an ancient counterfeit? Style suggests a Provincial mint.

Encrustations and some bronze disease on the obverse is being treated.
1 commentsJay GT4
4E797050-DE88-4CBC-B4F6-553272426E71.jpeg
Antonianius of Aurelian?7 viewsAE23, 2.8g. Maybe RIC 225? Obverse: IMP AVRELIANVS AVG, radiate, cuirassed bust right. Reverse: IOVI CONSER, emperor standing right, holding scepter, receiving globe from Jupiter standing left and holding scepter. Celticaire
AntonyOctaviaTetra.jpg
Antony & Octavia tetradrachm115 viewsM ANTONIVS IMP COS DESIG ITER ET TERT
Conjoined heads of Antony and Octavia right, Antony wearing an ivy wreath

VIR RPC
Dionysus standing left, holding cantharus and thyrsus on cista mystica flanked by two interlaced snakes

Ephesus, summer-autumn 39 BC

11.22g

Imperators 263, RPC 2202, Babelon Antonia 61, Syndenham 1198, BMCRR east 135

Punch mark on the obverse protrudes onto the reverse

Ex-Numisantique

This series of Cistophori from Asia commemorates the marriage of Antony and Octavia and celebrate's Antony's divine status in the east as the "New Dionysus" which was bestowed on him when he arrived in Ephesus in 41 BC. Antony's titulature of "Imperator and Consul designate for the second and third times" fixes the period of issue to the latter part of 39 BC after the Pact of Misenum in July and before Antony's second Imperatorial acclamation in the winter of 39-38BC
7 commentsJay GT4
PtolemyREX.jpg
AUGUSTUS & PTOLEMY OF NUMIDIA AE semis174 viewsAVGVSTVS DIVI F
bare head of Augustus right

C LAETILIVS APALVS II V Q, REX PTOL (Ptolemy, King) within diadem

Carthago Nova, Spain, under sole 'duovir quinqunennales' C Laetilius Apalus.

18.5mm, 5.3g.
RPC 172.

Ex-Incitatus

Ptolemy of Numidia was the son of King Juba II of Numidia and Cleopatra Selene II. He was also the grandson of Mark Antony and Cleopatra VII on his mohter's side. He was named in honor of the memory of Cleopatra VII, the birthplace of his mother and the birthplace of her relatives. In choosing her son's name, Cleopatra Selene II created a distinct Greek-Egyptian tone and emphasized her role as the monarch who would continue the Ptolemaic dynasty. She by-passed the ancestral names of her husband. By naming her son Ptolemy instead of a Berber ancestral name, she offers an example rare in ancient history, especially in the case of a son who is the primary male heir, of reaching into the mother's family instead of the father's for a name. This emphasized the idea that his mother was the heiress of the Ptolemies and the leader of a Ptolemaic government in exile.

Through his parents he received Roman citizenship and was actually educated in Rome. Amazingly he grew up in the house of his maternal aunt, and Antony's daughter Antonia Minor, the youngest daughter of Mark Antony and the youngest niece of Augustus. Antonia was also a half-sister of Ptolemy's late mother, also a daughter of Mark Antony. Antonia Minor's mother was Octavia Minor, Mark Antony's fourth wife and the second sister of Octavian (later Augustus). Ptolemy lived in Rome until the age of 21, when he returned to the court of his aging father in Mauretania.

Ptolemy was a co-ruler with his father Juba II until Juba's death and was the last semi-autonomous ruler of Africa. On a visit to Rome in 40 AD he was seen by the Emperor Caligula in an amphitheather wearing a spectacular purpal cloak. A jealous Caligula had him murdered for his fashionable purple cloak.

Sold to Calgary Coin Feb 2017
2 commentsJay GT4
08006AB.jpg
AURELIAN B/AR Antonianus, RESTITVT ORBIS, 270-275 AD, 21mm, 3.84g38 views
O - Radiate cuir bust of Aurelian r. /
R - The World presenting wreath to Aurelian.
robertpe
milit.JPG
Aurelian Bronze Antonianus, Siscia 272-274 AD83 viewsOBV: IMP AURELIANUS PF AVG, Radiate, draped and Cuirassed bust (Type A) rt.
REV: CONCORDIA MILITUM; Aurelian standing right clasps hands with Concordia standing left; S* in Exergue

RIC 216 is perhaps the most common type from Siscia but it covers a wide variety of styles including this dramatic portrait design. The template is exactly the same for other examples of this coin (for example in Wildwinds) and I think must all have been done by the same engraver. A beautiful design with many different textures.
1 commentsdaverino
CALIGULA-1.jpg
Caesonia (?), wife of Caligula, died 41 CE675 viewsÆ (28 mm, 11.17 g) of Carthago Nova, Spain.
Obv: C CAESAR AVG. GERMANIC. IMP. PM. TRP. COS. Laurate head of Caligula, right.
Rev: CN. ATEL. FLAC. CN. POM. FLAC. II VIR. Q.V.I.N.C. Head of Caesonia (as Salus) right, SAL AVG across field.
SGI 419; Heiss 272,35; Cohen 247,1.

Though this coin is reputed to portray Caesonia, this is not likely for its obverse is dated TR P COS = 37 AD, yet Caligula did not marry Caesonia until late 39! RPC 185 calls the lady Salus, but also mentions possible IDs with Antonia or Livia (p. 92).
EmpressCollector
Caligula_Three_Siste.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 16 viewsC CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT - Laureate head left
AGRIPPINA DRVSILLA IVLIA - AGRIPPINA DRVSILLA IVLIA, the three sisters of Caligula standing, in the guises of Securitas, Concordia, and Fortuna, S C (senatus consulto) in exergue
Exergue: SC


Mint: Rome (37-38AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 27.88g / 35.6mm / 180
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC I 33
BMCRE p. 152, 36
BnF II 47
Cohen I 4
SRCV I 1800
Provenances:
Forvm Ancient Coins
Acquisition/Sale: Forvm Ancient Coins Internet

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

From Numismatica Ars Classica:
Many aspects of Caligula's reign have captured the imagination of historians, but the sexual relationships he is said to have pursued with his sisters is perhaps most shocking of all. It is on par with the exploits of Elagabalus or the alleged seduction of young Nero by his deranged mother Agrippina Jr., who, by no mere coincidence, was one of Caligula's sisters.
Caligula's incestuous relationships with his sisters are alleged by the relatively contemporary historians Suetonius and Josephus. Much later, in the fourth and fifth centuries, these original claims were echoed by various writers, including Eutropius, Aurelius Victor, St. Jerome, Orosius and the anonymous compiler of the Epitome de caesaribus. The truth of the claims, of course, is impossible to confirm, and there is a healthy dose of scepticism among modern scholars.
Whatever personal or sexual affection Caligula may have felt toward his sisters, this coinage is purely political and dynastic in flavour. His sisters are each named and are shown in the guise of personifications: the eldest, Agrippina Junior, as Securitas, the middle-sister, Drusilla, as Concordia, and the youngest, Julia Livilla, as Fortuna.
This remarkable type was produced on two occasions, his initial coinage of 37-38, and again in 39-40. The example offered here belongs to the first coinage, which was issued when all three of the imperial women were alive. Drusilla, Caligula's favourite sister (and the one with whom he is said to have had an enduring incestuous relationship), died tragically on June 10, 38, nearly three months after the last coins of the initial issue were struck.
By the time the last issue was produced (beginning March 18, 39), Drusilla had been accorded the status of a goddess, providing the curious circumstance of a goddess being portrayed in the guise of a personification. Life in the palace worsened after Drusilla's death and Caligula's affection for his remaining two sisters declined.
The circumstances reported by the ancient sources are nothing short of bizarre: Drusilla had been married to Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, who had also been Caligula's lover. After Drusilla died, Lepidus extended his sexual liaisons to include Agrippina and Julia Livilla, his former sisters-in-law. By late in 39 this web of relationships seems to have evolved into a failed plot by Lepidus against Caligula, who executed Lepidus and sent his two sisters into exile out of their suspected complicity.
All of this palace intrigue occurred in the midst of the second issue of 'three sisters' sestertii, the production of which Caligula probably halted immediately since of the three sisters shown, one was dead and two were in exile for having plotted against his life.

From Wikisource:
It is easy to understand why the peace and harmony which had been reestablished for a moment in the troubled imperial family by the advent of Caligula should have been of brief duration. His grandmother and his sisters were Romans, educated in Roman ideals, and this exotic madness of his could inspire in them only an irresistible horror. This brought confusion into the imperial family, and after having suffered the persecutions of Sejanus and his party, the unhappy daughters of Germanicus found themselves in the toils of the exacting caprices of their brother. In fact, in 38, Caligula had already broken with his grandmother, whom the year before he had had proclaimed Augusta; and between the years 38 and 39, catastrophes followed one another in the family with frightful rapidity. His sister Drusilla, whom, as Suetonius tells us, he already treated as a lawful wife, died suddenly of some unknown malady while still very young. It is not improbable that her health may have been ruined by the horror of the wild adventure, which was neither human nor Roman, into which her brother sought to drag her by marriage. Caligula suddenly declared her a goddess, to whom all the cities must pay honors. He had a temple built for her, and appointed a body of twenty priests, ten men and ten women, to celebrate her worship; he decreed that her birthday should be a holiday, and he wished the statue of Venus in the Forum to be carved in her likeness.

But in proportion as Caligula became more and more fervid in this adoration of his dead sister, the disagreement between himself and his other two sisters became more embittered. Julia Livilla was exiled in 38; Agrippina, the wife of Domitius Enobarbus°, in 39, and about this same time the venerable Antonia died. It was noised about that Caligula had forced her to commit suicide, and that Agrippina and Livilla had taken part in a conspiracy against the life of the emperor. How much truth there may be in these reports it is difficult to say, but the reason for all these catastrophes may be affirmed with certainty. Life in the imperial palace was no longer possible, especially for women, with this madman who was transforming Rome into Alexandria and who wished to marry a sister. Even Tiberius, the son of Drusus and co-heir to the empire with Caligula, was at about this time defeated in some obscure suit and disappeared.

Many aspects of Caligula’s reign have captured the imagination of historians, but the sexual relationships he is said to
have pursued with his sisters is perhaps most shocking of all. It is on par with the exploits of Elagabalus or the alleged
seduction of young Nero by his deranged mother Agrippina Jr., who, by no mere coincidence, was one of Caligula’s
sisters.
Caligula’s incestuous relationships with his sisters are alleged by the relatively contemporary historians Suetonius and
Josephus. Much later, in the fourth and fifth centuries, these original claims were echoed by various writers, including
Eutropius, Aurelius Victor, St. Jerome, Orosius and the anonymous compiler of the Epitome de caesaribus. The truth of
the claims, of course, is impossible to confirm, and there is a healthy dose of skepticism among modern scholars.
Whatever personal or sexual affection Caligula may have felt toward his sisters, this coinage is purely political and
dynastic in flavour. His sisters are each named and are shown in the guise of personifications: the eldest, Agrippina Junior,
as Securitas, the middle-sister, Drusilla, as Concordia, and the youngest, Julia Livilla, as Fortuna.
This remarkable type was produced on two occasions, his initial coinage of 37-38, and again in 39-40. The example
offered here belongs to the first coinage, which was issued when all three of the imperial women were alive. Drusilla,
Caligula’s favourite sister (and the one with whom he is said to have had an enduring incestuous relationship), died
tragically on June 10, 38, nearly three months after the last coins of the initial issue were struck.
By the time the last issue was produced (beginning March 18, 39), Drusilla had been accorded the status of a goddess,
providing the curious circumstance of a goddess being portrayed in the guise of a personification. Life in the palace
worsened after Drusilla’s death and Caligula’s affection for his remaining two sisters declined.
The circumstances reported by the ancient sources are nothing short of bizarre: Drusilla had been married to Marcus
Aemilius Lepidus, who had also been Caligula’s lover. At least after Drusilla died, Lepidus extended his sexual liaisons to
include Agrippina and Julia Livilla, his former sisters-in-law. By late in 39 this web of relationships seems to have evolved
into a failed plot by Lepidus against Caligula, who executed Lepidus and sent his two sisters into exile out of their
suspected complicity.
All of this palace intrigue occurred in the midst of the second issue of ‘three sisters’ sestertii, the production of which
Caligula probably halted immediately since of the three sisters shown, one was dead and two were in exile for having
plotted against his life.
Gary W2
Caligula_Three_Siste~0.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius62 viewsC CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT - Laureate head left
AGRIPPINA DRVSILLA IVLIA - AGRIPPINA DRVSILLA IVLIA, the three sisters of Caligula standing, in the guises of Securitas, Concordia, and Fortuna, S C (senatus consulto) in exergue
Exergue: SC


Mint: Rome (37-38AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 27.88g / 35.6mm / 180
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC I 33
BMCRE p. 152, 36
BnF II 47
Cohen I 4
SRCV I 1800
Provenances:
Forvm Ancient Coins
Acquisition/Sale: Forvm Ancient Coins Internet

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

From Numismatica Ars Classica:
Many aspects of Caligula's reign have captured the imagination of historians, but the sexual relationships he is said to have pursued with his sisters is perhaps most shocking of all. It is on par with the exploits of Elagabalus or the alleged seduction of young Nero by his deranged mother Agrippina Jr., who, by no mere coincidence, was one of Caligula's sisters.
Caligula's incestuous relationships with his sisters are alleged by the relatively contemporary historians Suetonius and Josephus. Much later, in the fourth and fifth centuries, these original claims were echoed by various writers, including Eutropius, Aurelius Victor, St. Jerome, Orosius and the anonymous compiler of the Epitome de caesaribus. The truth of the claims, of course, is impossible to confirm, and there is a healthy dose of scepticism among modern scholars.
Whatever personal or sexual affection Caligula may have felt toward his sisters, this coinage is purely political and dynastic in flavour. His sisters are each named and are shown in the guise of personifications: the eldest, Agrippina Junior, as Securitas, the middle-sister, Drusilla, as Concordia, and the youngest, Julia Livilla, as Fortuna.
This remarkable type was produced on two occasions, his initial coinage of 37-38, and again in 39-40. The example offered here belongs to the first coinage, which was issued when all three of the imperial women were alive. Drusilla, Caligula's favourite sister (and the one with whom he is said to have had an enduring incestuous relationship), died tragically on June 10, 38, nearly three months after the last coins of the initial issue were struck.
By the time the last issue was produced (beginning March 18, 39), Drusilla had been accorded the status of a goddess, providing the curious circumstance of a goddess being portrayed in the guise of a personification. Life in the palace worsened after Drusilla's death and Caligula's affection for his remaining two sisters declined.
The circumstances reported by the ancient sources are nothing short of bizarre: Drusilla had been married to Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, who had also been Caligula's lover. After Drusilla died, Lepidus extended his sexual liaisons to include Agrippina and Julia Livilla, his former sisters-in-law. By late in 39 this web of relationships seems to have evolved into a failed plot by Lepidus against Caligula, who executed Lepidus and sent his two sisters into exile out of their suspected complicity.
All of this palace intrigue occurred in the midst of the second issue of 'three sisters' sestertii, the production of which Caligula probably halted immediately since of the three sisters shown, one was dead and two were in exile for having plotted against his life.

From Wikisource:
It is easy to understand why the peace and harmony which had been reestablished for a moment in the troubled imperial family by the advent of Caligula should have been of brief duration. His grandmother and his sisters were Romans, educated in Roman ideals, and this exotic madness of his could inspire in them only an irresistible horror. This brought confusion into the imperial family, and after having suffered the persecutions of Sejanus and his party, the unhappy daughters of Germanicus found themselves in the toils of the exacting caprices of their brother. In fact, in 38, Caligula had already broken with his grandmother, whom the year before he had had proclaimed Augusta; and between the years 38 and 39, catastrophes followed one another in the family with frightful rapidity. His sister Drusilla, whom, as Suetonius tells us, he already treated as a lawful wife, died suddenly of some unknown malady while still very young. It is not improbable that her health may have been ruined by the horror of the wild adventure, which was neither human nor Roman, into which her brother sought to drag her by marriage. Caligula suddenly declared her a goddess, to whom all the cities must pay honors. He had a temple built for her, and appointed a body of twenty priests, ten men and ten women, to celebrate her worship; he decreed that her birthday should be a holiday, and he wished the statue of Venus in the Forum to be carved in her likeness.

But in proportion as Caligula became more and more fervid in this adoration of his dead sister, the disagreement between himself and his other two sisters became more embittered. Julia Livilla was exiled in 38; Agrippina, the wife of Domitius Enobarbus°, in 39, and about this same time the venerable Antonia died. It was noised about that Caligula had forced her to commit suicide, and that Agrippina and Livilla had taken part in a conspiracy against the life of the emperor. How much truth there may be in these reports it is difficult to say, but the reason for all these catastrophes may be affirmed with certainty. Life in the imperial palace was no longer possible, especially for women, with this madman who was transforming Rome into Alexandria and who wished to marry a sister. Even Tiberius, the son of Drusus and co-heir to the empire with Caligula, was at about this time defeated in some obscure suit and disappeared.

Many aspects of Caligula’s reign have captured the imagination of historians, but the sexual relationships he is said to
have pursued with his sisters is perhaps most shocking of all. It is on par with the exploits of Elagabalus or the alleged
seduction of young Nero by his deranged mother Agrippina Jr., who, by no mere coincidence, was one of Caligula’s
sisters.
Caligula’s incestuous relationships with his sisters are alleged by the relatively contemporary historians Suetonius and
Josephus. Much later, in the fourth and fifth centuries, these original claims were echoed by various writers, including
Eutropius, Aurelius Victor, St. Jerome, Orosius and the anonymous compiler of the Epitome de caesaribus. The truth of
the claims, of course, is impossible to confirm, and there is a healthy dose of skepticism among modern scholars.
Whatever personal or sexual affection Caligula may have felt toward his sisters, this coinage is purely political and
dynastic in flavour. His sisters are each named and are shown in the guise of personifications: the eldest, Agrippina Junior,
as Securitas, the middle-sister, Drusilla, as Concordia, and the youngest, Julia Livilla, as Fortuna.
This remarkable type was produced on two occasions, his initial coinage of 37-38, and again in 39-40. The example
offered here belongs to the first coinage, which was issued when all three of the imperial women were alive. Drusilla,
Caligula’s favourite sister (and the one with whom he is said to have had an enduring incestuous relationship), died
tragically on June 10, 38, nearly three months after the last coins of the initial issue were struck.
By the time the last issue was produced (beginning March 18, 39), Drusilla had been accorded the status of a goddess,
providing the curious circumstance of a goddess being portrayed in the guise of a personification. Life in the palace
worsened after Drusilla’s death and Caligula’s affection for his remaining two sisters declined.
The circumstances reported by the ancient sources are nothing short of bizarre: Drusilla had been married to Marcus
Aemilius Lepidus, who had also been Caligula’s lover. At least after Drusilla died, Lepidus extended his sexual liaisons to
include Agrippina and Julia Livilla, his former sisters-in-law. By late in 39 this web of relationships seems to have evolved
into a failed plot by Lepidus against Caligula, who executed Lepidus and sent his two sisters into exile out of their
suspected complicity.
All of this palace intrigue occurred in the midst of the second issue of ‘three sisters’ sestertii, the production of which
Caligula probably halted immediately since of the three sisters shown, one was dead and two were in exile for having
plotted against his life.

