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Search results - "Tiberius"
TIBERIUS-4.jpg
37 viewsTIBERIUS - As - 35/36 AD - Mint of Rome
Obv.: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST IMP VIII
Laureate head left
Rev.: PONTIF MAXIM TRIBVN POTEST XXXVII S C
Winged caduceus
g. 10,7 mm. 25,8
Cohen 22, RIC 59, Sear RCV 1771
Maxentius
TIBERIUS-5.jpg
34 viewsTIBERIUS - Provincial AE30 - 18/37 - Utica (Zeugitana)
Obv.: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST IMP VIII
Bare head left
Rev.: C VIBIO MARSO PR COS C CASSIVS FELIX A II VIR
Livia seated left, holding patera and sceptre. D D P P across field (Decreto Decurionvm Permissu Proconsulis)
g. 13,9 mm. 29,5
Sear GIC 302
Maxentius
Tiberius_as_2.jpg
14 viewsSosius
Sear-653.jpg
17 viewsPhocas. 602-610. Æ Follis – 40 Nummi (32mm, 12.92 g, 6h). Thessalonica mint. Dated RY 5 (606/7). Crowned facing bust, wearing consular robes, holding mappa and cross / Large XXXX; ANNO above, Ч to right; TЄS. DOC 47; MIBE 91; SB 653. Good VF, dark brown-black patina, hint of earthen deposits, cleaning marks. Overstruck on a Nicomedia follis of Maurice Tiberius (SB 512). Quant.Geek
Sear-522a.jpg
13 viewsMAURICE TIBERIUS (582-602). Decanummium. Cyzicus. Obv: Crowned and cuirassed bust facing, holding globus cruciger and shield decorated with horseman motif. Rev: Large I; cross above, star to left, A to right; KYZ. Sear 522a; MIBE 93C. Condition: Good very fine, struck on an oddly-shaped flan. Weight: 2.92 g. Diameter: 20 mm.
Quant.Geek
Agrippa_As_2.jpg
2.75 Agrippa56 viewsAGRIPPA
Æ As. Struck under Caligula, 37-41 AD

M AGRIPPA L F COS III, head left wearing rostral crown / S-C, Neptune standing facing, head left, naked except for cloak draped behind him & over both arms, holding small dolphin in right hand & vertical trident in left.

Cohen 3, RIC 58 [Caligula], Cohen 3, BMC 161 [Tiberius] Fine, roughness
RI0003
Sosius
TIBERIUS_TAG.jpg
3 4 viewsSosius
Tiberius_Berytus_4.jpg
3 Tiberius Berytus28 viewsTIBERIUS 14-37 AD
Æ 27mm (19.74 g, 12h). Berytus mint.

[TI] • CAESAR • AVGVST • F • IMPERAT • [VII], bare head right / COL • IVL, Pontiff veiled in toga driving yoke of oxen right, plowing pomerium.

RPC I 4543; AUB 39; BMC 68. Near VF
Ex-CNG Sale XXII 9/2/92
RI0049
Sosius
47614q00.jpg
3 Tiberius, Utica, Zeugitana, Ex John Quincy Adams Collection30 viewsBronze dupondius, RPC I 739, F, holed, 13.158g, 29.8mm, 90o, Zeugitana, Utica mint, 298 - 30 A.D.; obverse TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVG IMP VIII, bare head left; reverse C VIBIO MARSO PRCOS III C SALLVSTIVS IVSTVS II, Livia seated right, scepter in left, patera in extended right, M - M / I - V across fields; with John Quincy Adams Collection tag from the Stack's Sale; scarce
RI0001
Ex John Quincy Adams Collection, 6th President of the United States, and His Descendants, ex Massachusetts Historical Society Collection, ex Stack’s Sale , 5-6 March 1971, lot 763.

Purchased from FORVM
Sosius
Tiberius_Lugdunum_Damnatio.jpg
3 Tiberius 44 viewsTiberius, as Caesar
12-14 A.D. AE As. Lugdunum
Defaced in antiquity (Damnatio?)

TI CAESAR AVGVST F IMPERAT VII, laureate head right / ROM ET AVG, Altar of Lugdunum with 2 Victories.

Cohen 37. RIC 245(Aug); Sear5#1756
RI0050
Sosius
Tiberius_Prov_Bilibis_2.jpg
3 Tiberius 32 viewsTiberius
AE As, Turiaso, Spain

TI CAESAR AVG F AVGVSTVS IMP / II VIR in oak wreath, MVN TVRIASO MN SVLP LVCAN M SEMP FRONT

RPC.413, H.22
RI0052
Sosius
Tiberius_and_Livia_RPC_1568.jpg
3 Tiberius and Livia17 viewsTiberius & Livia
AE24 of Thessalonica

Tiberius, Laureate head right / Livia, Head right.

RPC 1568. aF
RI0048
Sosius
Tiberius_RIC_90.jpg
3 Tiberius Countermarked AE 3028 viewsTIBERIUS
AE30 of uncertain mint in Commagene
19-20 A.D.

Laureate head right, with countermark: head of Hercules within circle / Winged caduceus between two cornucopiae.

RIC 89, RPC 3868. RIC 89. BMC 174.
Thanks to FORVM member R. Smits for helping to ID the countermark.
RI0053
1 commentsSosius
Tiberius_Pontif_Maxim.jpg
3 Tiberius Denarius29 viewsTIBERIUS
AR Denarius (3.5 g)
Lugdunum mint, struck 18-35 AD

TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS - Laureate head right / PONTIF MAXIM; Livia, as Pax, seated r., holding olive branch & long scepter; ornate chair legs

RIC 30; BMCRE 48; RSC 16a.
Cleaning scratches. Discussed and authenticated on FORVM ancient coins board
RI0051
Sosius
Drusus_As.jpg
3.5 Drusus21 viewsDRUSUS CAESAR
Æ As. Struck under Tiberius, 21-22 AD.

DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N, bare head left / PONTIF TRIBVN POTEST ITER around large S•C.

Cohen 2, RIC 45 (Tiberius), Cohen 2, BMC 99 VG/aF
RI0034
Sosius
Maurice_Tiberius_SB_587.jpg
8. Maurice Tiberius26 viewsMAURICE TIBERIUS
Half Follis, Rome Mint, 582-602 AD

DN MAVRICI TIb PP AV, Bust facing holding cross on globe / Large XX, cross above, ROM below

SB 587, DOC 283
Sosius
divaug.jpg
Divus Augustus AE As, RIC 81 [tib],10 viewsDivus Augustus Æ As. Struck under Tiberius, circa 31-37 CE.
Obvwesw: DIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER, radiate head left.
Reverse: / S-C either side of large altar, PROVIDENT in ex.
27.1 mm., 6.0 g. RIC 81 [tib], Cohen 228 [aug], BMC 146
NORMAN K
fc12.jpg
Drusus. Caesar, AD 19-23. Æ As (28mm, 10.63 g, 12h). Rome mint. Struck under Tiberius, AD 22-23. Bare head left / Legend around large S · C. RIC I 4525 viewsJoe Geranio Collection (anyone may use as long as credit is given) Drusus. Caesar, AD 19-23. Æ As (28mm, 10.63 g, 12h). Rome mint. Struck under Tiberius, AD 22-23. Bare head left / Legend around large S · C. RIC I 45 (Tiberius).1 commentsJoe Geranio
FC21.jpg
MACEDON, Philippi. Tiberius. AD 14-37. Æ 17mm 32 viewsJoe Geranio Collection- (anyone can use as long as credit is give) MACEDON, Philippi. Tiberius. AD 14-37. Æ 17mm (3.93 g). Laureate head right / Founder standing right, behind two yoked oxen. RPC I 1657.Joe Geranio
normal_maurice_tiberius~0d.jpg
Maurice Tiberius Follis - Antioch Mint,582-602 AD13 views
Maurice Tiberius Follis - Antioch Mint,582-602 AD - AE Follis (40 Nummi)
Obv: PTINOC ~ ~ TIANTAPPIV Bust of Maurice Tiberius facing, wearing crown with trefoil ornament, consular robes; in right hand, mappa in left hand, eagle-tipped sceptre.
Rev: Large m; cross above; to left A/N/N/O in four lines; to right, II - 2nd regnal year - 586/7 AD; THEuP in exergue.
Britanikus
DSCN5006.jpg
Maurice Tiberius. Bronze decanummium. 582-602 AD. AE 22mm5 views Maurice Tiberius. Bronze decanummium. 582-602 AD.
Obv. crowned, draped and cuirassed bust facing
Rev. large I, cross above, star in left field, and officina letter ( epsilon ) in right field and with CON in exergue.
Lee S
tessera~3.jpg
36 viewsROME. temp. Tiberius. AD 14-37
Gilt Æ Tessera (21mm, 4.37 g, 2 h)
Draped bust of maenad left, holding cantharus
XII within wreath
Cf. Buttrey 22 var. (reverse numeral)
Ardatirion
00021x00~0.jpg
39 viewsTiberius. AD 14-37
Æ As (26mm, 9.14 g, 12 h)
Gaul? Imitating Rome mint issue struck AD 21-22
[TI CAESAR DIV]I AVG F AVGVST IMP [VII or VIII]
Bare head right
PONT[IF MAXIM TRIBVN] POTEST XXXIIII
Livia seated right, holding patera and long scepter; SC flanking
Cf. Cohen 19