Per RIC-Rare
3 commentsGary W2
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-zg2aP0ewwCVrhb-Caligula_damnatio.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze AS14 viewsC CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT - Bare head left
Vesta SC - Vesta, veiled and draped, seated left, on throne with ornamented back and legs, holding patera in right hand and long transverse sceptre in left
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (37-38 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 10.40g / 28mm / 6h
Rarity: Common
References:
RIC I 38
BMCRE 46
BN 54
Cohen 27
Acquisition/Sale: indalocolecciones eBay

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

DAMNATIO MEMORIAE: This coin seems to have suffered a 'Damnatio Memoriae'. It looks as if the portrait has had cut marks applied to the jaw and neck areas. Interestingly, the ancient writers said that on his assassination, the first strike to Caligula was to his jaw or neck/shoulder areas. Damnatio memoriae is a modern Latin phrase meaning "condemnation of memory", i.e., that a person is to be excluded from official accounts.


ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

From The Dictionary of Roman Coins:
Caligula, the grand nephew and murderer of Tiberius, most worthy to succeed that emperor, because of an equally infamous, though not so able a tyrant, reigned from A.D. 37 to A.D. 41.

His real appellation was Caius Caesar, but about the time of Augustus' death, he, still a child, being with the army of the lower Rhine, the soldiers, with whom he was a great favorite, were accustomed in the joking parlance of the camp, to give him the nickname of Caligula (from Caligae) because he constantly appeared in the usual military leggings.

Hence Ausonius, in his poem, referring to this cruel wretch, says --

Post hunc castrensis caligae cognomine
Caesar Successit, saevo saevior ingenio.

As emperor, however, he was always called Caius, and he considered himself insulted by the name of Caligula.

He was the youngest son of Germanicus, the nephew of Tiberius and Agrippina; born in 12 A.D. on the day before the calends of September, at Antium, as Suetonius has proved at great length (in Caligula, ch. 8). In 17 A.D., he went into Syria with his father, at whose death, within two years, he returned to Rome with his mother. After she was banished, he was transferred to his great grand-mother Julia and when she diet to his grand-mother Antonia.

In 31 A.D., after the violent deaths of his brothers Nero and Drusus, and also of Sejanus, whose plots he alone had escaped he was he was the apparent successor to the empire and invested with the Pontificate.

In 33 A.D., on the same day he assumed the toga he laid aside his beard, he was nominated questor and Tiberius invited him to Capraea. He moved in with Tiberius, feigning ignorance or indifference, regarding the murder of his relations, as though it did not concern him. He so obsequiously obeyed Tiberius the it was a common expression, that "there never was a better servant, or a worse master." (Sueton, ch. 10)

In 37 A.D., Tiberius was attacked with a severe illness from which he was recovering when Caligula, at the instigation of Maero, the praetorian prefect, put and end to his life by smothering him.

Caligula entered Rome after Tiberius' death and compelled the Senate to join him, by a Senatus Consultum, in depriving Tiberius, son Drusus junior and the elder Tiberius' heir in his last will, of his right to the empire.

The funeral ceremonies of were performed with due pomp by Caligula.

On the eighth month of his reign he was attacked with severe sickness. On his recovery, he adopted his brother Tiberius, gave him the title of Princeps Juventutis, and afterwards put him to death.

In the calends of July he entered upon the office of Consul Suffectus, as colleague to his uncle Claudius, and after two months resigned it.

In 38 A.D. he conceded to Soaemus, the kingdom of Arabians of Ituraea; to Cotys, Armenia Minor; to Polemon, the son of Polemon, his father's dominions.

Dion wrote, "In a short time he assumed so much the air of a king, that all those honors, which Augustus had accepted only when duly arrived at the sovereignty, and even then with hesitation as they were decreed from time to time, and many of which Tiberius altogether declined, were by Caligula grasped in one day, with the exception only of Pater Patriae, which, however was not long deferred."

In 39 A.D., in the calends of January, he entered his second Consulate and resigned the office in thirty days. (Sueton ch. 17)

Having exhausted the treasury by his profuse expenditure on public spectacles and other extravagances, he endeavoured to repair the deficiency by the slaughter of wealthy citizens; and then proceeded to Gaul, their to practice the like system of murder and spoliation.

The name of Germanicus does not appear on coins of this year, nor ever subsequently.

In 40 A.D., Caligula, without a colleague, entered his third consulate, at Lugdunum (Lyon), in Gaul; and resigned it on the ides of January. (Sueton. ch. 17)

Having invited over from Africa, Ptolemy, the son of Juba, he put him to death on the pretence of the young prince's ostentatious bearing. (Dion, B. lix. 25)

Proceeding to the ocean, as if about to invade Britain, he ordered his soldiers to gather shell-fish, and returned as a conqueror, laden with the spoils of the sea. (Sueton. ch. 46)

L. Vitellius, prefect of Syria, the same year, gave such a lesson to Artabanus, the Persian, who was threatening an invasion of Armenia that the later abandoned his design, and paid his adoration to the statues of Augustus and of Caligula. (Dion, I. e.)

In 41 A.D., he began hid fourth consulate, on the 7th of the ides of January. Shortly afterwards (viz. on the 9th of the calends of February), he was assassinated by the conspirators Cassius Chaerea and Cornelius Sabinus.

Caligula's accession to the empire was hailed with joy by the Roman people; but their satisfaction was based on no solid foundations, being the result rather of their deep-rooted attachment to his father Germanicus. He seeming, indeed, responded to the fond wishes of the nation, by many acts of piety, justice, and moderation. But it too soon became apparent that these virtues were not of natural growth but owed their exhibition to the policy of Tiberius, who wished through their influences to consolidate his own power in the empire. For there was not act of cruelty, folly, meanness or infamy, which this monster and madman did not delight in perpetrating. He caused his horse, whom he called Incitatus, to be introduced at dinner time, setting before him gilded corn, and drinking his health in golden cups; and he would have created him consul, had he lived long enough. He imitated all the gods and goddesses, in the adoration which he caused to be paid to him, becoming by turns Jupiter, Bacchus, Hercules, Juno, Diana, and Venus. He constructed a bridge of vessels joined together from Puteoli to Baiae, and crossing over with his troops invaded puteoli and then recrossed it in a kind of triumph, delighting in hearing himself called Alexander the Great. By his absurd and extravagant undertakings of this kind, before the year was fully expired, he had squandered the enormous sums of money left by Tiberius. (Vicies ae septics millies IIS. -- See Sestertium).

He both claimed and receive divine worship, and was the greatest blasphemer that ever lived; yet he quailed in the conviction of a deity, and crept under his bed whenever he heard thunder. With savage inhumanity he attended executions in person, and made parents behold the merciless torments inflicted on their children. He contracted and dissolved marriages with equal caprice and dishonesty. Besides his incestuous union with Drusilla, he seized and repudiated three wives, and was at last permanently attached to Caesonia a mother of children by another man, and without your or beauty, but of depravity corresponding with his own.

Other instances of his incredible cruelty and lust may be found in Suetonius, Philo, and Dion. Such infatuations are evident tokens not only of a brutal nature, but also of a distempered intellect. Nor is it possible to entertain other than supreme contempt for the base servility of the Romans, who could offer solemn adoration to a wretch openly guilty of the most detestable and unnatural crimes; and whose adage was oderint, dum metuant (Let them hate so long as they fear).

The gold and silver coins of Caligula are of considerable rarity. Sestertii are also rare. Ases are more common, yet still expensive due to popularity of collecting the infamous emperor and because they generally exhibit good workmanship. When Caligula was destroyed, the dastardly senators, who had so recently sacrificed to him, ordered all his statues to be demolished, his acts abrogated, his money melted down and his inscriptions defaced, in order that his memory might be extinguished forever. Yet this sentence has not prevented a considerable number of his coins from reaching us, though consequently, except for ases, they are of considerable rarity when in good preservation. The coins of Caligula, minted at Rome, do not exhibit Imperator as a surname. This title is used on colonial coins. The only imperial coin of Caligula bearing IMP is a denarius.

On his coins, Caligula resembles his grandfather, but is less noble and has a malignant expression. He was at great pains to cherish this horrid index of his cruel disposition.

Gary W2
Gary W2
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-2WcIZv40JXVImci-Caligula_69.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze As11 viewsC CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT - Bare head left
VESTA SC - Vesta Seated Left, Holding Patera & Sceptre
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (37-38AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 11.61g / 29mm / 180
Rarity: Common
References:
RIC I 38
Acquisition/Sale: timeman21 Ebay

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

From The Dictionary of Roman Coins:
Caligula, the grand nephew and murderer of Tiberius, most worthy to succeed that emperor, because of an equally infamous, though not so able a tyrant, reigned from A.D. 37 to A.D. 41.

His real appellation was Caius Caesar, but about the time of Augustus' death, he, still a child, being with the army of the lower Rhine, the soldiers, with whom he was a great favorite, were accustomed in the joking parlance of the camp, to give him the nickname of Caligula (from Caligae) because he constantly appeared in the usual military leggings.

Hence Ausonius, in his poem, referring to this cruel wretch, says --

Post hunc castrensis caligae cognomine
Caesar Successit, saevo saevior ingenio.

As emperor, however, he was always called Caius, and he considered himself insulted by the name of Caligula.

He was the youngest son of Germanicus, the nephew of Tiberius and Agrippina; born in 12 A.D. on the day before the calends of September, at Antium, as Suetonius has proved at great length (in Caligula, ch. 8). In 17 A.D., he went into Syria with his father, at whose death, within two years, he returned to Rome with his mother. After she was banished, he was transferred to his great grand-mother Julia and when she diet to his grand-mother Antonia.

In 31 A.D., after the violent deaths of his brothers Nero and Drusus, and also of Sejanus, whose plots he alone had escaped he was he was the apparent successor to the empire and invested with the Pontificate.

In 33 A.D., on the same day he assumed the toga he laid aside his beard, he was nominated questor and Tiberius invited him to Capraea. He moved in with Tiberius, feigning ignorance or indifference, regarding the murder of his relations, as though it did not concern him. He so obsequiously obeyed Tiberius the it was a common expression, that "there never was a better servant, or a worse master." (Sueton, ch. 10)

In 37 A.D., Tiberius was attacked with a severe illness from which he was recovering when Caligula, at the instigation of Maero, the praetorian prefect, put and end to his life by smothering him.

Caligula entered Rome after Tiberius' death and compelled the Senate to join him, by a Senatus Consultum, in depriving Tiberius, son Drusus junior and the elder Tiberius' heir in his last will, of his right to the empire.

The funeral ceremonies of were performed with due pomp by Caligula.

On the eighth month of his reign he was attacked with severe sickness. On his recovery, he adopted his brother Tiberius, gave him the title of Princeps Juventutis, and afterwards put him to death.

In the calends of July he entered upon the office of Consul Suffectus, as colleague to his uncle Claudius, and after two months resigned it.

In 38 A.D. he conceded to Soaemus, the kingdom of Arabians of Ituraea; to Cotys, Armenia Minor; to Polemon, the son of Polemon, his father's dominions.

Dion wrote, "In a short time he assumed so much the air of a king, that all those honors, which Augustus had accepted only when duly arrived at the sovereignty, and even then with hesitation as they were decreed from time to time, and many of which Tiberius altogether declined, were by Caligula grasped in one day, with the exception only of Pater Patriae, which, however was not long deferred."

In 39 A.D., in the calends of January, he entered his second Consulate and resigned the office in thirty days. (Sueton ch. 17)

Having exhausted the treasury by his profuse expenditure on public spectacles and other extravagances, he endeavoured to repair the deficiency by the slaughter of wealthy citizens; and then proceeded to Gaul, their to practice the like system of murder and spoliation.

The name of Germanicus does not appear on coins of this year, nor ever subsequently.

In 40 A.D., Caligula, without a colleague, entered his third consulate, at Lugdunum (Lyon), in Gaul; and resigned it on the ides of January. (Sueton. ch. 17)

Having invited over from Africa, Ptolemy, the son of Juba, he put him to death on the pretence of the young prince's ostentatious bearing. (Dion, B. lix. 25)

Proceeding to the ocean, as if about to invade Britain, he ordered his soldiers to gather shell-fish, and returned as a conqueror, laden with the spoils of the sea. (Sueton. ch. 46)

L. Vitellius, prefect of Syria, the same year, gave such a lesson to Artabanus, the Persian, who was threatening an invasion of Armenia that the later abandoned his design, and paid his adoration to the statues of Augustus and of Caligula. (Dion, I. e.)

In 41 A.D., he began hid fourth consulate, on the 7th of the ides of January. Shortly afterwards (viz. on the 9th of the calends of February), he was assassinated by the conspirators Cassius Chaerea and Cornelius Sabinus.

Caligula's accession to the empire was hailed with joy by the Roman people; but their satisfaction was based on no solid foundations, being the result rather of their deep-rooted attachment to his father Germanicus. He seeming, indeed, responded to the fond wishes of the nation, by many acts of piety, justice, and moderation. But it too soon became apparent that these virtues were not of natural growth but owed their exhibition to the policy of Tiberius, who wished through their influences to consolidate his own power in the empire. For there was not act of cruelty, folly, meanness or infamy, which this monster and madman did not delight in perpetrating. He caused his horse, whom he called Incitatus, to be introduced at dinner time, setting before him gilded corn, and drinking his health in golden cups; and he would have created him consul, had he lived long enough. He imitated all the gods and goddesses, in the adoration which he caused to be paid to him, becoming by turns Jupiter, Bacchus, Hercules, Juno, Diana, and Venus. He constructed a bridge of vessels joined together from Puteoli to Baiae, and crossing over with his troops invaded puteoli and then recrossed it in a kind of triumph, delighting in hearing himself called Alexander the Great. By his absurd and extravagant undertakings of this kind, before the year was fully expired, he had squandered the enormous sums of money left by Tiberius. (Vicies ae septics millies IIS. -- See Sestertium).

He both claimed and receive divine worship, and was the greatest blasphemer that ever lived; yet he quailed in the conviction of a deity, and crept under his bed whenever he heard thunder. With savage inhumanity he attended executions in person, and made parents behold the merciless torments inflicted on their children. He contracted and dissolved marriages with equal caprice and dishonesty. Besides his incestuous union with Drusilla, he seized and repudiated three wives, and was at last permanently attached to Caesonia a mother of children by another man, and without your or beauty, but of depravity corresponding with his own.

Other instances of his incredible cruelty and lust may be found in Suetonius, Philo, and Dion. Such infatuations are evident tokens not only of a brutal nature, but also of a distempered intellect. Nor is it possible to entertain other than supreme contempt for the base servility of the Romans, who could offer solemn adoration to a wretch openly guilty of the most detestable and unnatural crimes; and whose adage was oderint, dum metuant (Let them hate so long as they fear).

The gold and silver coins of Caligula are of considerable rarity. Sestertii are also rare. Ases are more common, yet still expensive due to popularity of collecting the infamous emperor and because they generally exhibit good workmanship. When Caligula was destroyed, the dastardly senators, who had so recently sacrificed to him, ordered all his statues to be demolished, his acts abrogated, his money melted down and his inscriptions defaced, in order that his memory might be extinguished forever. Yet this sentence has not prevented a considerable number of his coins from reaching us, though consequently, except for ases, they are of considerable rarity when in good preservation. The coins of Caligula, minted at Rome, do not exhibit Imperator as a surname. This title is used on colonial coins. The only imperial coin of Caligula bearing IMP is a denarius.

On his coins, Caligula resembles his grandfather, but is less noble and has a malignant expression. He was at great pains to cherish this horrid index of his cruel disposition.
Gary W2
Caligula_and_Agripin.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze Fourre Denarius Fourree6 viewsC CAESAR AVG PON M TR POT III COS III - Laureate head right
AGRIPPINA MAT C CAES AVG GERM - Draped bust of Agrippina right
Mint: Rome (40AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 2.85g / 18mm / 180
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC I 22 (official)
Lyon 179 (official)
RSC 6 (official)
Acquisition/Sale: numismaticaprados Ebay

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

The reverse legend translates: 'Agrippina mother of Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus'

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

The accession of Gaius (Caligula) to the imperial throne on the death of his great-uncle Tiberius signalled a kind of "golden age" in that for the first time, not only did a direct biological descendant of Augustus become emperor, but one who could also claim a direct link with several important Republican figures. Through his mother, Agrippina Sr., Gaius was descended from Augustus, and also Agrippa, the victor of Actium. Gaius' father Germanaicus was the son of Nero Claudius Drusus and nephew of Tiberius, sons of Augustus' widow, Livia. Through his mother Antonia, Germanicus was the grandson of Mark Antony and Octavia, the sister of Augustus. Accordingly, many of his coins recall his dynastic connections to both the Julians and the Claudians as well as his own family, and included in their designs his mother and his three sisters.

“TO MAKE AN INEXPERIENCED AND ALMOST UNKNOWN YOUNG MAN, BROUGHT UP UNDER A SERIES OF AGED AND REPRESSIVE GUARDIANS, MASTER OF THE WORLD, ALMOST LITERALLY OVERNIGHT, ON THE SOLE RECOMMENDATION THAT HIS FATHER HAD BEEN A THOROUGHLY DECENT FELLOW WAS TO COURT DISASTER IN A QUITE IRRESPONSIBLE FASHION.”
–BARRETT, CALIGULA: THE CORRUPTION OF POWER (1990)

THE ASSASSINATION OF CALIGULA
THE emperor Caligula came to his death in the following manner:

Of course his wanton and remorseless tyranny often awakened very deep feelings of resentment, and very earnest desires for revenge in the hearts of those who suffered by it; but yet so absolute and terrible was his power, that none dared to murmur or complain. The resentment, however, which the cruelty of the emperor awakened, burned the more fiercely for being thus restrained and suppressed, and many covert threats were made, and many secret plots were formed, from time to time, against the tyrant's life.

Among others who cherished such designs, there was a man named Cassius Chærea, an officer of the army, who, though not of high rank, was nevertheless a man of considerable distinction. He was a captain, or, as it was styled in those days, a centurion. His command, therefore, was small, but it was in the prætorian cohort, as it was called, a sort of body-guard of the commander-in-chief, and consequently a very honorable corps. Chærea was thus a man of considerable distinction on account of the post which he occupied, and his duties, as captain in the life guards, brought him very frequently into communication with the emperor. He was a man of great personal bravery, too, and was on this account held in high consideration by the army. He had performed an exploit at one time, some years before, in Germany, which, had gained him great fame. It was at the time of the death of Augustus, the first emperor. Some of the German legions, and among them one in which Chærea was serving, had seized upon the occasion to revolt. They alledged many and grievous acts of oppression as the grounds of their revolt, and demanded redress for what they had suffered, and security for the future. One of the first measures which they resorted to in the frenzy of the first outbreak of the rebellion, was to seize all the centurions in the camp, and to beat them almost to death. They gave them sixty blows each, one for each of their number, and then turned them, bruised, wounded, and dying, out of the camp. Some they threw into the Rhine. They revenged themselves thus on all the centurions but one. That one was Chærea. Chærea would not suffer himself to be taken by them, but seizing his sword he fought his way through the midst of them, slaying some and driving others before him, and thus made his escape from the camp. This feat gained him great renown.

One might imagine from this account that Chærea was a man of great personal superiority in respect to size and strength, inasmuch as extraordinary muscular power, as well as undaunted courage, would seem to be required to enable a man to make his way against so many enemies. But this was not the fact. Chærea was of small stature and of a slender and delicate form. He was modest and unassuming in his manners, too, and of a very kind and gentle spirit. He was thus not only honored and admired for his courage, but he was generally beloved for the amiable and excellent qualities of his heart.

The possession of such qualities, however, could not be expected to recommend him particularly to the favor of the emperor. In fact, in one instance it had the contrary effect. Caligula assigned to the centurions of his guard, at one period, some duties connected with the collection of taxes. Chærea, instead of practicing the extortion and cruelty common on such occasions, was merciful and considerate, and governed himself strictly by the rules of law and of justice in his collections. The consequence necessarily was that the amount of money received was somewhat diminished, and the emperor was displeased. The occasion was, however, not one of sufficient importance to awaken in the monarch's mind any very serious anger, and so, instead of inflicting any heavy punishment upon the offender, he contented himself with attempting to tease and torment him with sundry vexatious indignities and annoyances.

It is the custom sometimes, in camps, and at other military stations, for the commander to give every evening, what is called the parole or password, which consists usually of some word or phrase that is to be communicated to all the officers, and as occasion may require to all the soldiers, whom for any reason it may be necessary to send to and fro [38] about the precincts of the camp during the night. The sentinels, also, all have the password, and accordingly, whenever any man approaches the post of a sentinel, he is stopped and the parole is demanded. If the stranger gives it correctly, it is presumed that all is right, and he is allowed to pass on,—since an enemy or a spy would have no means of knowing it.

Now, whenever it came to Chærea's turn to communicate the parole, the emperor was accustomed to give him some ridiculous or indecent phrase, intended not only to be offensive to the purity of Chærea's mind, but designed, also, to exhibit him in a ridiculous light to the subordinate officers and soldiers to whom he would have to communicate it. Sometimes the password thus given was some word or phrase wholly unfit to be spoken, and sometimes it was the name of some notorious and infamous woman; but whatever it was, Chærea was compelled by his duty as a soldier to deliver it to all the corps, and patiently to submit to the laughter and derision which his communication awakened among the vile and wicked soldiery.

If there was any dreadful punishment to be inflicted, or cruel deed of any kind to be performed, Caligula took great pleasure in assigning the duty to Chærea, knowing how abhorrent to his nature it must be. At one time a senator of great distinction named Propedius, was accused of treason by one of his enemies. His treason consisted, as the accuser alledged, of having spoken injurious words against the emperor. Propedius denied that he had ever spoken such words. The accuser, whose name was Timidius, cited a certain Quintilia, an actress, as his witness. Propedius was accordingly brought to trial, and Quintilia was called upon before the judges to give her testimony. She denied that she had ever heard Propedius utter any such sentiment as Timidius attributed to him. Timidius then said that Quintilia was testifying falsely: he declared that she had heard Propedius utter such words, and demanded that she should be put to the torture to compel her to acknowledge it. The emperor acceded to this demand, and commanded Chærea to put the actress to the torture.

It is, of course, always difficult to ascertain the precise truth in respect to such transactions as those that are connected with plots and conspiracies against tyrants, since every possible precaution is, of course, taken by all concerned to conceal what is done. It is probable, however, in this case, that Propedius had cherished some hostile designs against Caligula, if he had not uttered injurious words, and that Quintilia was in some measure in his confidence. It is even possible that Chærea may have been connected with them in some secret design, for it is said that when he received the orders of Caligula to put Quintilia to the torture he was greatly agitated and alarmed. If he should apply the torture severely, he feared that the unhappy sufferer might be induced to make confessions or statements at least, which would bring destruction on the men whom he most relied upon for the overthrow of Caligula. On the other hand, if he should attempt to spare her, the effect would be only to provoke the anger of Caligula against himself, without at all shielding or saving her. As, however, he was proceeding to the place of torture, in charge of his victim, with his mind in this state of anxiety and indecision, his fears were somewhat relieved by a private signal given to him by Quintilia, by which she intimated to him that he need feel no concern,—that she would be faithful and true, and would reveal nothing, whatever might be done to her.

This assurance, while it allayed in some degree Chærea's anxieties and fears, must have greatly increased the mental distress which he endured at the idea of leading such a woman to the awful suffering which awaited her. He could not, however, do otherwise than to proceed. Having arrived at the place of execution, the wretched Quintilia was put to the rack. She bore the agony which she endured while her limbs were stretched on the torturing engine, and her bones broken, with patient submission, to the end. She was then carried, fainting, helpless, and almost dead, to Caligula, who seemed now satisfied. He ordered the unhappy victim of the torture to be taken away, and directed that Propedius should be acquitted and discharged.

Of course while passing through this scene the mind of Chærea was in a tumult of agitation and excitement,—the anguish of mind which he must have felt in his compassion for the sufferer, mingling and contending with the desperate indignation which burned in his bosom against the author of all these miseries. He was wrought up, in fact, to such a state of frenzy by this transaction, that as soon as it was over he determined immediately to take measures to put Caligula to death. This was a very bold and desperate resolution. Caligula was the greatest and most powerful potentate on earth. Chærea was only a captain of his guard, without any political influence or power, and with no means whatever of screening himself from the terrible consequences which might be expected to follow from his attempt, whether it should succeed or fail.

So thoroughly, however, was he now aroused, that he determined to brave every danger in the attainment of his end. He immediately began to seek out among the officers of the army such men as he supposed would be most likely to join him,—men of courage, resolution, and faithfulness, and those who, from their general character or from the wrongs which they had individually endured from the government, were to be supposed specially hostile to Caligula's dominion. From among these men he selected a few, and to them he cautiously unfolded his designs. All approved of them. Some, it is true, declined taking any active part in the conspiracy, but they assured Chærea of their good wishes, and promised solemnly not to betray him.

The number of the conspirators daily increased. There was, however, at their meetings for consultation, some difference of opinion in respect to the course to be pursued. Some were in favor of acting promptly and at once. The greatest danger which was to be apprehended, they thought, was in delay. As the conspiracy became extended, some one would at length come to the knowledge of it, they said, who would betray them. Others, on the other hand, were for proceeding cautiously and slowly. What they most feared was rash and inconsiderate action. It would be ruinous to the enterprise, as they maintained, for them to attempt to act before their plans were fully matured.

Chærea was of the former opinion. He was very impatient to have the deed performed. He was ready himself, he said, to perform it, at any time; his personal duties as an officer of the guard, gave him frequent occasions of access to the emperor, and he was ready to avail himself of any of them to kill the monster. The emperor went often, he said, to the capitol, to offer sacrifices, and he could easily kill him there. Or, if they thought that that was too public an occasion, he could have an opportunity in the palace, at certain religious ceremonies which the emperor was accustomed to perform there, and at which Chærea himself was usually present. Or, he was ready to throw him down from a tower where he was accustomed to go sometimes for the purpose of scattering money among the populace below. Chærea said that he could easily come up behind him on such an occasion, and hurl him suddenly over the parapet down to the pavement below. All these plans, however, seemed to the conspirators too uncertain and dangerous, and Chærea's proposals were accordingly not agreed to.

At length, the time drew near when Caligula was to leave Rome to proceed to Alexandria in Egypt, and the conspirators perceived that they must prepare to act, or else abandon their design altogether. It had been arranged that there was to he a grand celebration at Rome previous to the emperor's departure. This celebration, which was to consist of games, and sports, and dramatic performances of various kinds, was to continue for three days, and the conspirators determined, after much consultation and debate, that Caligula should be assassinated on one of those days.

After coming to this conclusion, however, in general, their hearts seemed to fail them in fixing the precise time for the perpetration of the deed, and two of the three days passed away accordingly without any attempt being made. At length, on the morning of the third day, Chærea called the chief conspirators together, and urged them very earnestly not to let the present opportunity pass away. He represented to them how greatly they increased the danger of their attempts by such delays, and he seemed himself so full of determination and courage, and addressed them with so much eloquence and power, that he inspired them with his own resolution, and they decided unanimously to proceed.

The emperor came to the theater that day at an unusually early hour, and seemed to be in excellent spirits and in an excellent humor. He was very complaisant to all around him, and very lively, affable, and gay. After performing certain ceremonies, by which it devolved upon him to open the festivities of the day, he proceeded to his place, with his friends and favorites about him, and Chærea, with the other officers that day on guard, at a little distance behind him.

The performances were commenced, and every thing went on as usual until toward noon. The conspirators kept their plans profoundly secret, except that one of them, when he had taken his seat by the side of a distinguished senator, asked him whether he had heard any thing new. The senator replied that he had not. "I can then tell you something," said he, "which perhaps you have not heard, and that is, that in the piece which is to be acted to-day, there is to be represented the death of a tyrant." "Hush!" said the senator, and he quoted a verse from Homer, which meant, "Be silent, lest some Greek should overhear."

It had been the usual custom of the emperor, at such entertainments, to take a little recess about noon, for rest and refreshments. It devolved upon Chærea to wait upon him at this time, and to conduct him from his place in the theater to an adjoining apartment in his palace which was connected with the theater, where there was provided a bath and various refreshments. When the time arrived, and Chærea perceived, as he thought, that the emperor was about to go, he himself went out, and stationed himself in a passage-way leading to the bath, intending to intercept and assassinate the emperor when he should come along. The emperor, however, delayed his departure, having fallen into conversation with his courtiers and friends, and finally he said that, on the whole, as it was the last day of the festival, he would not go out to the bath, but would remain in the theater; and then ordering refreshments to be brought to him there, he proceeded to distribute them with great urbanity to the officers around him.

In the mean time, Chærea was patiently waiting in the passage-way, with his sword by his side, all ready for striking the blow the moment that his victim should appear. Of course the conspirators who remained behind were in a state of great suspense and anxiety, and one of them, named Minucianus, determined to go out and inform Chærea of the change in Caligula's plans. He accordingly attempted to rise, but Caligula put his hand upon his robe, saying, "Sit still, my friend. You shall go with me presently." Minucianus accordingly dissembled his anxiety and agitation of mind still a little longer, but presently, watching an opportunity when the emperor's attention was otherwise engaged, he rose, and, assuming an unconcerned and careless air, he walked out of the theater.

He found Chærea in his ambuscade in the passage-way, and he immediately informed him that the emperor had concluded not to come out. Chærea and Minucianus were then greatly at a loss what to do. Some of the other conspirators, who had followed Minucianus out, now joined them, and a brief but very earnest and solemn consultation ensued. After a moment's hesitation, Chærea declared that they must now go through with their work at all hazards, and he professed himself ready, if his comrades would sustain him in it, to go back to the theater, and stab the tyrant there in his seat, in the midst of his friends. Minucianus and the others concurred in this design, and it was resolved immediately to execute it.

The execution of the plan, however, in the precise form in which it had been resolved upon was prevented by a new turn which affairs had taken in the theater. For while Minucianus and the two or three conspirators who had accompanied him were debating in the passage-way, the others who remained, knowing that Chærea was expecting Caligula to go out, conceived the idea of attempting to persuade him to go, and thus to lead him into the snare which had been set for him. They accordingly gathered around, and without any appearance of concert or of eagerness, began to recommend him to go and take his bath as usual. He seemed at length disposed to yield to these persuasions, and rose from his seat; and then, the whole company attending and following him, he proceeded toward the doors which conducted to the palace. The conspirators went before him, and under pretense of clearing the way for him they contrived to remove to a little distance all whom they thought would be most disposed to render him any assistance. The consultations of Chærea and those who were with him in the inner passage-way were interrupted by the coming of this company.

Among those who walked with the emperor at this time were his uncle Claudius and other distinguished relatives. Caligula advanced along the passage, walking in company with these friends, and wholly unconscious of the fate that awaited him, but instead of going immediately toward the bath he turned aside first into a gallery or corridor which led into another apartment, where there were assembled a company of boys and girls, that had been sent to him from Asia to act and dance upon the stage, and who had just arrived. The emperor took great interest in looking at these performers, and seemed desirous of having them go immediately into the theater and let him see them perform. While talking on this subject Chærea and the other conspirators came into the apartment, determined now to strike the blow.

Chærea advanced to the emperor, and asked him in the usual manner what should be the parole for that night. The emperor gave him in reply such an one as he had often chosen before, to insult and degrade him. Chærea instead of receiving the insult meekly and patiently in his usual manner, uttered words of anger and defiance in reply; and drawing his sword at the same instant he struck the emperor across the neck and felled him to the floor. Caligula filled the apartment with his cries of pain and terror; the other conspirators rushed in and attacked him on all sides; his friends,—so far as the adherents of such a man can be called friends,—fled in dismay. As for Caligula's uncle Claudius, it was not to have been expected that he would have rendered his nephew any aid, for he was a man of such extraordinary mental imbecility that he was usually considered as not possessed even of common sense; and all the others who might have been expected to defend him, either fled from the scene, or stood by in consternation and amazement, leaving the conspirators to wreak their vengeance on their wretched victim, to the full.

In fact though while a despot lives and retains his power, thousands are ready to defend him and to execute his will, however much in heart they may hate and detest him, yet when he is dead, or when it is once certain that he is about to die, an instantaneous change takes place and every one turns against him. The multitudes in and around the theater and the palace who had an hour before trembled before this mighty potentate, and seemed to live only to do his bidding, were filled with joy to see him brought to the dust. The conspirators, when the success of their plans and the death of their oppressor was once certain, abandoned themselves to the most extravagant joy. They cut and stabbed the fallen body again and again, as if they could never enough wreak their vengeance upon it. They cut off pieces of the body and bit them with their teeth in their savage exultation and triumph. At length they left the body where it lay, and went forth into the city where all was now of course tumult and confusion.

The body remained where it had fallen until late at night. Then some attendants of the palace came and conveyed it away. They were sent, it was said, by Cæsonia, the wife of the murdered man. Cæsonia had an infant daughter at this time, and she remained herself with the child, in a retired apartment of the palace while these things were transpiring. Distracted with grief and terror at the tidings that she heard, she clung to her babe, and made the arrangements for the interment of the body of her husband without leaving its cradle. She imagined perhaps that there was no reason for supposing that she or the child were in any immediate danger, and accordingly she took no measures toward effecting an escape. If so, she did not understand the terrible frenzy to which the conspirators had been aroused, and for which the long series of cruelties and indignities which they had endured from her husband had prepared them. For at midnight one of them broke into her apartment, stabbed the mother in her chair, and taking the innocent infant from its cradle, killed it by beating its head against the wall.
Atrocious as this deed may seem, it was not altogether wanton and malignant cruelty which prompted it. The conspirators intended by the assassination of Caligula not merely to wreak their vengeance on a single man, but to bring to an end a hated race of tyrants; and they justified the murder of the wife and child by the plea that stern political necessity required them to exterminate the line, in order that no successor might subsequently arise to re-establish the power and renew the tyranny which they had brought to an end. The history of monarchies is continually presenting us with instances of innocent and helpless children sacrificed to such a supposed necessity as this.
Gary W2
Caligula_Thessalonica_1.jpg
Caligula - Thessalonica26 viewsAE 20
37-41 AD
laureate head left
Γ KAIΣAP ΘEΣΣAΛONIKEΩN
veiled bust of Antonia (grandmother of Caligula)
ANTΩNIA_ΣEBAΣTH
RPC 1574
8,41g 21-20 mm
Johny SYSEL
716_Caligula_Antonia_Thessalonica.jpg
Caligula - Thessalonica8 views37-41 AD
laureate head left
Γ KAIΣAP ΘEΣΣAΛONIKEΩN
veiled bust of Antonia (grandmother of Caligula)
ANTΩNIA_ΣEBAΣTH
RPC 1574
8,41g 21-20 mm
Johny SYSEL
Caracalla_RIC_264c.jpg
Caracalla RIC 264c29 viewsAntonian (21-23 mm, 4.19 g)
obv. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM
radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
rev. P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P
Sol standing front, head left, raising right hand and holding globe.
Rome mint 215 AD
RIC IV 264c
Holger G
Carinus.jpg
Carinus38 viewsSilvered Antonianus

IMP CARINVS PF AVG
radiate curaissed bust right

AEQVITAS AVGG
Aequitas stg left holding scales and cornucopia, KAZ in ex

Rome, 283-285 A.D.
3.13g

Ric 239

New picture of another of my very first coins. From an uncleaned lot.
Jay GT4
ClaudAntoniaTet.jpg
Claudius & Antonia Tetradrachm172 viewsTI KΛAY∆I KAIΣ ΣEBA ΓEPMANI AYTOKP
laureate head right, date LB (year 2) before

ANTΩNIA ΣEBAΣTH
bust of Antonia right, hair in queue

29 Sep 41 - 28 Sep 42 A.D.

Alexandria mint

11.054g, 23.2mm, die axis 0o,

RPC 5117; Geissen 62; Milne 61; BMC Alexandria p. 9, 65; Dattari 114; SNG Milan 620, SNG Cop 57; Sommer 12.3, Emmett 73

Scarce

Ex-Forum

Antonia was the youngest daughter of Mark Antony and Octavia. She was a niece of the Emperor Augustus, sister-in-law of the Emperor Tiberius, paternal grandmother of the Emperor Caligula and Empress Agrippina the Younger, mother of the Emperor Claudius, and both maternal great-grandmother and paternal great-aunt of the Emperor Nero. She was additionally the maternal great-aunt of the Empress Valeria Messalina and Faustus Cornelius Sulla Felix, and paternal grandmother of Claudia Antonia, Claudia Octavia, and Britannicus.
3 commentsJay GT4
claudanto.jpg
Claudius (41 - 54 A.D.)77 viewsEgypt, Alexandria
Billon Tetradrachm
O: TI KLA[UDI KAIS SEBA GERMANI AUTOKR], laureate head of Claudius right; LB to right.
R: ANTWNIA SEBASTH, draped bust of Antonia right, wearing hair in long plait.
Dated RY 2 (41/2 AD)
23mm
11.62g
Dattari 114; Milne 61-64; Emmett 73.
7 commentsMat
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-oXfGCiAQjcBiF-Claudius_arch.jpg
Claudius (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius5 viewsTI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P - Laureate head right with NCAPR countermark behind head.
NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMAN IMP, S C - Arch of Nero Claudius Drusus: triumphal arch consisting of single arch & decorated piers set on raised base with four columns supporting ornate attic.
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (42AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 24.20g / 35mm / 180
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC 114
Cohen 48
BMC 187
Acquisition/Sale: shpadoinkle24 Ebay $0.00 8/17
Notes: Jan 9, 19 - NCAPR Countermark

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Nero Claudius Drusus was Tiberius' younger brother. He was a successful general but died at only 29 after a fall from his horse. He married Antonia, daughter of Mark Antony and Octavia. Their sons were Germanicus and Claudius. Claudius issued his coins.