The authors of RIC I do not recognize this type as being official. Cohen likely saw a similar imitation, assuming it to be an original mint issue.
1 commentsArdatirion
tiberius_denarius_res_trib.jpg
"Tribute Penny"--TIBERIUS95 views14 - 37 AD
minted 18 - 35 AD
AR Denarius ("Tribute Penny")
O: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG AVGVSTVS; laureate head right
R: PONTIF MAXIM; Livia as Pax, seated right on throne with ornate legs, holding long scepter and olive branch; single line below
Lugdunum mint
RIC 30, RSC 16a
laney
AUGUSTUS_COMMEM_LIVIA~0.jpg
(00040) LIVIA (WITH AUGUSTUS)43 views(wife of Augustus; mother of Tiberius; grandmother of Claudius)
b. 58 BC - d. 29 AD
AUGUSTUS (COMMEMORATIVE, POSTHUMOUS)
UNDER TIBERIUS, 15 - 26 AD
AE 27mm 9.86g
O: RAD HEAD L, STAR ABOVE
R: LIVIA STD R, FEET ON STOOL, HLDG PATERA/ S-C
ROME
laney
normal_tiberius_denarius_res_trib~0.jpg
(00040a) LIVIA (with Tiberius)34 views(wife of Augustus; mother of Tiberius; grandmother of Claudius)
b. 58 BC - d. 29 AD
minted 18 - 35 AD
AR Denarius ("Tribute Penny")
O: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG AVGVSTVS; laureate head right
R: PONTIF MAXIM; Livia as Pax, seated right on throne with ornate legs, holding long scepter and olive branch; single line below
Lugdunum mint
RIC 30, RSC 16a
laney
tiberius_and_livia_resb~0.jpg
(00040b) LIVIA (with Tiberius)25 viewsb. 58 BC - d. 29 AD
(wife of Augustus; mother of Tiberius; grandmother of Claudius)
struck 14-37 AD
AE 19mm, 8.82 g
O: Laureate head of Tiberius right
R: Veiled and draped bust of Livia r., wearing stephane
Macedonia, Thessalonica; cf RPC 1570
laney
normal_galba_diva_aug_b_res~0.jpg
(00040C) LIVIA (with Galba)25 views(wife of Augustus; mother of Tiberius; grandmother of Claudius; b. 58 BC - d. 29 AD)
struck 68 - 69 AD (posthumous issue)
AR Denarius 3.15 g
O: IMP SER GALBA CAESAR AVG laureate head right
R: DIVA AVGVSTA Livia standing right, holding patera and scepter
Rome, RIC 186
laney
AUGUSTUS_COMMEM_LIVIA.jpg
(02) AUGUSTUS (COMMEMORATIVE, POSTHUMOUS)24 viewsUNDER TIBERIUS, 15 - 26 AD
AE 27mm 9.86g
O: RAD HEAD L, STAR ABOVE
R: LIVIA STD R, FEET ON STOOL, HLDG PATERA/ S-C
ROME
laney
AUGUSTUS_PROVIDENT.jpg
(02) AUGUSTUS (POSTHUMOUS)30 viewsUNDER TIBERIUS, 31 - 37 AD
AE 26mm 9.62g
O: [DIVVS AVGVS]TVS PATER
RAD HEAD L
R: PROVIDENT BELOW LARGE ALTAR, S-C EITHER SIDE
ROME
laney
AUG_THUN_WHT2.jpg
(02) AUGUSTUS (POSTHUMOUS)17 views"DIVUS AUGUSTUS" POSTHUMOUS ISSUE
Struck 34 - 37 AD. under Tiberius
AE As 26.5 mm max., 9.5 g
O: Radiate head of Augustus left
R: Large winged thunderbolt between S - C.
Rome, RIC 83 (Tiberius)
laney
augustus_provid.jpg
(02) AUGUSTUS (POSTHUMOUS)19 viewsstruck UNDER TIBERIUS, 31 - 37 AD
AE 26mm 5.03 g
O: [DIVVS AVGV[STVS PATER
RAD HEAD L
R: PROVIDENT BELOW LARGE ALTAR, S-C EITHER SIDE
ROME
laney
sev_alex_hestia.jpg
(0222) SEVERUS ALEXANDER17 views222 - 235 AD
AE 24.5 mm; 9.32 g
O: AVT K M AVP CEVHPOC (AΛЄΞANΔPOC), laureate head of Severus Alexander facing right.
R: VΠ TIB IOVA ΦHCTOV MAPKIANOΠOΛIT - ΩN (in field), Hestia (Vesta) standing facing, head turned left, holding patera and a short torch.
Legate: Tiberius Julius Festus
Marcianopolis, Moesia Inferior mint, cf Varbanov I 1779
laney
sev_alex_mamaea_hera.jpg
(0222) SEVERUS ALEXANDER & JULIA MAESA8 views222-235 AD
(under governor Tiberius Julius Festus)
AE 26 mm max, 7.34 g
O: Confronted busts of Severus Alexander and Julia Mamaea
R: Hera standing head left holding patera and long scepter; E in left field
Moesia Inferior, Markianopolis
laney
TIBERIUS_RED.jpg
(03) TIBERIUS36 viewsstruck 35-36 AD
AE As 26.46 mm 9.5 g
O: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST IMP VIII, Laur head left
R: PONTIF MAXIM TRIBVN POTEST XXIIII S C, Winged Caduceus
RIC 44, Sear 1771
laney
tiberius.jpg
(03) TIBERIUS25 views14 - 37 AD
(struck 22-23 AD)
AE 28 mm 8.85 g
O: __AES DIVI AVG F AVG__
Bare head left
R: __PONTIF MAXIM TRIB__, legend surrounding large SC
ROME RIC 44
laney
tiberius_denarius_res_c.jpg
(03) TIBERIUS63 views14 - 37 AD
minted 18 - 35 AD
AR Denarius ("Tribute Penny")
O: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG AVGVSTVS; laureate head right
R: PONTIF MAXIM; Livia as Pax, seated right on throne with ornate legs, holding long scepter and olive branch; single line below
Lugdunum mint
RIC 30, RSC 16a
1 commentslaney
TIBERIUS_FOURREE_RES.jpg
(03) TIBERIUS27 views14 - 37 AD
AR DENARIUS FOUREE (TRIBUTE PENNY) 18 mm 2.82 g
O: LAUREATE HEAD RIGHT
R: LIVIA SEATED RIGHT HOLDING SCEPTER AND BRANCH
ROME
laney
tiberius_cadu_res.jpg
(03) TIBERIUS16 views14 - 37 AD
AE As 27 mm 8.03 g
O: LAUR HEAD L
R: [...MAXIM TRIB...]
WINGED CADUCEUS BETWEEN LARGE S-C
laney
tiberius_acci_res.jpg
(03) TIBERIUS21 views14 - 37 AD
AE 27 mm 7.04 g
O: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head left
R: Aquilae between 2 standards, ACCI below
ACCI, SPAIN
laney
tiberius_italica_res_1.jpg
(03) TIBERIUS22 views14 - 37 AD
AE DUPONDIUS 29 mm 13.22. g
O: [IMP TI CAE]SAR AVGVSTVS PON MA[X], Bust right
R: PERM DIVI AVG [MVNI]C [ITALIC] around altar inscrbed in 3 lines [P]ROVIDE[N]TIAE [A]VGVSTI
ITALICA, SPAIN
laney
tiberius_italica_2_res.jpg
(03) TIBERIUS22 views14 - 37 AD
AE DUPONDIUS 29 mm 12.13 g
O: [IM]P TI CAESAR AVGVST[VS PO[N MAX], Bust right
R: PERM DIVI AVG []NIC ITALIC around altar inscribed in 3 lines [P]ROVIDE/NTIAE /AVGVSTI
ITALICA, SPAIN
laney
tiberius_emerita_res.jpg
(03) TIBERIUS22 views14 - 37 AD
AE 26 mm 9.14 g
O: LAUREATE HEAD LEFT
R: CAMPGATE
EMERITA, SPAIN
laney
tiberius_cornu_cad_res2.jpg
(03) TIBERIUS31 views14 - 37 AD
Struck 19 - 20 AD
AE 29.5 mm 14.66 g
O: TI CAESAR DIVI AVGVSTI F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right
R: PON MAXIM COS III IMP VII TR POT XXII, crossed cornuacopiae over a winged caduceus
RPC 3869, RIC 90
Syria, Commagene
laney
tiberius_and_livia_resb.jpg
(03) TIBERIUS20 views14-37 AD
AE 19mm, 8.82 g
O: Laureate head of Tiberius right
R: Veiled and draped bust of Livia right, wearing stephane
Macedonia, Thessalonica; cf RPC 1570
laney
tiberius_nero_drusus_resb.jpg
(03) TIBERIUS20 views14 - 37 AD
AE 28.5 mm; 11.46 g
O: His bare head left
R: Confronted heads of Caesars Nero and Drusus
Spain (Hispania Tarraconensis), Carthago Nova mint
cf RPC 179, SNG Cop 500 Scarce
laney
tiberius_lugdunum_altar.jpg
(03) TIBERIUS (as Caesar)16 viewsTiberius
12 - 14 AD
AE Semis 20 mm; 3.46 g
O: [T]I CAESAR AVGVST [F IMPERAT VII], laureate head right
R: ROM ET AVG below front elevation of the Altar of Lugdunum.
Lugdunum mint; ref. Cohen 38.
laney
maurice_tiberius_theup.jpg
(0582) MAURICE TIBERIUS40 views582 - 602 AD
AE FOLLIS 28.5 mm 11.12 g
OBVERSE: Crowned facing bust, holding mappa and eagle sceptre
REVERSE: Large M; A/N/N/O to left, cross above, regnal date X/III to right; THEUP in exergue
ANTIOCH
laney
maurice_tiberius_cyzicus.jpg
(0582) MAURICE TIBERIUS37 views582 - 602 AD
Struck year 7 (588/9)
AE FOLLIS 26 mm 10.19 g
O: Crowned and cuirassed bust facing, holding globus crucger, shield on arm
R: Large M, cross above; ANNO to left, GI to right; A/KYZ. DOC 123a; SB 518
CYZICUS
laney
027.JPG
(582-602) Maurice Tibere [Sear 494, Constant. ]11 viewsMaurice Tiberius 582-602 AD
Minted: Constantinople
Size: 30mm Weight: 11.53grams
Obverse: ....ER PP, AV Crowned and cuirassed bust facing, holding globus cruciger and shield
Reverse: Large M between ANNO and regnal year 6; above, cross; beneath, Officina letter D, in ex CON
Ségusiaves
102.JPG
(582-602) Maurice Tibere [Sear 583, Syracuse]10 viewsMaurice Tiberius (582-602). Æ 10 Nummi (15mm, 2.66g, 6h). Syracuse, 591-597. Helmeted and cuirassed facing bust, holding globus cruciger. R/ Large X; SE CI LI A around. MIBE 140; DOC 281; Sear 583 (Ex LAC)Ségusiaves
Tiberius.jpg
*SOLD*27 viewsTiberius AE 29