From CNG:
The Arch of Nero Claudius Drusus was erected by order of the Senate sometime after the death of Drusus in 9 BC. Located on the Via Appia, it commemorated his victories along the German frontier. Eventually, the presence of the arch may have lent its name to the surrounding region, known colloquially as the vicus Drusianus (Drusus' district). By the late fourth century AD, the arch may have survived as the arch then known as the arcus Recordationis (Arch of Remembrance).

Claudius, 25 January 41 - 13 October 54 A.D.
Claudius was one of the most capable, yet unlikely emperors. Shunned as an idiot by his family due to a limp and embarrassing stutter, Claudius spent the first decades of his life absorbed in scholarly studies until the death of his nephew Caligula. After Caligula's murder, the Praetorian Guard found him hiding behind a curtain in the Imperial Palace, expecting to be murdered. Instead, the guard proclaimed him emperor. His reign was marred by personal catastrophes, most notably promiscuity and betrayal by his first wife. He governed well and conquered the troublesome island of Britain. He was poisoned by his second wife, Agrippina Jr., mother of Nero.

The countermark NCAPR was applied to numerous orichalcum coins of the reigns of Tiberius and Claudius. NCAPR is most often explained as "Nero Caesar Augustus Populo Romano." Others believe NCAPR abbreviates "Nummus Caesare Augusto Probatus" or "Nero Caesar Augustus Probavit" (probavit means approved). Excavations of the Meta Sudans and the northeastern slope of the Palatine Hill in Rome indicate that this countermark was applied for Nero's congiarium (distribution to the people) in 57 A.D., which supports the Populo Romano interpretation. Varieties of this relatively common countermark are identified by some authors as applied in either Italy, Spain or Gaul. The countermark is not found on coins bearing the name or portrait of Caligula. Clearly any coins of Caligula that were still in circulation and collected for application of the countermark were picked out and melted down, in accordance with his damnatio, rather than being countermarked and returned to circulation. A NCAPR countermark has, however, been found on a Vespasian dupondius which, if genuine and official, seems to indicate the N may refer to Nerva, not Nero.

NCAPR counterstamp of Nero behind bust.

From The Museum of Countermarks on Roman Coins website:
There are several interpretations of what this, the most interesting of all Julio-Caludian ctmk., means. The two most likely are:
1. Nero Ceasar Augustus Populi Romani
2. Nero Caesar Augustus Probavit
In the first instance it is a congiarium or public dole given by Nero to the people of Rome. In the second, it is a revalidation of the earlier coins of ones predecessors still in circulation.
Possible is also a later use, eg. by Nerva, or that no emperors name was part of the countermark.

Previously believed to be applied during the reign of Nero, a specimen in the Pangerl collection appears on an as of Vespasian, necessitating a later date for the series. Three distinct production centers can be identified for this issue, in Spain, Gaul, and Italy. The Italian type is distinguished by the frequent joining of the letters NC at the base.

NCAPR (Nummus Caesare Augusto PRobatus?) in rectangular countermark-Translated-'Money Caesar Augustus Approved'

Just FYI-This coin has been 'Liberated' from the NGC slab and is now how it should be-free for a person to hold, as all ancients should be!
Gary W2
Nero_Claudius_Drusus_AE_sestertius_-_37mm_188.jpg
Claudius (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius (for Nero Claudius Drusus)5 viewsNERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMANICVS IMP - Bare head of Nero Claudius Drusus left
TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P - Claudius seated left on curule chair, holding branch, arms around.
Exergue: SC


Mint: Rome (41-43 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 24.90g / 37mm / 6h
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC 109 (Claudius)
BMCRE 208 (Claudius)
CBN 198
Cohen 8
von Kaenel Type 72
Provenances:
Marti Classical Numismatics
Acquisition/Sale: Marti Classical Numismatics VCoins $0.00 01/19
The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Nero Claudius Drusus, commonly called Drusus senior, brother of Tiberius, second son of Tiberius Claudius Nero and of Livia, was born in the year of Rome 716, three months after his father had yielded up Livia to Augustus.
Realizing the anticipations of that Emperor, he became the most accomplished hero of his time. Sent at the age of twenty-three into Rhaetia (the Tyrol) to quell a revolt, he conquered the insurgents at Trent in a pitched battle. Afterwards named General of the armies in Germany, his successes were so great that he extended the dominion of the Romans to the banks of the Elbe. This fine character conceived the design of re-establishing the Republic, and entrusted his secret to his brother Tiberius, who it is said betrayed him to Augustus. -- He died in the year 745 (A.D. 9), before he had repassed the Rhine, in the 30th year of his age, deeply regretted by the whole empire for the great and virtuous qualities with which his name was so gloriously associated. After his death the Senate surnamed him GERMANICVS, which was transmitted to his children. Statues and triumphal arches were also erected to his honour and figured on his medals. This Prince had married Antonia, by whom he had Germanicus and Livilla. On his coins which, in each metal, are all more or less rare, he is styled DRVSVS - NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMANicus IMP.

Obverse translation:
NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMANICVS IMPerator=commander

Reverse translation:
TIberius CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVGvstvs Pontifex Maximvs TRibvnitiae Potestatis IMPerator=Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus, Sovereign Pontiff, invested with the tribunitian power.
Gary W2
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-AOy7GVWJFbuo-Claudius.jpg
Claudius (Augustus) Coin: Bronze AS 5 viewsTI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TR P IMP P P - Bare head left
(NO LEGEND) SC - Minerva advancing right, holding shield and brandishing a javelin, S-C across fields.
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (42-54 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 10.00g / 27mm / 6h
References:
RIC I (second edition), 116
BMC 206
Cohen 84
von Kaenel Type 60
BN 233-5
Acquisition/Sale: amarso66 eBay $0.00 04/19
Notes: Apr 12, 19 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Claudius, 25 January 41 - 13 October 54 A.D.
Claudius was one of the most capable, yet unlikely emperors. Shunned as an idiot by his family due to a limp and embarrassing stutter, Claudius spent the first decades of his life absorbed in scholarly studies until the death of his nephew Caligula. After Caligula's murder, the Praetorian Guard found him hiding behind a curtain in the Imperial Palace, expecting to be murdered. Instead, the guard proclaimed him emperor. His reign was marred by personal catastrophes, most notably promiscuity and betrayal by his first wife. He governed well and conquered the troublesome island of Britain. He was poisoned by his second wife, Agrippina Jr., mother of Nero.

"Nobody is familiar with his own profile, and it comes as a shock, when one sees it in a portrait, that one really looks like that to people standing beside one. For one's full face, because of the familiarity that mirrors give it, a certain toleration and even affection is felt; but I must say that when I first saw the model of the gold piece that the mint-masters were striking for me I grew angry and asked whether it was intended to be a caricature. My little head with its worried face perched on my long neck, and the Adam's apple standing out almost like a second chin, shocked me. But Messalina said: "No, my dear, that's really what you look like. In fact, it is rather flattering than otherwise." -- From the novel "Claudius the God: And His Wife Messalina" by Robert Graves

per Curtis Clay:
At ROME, bronze coins were struck for Claudius in two large issues, the first without P P and the second with P P, that is the first between his accession on 25 Jan. 41 and his acceptance of the title Pater Patriae less than a year later, between 1 and 12 Jan. 42, and the second after early January 42.

The types were the same in both issues:

sestertii of Claudius with types legend in wreath OB CIVES SERVATOS, SPES AVGVSTA, and legend of Nero Claudius Drusus around triumphal arch;

sestertius of Nero Claudius Drusus with rev. legend of Claudius around Claudius seated on curule chair set on globe among arms;

dupondius of Claudius with rev. CERES AVGVSTA;

dupondius of Antonia with rev. legend of Claudius around standing togate emperor;

asses of Claudius with rev. CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI, LIBERTAS AVGVSTA, and Minerva fighting r.;

quadrantes of Claudius with types Modius and PNR, hand holding scales.

PROVINCIAL MINTS, official and unofficial, on the other hand, struck these same types for Claudius, usually without the quadrantes, almost exclusively without P P, so apparently during the first year of his reign. There were only two exceptions of provincial mints striking these standard types of Claudius after he became P P:

1. The Spanish mint, defined by the many sestertii and dupondii of this particular style, including dozens of die duplicates, found in the Pobla de Mafumet Hoard, struck most of its bronze coins for Claudius without P P, but, alone of the early provincial mints, continued to strike for him early in 42, now with P P, this however being a much smaller issue which probably lasted only a month or two.

I show below a "Pobla" dupondius of Claudius, this one of 41 (no P P), with the characteristic letter forms (particularly the Rs and Ms), often dots left and right of S C in rev. exergue, and the characteristic portrait with spikey hair locks. For comparison I also add a Rome-mint dupondius of the second issue, with P P. (Both images from CoinArchives)

curtislclay:
2. Thracian mint, later in reign, which had NOT struck bronzes for Claudius before he became P P. This mint copied the Roman types, but in slightly cruder style. Its dupondii often have central cavities on their flans, which never occur at Rome or at any of the other provincial mints; see the specimen that I illustrate below from CoinArchives.

Other features which suggest a Thracian or possibly Bithynian location of the mint: (a) quite a few bronze coins of this style have turned up in the flood of ancient coins that emerged from Bulgaria after the fall of the Iron Curtain. (b) Some of the sestertii in this style have Eastern countermarks, for example the SPES AVGVSTA sestertius shown below, from the website Museum of Countermarks on Roman Coins, with countermark Capricorn above rudder on globe. I think most of the Claudian bronzes known with this rare countermark are from our Thracian mint, though it can also occur on Roman and Spanish bronzes of Claudius, which had presumably found their way into circulation in Thrace or Bithynia.

What types did this mint strike? Well, sestertii of Claudius with Legend in wreath and SPES AVGVSTA, but no Arch of Drusus sestertii have yet been observed; CERES AVGVSTA dupondii of Claudius, but I haven't yet noted any dupondii of Antonia; asses of Claudius with all three normal types; no quadrantes.

curtislclay:
Unfortunately these different mints for bronze coins of Claudius are hardly recorded in the standard catalogues!

Laffranchi, in an article written in 1948, was the first to recognize and separate from Rome two of the main provincial mints striking bronzes for Claudius early in his reign, including the Spanish mint mentioned above. But Sutherland, revising RIC I in 1983, was unable to see the stylistic differences pointed out by Laffranchi, so attributed all of Claudius' bronze coins to Rome. The same RIC numbers, therefore, cover Rome and at least three major provincial mints without P P, and Rome, the Spanish mint, and the Thracian mint with P P!

Von Kaenel, in his 1986 monograph on the coinage of Claudius, recognized the two early provincial mints for bronze coins pointed out by Laffranchi, and attributed certain middle bronzes to yet a third provincial mint, though he wrongly located all of these mints in Rome, as auxiliarly mints to the main public one, rather than in the western provinces. He did not recognize the Thracian mint from later in the reign that I have treated above. His catalogue, no. 1888, pl. 43, indeed includes a Thracian CERES AVGVSTA dupondius with central indentations, but he misattributed it to the early Spanish mint, the only early provincial mint to produce bronze coins for Claudius as P P.

Giard, in his Paris catalogue of 1988, ignored both Laffranchi and von Kaenel, and, like RIC, attributed all official bronze coins of Claudius to the mint of Rome!

Individual Thracian mint coins have been recognized as such in various sale catalogues since the 1990s, but this mint has not been treated in any academic article or museum catalogue as far as I know.
Gary W2
Antonia_2.JPG
Claudius AE Dupondius Antonia42 viewsClaudius (41 – 54 AD)

AE Dupondius, Rome, 42 AD

Obv: ANTONIA AVGVSTA draped bust right.
Rev: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P S C Claudius veiled and togate standing left, holding simpulum.
RIC I 104

Weight: 12.3g.
Diameter: 27mm.
1 commentsJose Polanco
commse18b.jpg
Commodus, RIC 560, Sestertius of AD 190 (Ploughing)42 viewsÆ Sestertius (16,57g, Ø 30mm, 7h). Rome mint. Struck AD 190.
Ob.: M COMMOD ANT P FE-LIX AVG BRIT P P, laureate head right
Rev.: COL LAN COM PM TR P XV IMP VIII (around) COS VI (in ex.) S C, Commodus, veiled, as priest, ploughing right with two oxen.

RIC 560; BMC 643; Cohen 39(60fr.); Sear (RCV) 5737

This is a very rare type, found occasionally as Æ-As, but extremely rare as a sestertius. It probably refers to the refounding of Lanuvium, the birthplace of Commodus and the place where he displayed his skills as Hercules by killing lions in the arena.

There has been speculation about the meaning of the first part of the reverse legend COLLANCOM. The traditional expansion of this legend is based on Eckhel (1796), reading the legend as COLonia Lucia ANtoniana COMmodiana, in order to try to relate it to the refounding of Rome. This was followed by Cohen and many other references. The British Museum and RIC expand it slightly differently: "The depiction of the ritual ploughing of the furrow marking out a new foundation refers to Commodus' refounding of Rome as COLonia Lucia ANnia COMmodiana."

Curtis Clay in Forum's discussion board, points to a powerful objection of this interpretation: "Since Commodus still calls himself Marcus on the obverse and was not to switch his praenomen back to Lucius until 191, a year later, why, on the reverse, does he name Rome Lucia and not Marcia?

Chantraine in 1971, following a suggestion of Renier in 1872, proposed what seems to be the solution to the problem: the legend is to be expanded COLonia LANuvina COMmodiana and commemorates Commodus' elevation of his birthplace Lanuvium, which had been a municipium, to the rank of colony.

Commodus did refound Rome too, and this deed is commemorated on very rare mediallions, sestertii, and dupondii struck late in 192, just before his assassination on 31 december. These coins have the same rev. type of emperor plowing, but the legend HERCuli ROMano CONDITORI P M TR P XVIII COS VII P P, 'To the Roman Hercules, the Founder'."

ex cgb.fr (2014).
1 commentsCharles S
Roma484.jpg
Cr 364/1b AR Denarius Serratus Q. Antonius Balbus 11 viewsRome, 82 BCE (3.71g, 20mm, 11h)
o: Laureate head of Jupiter right; S•C behind, O below
r: Victory driving quadriga right, holding reins, wreath, and palm frond; Q•ANTO•BALB PR in two lines in ex
Crawford 364/1b. Antonia 1a
Banker's mark near chin obverse
Striking as Praetor, he was a Marian who was slain after the Sullan victory.
PMah
822KMK544503.jpg
Cr 489/6 AR Quinarius M. Antonius6 viewsQuinarius, Lugdunum ? 42 BCE 1.78 gm
o: [III·VIR·] R·P·C around head of Victory (with features of Fulvia?)
r: [A]NTONI Lion walking r.; at sides, [A] – XL[I]. In exergue, IMP.
Usually said to be Antony's third wife, Fulvia and as giving his age of 41. The idea that the portrait is Fulvia is a bit of a stretch, and Crawford does not mention or attribute it as such in RRC. Nor is "Victoria" obvious, as the wings, if that is what is visible in FDC examples, are tiny even compared to full statuette forms. In every example I have seen, the portrait is poorly-executed and hardly a tribute to either Victory or Fulvia herself. Fulvia seems to have been a formidable person, and so the non-standard style would be perhaps consistent, but the uninspired portrait would then have been a significant failure.
The attribution of Antony's age as "41", which certainly fits some chronologies, nonetheless does not have a better explanation than that it seems that Julius Caesar put his age at "52" on a coin. There is debate about the dating and meaning of such age references, but, from my perspective, neither age matters as an absolute number -- both Antony and particularly Caesar had already legally been through the cursus, including Consul. Antony was Consul for 44 BCE. (Otherwise, as to Antony, we would have heard from Cicero at excruciating length.) Perhaps these are "birthday" issues, but a sad, lonely and pathetic birthday it would reflect. Antony's later coins with Octavia are more persuasive.
Antonia 32. Sydenham 1163. Sear Imperators 126.
PMah
MAntDeL14.jpg
Crawford 544/29, Marc Antony, for Legio XIV, Denarius, 32-31 BC.84 viewsMarc Antony, for Legio XIV (Gemina Martia Victrix), Patras mint (?), 32-31 BC.,
Denarius (16-17 mm / 3,63 g),
Obv.: above: [AN]T AVG , below: [III VI]R R P C , under oar right, filleted scepter or mast with fluttering banners on prow.
Rev.: LEG - XIV , Aquila (legionary eagle) between two military standards.
Crawf. 544/29 ; Bab. (Antonia) 123 ; BMC 208 ; Sear 369 ; Syd. 1234 .