Attribution: RPC 738, Zeugitana, Utica
Date: AD 28-29
Obverse: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVG IMP VIII, bare head l.
Reverse: C VIBIO MARSO PR COS II SEX TADIVS FAVSTVS IIV, veiled figure of Livia seated r. holding scepter & patera M-M and I-V across fields
Size: 29.3 mm
Weight: 12.38 grams
ex-Forvm
Noah
Marcus-Antonius_AR-Den_LEG-XV_ANT-AVG-III__VIR_R_P_C__Crafw-544-30_Syd-1235_RSC-30_Q-001_5h_16,8-17mm_2,72g-s.jpg
001a Marc Antony ( 83-30 B.C.), Crawf 544-30, AR-denarius, LEG-XV, ANT AVG III VIR•R•P•C•, Praetorian galley right,129 views001a Marc Antony ( 83-30 B.C.), Crawf 544-30, AR-denarius, LEG-XV, ANT AVG III VIR•R•P•C•, Praetorian galley right,
avers:- LEG-XV, legionary eagle (aquila) between two standards.
revers:- ANT-AVG-III-VIR•R•P•C•, Praetorian galley sailing right, mast with banners at prow.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 16,8-17mm, weight: 2,72g, axes: 5h,
mint: Legionary Denarius, date: 32-31 B.C., ref: Crawford-544/30, Sydneham-1235, RSC-47,
Q-001
"Legion XV Apollinaris was raised by Caesar in Gallia Cisalpina in 53 BC. In the time of Augustus-Tiberius the legion was stationed in Ljubljana, then in Carnuntum and later in Alexandria and took part in the Jewish War and the capture of Jerusalem. In the 2nd and 3rd century the legion fought mainly in the East against the Parthians."
1 commentsquadrans
Byzantine2.jpg
002 - Maurice Tiberius (582-602 AD), tremissis - Sear 48850 viewsObv: D N TIbERI PP AVG. diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: --NTORI -AVRI AVG, cross potent.
Minted in Constantinople (CONOB in exe).

Note the rev. inscription that seems to be misspelled, it should read VICTORI MAVRI AVG.
pierre_p77
coin14~0.JPG
002. AUGUSTUS28 viewsAUGUSTUS AE as. Lugdunum mint, 10 BC or after. CAESAR PONT MAX, laureate head right. Reverse - the Altar of Lugdunum, Victory on each pedestal, ROM ET AVG below. RCV 1690.

This early type was issued circa 10 BC and the years immediately following, to commemorate the completion of the altar at Lugdunum, which was inaugurated on August 1st, 10 BC. A later type of this series was also issued later in the reign of Augustus, and includes both Augustus and Tiberius as Caesar.
ecoli
0025.jpg
0025 - Denarius Tiberius 14-37 AC37 viewsObv/TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, Tiberius laureate head r.
Rev/PONTIF MAXIM, female figure (Livia or Pax) seated r., r. holding long vertical sceptre, l. branch, on chair with plain legs above double line.