Die Legio XIV wurde 41 v. Chr. von Augustus aufgestellt. Sie war seit 9 n. Chr. in Moguntiacum (Mainz) stationiert und kämpfte später unter Claudius in Britannien, wo sie 60 oder 61 n. Chr. half, Boudicca niederzuwerfen. Später war die Legion u. a. in Vindobona (Wien) und Carnuntum stationiert. Sie war an den Usurpationen des Saturninus und Regalianus beteiligt.

Legio XIV Gemina Martia Victrix was a legion of the Roman Empire, levied by Octavian after 41 BC. The cognomen Gemina (twin in Latin) suggests that the legion resulted from fusion of two previous ones, one of them possibly being the Fourteenth legion that fought in the Battle of Alesia. Martia Victrix (martial victory) were cognomens added by Nero following the victory over Boudica. The emblem of the legion was the Capricorn, as with many of the legions levied by Augustus.
Invasion of Britain
Stationed in Moguntiacum, Germania Superior, since AD 9, XIIII Gemina Martia Victrix was one of four legions used by Aulus Plautius and Claudius in the Roman invasion of Britain in 43, and took part in the defeat of Boudicca in 60 or 61. In 68 it was stationed in Gallia Narbonensis.
Rebellion on the Rhine
In 89 the governor of Germania Superior, Lucius Antonius Saturninus, rebelled against Domitian, with the support of the XIVth and of the XXI Rapax, but the revolt was suppressed.
Pannonian defense
When the XXIst legion was lost, in 92, XIIII Gemina was sent in Pannonia to substitute it, camping in Vindobona (Vienna). After a war with the Sarmatians and Trajan's Dacian Wars (101-106), the legion was moved to Carnuntum, where it stayed for three centuries. Some subunits of Fourteenth fought in the wars against the Mauri, under Antoninus Pius, and the legion participated to the Parthian campaign of Emperor Lucius Verus. During his war against the Marcomanni, Emperor Marcus Aurelius based his headquarters in Carnuntum.
In support of Septimius Severus
In 193, after the death of Pertinax, the commander of the Fourteenth, Septimius Severus, was acclaimed emperor by the Pannonian legions, and above all by his own. XIIII Gemina fought for its emperor in his march to Rome to attack usurper Didius Julianus (193), contributed to the defeat of the usurper Pescennius Niger (194), and probably fought in the Parthian campaign that ended with the sack of the capital of the empire, Ctesiphon (198).
In support of imperial candidates
In the turmoil following the defeat of Valerian, tXIIII Gemina supported usurper Regalianus against Emperor Gallienus (260), then Gallienus against Postumus of the Gallic empire (earning the title VI Pia VI Fidelis — "six times faithful, six times loyal"), and, after Gallienus death, Gallic Emperor Victorinus (269-271).
5th century
At the beginning of the 5th century, XIIII Gemina still stayed at Carnuntum. It probably dissolved with the collapse of the Danube frontier in 430s. The Notitia Dignitatum lists a Quartodecimani comitatensis unit under the Magister Militum per Thracias; it is possible that this unit is XIV Gemina.

my ancient coin database
1 commentsArminius
Picture_6.png
Denarius Serratus: Q. Antonius Balbus 83-2 B.C., obverse21 viewsQ. Antonius Balbus 83-2 B.C., Serrate Denarius
3.84g, 8h, Rome Mint.
Laureate Head of Jupiter right, SC behind.
Crawford 364/1dSydenham 742b, Antonia 1.
VF. Reverse struck off center.
1 commentsLarry M2
Picture_7.png
Denarius Serratus: Q. Antonius Balbus 83-2 B.C., reverse19 viewsQ. Antonius Balbus 83-2 B.C., Serrate Denarius
3.84g, 8h, Rome Mint.
Jupiter driving quadriga, holding reins, palm frond and wreath. X below.
Crawford 364/1dSydenham 742b, Antonia 1.
VF. Reverse struck off center.
Larry M2
normal_diadumenianfv[1].jpg
Diadumenian, AE23. 213 C.E. DEULTUM12 viewsDIADUMENIAN, Emperor 218 C.E., as Caesar, 217-218 C.E. 23.44mm, 6.78 grams.
Obverse: M OPEL ANTONIANUS DIAD C . His bare head draped bust right.
Reverse: COL FL PAC DEVLT, Emperor standing left, sacrificing with patera over lit alter.
THRACE, DEULTUM Ref. Varbanov 2173
NORMAN K
Diocletian_OBV.JPG
Diocletian, AE Antonianus, Obv19 viewsDiocletian; AD 284-305
Bronze; AE Antoninianus, Antioch
OBV: IMP CC VAL DIOCLETIANVS PF AVG; Radiate/Cuirassed Bust Right
REV: CONCORDIA MILITVM;
Diocletian standing R receiving victory on globe from Jupiter
(RIC V 322)
Philip G
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-reCiIurqi8PJzgw-Livia.jpg
Drusus (Caesar) Coin: Brass Dupondius5 viewsDRVSVS CAESAR TI AVGVSTI F TR POT ITER around large S C - Legend around S C
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (22-23AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 12.07g / 29mm / 180
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC I 43
BMCRE 98 (Tiberius)
BN 74
Cohen 1 (Livia)
Acquisition/Sale: sculptor17 Ebay

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Livia Draped bust of Livia as Pietas. Livia was the powerful second wife of Augustus. By her first marriage, Livia is the mother of Tiberius (Emperor) and Drusus (husband of Antonia) and grandmother of Claudius (old friend of Alexander the Alabarch). SR 1731

From Marvin Tameanko:
As usual, there was much vicious gossip and slander surrounding Livia and today it is impossible to separate fact from fiction. In all fairness, one must assume she was neither as good nor as evil as ancient and modern authors say. Tacitus, the 1st century Roman historian, was her worst critic and accused her in his book The Annals, Book 1.3 and 1.6, of causing the murder of the adopted heirs of Augustus, Caius and Lucius, to clear the way for her own son, Tiberius. The historian, Cassius Dio, writing in the 2nd century AD, repeated this ugly rumor in his book, Roman History, Book 53, 33.4, 55, 32 and 57, 3.6. Both these authors are usually dependable, and not know to be falsifiers of history or slanderers, but they both despised the emperor Tiberius and could attack his reputation only by maligning his mother. Today, most historians reject their terrible and outrageous accusation that Livia murdered Augustus by poisoning his dessert of fresh figs. (Tacitus, The Annals Book 1.5 and Dio, History, 55.22.2, and 56.30). This horror story was made popular by the 20th century author, Robert Graves, in his historical novel, I Claudius, but both Tacitus and Dio had devious political agendas that overrode their duties to be honest reporters. However, Livia’s busts on the ancient coins struck by her son, the Emperor Tiberius, although considered to be merely propaganda images, offer kinder assessments of her character. One extraordinary coin portrays Livia as the deity Pietas, goddess of piety, affection and dutifulness.
Divinities were often used to personify the sterling qualities of an ideal Roman matron so, as the ‘First Lady’ of the Empire, Livia Augusta, representing these divinities, became the textbook example of Roman womanhood. To cultivate this image, Livia was shown in sculpture and on coins dressed and posed as various goddesses. Most remarkably, Tiberius struck a series of dupondii, low denominations of currency and therefore coins that would come frequently into the hands of many Romans, depicting the Augusta as various divine personifications. For example, she is portrayed as the deity Pietas, representing the piety of the people, as Justitia, for the Justice administered to the citizens, and as Salus, symbolic of the Good Health or Well Being of the nation.

From CNG:
Claudia Julia Livia, nicknamed Livilla (”Little Livia”), was the daughter of Nero Claudius Drusus and Antonia Minor, and sister to Germanicus and the future emperor Claudius. Though Roman historians describe her as remarkably beautiful and charming, they also condemn her as a power-hungry adulteress and murderess. Tacitus accuses her of conspiring with her lover, the Praetorian Prefect Sejanus, to poison her husband, the imperial heir Drusus Caesar, who died in AD 23. This coin, struck in the name of Drusus shortly before his death, depicts on the obverse a veiled and classically beautiful woman as Pietas, goddess of religious piety and dutifulness. David Vagi has argued convincingly that the head represents Livilla, given that the other bronze coins issued the same year depict Drusus himself and the couple’s twin sons, forming a “family set.”
Gary W2
EB0591_scaled.JPG
EB0591 Claudius / Antonia19 viewsClaudius Billon Tetradrachm of Alexandria.
Obv: (TI KΛ)AUΔI KAIΣ ΣEBA ΓEP MANI AU(TOKR), laureate head of Claudius right. LB (Year 2 = 41/42 AD) right.
Rev: ANTΩNIA ΣEBAΣTH, draped bust of Antonia right.
References: Dattari 114-115.
Diameter: 26mm, Weight: 12.83 grams.
1 commentsEB
Claudius_07.jpg
Egypt, Alexandria, AD 041/042, Claudius, Antonia15 viewsClaudius
Alexandria, year 2, AD 41-42
Billon Tetradrachm
Obv.: TI KΛAYΔI KAIΣ ΣEBA ΓEPMANI, laureate head right, date LB before
Rev.: ANTΩNIA ΣEBAΣTH, bust of Antonia right
Billlon, 24mm
Ref.: Dattari 114
1 commentsshanxi
egal2.jpg
Elagabalus 218-222 denarius29 viewsOb. IMP CAES M AVR ANTONIANVS AVG laureate draped bust right
Rev. PM TR PII COS II P P Roma seated left, holding Victory & scepter; shield balanced upright to rear of chair
Ref. RIC 13 RSC 136

-:Bacchus:-
Bacchus
elaant.jpg
Elagabalus, (218 - 222 A.D.)32 viewsAR Antonianus
O: IMP CAES M AVR ANTONINVS AVG, Radiate and draped bust right.
R: VICTOR ANTONINI AVG, Victory running right, holding wreath and palm.
Rome Mint
22mm
4.54g
RIC 155

Ex Vauctions 368 (Beast Coins), Lot # 158
2 commentsMat
gallienus_644_die_shift.jpg
Gallienus, 644 (die shift)31 viewsGallienus, AD 260-268 sole reign
AE - Antonianus, 22mm, 3.92g
obv. GALLIENVS PF AVG
Bust, cuirssed, radiate, r.
rev. IOVI - STATORI
Jupiter, nude, stg. facing, head r., holding thunderbold in l. hand and long
transversal scepter in r. hand
RIC V/I, 644 (Asia); Göbl 1612b (Antiochia)
VF/about VF, some sand patina

A 'die shift' on both sides has made some letters of the legend hard readable.
Jochen
Gallienvs centaur.jpg
GALLIENVS 33 viewsGALLIENVS AVG

Rev.
APPOLINI CONS AVG

Centaur walking left holding globe and trophey

Rome
267-268 AD

RIC 163
Sear 10177

Billon Antoniannus

Issued to commemorate vows made to Appolo ivoking his protection against the revot of Aureolus
Titus Pullo
Gordianus_III_RIC_89_neu.jpg
Gordianus III28 viewsAntonian (4,52g - 22mm)
obv. IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG
radiate bust right,draped and cuirassed
rev. PM TR P V COS II PP
Apollo seated left,
holding branch in right hand
Rome mint 242 AD
RIC 89 - Cohen 261
Holger G
U809F1SNQCXWSR.jpg
Herenius Etruscus, AR Antoninian.22 viewsQ HER ETR MES DECIVS NOB C, Radiate draped bust right

SPES PVBLICA, Spes advancing left, raising skirt and holding flower

RIC 149. RSC 38.

Ex Martin Griffiths. Photo M.Griffiths.

GaiusCaligula
Herennia_Etruscilla_RIC_58b~0.jpg
Herennia Etruscilla31 viewsAntonian (3,98g - 22mm)
obv. HER ETRVSCILLA AVG
diademed bust right, draped and on a crescent
rev. PVDICITIA AVG
Pudicitia, veiled, standing left,with right hand drawing veil from face and holding scepter
Rome mint AD 250
RIC 58b - Cohen 17
Holger G
lg2_quart_sm.jpg
IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG / P M S COL VIM / Ӕ30 (239-240 AD)18 viewsIMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG, laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right / P M S CO - L VIM, personification of Moesia standing facing, head left, arms outstretched over a lion (right) and a bull (left). AN • I • in exergue.

Ӕ, 29-30+mm, 16.75g, die axis 1h (slightly turned medal alignment), material: looks like red copper.

IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG = Imperator Caesar Marcus Antonius Gordianus Augustus, P M S COL VIM = Provinciae Moesiae Superioris Colonia Viminacium = Colony of Viminacium, in the province of Upper Moesia, AN•I• = the first year. 238 AD was the infamous "year of the 6 emperors", so 239-240 was the first sole ruling year of Gordian III. The bull is the symbol of Legio VII Claudia, based in the capital of Moesia Superior, Viminacium itself, and the lion is the symbol of Legio IV Flavia Felix based in another city of Moesia Superior, Singidunum (modern Belgrade). Due to size this is most probably a sestertius, but large dupondius is another possibility, since it is clearly made of red copper and sestertii were typically made of expensive "gold-like" orichalcum, a kind of brass (but in this time of civil strife they could have used a cheaper replacement). Literature fails to clearly identify the denomination of this type.

A straightforward ID due to size and clear legends, this is AMNG 71; Martin 1.01.1 minted in Viminacium, Moesia Superior (Kostolac, Serbia).

Gordian III was Roman Emperor from 238 AD to 244 AD. At the age of 13, he became the youngest sole legal Roman emperor throughout the existence of the united Roman Empire. Gordian was the son of Antonia Gordiana and an unnamed Roman Senator who died before 238. Antonia Gordiana was the daughter of Emperor Gordian I and younger sister of Emperor Gordian II. Very little is known of his early life before his acclamation. Gordian had assumed the name of his maternal grandfather in 238 AD.

In 235, following the murder of Emperor Alexander Severus, Maximinus Thrax was acclaimed Emperor. In the following years, there was a growing opposition against Maximinus in the Roman senate and amongst the majority of the population of Rome. In 238 (to become infamous as "the year of six emperors") a rebellion broke out in the Africa Province, where Gordian's grandfather and uncle, Gordian I and II, were proclaimed joint emperors. This revolt was suppressed within a month by Cappellianus, governor of Numidia and a loyal supporter of Maximinus Thrax. The elder Gordians died, but public opinion cherished their memory as peace-loving and literate men, victims of Maximinus' oppression.

Meanwhile, Maximinus was on the verge of marching on Rome and the Senate elected Pupienus and Balbinus as joint emperors. These senators were not popular and the population of Rome was still shocked by the elder Gordians' fate, so the Senate decided to take the teenage Gordian, rename him Marcus Antonius Gordianus like his grandfather, and raise him to the rank of Caesar and imperial heir. Pupienus and Balbinus defeated Maximinus, mainly due to the defection of several legions, particularly the II Parthica, who assassinated Maximinus. However, their joint reign was doomed from the start with popular riots, military discontent and an enormous fire that consumed Rome in June 238. On July 29, Pupienus and Balbinus were killed by the Praetorian Guard and Gordian proclaimed sole emperor.

Due to Gordian's age, the imperial government was surrendered to the aristocratic families, who controlled the affairs of Rome through the Senate. In 240, Sabinianus revolted in the African province, but the situation was quickly brought under control. In 241, Gordian was married to Furia Sabinia Tranquillina, daughter of the newly appointed praetorian prefect, Timesitheus. As chief of the Praetorian Guard and father in law of the Emperor, Timesitheus quickly became the de facto ruler of the Roman Empire.

In the 3rd century, the Roman frontiers weakened against the Germanic tribes across the Rhine and Danube, and the Sassanid Empire across the Euphrates increased its own attacks. When the Persians under Shapur I invaded Mesopotamia, the young emperor opened the doors of the Temple of Janus for the last time in Roman history, and sent a large army to the East. The Sassanids were driven back over the Euphrates and defeated in the Battle of Resaena (243). The campaign was a success and Gordian, who had joined the army, was planning an invasion of the enemy's territory, when his father-in-law died in unclear circumstances. Without Timesitheus, the campaign, and the Emperor's security, were at risk.

Gaius Julius Priscus and, later on, his own brother Marcus Julius Philippus, also known as Philip the Arab, stepped in at this moment as the new Praetorian Prefects and the campaign proceeded. Around February 244, the Persians fought back fiercely to halt the Roman advance to Ctesiphon. Persian sources claim that a battle occurred (Battle of Misiche) near modern Fallujah (Iraq) and resulted in a major Roman defeat and the death of Gordian III. Roman sources do not mention this battle and suggest that Gordian died far away from Misiche, at Zaitha (Qalat es Salihiyah) in northern Mesopotamia. Modern scholarship does not unanimously accept this course of the events. One view holds that Gordian died at Zaitha, murdered by his frustrated army, while the role of Philip is unknown. Other scholars have concluded that Gordian died in battle against the Sassanids.
Philip transferred the body of the deceased emperor to Rome and arranged for his deification. Gordian's youth and good nature, along with the deaths of his grandfather and uncle and his own tragic fate at the hands of the enemy, earned him the lasting esteem of the Romans.
Yurii P
OTACILIA.JPG
IVNO CONSERVAT, RIC 12710 viewsAntonianianus AD 245-7 Rome, 24mm, obv: M OTACIL SEVERA AVG; rev: IVNO CONSERVAT. RIC 127, Sear RCV III 9152.Podiceps
fc15.jpg
Joe Geranio Collection -Cn. Domitius L.f. Ahenobarbus. 41-40 BC. AR Denarius23 viewshe Republicans. Cn. Domitius L.f. Ahenobarbus. 41-40 BC. AR Denarius (20mm, 3.61 g, 7h). Uncertain mint along the Adriatic or Ionian Sea. Head right / Prow right surmounted by a military trophy. Crawford 519/2; CRI 339; Sydenham 1177; Domitia 21. Fine, lightly toned, minor porosity and scratches, banker’s mark on each side.

Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus accompanied his father at Corfinium and Pharsalus on the side of Pompey. After his pardon by Julius Caesar, he retired to Rome in 46 BC. After Caesar's assassination, Ahenobarbus supported Brutus and Cassius, and in 43 BC was condemned under the terms of the Lex Pedia for complicity in the assassination. Ahenobarbus achieved considerable naval success against the Second Triumvirate in the Ionian theater, where this denarius was certainly minted, but finally, through the mediation of Gaius Asinius Pollio, he reconciled with Mark Antony, who thereupon made him governor of Bithynia. He participated in Antony's campaign against the Parthians, and was consul in 32 BC. When war broke out between Antony and Octavian, Ahenobarbus initially supported Antony, but, disgusted by Antony’s relationship with Cleopatra, sided with Octavian shortly before Actium. His only child, Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, was married to Antonia Maior, the daughter of Mark Antony and Octavia. Their son, Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus, married Agrippina Minor, the sister of the emperor Caligula, and was the father of the emperor Nero. Anyone may use as long as credited to Joe Geranio Collection.
Joe Geranio
Mark_Antony_-_LEG_XXI_-_CR544-37.jpg
LEG XXI29 viewsM. Antonius. Denarius mint moving with Antonius, 32-31, AR 18mm., 3.71g. Galley r., with sceptre tied with fillet on prow; above, ANT AVG; below, III VIR R P C. Rev. Aquila between two standards; below, LEG – XXI. Babelon Antonia 136. Sydenham 1244. RBW –. Crawford 544/37.

From the E.E. Clain Stefanelli collection
1 commentsAldo
349.jpeg
Macedon Caligula 2 views
Caligula, with Antonia, Æ22 of Thessalonica, Macedon. AD 37-41. Γ KAIΣAP θEΣΣAΛONIKEΩN, laureate head left / ANTΩNIA ΣEBAΣTH, veiled and draped bust of Antonia left, wearing stephane. RPC I 1574. 9.28g, 21mm, 12h.
Ancient Aussie
colonial-001_22mm-a_9,07g-s.jpg
Macedonia, Thessalonika, 011 Caligula and Antonia??, (37-41 A.D.), RPC 1573, AE22, Head of Antonia left,77 viewsMacedonia, Thessalonika, 011 Caligula and Antonia??, (37-41 A.D.), RPC 1573, AE22, Head of Antonia left,
avers:- Γ.KAIΣAP-ΣEBAΣTOΣ, Laureate head of Gaius Caligula left,
revers:- ΓEPMANIKOΣ- C(?)E.ΘEΣΣAΛONIKEΩN, Head of Antonia left.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 22mm, weight: 9,07g, axis: 5h,
mint: Macedonia, Thessalonika, date: 37-41 A.D., ref: RPC 1573 ???,
Q-001
quadrans
Mark_Antony_Denarius_91_90.jpg
Mark Antony (Triumvir) Gens: Antonia Moneyer: Military Mint Coin: Silver Denarius 7 viewsANTAVG III VIR. R.P.C. - Galley right under oars
Legion XII Antiqvae - Eagle between standards
Mint: Patras ? (32-31 BC)
Wt./Size/Axis: 2.72g / 18mm / 12h
References:
RSC 40
BMC 222
Cr544/9
Syd 1231
Sear5 #1480
Provenances:
Thierry DUMEZ NUMISMATIQUE
Acquisition/Sale: Thierry DUMEZ NUMISMATIQUE MA-Shops $0.00 10/18
Notes: Nov 23, 18 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

"ANT AVG | III VIR R P C"
("Antonius Augur | Triumvir rei publicae constituendae")
trans. "Antony Augustus (military title), Triumvirate for the Restoration of the Republic"



From Wikipedia:
Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N;[note 1] 14 January 83 BC – 1 August 30 BC), commonly known in English as Mark Antony or Marc Antony, was a Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic from an oligarchy into the autocratic Roman Empire.

Antony was a supporter of Julius Caesar, and served as one of his generals during the conquest of Gaul and the Civil War. Antony was appointed administrator of Italy while Caesar eliminated political opponents in Greece, North Africa, and Spain. After Caesar's death in 44 BC, Antony joined forces with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, another of Caesar's generals, and Octavian, Caesar's great-nephew and adopted son, forming a three-man dictatorship known to historians as the Second Triumvirate. The Triumvirs defeated Caesar's murderers, the Liberatores, at the Battle of Philippi in 42 BC, and divided the government of the Republic between themselves. Antony was assigned Rome's eastern provinces, including the client kingdom of Egypt, then ruled by Cleopatra VII Philopator, and was given the command in Rome's war against Parthia.

Relations among the triumvirs were strained as the various members sought greater political power. Civil war between Antony and Octavian was averted in 40 BC, when Antony married Octavian's sister, Octavia. Despite this marriage, Antony carried on a love affair with Cleopatra, who bore him three children, further straining Antony's relations with Octavian. Lepidus was expelled from the association in 36 BC, and in 33 BC disagreements between Antony and Octavian caused a split between the remaining Triumvirs. Their ongoing hostility erupted into civil war in 31 BC, as the Roman Senate, at Octavian's direction, declared war on Cleopatra and proclaimed Antony a traitor. Later that year, Antony was defeated by Octavian's forces at the Battle of Actium. Antony and Cleopatra fled to Egypt, where they committed suicide.

With Antony dead, Octavian became the undisputed master of the Roman world. In 27 BC, Octavian was granted the title of Augustus, marking the final stage in the transformation of the Roman Republic into an empire, with himself as the first Roman emperor.

LEG XII ANTIQVAE
This was Caesar's 12th legion, raised in 58 BC for the campaign against the Helvetii. It served throughout the wars in Gaul (58 to 49), Italy (49), and at Pharsalus (48). It was disbanded 46-45 BC and the colonists were settled at Parma. The legion was reformed in 44-43 BC most likely by Lepidus. The legion was then passed to Antony in 41-31 BC and was present at Actium. It appears on Antony's coinage as LEG XII ANTIQVAE. Colonists were settled at Patrae, Greece alongside men of Legio X Equestris, perhaps by Antony, more likely by Octavian soon after Actium.

The legion's whereabouts during most of Augustus' reign is unclear. The 12th was very possibly the unnamed third legion (with III Cyrenaica and XXII Deiotariana) stationed in Egypt. That unnamed legion disappears from Egypt at just about the same time that Legio XII Fulminata is first found in Syria. By early in the reign of Tiberius, the 12th legion was based at Raphanae.

Above the ship ANT AVG abbreviates the name Antonius along with one of his titles, Augur, a priest of the Roman state religion. Below the ship is his other title III VIR. R.P.C. (tresviri rei publicae constituendae), which loosely translates as “Triumvir for the Reorganization of the Republic”. A triumvir in this case was a member of the “Second Triumvirate” an informal power-sharing arrangement formed in 43 BCE between three men: Antony, Octavian (Julius Caesar’s great-nephew and designated heir,) and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (c. 88 – 12 BCE), last high priest of the Republic and Caesar’s political ally.

From Forvm:
The legionary denarii were struck by Antony for the use of his fleet and legions, most likely at his winter headquarters at Patrae just before the Actian campaign. They may have been struck with silver from Cleopatra's treasury. The legionary denarii provide an interesting record of the 23 legions, praetorian cohorts and the chort of speculatores of which Antony's army was composed. Some of them give the name as well as the number of the legion honored. They have a lower silver content than the standard of the time. As a result they were rarely hoarded, heavily circulated and are most often found in very worn condition. The Francis Jarman collection includes the very rare and scarce named legions and cohorts.
Gary W2
Mark_Antony,_as_Triumvir_43-30_BC.jpg
Mark Antony (Triumvir) Gens: Antonia Moneyer: Military Mint Coin: Silver Denarius 10 viewsANTAVG III VIR. R.P.C. - Galley right under oars
Leg III - Eagle between standards
Mint: Patras ? (32-31 BC)
Wt./Size/Axis: 3.11g / 17mm / 12h
References:
RSC 28
Cr544/15
Syd 1216
Provenances:
Savoca Coins
Acquisition/Sale: Savoca Coins Internet 21st Blue Auction #978 $0.00 06/19
Notes: Jun 23, 19 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

"ANT AVG | III VIR R P C"
("Antonius Augur | Triumvir rei publicae constituendae")
trans. "Antony Augustus (military title), Triumvirate for the Restoration of the Republic"

ANCIENT MARITIME VESSELS ON COINS
2nd-1st Century BC:
The Roman Quinquereme

Although the Romans included triremes in their fleet, their typical warship (Latin navis longa) was a heavily armed quadreme or a quinquereme (lots 600-606), adapted from Magna Graecian and Syracusan prototypes. More comfortable with infantry tactics, they included a novel device known as the corvus, or “raven.” Located at the bow, the corvus was an iron hook attached to a retractable bridge attached to a pole-and-pulley system. Upon ramming their opponent, the bridge was dropped, and the corvus imbedded itself into the deck of the opposing ship. As a result, the now-locked ships allowed the Roman soldiers stationed on the quinquereme to board the other ship and fight as if the battle were on land.

With the end of the Third Punic War (146 BC), and no longer faced with a major threat in the west, the Romans mothballed their fleet. It would be periodically re-commissioned to deal with pirates, though, as in 67 BC when the Senate enjoined Pompey to put down the Cilician pirates. When his son, Sextus Pompeius, amassed a powerful fleet to contest Octavian in the period immediately following the assassination of Caesar, he issued a denarius recalling both the memory of his father’s accomplishment, and his own naval power (lot 604). Antony’s silver legionary denarii and bronze fleet coinage, struck prior to Actium and used to pay his Roman and Egyptian forces (lots 605 and 606), also attest to the important role of the Roman navy in this period. While the purpose for the striking of a later restitution issue of the legionary type under the emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus is a subject of speculation (lots 629 and 630), it does show that the Romans retained the same ship design over the next two centuries.

The wars between Octavian and Antony fundamentally changed the role of naval warfare for the Romans. Agrippa’s naval victories against Sextus Pompey at Naulochus in 36 BC and the combined fleets of Mark Antony and Cleopatra at Actium in 31 BC, demonstrate the decisively integral role that such naval engagements had become. By the founding of the Empire, Rome had definitively established itself as the supreme naval power in the Mediterranean.

Gary W2
AR_DENARIUS_OF_MARK_ANTONY_AND_OCTAVIAN_CAESAR_THE_TRIUMVIRS_PERIOD_41_BC_5.jpg
Mark Antony (Triumvir) Gens: Antonia Moneyer: M. Barbatius Pollio Coin: Silver Denarius 17 viewsM ANT IMP AVG III VIR R P C M BARBAT Q P, - Bare head of Mark Antony right
CAESAR IMP PONT III VIR R P C - Bare head of Octavian right.
Mint: Ephesus (41 BC)
Wt./Size/Axis: 3.00g / 19mm / 12h
References:
RSC 8
Crawford 517/2
CRI 243
Sydenham 1181
Acquisition/Sale: imperatorcoins-and-estatesales eBay $0.00 07/19
Notes: Jul 14, 19 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

(Coin broken probably from crystallization and repaired.)
2 commentsGary W2
Mark_Antony_32-31_BC__Rome.jpg
Mark Antony (Triumvir) Gens: Antonia Moneyer: Military Mint Coin: Silver Denarius 10 viewsANTAVG III VIR. R.P.C. - Galley right under oars
Leg II - Eagle between standards
Mint: Patras ? (32-31 BC)
Wt./Size/Axis: 3.09g / 16mm / 12h
References:
RSC 27
Cr544/14
Syd 1216
Sear'88 #414
Provenances:
Savoca Coins
Acquisition/Sale: Savoca Coins Internet 21st Blue Auction #986 $0.00 06/19
Notes: Jun 23, 19 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

"ANT AVG | III VIR R P C"
("Antonius Augur | Triumvir rei publicae constituendae")
trans. "Antony Augustus (military title), Triumvirate for the Restoration of the Republic"

ANCIENT MARITIME VESSELS ON COINS
2nd-1st Century BC:
The Roman Quinquereme

Although the Romans included triremes in their fleet, their typical warship (Latin navis longa) was a heavily armed quadreme or a quinquereme (lots 600-606), adapted from Magna Graecian and Syracusan prototypes. More comfortable with infantry tactics, they included a novel device known as the corvus, or “raven.” Located at the bow, the corvus was an iron hook attached to a retractable bridge attached to a pole-and-pulley system. Upon ramming their opponent, the bridge was dropped, and the corvus imbedded itself into the deck of the opposing ship. As a result, the now-locked ships allowed the Roman soldiers stationed on the quinquereme to board the other ship and fight as if the battle were on land.

With the end of the Third Punic War (146 BC), and no longer faced with a major threat in the west, the Romans mothballed their fleet. It would be periodically re-commissioned to deal with pirates, though, as in 67 BC when the Senate enjoined Pompey to put down the Cilician pirates. When his son, Sextus Pompeius, amassed a powerful fleet to contest Octavian in the period immediately following the assassination of Caesar, he issued a denarius recalling both the memory of his father’s accomplishment, and his own naval power (lot 604). Antony’s silver legionary denarii and bronze fleet coinage, struck prior to Actium and used to pay his Roman and Egyptian forces (lots 605 and 606), also attest to the important role of the Roman navy in this period. While the purpose for the striking of a later restitution issue of the legionary type under the emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus is a subject of speculation (lots 629 and 630), it does show that the Romans retained the same ship design over the next two centuries.

The wars between Octavian and Antony fundamentally changed the role of naval warfare for the Romans. Agrippa’s naval victories against Sextus Pompey at Naulochus in 36 BC and the combined fleets of Mark Antony and Cleopatra at Actium in 31 BC, demonstrate the decisively integral role that such naval engagements had become. By the founding of the Empire, Rome had definitively established itself as the supreme naval power in the Mediterranean.

Gary W2
Legio_V.jpg
Mark Antony Legio V Silver Denarius125 viewsSilver denarius, S 1479, Craw 544/18, Syd 1221, BMC 196, RSC 32, VF, corrosion, 3.263g, 18.03mm, 180o, Patrae? mint, 32 - 31 B.C.;
Obverse - ANT•AVG / III VIR•R•P•C, galley right with rowers, mast with banners at prow, border of dots;
Reverse - LEG - V, legionary eagle between two standards, border of dots;

This may have been the famous V Alaudae ('the larks'), a Caesarean legion which remained loyal to Antony but was later retained by Augustus. There are other possibilities, however: V Macedonica, a Caesarean legion about which little is known; V Urbana, disbanded after Actium (and therefore quite likely an Antonian legion); and V Gallica, a Caesarean legion that was probably the one that under Lollius lost its eagle to German raiders in Gaul in 17 BC.
2 commentsb70
LEG_XI.jpg
Mark Antony Legionary Denarius LEG XI90 viewsANT AVG III VIR R P C
galley r. mast with banners at prow

Rev LEG XI legionary eagle between two standards


Patrae mint 32-31BC

ex-Arcade Coins

An Antonian legion which was disbanded or lost its separate identity after the battle of Actium.

The two centurions Titus Pullo and Lucius Vorenus were from Legio XI (not XIII as the series Rome would have us believe). Pullo and Vorenus were fierce rivals for promotion to primus pilus, the most senior centurion in a legion. Both distinguished themselves in 54 BC when the Nervii attacked the legion under Quintus Cicero in their winter quarters in Nervian territory. In an effort to outdo Vorenus, Pullo charged out of the fortified camp and attacked the enemy, but was soon wounded and surrounded. Vorenus followed and engaged his attackers in hand-to-hand combat, killing one and driving the rest back, but lost his footing and was himself soon surrounded. Pullo in turn rescued Vorenus, and after killing several of the enemy, the pair returned to camp amid applause from their comrades.

In the Civil War of 49 BC, Pullo was assigned to the XXIV Victrix Rapax, a new Italian legion commanded by the legate Gaius Antonius. In 48 BC, Antonius was blockaded on an island and forced to surrender. Pullo was apparently responsible for most of his soldiers switching sides to fight for Pompey. Later that year, he is recorded bravely defending Pompey's camp in Greece from Caesar's attack shortly before the Battle of Pharsalus.

Titus Pullo
MH.PNG
Maximianus Herculius Antonianus Tripoli21 viewsObv.: IMP C M AVR VAL MAXIMIANVS PF AVG,
Rv.: IOV ET HERCV CONSER AVGG.
21mm, 3.6 grams.
RIC:624, C:311, Tripoli mint with palm branch left in exergue.
Canaan
AntoniaDup.jpg
NCAPR147 viewsAntonia, daughter of Marc Antony, mother of Claudius, grandmother of Caligula
6174. Orichalcum dupondius, RIC 104, S 1902, BM 166, G, Rome mint, 13.83g, 31.1mm, 180o, 41-42 A.D.; obverse ANTONIA AVGVSTA, bare- headed bust right, countermark; reverse TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP S C, Claudius veiled and togate, standing left, holding simpulum; sold.
whitetd49
Nero_Antonia_Antioch_tetra.jpg
Nero - Antioch4 viewsNero and Agrippina II
BI tetradrachm
56-57 AD
head of Nero right wearing oak-wreath
NEPΩNOΣ KΛAYΔIOY ΘEOY YI KAIΣAPOΣ ΣEB
draped bust of Agrippina II right
AΓPIΠΠEINHΣ ΣEBAΣTHΣ
Γ / EP
Prieur 74
14,4g
ex Roma Numismatics
Johny SYSEL
CGallus.jpg
Nero / Caius Cestius Gallus58 viewsSELEUCIS and PIERIA, Antioch. Nero. AD 54-68. Æ As (30.5mm, 15.36 g, 12h).
Caius Cestius Gallus, legatus Syriae. Dated year 115 of the Caesarean Era (AD 66/7).
O: Laureate head right; coiled serpent to right. IM • NER • CLAV • CAESAR
R: ЄΠI ΓAIOY KЄCTIO Y ΛNTIO ЄT • ЄIP in five lines within wreath (In the magistracy of Gaius Cestius, Antioch, year 115)
- McAlee 294 = Superior, (9 December 1989), lot 2827 (same dies); RPC I – Extremely rare, the second known.

Josephus lays much of the blame for the Jewish revolt at the feet of Florus, the Roman procurator of Judaea. Florus was notorious for his cruelty and greed. In 66 C.E. he demanded 17 talents from the temple treasury, using the pretense that it was needed by the Emperor. The Jews refused, ridiculing his request by taking up a mock collection for the “poor Florus.”