Ag, 19.0mm, 3.70g
Mint: Lugdunum.
RIC I/26 [C] - RCV 1763 - BMCRE 34 - CBN 16 - RSC 16
ex-Áureo, auction 25 apr 2007, lot 1019
1 commentsdafnis
Augustus_AE-Postumus-Dup-Under-Tiberius_DIVVS-AVGVSTVS-dot-PATER-Radiate-head-left_PROVIDENT-Altar-large-S-C-on-either-side__RIC-81_C-228_Rome_22-23-AD-_Q-001_27-28mm_10,55g-s.jpg
002a Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), RIC I 081, Rome, AE-As, PROVIDENT, Postumus, Under Tiberius, #1278 views002a Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), RIC I 081, Rome, AE-As, PROVIDENT, Postumus, Under Tiberius, #1
avers:- DIVVS-AVGVSTVS-•-PATER, Radiate head left.
revers:- PROVIDENT, Altar large S-C on either side.
exe: S/C//PROVIDENT, diameter: 27-28mm, weight: 10,55g, axis:- h,
mint: Rome, date: 22-23 A.D., ref: RIC-I-81, C-228,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Augustus_AE-Postum-Dup-Under-Tiberius_DIVVS-AVGVSTVS-two-dot-PATER-Radiate-head-left_PROVIDENT-Altar-large-S-C_RIC-81_C-228_Rome_22-3-AD-_Q-002_axis-5h_26-27,5mm_10,47g-s.jpg
002a Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), RIC I 081, Rome, AE-As, PROVIDENT, Postumus, Under Tiberius, #2338 views002a Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), RIC I 081, Rome, AE-As, PROVIDENT, Postumus, Under Tiberius, #2
avers:- DIVVS-AVGVSTVS-:-PATER, Radiate head left.
revers:- PROVIDENT, Altar large S-C on either side.
exe: S/C//PROVIDENT, diameter: 26-27,5mm, weight: 10,47g, axis:- 5h,
mint: Rome, date: 22-23 A.D., ref: RIC-I-81, C-228,
Q-002
4 commentsquadrans
Augustus_AE-AS_C-CAESAR-AVG-GERMANICVS-PON-M-TR-POT_PROVIDEx_S-C_RIC-xx_BMC-xx_C-xx_Rome-40-41-AD_Q-001_h_29mm_9,88gx-s.jpg
002a Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), RIC I 081, Rome, AE-As, PROVIDENT, Postumus, Under Tiberius, #385 views002a Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), RIC I 081, Rome, AE-As, PROVIDENT, Postumus, Under Tiberius, #3
avers:- DIVVS-AVGVSTVS-:-PATER, Radiate head left.
revers:- PROVIDENT, Altar large S-C on either side.
exe: S/C//PROVIDENT, diameter: 28-29mm, weight: 9,85g, axis: 5h,
mint: Rome, date: 22-23 A.D., ref: RIC-I-81, C-228,
Q-003
quadrans
Augustus_AE-Post-Dup-Under-Tiberius_DIVVS-AVGVSTVS-P-dot-ATER-Radiate-head-left_PROVIDENT-Altar-large-S-C__RIC-81_C-228_Rome_22-23-AD-_Q-004_5h_27,5-28,5mm_10,19g-s.jpg
002a Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), RIC I 081, Rome, AE-As, PROVIDENT, Postumus, Under Tiberius, #4105 views002a Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), RIC I 081, Rome, AE-As, PROVIDENT, Postumus, Under Tiberius, #4
avers: DIVVS-AVGVSTVS-P•ATER, Radiate head left.
revers: PROVIDENT, Altar large S-C on either side.
exe: S/C//PROVIDENT, diameter: 27,5-28,5mm, weight: 10,19g, axis:5h,
mint: Rome, date: 22-23 A.D., ref: RIC-I-81, C-228,
Q-004
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002b. Livia48 viewsLivia, as history most often knows her, was the wife of Augustus for over fifty years, from 38 BC until his death in AD 14 , an astonishingly long time in view of life expectancy in ancient Rome. Although certainty about their inner lives and proof for what we would consider a loving relationship is necessarily lost to us, we can infer genuine loyalty and mutual respect between the two. They remained married despite the fact that she bore him no child. Livia's position as first lady of the imperial household, her own family connections, her confident personality and her private wealth allowed her to exercise power both through Augustus and on her own, during his lifetime and afterward. All the Julio-Claudian emperors were her direct descendants: Tiberius was her son; Gaius (Caligula), her great-grandson; Claudius, her grandson; Nero, her great-great-grandson.

Tiberius and Livia- Thessalonica, Macedonia/Size: 22.5mm/Reference: RPC 1567
Obverse: TI KAISAR SEBASTOS, bare head of Tiberius right Reverse: QESSALONIKEWN SEBASTOU, draped bust of Livia right.

Ex-Imperial Coins
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002c. Gaius and Lucius Caesars65 viewsJulia, daughter of Augustus, who has had no child by Marcellus (she is only sixteen when he dies), is married to Agrippa, a soldier who has long been the emperor's most trusted supporter. They have two sons, Gaius and Lucius, born in 20 and 17 BC. The boys are adopted by the emperor. The intention now, if Augustus dies, is that Agrippa should rule until one of these grandsons is of an age to take control. But Agrippa dies in 12 BC.

Julia has had a total of five children by Agrippa (the two sons adopted by the emperor, two daughters, and another posthumous son, Agrippa Posthumus). She now has one son by Tiberius, but the child dies in infancy.

By 6 BC it is evident that Tiberius is being set aside. Julia refuses to live with him, and her eldest son Gaius (at the age of fourteen) is given a nominal high appointment as consul. Gaius and Lucius Caesar, grandsons and adopted sons of the emperor, are now clearly the family members in line for the succession. But they die young, Lucius Caesar in AD 2 and then Gaius in AD 4.

LYDIA, Magnesia ad Sipylum. Augustus. 27 BC-AD 14. Æ 19mm (4.93 g). Jugate heads of Augustus and Livia right / Confronted heads of Gaius and Lucius Caesars. RPC 2449. Fair. Rare. Ex-Cng
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002d. Julia and Livia, Pergamon, Mysia43 viewsBronze AE 18, RPC I 2359, SNG Cop 467, aF, weight 3.903 g, maximum diameter 18.3 mm, die axis 0o, Pergamon mint, obverse ΛIBIAN HPAN CAPINOΣ, draped bust of Livia right; reverse IOYΛIAN AΦPO∆ITHN, draped bust of Julia right; ex Forum, ex Malter Galleries

Julia was Augustus' only natural child, the daughter of his second wife Scribonia. She was born the same day that Octavian divorced Scribonia, to marry Livia.

Julia's tragic destiny was to serve as a pawn in her father's dynastic plans. At age two, she was betrothed to Mark Antony's ten-year-old son, but the fathers' hostility ended the engagement. At age 14, she was married to her cousin but he died two years later. In 21 B.C., Julia married Agrippa, nearly 25 years her elder, Augustus' most trusted general and friend. Augustus had been advised, "You have made him so great that he must either become your son-in-law or be slain." Agrippa died suddenly in 12 B.C. and Julia was married in 11 B.C. to Tiberius.

During her marriages to Agrippa and Tiberius Julia took lovers. In 2 B.C., Julia was arrested for adultery and treason. Augustus declared her marriage null and void. He also asserted in public that she had been plotting against his own life. Reluctant to execute her, Augustus had her exiled, with no men in sight, forbidden even to drink wine. Scribonia, Julia's mother, accompanied her into exile. Five years later, she was allowed to move to Rhegium but Augustus never forgave her. When Tiberius became emperor, he cut off her allowance and put her in solitary confinement in one room in her house. Within months she died from malnutrition.
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Rhoemetalkes-II_AE-20_________-___________-Bare-hd-of-Tiberius-r_______P__-________-Diademed-hd-of-Rhoemetalkes-II-r__RPC_I_-1715,_11-12-AD_Q-001_6h_21,5-22,5mm_6,86g-s~0.jpg
002p Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), Thrace, Kings, Rhoemetalkes I., RPC I-1715, AE-22, #185 views002p Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), Thrace, Kings, Rhoemetalkes I., RPC I-1715, AE-22, #1
avers: BAΣIΛEΩΣ-ΡOIMHTAΛKOY, Diademed head of Rhoemetalkes-I. right.
revers: KAIΣAΡOΣ-ΣEBAΣTOY, Bare head of Augustus right, in front, capricorn.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 21,5-22,5mm, weight: 6,86g, axes: 6h,
mint: Thrace, Kings, date: 11 B.C-12 A.D., ref: RPC I-1715,
Q-001
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003 Livia. AE dupondus 14gm42 viewsnew RIC I 47 var. with rev. PM
obv: SALVS AVGVSTA bust r.
rev: .TI.CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVG P.M.TR.POT.XXIIII. large SC in middle
"wife of Augustus & mother of Tiberius"
2 commentshill132
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003 TIBERIUS 14 viewsEMPEROR:Tiberius
DENOMINATION: Denarius
OBVERSE: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right
REVERSE: PONTIF MAXIM, Livia, as Pax, holding long sceptre & olive branch, seated right on throne with ornate legs, single line below
DATE: Ad 14-37
MINT: Lugdunum
WEIGHT: 3.59 g
RIC: I.30 (C)
Barnaba6
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003. Tiberius (14 AD - 37 AD)67 viewsTiberius.

Hard and secretive by nature and embittered by the neglect with which his step- father allowed him to be treated, he did not arouse personal enthusiasm, and until recently was described by historians as a bloody tyrant. It is only during the last sixty years that he has been more fairly judged, and at present the opinion begins to prevail that he was a genuine Roman, a ruler faithful to his duties, just, wise, and self-contained. The strong opposition which grew up against him was due to his taciturn and domineering disposition, and to the influence of the prefect of the guard, Ælius Sejanus, who alone possessed his confidence.

Lugdunum mint. TI CAESAR DIVI AVG AVGVSTVS, laureate head right / PONTIF MAXIM, Livia, as Pax, seated right, holding olive branch & long scepter RSC 16a. Ex Calgary
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003a. Drusus136 viewsDrusus

Tiberius' son, Drusus Caesar, d. 23, called Drusus Junior, served in the provinces Pannonia ( 15) and in Illyricum ( 17? 20). In 22 he was made tribune. Meanwhile, Sejanus, Tiberius' minister, had become jealous of Drusus' power and tried to turn Tiberius against him. Drusus may have been poisoned by Sejanus or by his wife under Sejanus' influence.

As. Sear 2594, restitution issue by Titus. 10.0 g, 26x27 mm. Glossy dark green patina with slight roughness. OBV.: Drusus left, DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N. REV.: IMP T CAES DIVI VESP F AVG REST around SC.
1 commentsecoli73
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003b. Nero & Drusus Caesars33 viewsNero & Drusus Caesars, brothers of Caligula.

There father Germanicus was Heir Apparent to his own adoptive father Emperor Tiberius, but Germanicus predeceased the Emperor in 19. He was replaced as heir by Julius Caesar Drusus, son of Tiberius and his first wife Vipsania Agrippina. But he too predeceased the Emperor on July 1, 23.

Nero and his younger brother Drusus were the oldest adoptive grandsons of Tiberius. They jointly became Heirs Apparent. However, both were accused of treason along with their mother in AD 32. Nero was exiled to an island and Drusus in a prison where they either starved to death or was murdered by order of the emperor in AD 33.

Dupondius. Rome mint, struck under Caligula, 37-38 AD. NERO ET DRVSVS CAESARES, Nero & Drusus on horseback riding right / C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT around large S C.
Cohen 1. RIC 34

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Agrippa_AE-As_M_AGRIPPA_L_F_COS_III_S-C_RIC_58_(Caligula),_Cohen_3,_BMC_161_(Tiberius)_Q-001_h_mm_gx-s.jpg
004 Agrippa (63-12 B.C.), RIC I 058 (Tiberius), Rome, AE-As, Neptune standing left, holding small dolphin in right hand, trident in left, S-C at sides.84 views004 Agrippa (63-12 B.C.), RIC I 058 (Tiberius), Rome, AE-As, Neptune standing left, holding small dolphin in right hand, trident in left, S-C at sides.
avers:- M•AGRIPPA•L•F•COS•III, head left wearing rostral crown.
revers:- Neptune standing left, holding small dolphin in right hand, trident in left, S-C at sides.
exerg: S/C//--, diameter: 27-29mm, weight: 10,82 g, axes: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: Struck under Caligula, 37-41 A.D., ref: RIC 58 (Caligula), Cohen 3, BMC 161(Tiberius),
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004 Tiberius. AR denarius 3.7gm65 viewsobv: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS laur. head r.
rev: PONTIF MAXIM female fig. seated r. holding long vertical scepter.
l. branches, chair legs are ornamental with line below
4 commentshill132
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004. Caligula 41 viewsGAIUS (CALIGULA). 37-41 AD.

Whatever damage Tiberius's later years had done to the carefully crafted political edifice created by Augustus, Gaius multiplied it a hundredfold. When he came to power in A.D. 37 Gaius had no administrative experience beyond his honorary quaestorship, and had spent an unhappy early life far from the public eye. He appears, once in power, to have realized the boundless scope of his authority and acted accordingly. His reign highlighted an inherent weakness in the Augustan Principate, raw monarchy in which only the self-discipline of the incumbent acted as a restraint on his behavior.

Æ As (28mm, 10.19 gm). Rome mint. Struck 37-38 AD. Bare head left / Vesta seated left, holding patera and sceptre. RIC I 38; Cohen 27. Near VF, dark brown surfaces. Ex-CNG
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Tiberius_AR-Den_TI-CAESAR-DIVI-AVG-F-AVGVSTVS_PONTIF-MAXIM_RIC-29_C-15_Lugdunum_14-37-AD_Q-007_axis-7h_xxmm_x,xxxg-s.jpg
005 Tiberius (14-37 A.D.), RIC I 029, Lugdunum, AR-denarius, PONTIF MAXIM ,Livia, as Pax, seated right,175 views005 Tiberius (14-37 A.D.), RIC I 029, Lugdunum, AR-denarius, PONTIF MAXIM ,Livia, as Pax, seated right,
avers:- TI-CAESAR-DIVI-AVG-F-AVGVSTVS, Laureate head right.
revers:- PONTIF-MAXIM, Livia, as Pax, seated right.
exerg: -, diameter: mm, weight: g, axes: h,
mint: Lugdunum, date: 14-37 A.D., ref: RIC-29, C-15,
Q-001
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Tiberius(14-37AD)_AE-Ast_TI-CAESAR-DIVI-AVG-F-AVGVST-IMP-VIII_PONTIF-MAXIM-TRIBVN-POTEST-XXIIII_S-C_RIC-44_BMC-91_C-25_Rome-21-22-AD_Q-001_6h_26mm_9,45ga-s.jpg
005 Tiberius (14-37 A.D.), RIC I 044, Rome, AE-As, PONTIF MAXIM TRIBVN POTEST XXIIII, Around large S•C,108 views005 Tiberius (14-37 A.D.), RIC I 044, Rome, AE-As, PONTIF MAXIM TRIBVN POTEST XXIIII, Around large S•C,
avers:-TI-CAESAR-DIVI-AVG-F-AVGVST-IMP-VIII, Bare head of Tiberius left.
revers:-PONTIF-MAXIM-TRIBVN-POTEST-XXIIII, Around large S•C.
exerg: S/C//--, diameter: 26mm, weight: 9,45 g, axes: 6 h,
mint: Rome, date: 21-22 A.D., ref: RIC I 44, BMC-91, C-25,
Q-001
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Tiberius(14-37AD)_AE-Sest__CIVITATIBVS_ASIAE_RESTITVTIS_TI_CAESAR_DIVI_AVG_F_AVGVST_P_M_TR_POT_XXIIII_S-C_RIC-48_BMC-70_C-3_Rome-22-23-AD_Q-001_6h_36-37mm_24,48ga-s.jpg
005 Tiberius (14-37 A.D.), RIC I 048, Rome, AE-Sestertius, TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST P M TR POT XXIIII, around S•C, Rare!!!104 views005 Tiberius (14-37 A.D.), RIC I 048, Rome, AE-Sestertius, TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST P M TR POT XXIIII, around S•C, Rare!!!
avers:- CIVITATIBVS-ASIAE-RESTITVTIS, Tiberius laureate, seated left, foot on stool, holding patera and sceptre, border of dots.
revers:- TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST P M TR POT XXIIII, around S•C, border of dots.
exerg:S/C//-- , diameter: 36-37mm, weight: 24,48 g, axes: 6 h,
mint: Rome, date: circa 22-23 A.D., ref: RIC I 48, BMC-70, C-3, Rare !!!
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005 Tiberius (14-37 A.D.), RIC I 058, Rome, AE-As, PONTIF MAXIM TRIBVN POTEST XXXVII, Rare!!179 views005 Tiberius (14-37 A.D.), RIC I 058, Rome, AE-As, PONTIF MAXIM TRIBVN POTEST XXXVII, Rare!!
avers:-TI-CAESAR-DIVI-AVG-F-AVGVST-IMP-VIII, Laureate head of Tiberius left.
revers:-PONTIF MAXIM TRIBVN POTEST XXXVII, Rudder standing vertically before large banded globe, small globe at base of rudder to left, S—C at edge of left & right fields, dotted border.
exerg:S/C//--, diameter: 24,5-25,5mm, weight: 10,14 g, axes: 0 h,
mint: Rome, date: 35-36 A.D., ref: RIC I 58,
Q-001
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Augustus_AE-AS_C-CAESAR-AVG-GERMANICVS-PON-M-TR-POT_VESTA_S-C_RIC-xx_BMC-xx_C-xx_Rome-40-41-AD_Q-001_h_27-30mm_6,95g-s.jpg
005 Tiberius (14-37 A.D.), RIC I 082 (Tiberius), Rome, AE-As, (Commemorative by Tiberius) Eagle standing facing, wings spread, head right, S C at sides,91 views005 Tiberius (14-37 A.D.), RIC I 082 (Tiberius), Rome, AE-As, (Commemorative by Tiberius) Eagle standing facing, wings spread, head right, S C at sides,
avers:- DIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER, Radiate head left.
revers:- Eagle standing facing, wings spread, head right, S C at sides.
exerg: S/C//--, diameter: 27-30mm, weight: 6,95 g, axes: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 21-22 A.D., ref: RIC I 82 (Tiberius), Cohen 247(Augustus), BMC 155
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005. Tiberius Constantine, 578-582. AE 40 Nummi.44 viewsObv. Bust of Tiberius Constantine
Rev. Large M, CON below ANNO II to sides
Constantinople Mint, 580.
SB 430.
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005a. Antonia35 viewsAntonia

she exposed a plot between her daughter Livilla and Sejanus, Tiberius's Praetorian Prefect. This led to Sejanus's downfall and to the death of Livilla. Claudius, her biggest disappointment (she once called him a "monster") was the only one of her children to survive her.