Florus responded by sending troops to loot and pillage the Upper-Marketplace in Jerusalem. Thousands of Jews were killed, including woman and children. Rather than bringing the city under control, Josephus reasons, “What more need be said? It was Florus who constrained us to take up war with the Romans, for we preferred to perish together rather than by degrees. The war in fact began in the second year of the procuratorship of Florus and in the twelfth of Nero's reign.”

The Sicarii, or “dagger-men,” took the fortress of Masada and killed the Roman garrison stationed there, establishing the first rebel stronghold. The fortress of Antonia was also captured and the Roman soldiers stationed there were slain. The remaining Roman holdouts surrendered under the agreement that their lives would be spared but they too were slaughtered. At the same time, the daily sacrifices for the Emperor were discontinued. A mixture of elation and fear gripped Jerusalem as they awaited the inevitable Roman response.

Gaius Cestius Gallus, Legate of Syria in 66 C.E., was the response. On Nero’s order, he assembled a force at Antioch comprised of legio XII Fulminata, detachments from the three other legions based in Syria, six cohorts of auxiliary infantry and four alae of cavalry. He also had military support from the Jewish ruler Herod Agrippa II and two other client kings, Antiochus IV of Commagene and Sohaemus of Emesa.

Within three months Gallus, with his force of over 30,000 troops, began working their way down from Galilee to Jerusalem, attacking key cities such as Chabulon, Joppa and Antipatris. Although enduring successful raids from the rebels, the Romans finally enter and set fire to the suburbs of Jerusalem as the rebels retreated to the safety of the temple fortress.

After setting fire to Bezetha, north of the temple, Gallus encamped in front of the royal palace, southwest of the temple. At that time, Josephus says he could have easily taken the city since pro-Roman Jews were ready to open the gates of the city for him. A six day delay, however, strengthened the insurgents. The zealots attacked and killed the pro-peace faction in the city, murdering their leaders, then assaulted the Romans from the wall. The advance units of the Romans employ the Testudo, overlapping their shields over themselves like the back of a tortoise, and began undermining the walls. After five days they are on the verge of success when, for an undetermined cause, Gallus called off the attack. In History of the Jews, Professor Heinrich Graetz suggests: “[Cestius Gallus] did not deem it advisable to continue the combat against heroic enthusiasts and embark on a lengthy campaign at that season, when the autumn rains would soon commence . . . and might prevent the army from receiving provisions. On that account probably he thought it more prudent to retrace his steps.” Whatever the reason, Gallus decided to abruptly leave Jerusalem.

Gallus, with evidently little battlefield experience, suffered one humiliating defeat after another during the retreat. By the battles end the losses amounted to 5,300 infantry, 480 cavalry, all the pack animals, artillery and the eagle standard of the legio XII Fulminata. With the rebels emboldened by their shocking victory, the stage is set for the Romans to return in greater force. This time, however, Nero would send general Vespasian.

Cestius Gallus died a broken man in 67 C.E. Tacitus described the outbreak of the revolt to Gallus death as follows: “the endurance of the Jews lasted till Gessius Florus was procurator. In his time the war broke out. Cestius Gallus, legate of Syria, who attempted to crush it, had to fight several battles, generally with ill-success. Cestius dying, either in the course of nature, or from vexation.” - The Histories V
4 commentsNemonater
OCTAVIA-1.jpg
Octavia, 4th wife of Marc Antony. Died 11 BCE176 viewsAR Cistophorus (25.6 mm)
Ephesus mint, 39 BCE.
Obv: M ANTONINVS IMP COS DESIG ITER ET TERT, Jugate hds. r. of M. Antony, wreathed with ivy, and Octavia.
Rev: III VIR RPC, Dionysus, standing on cista mystica flanked by two snakes.
RPC-2202; Sear-1513; BMC-135; RSC-3; CRI-263; Syd-1198; Vagi-199; Bab. (Antonia)-61.
EmpressCollector
Otacilia 9+.jpg
Otacilia Severa AR Antoninianus13 viewsAR Antonianinus
Obv: M OTACIL SEVERA AVG
Rev: CONCORDIA AVGG ; Concordia std. l., holding patera and double cornucopiae
Tanit
0320-210np_noir.jpg
Philippus II, Antonianus63 viewsAntoninianus struck in 246 AD
M IVL PHILIPPVS CAES, Radiate and draped bust of Philippus right
PRINCIPI IVVENT, Philippus II standing left, holding globe and spear
4.42 gr
Cohen #48, RCV #9240
Potator II
philippus.jpg
Phillipus II3 viewsSear 2665 IMP PHILIPPUS AUG
PAX AETERNA -ANTONIANUS
Alexios
PolemoII.jpg
Polemo II-Mark Antony's great grandson477 views Silver drachm

BACΙΛΕΩC ΠΟΛΕΜΩΝΟC
diademed head of Polemo right

ETOYC - K (year 20)
laureate head of Nero right;

57 - 58 A.D.
3.645g

18.1mm, die axis 180o

RPC I 3832, SNG Cop 242, BMC Pontus 7 - 8, SNG von Aulock 6691

Ex-Forum

Marcus Antonius Polemon Pythodoros, also known as Polemon II of Pontos and Polemon of Cilicia is the only known direct descendant of Mark Antony who bares his name. Through his maternal grandmother he was a direct descendant of Mark Antony and his second wife Antonia Hybrida Minor. Antony and Antonia Hybrida were first paternal cousins. He was Antony’s second born great grandson. Through Antony, he was a distant cousin to Roman Client King Ptolemy of Mauretania and Drusilla of Mauretania. He was also a distant cousin to Roman Emperors Caligula, Claudius and Nero and Roman Empresses Valeria Messalina, Agrippina the Younger and Claudia Octavia.

Polemon II’s father Polemon Pythodoros King of Pontos died in 8 BC. His mother then married King Archelaus of Cappadocia, and the family moved to the court of his stepfather. In 17 AD Archelaus died and Polemon II and his mother moved back to Pontus. From 17 until 38, Polemon II assisted his mother in the administration of Pontos. When his mother died in 38, Polemon II succeeded her as the sole ruler of Pontus, Colchis and Cilicia.

Around 50 AD, Polemon II met the Judean princess Julia Berenice in Tiberias during a visit to King Agrippa I. Berenice was widowed in 48 AD when her second husband and paternal uncle Herod of Chalcis, died. She had two sons by him, Berenicianus and Hyrcanus. Berenice set the condition that Polemon II had to convert to Judaism before marriage, which included undergoing the rite of circumcision. Polemon II complied, and the marriage went ahead but it did not last long. Berenice left Pontus with her sons and returned to the court of her brother. Polemon II abandoned Judaism and, according to the legend of Bartholomew the Apostle, accepted Christianity, only to become a pagan again.

In 62, Nero compelled Polemon II to abdicate the Pontian throne. Pontos and Colchis became a Roman province. From then until his death, Polemon II only ruled Cilicia. He never remarried and had no children that are known.

Polemon's sister Antonia Tryphaena's Royal lineage goes all the way down to Nana Queen of Iberia, who died in 363 AD. Truly Antony may have lost the battle of Actium but won the war of genetics!
8 commentsJay GT4
Probus_RIC_104.jpg
Probus - antoninianus RIC 10758 viewsProbus. Antoninianus. Lugdunum Mint, 278-279 AD; 4.15g; obv. IMP C PROBVS P F AVG, radiate cuirassed bust right; rev. TEMPOR FELICIT, Felicitas standing right, holding caduceus & cornucopiae, II in ex. RIC 107

Ex F. R. Künker Auktion 143
4 commentsBartosz Awianowicz
Probus_RIC_112_bust_type_F_neu.jpg
Probus RIC 11228 viewsAntonian ( 3.87g - 22mm)
obv. IMP C PROBVS P F AVG
Radiate, cuirassed bust right.
rev.VIRTVS AVG
Soldier standing left, holding Victory and spear, left hand on shield.
Mintmark: IIII
RIC 112. Lugdunum
Bust type F
HolgerG
Probus_RIC_151_corr.jpg
Probus RIC 15129 viewsAntonian (22m-3.52g)
obv. IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG
Radiate, cuirassed bust right
rev. FIDES MILIT
Fides standing, holding sceptre and transverse ensign.
Mintmark: XXIEpsilon
RIC 151 Rome Bust type F
HG
Probus_RIC_173_Rome_neu.jpg
Probus RIC 173 Rome36 viewsAntonian (3,45g)
obv. IMP PROBVS P F AVG
Radiate, cuirassed bust right.
rev. IOVI CONS PROB AVG
Jupiter standing, holding thunderbolt and sceptre
Mintmark: R thunderbolt Beta
HG
Probus_RIC_202_Rome.jpg
Probus RIC 202 Rome41 viewsAntonian (3,71 g.- 22-25 mm)
obv. IMP PROBVS AVG
Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle.
rev. SOLI INVICTO
Sol in quadriga riding left, holding globe and whip.
Mintmark: R star ε
RIC 202 Rome
HG
Probus_RIC_515_bust_type_H.jpg
Probus RIC 51531 viewsAntonian (3.34g - 24mm)
obv. IMP C PROBVS AVG
Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
rev. PAX AVG
Pax standing left, holding olive-branch and sceptre
Mintmark: In left field T ex. VXXI
RIC 516, Ticinum
Bust type H
HolgerG
Probus_RIC_801_bust_type_F.jpg
Probus RIC 80131 viewsAntonian (4.04g - 22mm)
obv. IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG
Radiate, cuirassed bust right.
rev. VIRTVS AVG
Emperor standing right, holding spear and globe.
Mintmark: XXIς
RIC 801, Rome.
Bust type F
HolgerG
Probus_RIC_904_bust_type_G.jpg
Probus RIC 90441 viewsAntonian (3.86g - 22mm)
obv. VIRTVS PROBI AVG
Radiate, helmeted, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield.
rev. ADVENTVS PROBI AVG
Emperor riding left, right hand raised, left holding sceptre; at foot, captive.
Mintmark: Δ
RIC 904, Cyzicus
Bust type G
1 commentsHolgerG
q_antonius.jpg
Q Antonius Balbus Denarius 82/83 bc95 viewsSilver denarius serratus, SRCV I 279, Sydenham 742b, Crawford 364/1a, RSC I Antonia 1, VF, Rome mint, 83 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Jupiter right, S C behind; reverse Victory in a quadriga right, wreath in right and reigns and palm frond in left, letter below horses, Q ANTO BALB / PR in ex (ANT and AL in monogram);

Q. Antonius Balbus was a member of the Marian party and issued this coinage by special decree of the Senate to prepare for opposition to Sulla's return to Rome. In 82 B.C. he was appointed praetor in Sardinia. He was driven from Sardinia by L. Philippus, the legate of Sulla, and slain. Sulla prevailed and the Victory on the reverse of this type was proven a false hope. -- The Coinage of the Roman Republic by Edward A. Sydenham
2 commentsAdrian S
Balbus.JPG
Q Antonius Balbus Denarius Serratus. 83-82 BC81 viewsLaureate head of Jupiter right, S.C behind.
Victory in quadriga right, control letter below, Q. ANTO. BALB
Ex. PR
Antonia 1, Cr 364/1, Syd 742
2 commentswhitetd49
img0009_z.jpg
Q. Antonius Balbus (83 - 82 B.C.)38 viewsAR Serrate Denarius
O: Laureate head of Jupiter right; S·C behind
R:Victory driving quadrgia right, holding reins, palm frond, and wreath; E below horses.
Rome Mint
3.7g
18mm
Crawford 364/1d; Sydenham 742b; Antonia 1
2 commentsMat
364,1a_Q__Antonius_Balbus.jpg
Q. Antonius Balbus - AR serratus denarius8 views²Sardinia
¹Rome
¹²83-82 BC
laureate head of Jupiter right
S·C

Victory riding in quadriga right, holding wreath, reins and palm branch
Q·(ANT)O·B(AL)B / PR
¹Crawford 364/1a, SRCV I 279, Sydenham 742b, RSC I Antonia 1
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
3,9g

Moneyer who belonged to the opposition of Sulla struck these coins as praetor in Sardinia according special decree of senate (Senatus Consulto). He was driven from Sardinia by L. Philippus, the legate of Sulla, and slain. Victory on reverse didn't avert defeat of oppositon in battle of Colline Gate.
Johny SYSEL
Antonia_Q_Anto_Balb_Cr364.jpg
Q. Antonius Balbus - denarius serratus37 viewsQ. Antonius Balbus. 83-82 BC. AR Denarius Serratus, 3.81 g; obv. Laureate head of Jupiter right, S C behind; rev. Victory in quadriga right, control letter (P) below, Q ANT BALB P R in ex. Crawford 364/1d; Syd. 742b.1 commentsBartosz Awianowicz
Picture_13.png
Q. Antonius Balbus 83-2 B.C., Serrate Denarius23 views3.63g, 5h, Rome Mint.
Laureate Head of Jupiter right, SC behind/Victory driving quadriga right, holding reins, palm frond and wreath, B below horses.
Crawford 364/1d, Sydenham 742b, Antonia 1.
CNG grade: Superb EF, lightly toned. My annotation: Reverse struck off center.
1 commentsLarry M2
Antonia_1a_img.jpg
Q. Antonius Balbus, denarius serratus9 viewsObv:– Laureate head of Jupiter right, S C behind
Rev:– Victory in quadriga right, control letter below, Q ANT BALB P R in ex
Minted in Rome 83-82 B.C.
Reference:– Sydenham 74, Crawford 364/1, RSC I Antonia 1.
maridvnvm
Antonia_1.JPG
Quintus Antonius Balbus28 viewsObv: Laureate head of Jupiter facing right, SC behind.

Rev: Victory in quadriga galloping right, holding wreath and a palm, control letter X below; Q ANTO BALB / PR in exergue.

Silver Denarius Serratus, Rome mint, 83 - 82 BC

3.9 grams, 19.2 x 18.6 mm, 180°

RSC Antonia 1, S279
1 commentsSPQR Coins
Antonia_03.jpg
RIC 1, p.124, 66 - Antonia, CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI19 viewsAntonia
Daughter of Mark Antony, Wife of Nero Drusus, Mother of Claudius, Grandmother of Caligula
AR Denarius, Rome mint, AD 41-42
Obv: ANTONIA AVGVSTA, draped bust right, wearing barley wreath
Rev: CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI (consistency of the emperor), Antonia standing facing, draped as Constantia, long torch in right, cornucopia in left
Ag, 3.717g, maximum diameter 18.9mm, die axis 225deg
Ref.: RIC 66, BMCRE I Claudius 111, Cohen 2, SRCV I 1900, CRE 1 [R2]
Ex H.D. Rauch, Auction 64, December 1999, Lot 122
Ex Jyrki Muona Collection
Ex FORVM
shanxi
Antonia_01.jpg
RIC 1, p.127, 92 - Antonia, Claudius33 viewsAntonia
Dupondius, Rome Mint
Obv.: ANTONIA AVGVSTA, draped bust right.
Rev.: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP / S - C, Claudius, veiled and togate, standing left, holding simpulum.
AE, 11.62g, 27.8 mm
Ref.: RIC 92, C. 6, BMC 166
Ex Helios Numismatik
1 commentsshanxi
ROME_ANTONIA.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE - ANTONIA20 viewsROMAN EMPIRE - ANTONIA AE dupondius – 27mm. Rome, 50-54 AD. ANTONIA AVGVSTA, draped bust right. TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P S-C - Claudius, togate, standing l. with simpulum. Reference:
RIC Claudius 104, C 6S.
Ex-Ardatirion Collection.
dpaul7
bpJ1D1Antonia.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Antonia, Dupondius, 41-50 AD.42 viewsObv: ANTONIA AVGVSTA
Bare head, right.
Rev: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP S C
Claudius, veiled and togate standing left, holding simpulum.
Dupondius 10.6 gm 27.5 mm Mint: Rome RIC 92
Comment: Issued by Claudius.
Massanutten
moneta 651.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Claudius Gothicus, Antonianus44 viewsobv: Radiate, draped and cuirsassed bust right
rev: Libertas standing, holding tesera (plochka) and cornucopiae
Struck at unknown mint
Jericho
bpJ1E2NeroClaudDrus2.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Nero Claudius Drusus, Provincial Imitation114 viewsObv: NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMANICVS IMP
Bare head, left.
Rev: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP
Either Claudius or Drusus holding branch and seated, left, on curule chair amid an assortment of arms.
Sestertius 15 gm 32.7 mm (RIC 93)
Comment: The official issue was minted by Claudius in 41-42. Drusus was a son of Livia and the younger brother of Tiberius; husband of Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony); father of Germanicus, Claudius and Lavilla. Died of injuries sustained from a horse fall while on campaign in Germany.
Massanutten
AntonyLeg2.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Antony Legion II Denarius19 viewsRome. The Imperators.
Marcus Antonius, 44-31 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.64g; 17mm).
Military Mint traveling with Antony, 32-1 BCE.

Obverse: ANT AVG III VIR R P C; galley facing right.

Reverse: LEG II; Aquilia between two standards.

References: Crawford 544/14; Sydenham 1216; HCRI 349; BMCRR East 190-92; Antonia 105.

Provenance: Ex Pat Coyle Coll. [Goldberg Auction 69 (29 May 2012) Lot 3471]; NAC 40 (16 May 2007), Lot 624.

Produced by Antony in the lead-up to his final defeat at Actium by Octavian’s navy (commanded by Agrippa), the legionary series was a huge issue that recognized 23 legions under Antony’s command. These coins would continue to circulate throughout the Empire for several centuries after Antony’s loss, partly because their notoriously debased silver discouraged hoarding. Forty examples of the LEG II variety appeared in the 1905 Delos hoard of 604 Antony Legionary denarii, making it one of the most common varieties of the series.

The Legio II was likely a legion that was disbanded after Actium.
2 commentsCarausius
AntonyLegV.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Antony Legion V Denarius26 viewsRome. The Imperators.
Marcus Antonius, 44-31 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.79g; 19mm).
Military Mint traveling with Antony, 32-1 BCE.

Obverse: ANT AVG III VIR R P C; galley facing right.

Reverse: LEG V; Aquilia between two standards.

References: Crawford 544/18; HCRI 354; Sydenham 1221; BMCRR (East) 196; Banti 75 (this coin); Antonia 110.