She committed suicide in 37 AD on Caligula's orders after expressing unhappiness over the murder of her youngest grandson, Tiberius Gemellus. There is a passage in Suetonius's "Life of Gaius" that mentions how Caligula may have given her poison himself. Renowned for her beauty and virtue, Antonia spent her long life revered by the Roman people and enjoyed many honors conferred upon her by her relatives.

Æ Dupondius (10.61 gm). Struck by Claudius. Draped bust right / Claudius standing left, holding simpulum. RIC I 92 (Claudius); BMCRE 166 (same); Cohen 6. Ex-CNG

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005c. Germanicus48 viewsGermanicus

After the death of Augustus in 14, the Senate appointed Germanicus commander of the forces in Germania. A short time after, the legions rioted on the news that the succession befell on the unpopular Tiberius. Refusing to accept this, the rebel soldiers cried for Germanicus as emperor. But he chose to honor Augustus' choice and put an end to the mutiny, preferring to continue only as a general. In the next two years, he subdued the Germanic tribes east of the Rhine, and assured their defeat in the Battle of the Weser River in 16.

Germanicus died in Alexandria, Egypt. His death was surrounded with speculations, and several sources refer to claims that he was poisoned by Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso, governor of Syria, under orders of the emperor Tiberius.

AS, struck under Caligula. GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N, bare head left / C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT around large SC. Cohen 1.

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005d. Agrippina II89 viewsLYDIA, Hypaepa. Agrippina Jr., mother of Nero. Augusta, 50-59 AD. Æ 14mm (2.33 gm). Draped bust of Agrippina right / Cult statue of Artemis. RPC I 2541; SNG Copenhagen -.

Julia Vipsania Agrippina Minor or Agrippina Minor (Latin for "the younger") (November 7, AD 15 – March 59), often called "Agrippinilla" to distinguish her from her mother, was the daughter of Germanicus and Agrippina Major. She was sister of Caligula, granddaughter and great-niece to Tiberius, niece and wife of Claudius, and the mother of Nero. She was born at Oppidum Ubiorum on the Rhine, afterwards named in her honour Colonia Agrippinae (modern Cologne, Germany).

Agrippina was first married to (1st century AD) Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus. From this marriage she gave birth to Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, who would become Roman Emperor Nero. Her husband died in January, 40. While still married, Agrippina participated openly in her brother Caligula's decadent court, where, according to some sources, at his instigation she prostituted herself in a palace. While it was generally agreed that Agrippinilla, as well as her sisters, had ongoing sexual relationships with their brother Caligula, incest was an oft-used criminal accusation against the aristocracy, because it was impossible to refute successfully. As Agrippina and her sister became more problematic for their brother, Caligula sent them into exile for a time, where it is said she was forced to dive for sponges to make a living. In January, 41, Agrippina had a second marriage to the affluent Gaius Sallustius Crispus Passienus. He died between 44 and 47, leaving his estate to Agrippina.

As a widow, Agrippina was courted by the freedman Pallas as a possible marriage match to her own uncle, Emperor Claudius, and became his favourite councillor, even granted the honor of being called Augusta (a title which no other queen had ever received). They were married on New Year's Day of 49, after the death of Claudius's first wife Messalina. Agrippina then proceeded to persuade Claudius to adopt her son, thereby placing Nero in the line of succession to the Imperial throne over Claudius's own son, Brittanicus. A true Imperial politician, Agrippina did not reject murder as a way to win her battles. Many ancient sources credited her with poisoning Claudius in 54 with a plate of poisened mushrooms, hence enabling Nero to quickly take the throne as emperor.

For some time, Agrippina influenced Nero as he was relatively ill-equipped to rule on his own. But Nero eventually felt that she was taking on too much power relative to her position as a woman of Rome. He deprived her of her honours and exiled her from the palace, but that was not enough. Three times Nero tried to poison Agrippina, but she had been raised in the Imperial family and was accustomed to taking antidotes. Nero had a machine built and attached to the roof of her bedroom. The machine was designed to make the ceiling collapse — the plot failed with the machine. According to the historians Tacitus and Suetonius, Nero then plotted her death by sending for her in a boat constructed to collapse, intending to drown Agrippina. However, only some of the crew were in on the plot; their efforts were hampered by the rest of the crew trying to save the ship. As the ship sank, one of her handmaidens thought to save herself by crying that she was Agrippina, thinking they would take special care of her. Instead the maid was instantly beaten to death with oars and chains. The real Agrippina realised what was happening and in the confusion managed to swim away where a passing fisherman picked her up. Terrified that his cover had been blown, Nero instantly sent men to charge her with treason and summarily execute her. Legend states that when the Emperor's soldiers came to kill her, Agrippina pulled back her clothes and ordered them to stab her in the belly that had housed such a monstrous son.

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Tiberius_AE-AE-23_TIBERIVS-KAISAR_TESSALONIKEON_RPC-I-1565_9-14-AD_Q-001_0h_23mm_10,07gy-s.jpg
005p Tiberius (14-37 A.D. ), Macedonia, Thessalonica, RPC I 1565, AE-23, ΤΙΒΕΡΙΟΣ-ΚΑΙΣΑΡ, Bare head of Tiberius right,73 views005p Tiberius (14-37 A.D. ), Macedonia, Thessalonica, RPC I 1565, AE-23, ΤΙΒΕΡΙΟΣ-ΚΑΙΣΑΡ, Bare head of Tiberius right,
avers:- ΘΕΣΣΑΛΟΝ-ΙΚΕΩΝ, Bare head of Augustus right.
revers:- ΤΙΒΕΡΙΟΣ-ΚΑΙΣΑΡ, Bare head of Tiberius right.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 23mm, weight: 10,07g, axes: 0h,
mint: Macedonia, Thessalonica, date: 9-14 A.D., ref: RPC-I-1565,
Q-001
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Phrygia,_Eumeneia,_005_Tiberius_(14-37_AD),_Tiberius_r_,_Bull_r_,_BMC_35,_RPC_3144,_Q-001,_6h,_16-17mm,_5,72g-s.jpg
005p Tiberius (14-37 A.D.), Phrygia, Eumeneia, RPC I 3144, AE-17, -/-//--, OVAΛEΡIOΣ ΖMEΡTOΡIΧ EYMENEΩN, Βull butting right.70 views005p Tiberius (14-37 A.D.), Phrygia, Eumeneia, RPC I 3144, AE-17, -/-//--, OVAΛEΡIOΣ ΖMEΡTOΡIΧ EYMENEΩN, Βull butting right.
avers: ΣEBAΣ TOΣ, Bare head of Tiberius right.
reverse: OVAΛEΡIOΣ ΖMEΡTOΡIΧ EYMENEΩN, Βull butting right.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 16,0-17,0mm, weight: 5,72 g, axes: 6h,
mint: Phrygia, Eumeneia, date: 35-36 A.D.,
ref: RPC I. 3144, BMC Phrygia 35,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Phrygia,_Laodicea_ad_Lycum,_005_Tiberius,_AE-18,_Bare_head_Tiberius_r_,_Zeus_with_eagle_l__RPC_I_2901,_SNG_Cop_550,__Q-001,_11h,_18-18,5mm,_6,14g-s.jpg
005p Tiberius (14-37 A.D.), Phrygia, Laodicea ad Lycum, RPC I 2901, AE-18, -/-//--, ΠYΘHΣ ΠYΘOY ΛAO∆IKEΩN, Zeus Laodiceus standing left, 98 views005p Tiberius (14-37 A.D.), Phrygia, Laodicea ad Lycum, RPC I 2901, AE-18, -/-//--, ΠYΘHΣ ΠYΘOY ΛAO∆IKEΩN, Zeus Laodiceus standing left,
avers: ΣEBAΣTOΣ, Bare head of Tiberius right.
reverse: ΠYΘHΣ ΠYΘOY ΛAO∆IKEΩN, Zeus Laodiceus standing left with eagle and staff, left and right pilei with star
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 18,0-18,5mm, weight: 6,14 g, axes: 11h,
mint: Phrygia, Laodicea ad Lycum, date: 35-36 A.D., ref: RPC I. 2901, SNG Cop 550, BMC Phrygia p. 301, 138 (Augustus !),
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006_Maurice_Tiberius.JPG
006. Maurice Tiberius, 582-602. AE 40 Nummi.41 viewsObv. Bust of Maurice Tiberius.
Rev. Large M, ANNO II to right, THEUP below.
Antioch Mint, 594.
LordBest
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007 - Tiberius As (as Ceasar under Augustus) - RIC 245 44 viewsÆ As.
Obv:- TI CAESAR AVGVST F IMPERAT VII, laureate head right
Rev:- ROM ET AVG, front elevation of the Altar of Lugdunum, decorated with the corona civica between laurels, nude figures, & Victories.
Minted in Lugdunum. A.D. 12-14
Ref:- RIC 245 [Augustus], Cohen 37, BMC 585, Paris 1769
27 mm, 10.04gm
1 commentsmaridvnvm
0086.jpg
0086 - Denarius Tiberius 15-6 AC50 viewsObv/TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, Tiberius laureate head, r.
Rev/TR POT XVII, Tiberius, laureate and cloacked, standing in slow quadriga, holding laurel branch and eagle-tipped sceptre; the horses' heads all turned r.; IMP VII in ex.

Ag, 18.3mm, 3.70g
Mint: Lugdunum
RIC I/4 [R2] - BMCRE 8
ex-Ingemar Wallin Mynthandel
3 commentsdafnis
9.jpg
009 Nero Claudius Drusus. AE sest. 39 viewsobv: NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMANICUS IMP bare head l.
rev: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TR P IMP Claudius seated l. on curule chair,
weapons and armer lying around
"brother of Tiberius"
1 commentshill132
Personajes_Imperiales_1.jpg
01 - Personalities of the Empire82 viewsPompey, Brutus, Julius Caesar, Marc Antony, Augustus, Livia, Caius & Lucius, Agrippa, Nero Claudius Drusus, Germanicus, Agrippina Sr., Tiberius, Drusus and Antonia1 commentsmdelvalle
ABH_1293_AS_BILBILIS_Augusto.jpg
01-63 - Augusta Bilbilis - Hispania - AUGUSTO (27 A.C. - 14 D.C.)29 viewsHoy en las cercanías de Calatayud (Zaragoza), España
M.Sempronius Tiberius y L.Licius Varus duumviri

AE AS 30 mm 14.8 gr.

Anv: "AVGVSTVS·DIV·F·PATER·PATRIAE" (Leyenda anti-horaria)- Busto laureado viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "MVN·AVGVSTA·BILBILIS·M·SEMP·TIBERI·L·LICI·VARO" - "II VIR" esta última leyenda dentro de guirnalda.

Acuñada 02 A.C. - 14 D.C.
Ceca: Colonia Augusta Bilbilis - Hispania

Referencias: RPC I #393a P.129, SNG München #22, Sear GICTV #7 Pag.2, Cohen Vol.1 #640 var. (Busto a der.) Pag.152, Vv Pl.CXXXIX #2, FAB #278, ACIP #3018, ABH #278, ABH (Ant) #1293 P.163/4, Ripolles #3392 P.392
mdelvalle
aug1.JPG
010 Augustus158 viewsDivus Augustus Æ As. Commemorative by Tiberius. DIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER, radiate head left, thunderbolt before / Eagle standing on globe facing, wings spread, head right, S C at sides. RIC 82 [Tiberius]


"I found Rome built of bricks; I leave her clothed in marble."


This was one of my first ancients, it was my first early imperial.
1 commentsrandy h2
009.JPG
010 Augustus325 viewsDivus Augustus Æ . Commemorative by Tiberius. DIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER, radiate head left / Eagle standing on globe facing, wings spread, head right, S C at sides. RIC 82


Click and enlarge for better photo
14 commentsRandygeki(h2)
321356_513921868644729_989151575_n.jpg
011 Agrippa74 viewsAgrippa, Æ As. Agrippa. Struck under Caligula, 37-41 AD. M AGRIPPA L F COS III, head left wearing rostral crown / S-C, Neptune standing facing, head left, naked except for cloak draped behind him & over both arms, holding small dolphin in right hand & vertical trident in left. RIC 58 [Caligula], Cohen 3, BMC 161 [Tiberius]


It's a bit glossy and hard to get a great shot
7 commentsRandygeki(h2)
IMG_5080.JPG
012. Tiberius (14-37 A.D.) 39 viewsAv.: TI CAESAR AVGVST F IMPERAT VII
Rv.: ROM ET AVG (Altar of Lugdunum)

AE Dupondius Ø24 / 10.3g
RIC I 244 Lugdunum, BMCRE I 583
Juancho
012p_Claudius-I_(41-54_A_D_),_Syria,_Uncertain_Caesarea,_Tyche_Q-001_0h_24-24,5mm_9,7g-s.jpg
012p Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), Syria, Uncertain Caesarea, RPC I 4086, AE-24, KAICAPEΩN ETOYC E, Veiled Tyche seated right,150 views012p Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), Syria, Uncertain Caesarea, RPC I 4086, AE-24, KAICAPEΩN ETOYC E, Veiled Tyche seated right,
avers:- TIBEPIOC KΛAYΔIOC KAICAP, Bare head of Tiberius right.
revers:- KAICAPEΩN ETOYC E, Veiled Tyche, seated right, on rocks and holding ears of corn, below, river god.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 24,0-24,5mm, weight: 9,7g, axes: 0h,
mint: Syria, Uncertain Caesarea, date: Year 5 = 45 A.D., ref: RPC-I-4086, BMC Anazarbus 4,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
IMG_8168~0.JPG
016. Germanicus, son of Drusus, adopted by Tiberius (15 B.C.–19 A.D.) 19 viewsAv.: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N
Rv.: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG PM TR P III PP / S-C

AE As Ø27 / 11.6g
RIC 43 Rome, BMC 60, BN 106
Juancho
IMG_7130.JPG
018. Drusus, son of Tiberius (Died 23 A.D.)25 viewsAv.: DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N
Rv.: PONTIF TRIBVN POTEST ITER / S-C

AE As Ø29 / 10.8g
RIC 45 Rome, Cohen 2
Juancho
0197.jpg
0197 - Quadrans Tiberius 33-34 AC41 viewsObv/ TI CAESAR DIV AVG F, laureate head of Tiberius l.
Rev/ C CAESAR Q(VINQ) (IN VIN)K bare head of Caligula l.

AE, 17.5 mm, 3.08 g.
Mint: Carthago Nova.
RPC I/184 [3-4 dies]
ex-Naville Numismatics, auction e11, lot 182
dafnis
Tiberius.jpg
02 Tiberius43 viewsTiberius. 14-37 AD. AR Denarius. TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST, laureate head right / PONTIF MAXIM, Livia, as Pax, seated right; plain legs to chair. BMCRE 34; RSC 16. Weight, 3.78 g. Die Axis, 6hr.

mix_val
Augustus_RIC_220.jpg
02 Augustus RIC I 022047 viewsAugustus 27 B.C.-14 A.D. AR Denarius. Lugdunum Mint 13-14 A.D. (3.57g, 19.5, 0 h). Obv: [CAESAR AVGVSTVS] DVI F PATER PATRRIAE, laureate head r. REV: [PONTIF] MAXIM, Liva as Pax seated r. on low-backed chair, vertical scepter in r., branch in left. RIC I 220 (R2), RSC 223.

Worn and on an irregular flan, I still wanted this example because of the reverse. Minted in his last year as emperor, this was Augustus’ precursor to Tiberius’ “tribute penny.” While this was one of many types during Augustus’ reign, it was one very few types for Tiberius.
1 commentsLucas H
Tribute_pennyBlack.jpg
02 Tiberius RIC 2639 viewsTiberius 14-37 AD. AR Denarius. Lugdunum Mint. 14-37 AD. Obv: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head facing right. Rev: PONTIF MAXIM, female figure seated right, holding sceptre and branch.
RIC 26; BMC 34; RSC 16.