Provenance: Ex Kress 109 (24-25 Oct 1958), Lot 749.

Produced by Antony in the lead-up to his final defeat at Actium by Octavian’s navy (commanded by Agrippa), the legionary series was a huge issue that recognized 23 legions under Antony’s command. These coins would continue to circulate throughout the Empire for several centuries after Antony’s loss, partly because their notoriously debased silver discouraged hoarding. Thirty-seven examples of the LEG V variety appeared in the 1905 Delos hoard of 604 Antony Legionary denarii, making it one of the most common varieties of the series. However, an example with a verifiable old provenance, such as this coin, is quite rare.
2 commentsCarausius
AntonyXVIIClassicaeCombined.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Antony Legion XVII Classicae Denarius18 viewsRome. The Imperators.
Marcus Antonius, 44-31 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.41g; 20mm).
Military Mint traveling with Antony, 32-1 BCE.

Obverse: ANT AVG LLL VIR R P C; galley facing right.

Reverse: LEG XVII CLASSICAE; Aquilia between two standards.

References: Crawford 544/10; Sydenham 1238; HCRI 373; BMCRR East 223; Antonia 128

Provenance: Ex Nomisma 58 (6 Nov 2018) Lot 214.

Produced by Antony in the lead-up to his final defeat at Actium by Octavian’s navy (commanded by Agrippa), the legionary series was a huge issue that recognized 23 legions under Antony’s command. These coins would continue to circulate throughout the Empire for several centuries after Antony’s loss, partly because their notoriously debased silver discouraged hoarding. Only 8 examples of the LEG XVII Classicae type appeared in the 1905 Delos hoard of 604 Antony Legionary denarii.

The Legio XVII Classicae was likely a legion of marines formed by Antony and disbanded after Actium. They were not the Legio XVII destroyed at Tuetoburg Forest under Varus in 9 CE.
2 commentsCarausius
p63B2jD9r8bT4Q4rwj7N6YLyGea59X.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, M. Antony, 44 BCE36 viewsRome, The Imperators.
Marcus Antonius, Apr-May 44 BCE
AR Denarius (4.09g; 19mm)
Rome Mint.

Obv: Antony's bearded, veiled head facing right; jug behind; lituus before.

Rev: P.SEPVLLIVS//MACER. Desultor on horseback, holding whip, galloping right with second horse; wreath and palm behind.

References: Crawford 480/22; HCRI 142; Antonia 2.

Provenance: Ex Kuenker 262 (13 Mar 2015), Lot 7819; ex Gorny & Mosch 141 (10 Oct 2005), Lot 238; Gorny & Mosch 133 (11 Oct 2004), Lot 378.

Minted in 44 BCE, shortly after the assassination of Julius Caesar, this denarius depicts Antony in mourning - veiled and unshaven - likely as he appeared in the Forum when he gave his famous funeral oration. It is probably the first depiction of Antony on a coin. The reverse shows a desultor with two horses, and likely refers to games held in 44 BCE which were largely dedicated to Caesar's memory. The type can be found in better condition, but rarely this complete.

Desultors appear on several Republican coin types, including Crawford 297/1, 346/1 and 480/21. Desultors rode multiple horses and likely changed horses through some sort of fancy leap or dismount maneuver. The practice, with four horses rather than two, is referenced in the Illiad (II.15.680), so likely dates to Homeric times or earlier. As depicted on Republican coins, a Roman desultor rode two horses, bare-back which he managed by reins and whip, and he wore a pileus (felt cap) typically associated with the Dioscuri. The pileus raises the possibility thst the practice had religious connotations rather than a mere circus trick.
2 commentsCarausius
AntonySolDen.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Marc Antony, AR Denarius28 viewsRome. The Imperators.
Marc Antony, 44-31 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.95g; 18mm).
Military mint travelling with Antony, 42BCE.

Obverse: Antony's bearded head right; M ANTONI - IMP (ligate).

Reverse: Facing bust of Sol within distyle temple; III - VIR - R·P·C, around.

References: Crawford 496/1; HCRI 128; Sydenham 1168; BMCRR (Gaul) 62; Antonia 34.

Provenance: Italian export permit No. 13168 of 2018; ex Nomisma 32 (2006), Lot 129.

This coin was likely struck shortly after Brutus’s and Cassius’s defeat at Philippi in 42 BCE. Antony is still shown with his beard of mourning (he and Octavian would not shave until Caesar’s assassination was avenged), and it’s likely that the die engravers had not yet been instructed to remove the beard following Philippi. This is the last bearded image of Antony to appear on his coinage. There were two versions of this coin type: one with IMP spelled the standard way; the other with IMP ligate, as on this example. The ligate version is the scarcer version of the two. The reverse type emphasizing Sol was a common theme on Antony’s eastern coinage, perhaps reflecting his growing enchantment with eastern Hellenistic culture.
2 commentsCarausius
AntCaesSchottCombined.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Marc Antony, AR Denarius - Crawford 488/228 viewsRome, The Imperators.
Marcus Antonius. 43 BCE.
AR Denarius (4.19g; 19mm).
Military mint in Cisalpine Gaul.

Obverse: M.A[NTON IMP RPC]; Antony's bare, bearded head facing right; lituus behind.

Reverse: CAESAR DIC; Laureate head of Julius Caesar facing right; jug behind.

References: Crawford 488/2; HCRI 123; Sydenham 1166; BMCRR (Gaul) 55; Antonia 5-6.

Provenance: Ex Roma E-Live Auction 1 (25-6 Jul 2018) Lot 531; Bernard Poindessault Collection [Oger-Blanchet (17 Nov 2017) Lot 148]; Edouard Schott Collection [E. Bourgey (21 Mar 1972) Lot 337].

This is one of Antony’s earliest issues following the creation of the Second Triumvirate with Octavian and Lepidus. The titulature "RPC" (tip of "C" just barely visible beneath Antony’s portrait on this specimen) reflects the new status. Antony is depicted with a slight beard of mourning, as is Octavian on his coins until the defeat of the Tyrannicides at Philippi the following year. Both Antony and Caesar have symbols of the augurate behind their portraits, as both were members of the college of augurs, and this served to highlight their common bond. The somewhat comical portrait style is reflective of the military mint, with limited die engraver talent.
1 commentsCarausius
AntonyAugurCombined.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Marc Antony, AR Denarius - Crawford 533/216 viewsRome, The Imperators.
Marcus Antonius. 43 BCE.
AR Denarius (4.07g; 18mm).
Military mint in Athens, Summer 38 BCE.

Obverse: M ANTONIVS M F M N AVGVR IMP TER; Antony in the priestly robes of an augur, standing right and holding lituus.

Reverse: III VIR R P C COS DESIG ITER ET TERT; Radiate head of Sol facing right.

References: Crawford 533/2; HCRI 267; Sydenham 1199; BMCRR (East) 141; Antonia 80.

Provenance: Ex Kentfield Coll. [Heritage Auction 3067 (9 Jun 2018) Lot 33340]; Michele Baranowski Auction (25 Feb 1931), Lot 1274.

In 50 BCE, Antony was appointed to the College of Augurs, an important group whose job was divining the will of the gods by interpreting auspices (birds and such) and providing advice based on these divinations. Antony was particularly proud of this appointment and referred to it frequently on his coinage, perhaps as a means of highlighting his traditional republican sensibilities. On this coin, he is depicted in full augur regalia. Sol on the reverse is a reference to The East, which Antony controlled per the renewal of the Second Triumvirate several months earlier. The inscriptions reference his augurship, second imperatorial acclamation, and designated second and third consulships. The coin was likely struck in Athens where Antony and Octavia were living after their marriage.
2 commentsCarausius
Screenshot_2019-01-17_14_25_56.png
Roman Imperial, Antonia as Augusta, Orichalcum Dupondius. 14 viewsRome 50-54 A.D. 14.60g - 30.6mm, Axis 12h.

Obv: ANTONIA AVGVSTA - Draped bust right.

Rev: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P / S-C - Claudius, togate, standing left with simpulum.

RIC I 104; Cohen 6.
Christian Scarlioli
rrepde23-2~0.jpg
Roman Republic, 83-82 BC, Antonia10 viewsAR Denarius (3.9g, 19mm, 8h). Rome mint, Struck 83-82 BC. Monneyer: Q.Antonius Balbus.
Obv. laureate head of Jupiter facing right, S·C behind.
Rev. Victory in galloping quadriga Q.ANTO BALB / PR [in ex.], E below the horses.
Sear (RCV) 274; Seaby (RSC I.) Antonia 1
Charles S
rrepde17-2.jpg
Roman Republic, 83-82 BC, Antonia9 viewsAR Denarius (3.9g, 19mm, 6h). Rome mint, Struck 83-82 BC. Monneyer: Q.Antonius Balbus.
Obv. laureate head of Jupiter facing right, S·C behind, C under chin.
Rev. Victory in galloping quadriga Q.ANTO BALB / PR [in ex.].
Sear (RCV) 274; Seaby (RSC I.) Antonia 1a
Charles S
ant~0.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Gens Antonia, AR Denarius56 viewsMint:Rome; 83/82 BC, Denarius serratus
Dimensions:19mm/3.94grms.
Obverse: S.C "senatus consulto"
Reverse: Q.(ANT)O.B(AL)B/ PR "Quintus Antonius Balbus Praetor"
Réf: RCV279
2 commentsmoneta romana
Picture_13~1.png
Roman Republic, Q. Antonius Balbus 83-2 B.C., Serrate Denarius74 viewsRoman Republic • Q. Antonius Balbus 83-2 B.C., Serrate Denarius
3.63g, 5h, Rome Mint.
Laureate Head of Jupiter right, SC behind/Victory driving quadriga right, holding reins, palm frond and wreath, B below horses.
Crawford 364/1dSydenham 742b, Antonia 1.
CNG grade: Superb EF, lightly toned. My annotation: Reverse struck off center.
Larry M2
060717e.jpg
Roman Republic, Q. Antonius Balbus, 83 B.C.E.21 viewsSilver denarius serratus, SRCV I 279, Sydenham 742, Crawford 364/1, RSC 1 Antonia.
Obverse - Laureate head of Jupiter right, S C behind.
Reverse - Victory in a quadriga wreath in right and reigns and palm fond in left, C below horses< Q ANTO BALB / PR in ex. (ANT and AL in monogram)
Rome mint 20.1 mm diam.
1 commentsNORMAN K
Pupienus portrait - RIC 10(a).jpg
Roman, Pupienus, April - June 238 A.D.917 viewsMARCVS CLODIVS PUPIENVS MAXIMVS was born about 164. He was a Senator in 238 when the revolt of the Gordians broke out against Maximinus I, and he was one of the Senate's "Committee of Twenty" to oversee the defense of Italy in support of the Gordians. When the Gordians were quickly killed in Africa, the Senate made Pupienus and a Senator named Balbinus co-Augusti. Pupienus was to lead the army and Balbinus was to administrate. Maximinus was soon killed by his own men at Aquileia but discontent in Rome led to the murder of Pupienus by the Praetorian Guard on July 29, 238. This portrait is from a Antonianus (ex-Forum) in my collection (see jimwho523's gallery for actual coin)13 commentsjimwho523
Mark_Antony_Leg_XV.jpg
Ruler: Mark Antony (Triumvir) Gens: Antonia Moneyer: Military Mint Coin: Silver Denarius 33 viewsANTAVG III VIR. R.P.C. - Galley right under oars
Leg XV - Eagle between standards
Mint: Patras ? (32-31 BC)
Wt./Size/Axis: 3.20g / 18mm / 12h
References:
RSC 47
Syd 1235
Crawford 544/30
CRI 371
Acquisition/Sale: jerusalemhadaya2012 eBay $0.00 05/19
Notes: May 25, 19 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

"ANT AVG | III VIR R P C"
("Antonius Augur | Triumvir rei publicae constituendae")
trans. "Antony Augustus (military title), Triumvirate for the Restoration of the Republic"
2 commentsGary W2
LarryW1806.jpg
S.279 Q. Antonius Balbus38 viewsAR serrate denarius, 19mm, 3.67g, Nice VF
Struck 83 BC
Laureate head of Jupiter right, S. C. behind, A or V below / Q.ATO.BAS, Victory in quadriga right, holding branch and palm, no letter below, PR in exg.
Sear 279, Cr 364/1b; Syd 742; Antonia 1a.
Lawrence Woolslayer
Tacitus_Spes_Publica.jpg
Tacitus RIC V 9421 viewsBillon Antonian (3.8g-22mm)
obv. IMP C M CL TACITVS AVG
radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
rev. SPES PVBLICA
Spes walking left holding flower in right and raising skirt with left, XXIE in exergue
Rome mint 275-276 A.D.
RIC V 94
HG
Tetricus_II_OBV.JPG
Tetricus II OBV5 viewsTetricus II; 251-253 AD
Bronze; AE Antonianus, Trier
OBV: C PIV ESV TETRICVS CAES, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
REV: SPES PVBLICA, Spes walking left holding flower in right and raising skirt with left hand,
(RIC 272)
Philip G
Tetricus_II_REV.JPG
Tetricus II Rev5 viewsTetricus II; 251-253 AD
Bronze; AE Antonianus, Trier
OBV: C PIV ESV TETRICVS CAES, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
REV: SPES PVBLICA, Spes walking left holding flower in right and raising skirt with left hand, (RIC 272)
Philip G
LIVIDU04-2.jpg
Tiberius, RIC 46, for Antonia or Agrippina, dupondius of AD 22-23 (Justitia)60 viewsÆ dupondius (13.2g, Ø30mm, 6h). Rome mint. Struck under Tiberius, AD 22-23.
IVSTITIAE, diademed bust of of Antonia or Agrippina as Justitia, facing right
TI CAESAR DIVI·AVG·F·AVG·P·M·TR·POT·XXIIII around large S·C
RIC (Tiberius) 46 (S); Cohen (Livia) 9
ex G. Henzen (1997)

Vagi argues that this type commemorates the justice achieved on behalf of the murdered Germanicus. Since Germanicus was very popular in Rome, his murder lead to a public outcry in Rome. The portret on this coin is not Livia's (it would have been followed by AVGVSTAE as for the Salus dupondius) but a stylized portret probably referring to Germanicus' mother Antonia or his wife Agrippina Senior.
1 commentsCharles S
111s.jpg
ULPIA SEVERINA, 274-275 d.C. (R/ SEVERINA AVG)42 viewsULPIA SEVERINA, moglie di Aureliano, Augusta nel 274-275 d.C.
Antoniniano, zecca di Roma VI officina, 275 d.C.
AE, 4.77 gr., 22.1 mm, 180°, BB, tracce d'argentatura
D/ SEVERINA AVG, testa di Severina, diademata e drappeggiata a dx con crescente lunare.
R/ CONCORDIAE MILITVM, Concordia stante tra stendardi militari. XXIR in basso. Stigma nel campo a dx.
RIC V [1] 4 - Cohen 7 - Sear 11705
Nota: antonianiano battuto nel 275 dalla VI officina della zecca di Roma, come indicato dalla ς (stigma) a destra e dalla scritta XXIR in basso nel campo del rovescio.
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (10 marzo 2008, numero catalogo 55); ex Gerhard Rohde collection, Koeln Germany (fino al 2008).
paolo
vabalathus_381B.jpg
Vabalathus, Estiot 124141 viewsVabalathus, AD 271-272, son of Odenathus and Zenobia of Palmyra
AE - Antonianus, 2.92g, 19.46mm, 0°
Antiochia, 1.emission, Novenber 270-March 272, 2nd officina
obv. IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG
bust, cuirassed, radiate, r,
below B
rev. VABALATHVS VC R IM DR
bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind, diademed and laureate, r.
RIC V/1, (Aurelian) 381 corr.; C.1; Estiot no.1241, pl.40
Scarce, about VF, brown-green sandpatina

For attribution to Aurelian: He, radiate, was the higher emperor. For attribution to Vabalathus: The mint-mark, here B, was always on the rev.!
VC R IM DR is the abbreviation of VIR CONSVLARIS REX IMPERATOR DVX ROMANORVM (Sallet, Berlin 1870)!
There are 2 theories:
1) This coin was issued by Aurelian to show the legitimation of Vabalathus
2) This coin was issued by Zenobia to get the legitimation of Vabalathus by Aurelian
The latter seems to be more probable
Jochen
vabalathus_381S.jpg
Vabalathus, Estiot 125448 viewsVabalathus, AD 271-272
AE - Antonianus, 4.37g, 20.5mm, 180°
Antiochia, 1st emission, November 270-March 272, 6th officina
obv. IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG
bust, cuirassed, radiate, r,
below S (Digamma)
rev. VABALATHVS VC R IM DR
bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind, diademed and laureate, r.
RIC V/1, (Aurelian) 381 corr.; C.1; Estiot no.1254, pl.41
Scarce, about VF, nice light-brown sandpatina

On this type Vabalathus wears obviously a laurel-wreath and a taenia too. This is not mentioned in RIC nor elsewhere! Probably this type was struck by Zenobia to get the acceptance of his son as Augustus by Aurelian.
Jochen
VespasianJudaeaCaptaHendin754.jpg
[18H759a] Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D., Judaea Capta49 viewsVespasian. 69-71 AD. AR Denarius;17mm, 3.28g; Hendin 759, RIC 15. Obverse: Laureate head right; Reverse: Jewess seated right, on ground, mourning below right of trophy, IVDAEA below. Ex Imperial Coins.

De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espèrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
VesJudCapt.jpg
[18H759] Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D., Judaea Capta173 viewsSilver denarius, Hendin 759, RIC 15, BM 35, RSC 226, S 2296, Fair, 2.344g, 17.0mm, 180o, Rome mint, 69-70 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse IVDAEA in exergue, Jewess, mourning, seated at right of trophy.

De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espèrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
VespasianJudaeaCaptaHendin779.jpg
[18H779] Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D., Judaea Capta issue130 viewsOrichalcum dupondius, Hendin 779, RIC II 1160, BMCRE 809 (same dies), aVF, Lugdunum mint, 9.969g, 27.7mm, 180o, 71 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPASIAN AVG COS III, radiate head right, globe at point of bust; reverse VICTORIA NAVALIS S C, Victory standing right on a prow, wreath in right, palm frond over should in left (Refers to a victory on the Sea of Galilee during the recapture of Judaea); rough; rare (R2). Ex FORVM.




De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espèrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
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