Ex: Ancient Delights
Paddy
tb2971.JPG
020 Tiberius 33 viewsTiberius Æ As. TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST IMP VIII?, bare head left / PONTIF MAXIM TRIBVN POTEST XXI[III?] around large SC. Randygeki(h2)
t3070.JPG
020 Tiberius 37 viewsTiberius Æ As. TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST IMP VIII, Laureate head left / PONTIF MAXIM TRIBVN POTEST XXXVII, S-C across field, Winged caduceus. RIC 59, Cohen 22, BMC 120Randygeki(h2)
024~2.JPG
021 Drusus13 viewsDrusus Caesar Æ As. Struck under Tiberius, 21-22 AD. DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N, bare head left / PONTIF TRIBVN POTEST ITER around large S•C.
RIC 45 (Tiberius), Cohen 2, BMC 99
Randygeki(h2)
Tiberius-RIC-3.jpg
021. Tiberius.23 viewsDenarius, ca 16 - 37 AD, Lugdunum mint.
Obverse: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS / Laureate bust of Tiberius.
Reverse: PONTIF MAXIM / Livia seated, as Pax, holding branch and sceptre.
3.56 gm., 18 mm.
RIC #3; Sear #1763.

Because this is the denarius that was in circulation at the time of Jesus, this coin is often called the "Tribute Penny" -- a name which is derived from the Authorized (King James) Version of the Bible where the word denarius was translated as penny.
Callimachus
augustus_RIC207.jpg
027 BC-14 AD - AUGUSTUS AR denarius - struck 2 BC-ca. 13 AD85 viewsobv: CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE (laureate head right)
rev: AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT, C L CAESARES below (Gaius & Lucius standing front, each with a hand resting on a round shield, a spear, & in field above, a lituus right & simpulum left ["b9"])
ref: RIC I 207, BMC 533, RSC 43
mint: Lugdunum
3.35gms, 18mm

This type was struck to celebrate Gaius and Lucius Caesars, the sons of Marcus Agrippa, as heirs to the imperial throne. Gaius became Princeps Iuventutis in 5 BC and Lucius in 2 BC. They died in 4 AD and 2 AD respectively, thus promoting Tiberius to heir apparent. An obligatory issue for collectors.
berserker
augustus_RIC373.jpg
027 BC-14 AD - AVGVSTVS AE as - struck by Ascinius Gallus moneyer (16 BC)63 viewsobv: CAESAR AVGVSTVS TRIBVNIC POTEST (bare head right)
rev: C ASINIVS C F GALLVS III VIR AAAFF around large SC
ref: RIC I 373, Cohen 369 (2frcs)
mint: Rome
9.60gms, 25mm

Ascinius Gallus, the former moneyer was an important senator, who married Vipsania, the daughter of Agrippa. On the death of Augustus, briefly, he was offered as a possible alternate to the throne, instead of Tiberius. After the death of Vipsania, he was also an ally of Agrippina Senior, and the "leak green party," a possible plot against the throne identified by Sejanus. He was executed for treason by Tiberius during the Praetorian Prefect's nominal rule of the capital.
berserker
Galba-RIC-95.jpg
029. Galba.17 viewsDenarius, 68-69 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP SER GALBA CAESAR AVG / Laureate bust of Galba.
Reverse: DIVA AVGVSTA / Livia standing, holding patera and sceptre.
3.44 gm., 17 mm.
RIC #4, Sear #2102 var.

The DIVA AVGVSTA on the reverse of this coin is Livia. She was the second wife of Augustus, and the mother of Tiberius. She had a falling out with her son, and became the patroness of the young Galba. When she died, she left him a fortune in her will - certainly a reason to remember her on a coin several decades later.
Callimachus
Tiberius_RIC_I_4.jpg
03 01 Tiberius RIC 454 viewsTiberius 14-37 A.D. AR Denarius. Lugdunum Mint, 15-16 A.D. (3.74g, 17.6mm, 6h). Obv: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right. Rev: [TR POT X]VII. IMP [VII] in exergue, Tiberius, laur. And cloaked, stg. In slow Quadriga r., holding laurel branch and eagle tipped scepter. RIC I 4 (R2), BMC 7, RSC 48.

For an emperor with relatively long reign, Tiberius’ silver coinage was remarkably unvaried with the ubiquitous “tribute penny” making up the bulk of his denarii. This is a decent example of, perhaps, the second most common silver coin. Although the reverse legends are largely off the flan, the obverse has a decent portrait and legend.
2 commentsLucas H
03_Tiberius,_RIC_I_30.jpg
03 02 Tiberius RIC 30149 viewsTiberius. 14-37 A.D. AR Denarius. Lugdunum (Lyon) Mint. 3.78 g., 19 mm. Obv: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right. Rev: PONTIF MAXIM, Livia as Pax, seated right, holding scepter and olive branch. Feet on footstool. Ornate chair legs. One line below throne. RIC I 30, RSC 16a.

The well known "tribute penny." When brought a coin as requested, Jesus asked, "Whose is this image and superscription?" When told it was Caesar, He said, ''Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's and unto God the things that are God's" (Matthew 22:20-21). Since Tiberius was Caesar at the time, this denarius type is attributed by scholars as the "penny" referred to in the Bible.
8 commentsLucas H
Tiberius_RPC_I_3620.jpg
03 04 Tiberius RPC I 362044 viewsTiberius, 14-37 A.D. AR Drachm. Caesarea-Eusebia Mint. (3.61 g, 19.8m, 0) Obv: TIBEPIOS KAISAP SEABASTOS, Laureate head right. Rev: QEOY SEBASTOY YIOS, Mount Argaeus surmounted by a statute of Helios holding orb in right and long scepter verticle in left. Ex Forvm. 1 commentsLucas H
RIC_I_58_AS_Agripa.jpg
03-01 - AGRIPA (27 - 12 A.C.)15 viewsAE AS 28 mm 8.3 gr.
(Emisión Póstuma realizada por Gaius (Calígula), Tiberio es también responsable por esta extensa emisión)

Anv: "M AGRIPPA · L · F · COS · III" - Busto con Corona Rostral viendo a izquierda.
"Corona Rostral" de oro (corona de laureles adornada con proas y popas de barcos, que se concedía por haber capturado una nave enemiga o bien por un gran acto de valor en combate naval)
Rev: "S C " - Neptuno de pié a izquierda, portando delfín en mano derecha y tridente en izquierda.

Acuñada 37 - 41 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #58 Pag.112 (Gaius) - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1812 Pag.358 - BMCRE (Tiberius) #161 - Cohen Vol.1 #3 Pag.175/6 - DVM #4 Pag.74 - CBN #77
mdelvalle
AS Agrippa RIC 58.jpg
03-01 - AGRIPPA (27 - 12 A.C.)85 viewsAE AS (Emisión Póstuma realizada por Gaius (Calígula), Tiberio es también responsable por esta extensa emisión) 28 mm 8.3 gr.

Anv: "M AGRIPPA · L · F · COS · III" - Busto con Corona Rostral viendo a izquierda.
"Corona Rostral" de oro (corona de laureles adornada con proas y popas de barcos, que se concedía por haber capturado una nave enemiga o bien por un gran acto de valor en combate naval)
Rev: "S C " - Neptuno de pié a izquierda, portando delfín en mano derecha y tridente en izquierda.

Acuñada 37 - 41 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #58 Pag.112 (Gaius) - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1812 Pag.358 - BMCRE (Tiberius) #161 - Cohen Vol.1 #3 Pag.175/6 - DVM #4 Pag.74 - CBN #77
mdelvalle
tiberiuscombhoriz.jpg
03. TIBERIUS20 views14 - 37 AD
struck 35-36 AD
AE As 26.46 mm 9.5 g
O: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST IMP VIII, Laur head left
R: PONTIF MAXIM TRIBVN POTEST XXIIII S C, Winged Caduceus
RIC 44, Sear 1771
laney
Antonia_03_portrait.jpg
036 BC - AD 037 - ANTONIA10 viewsAntonia

Antonia 36 BC - 37 was the younger of two daughters of Mark Antony and Octavia Minor. She was a niece of the Emperor Augustus, sister-in-law of the Emperor Tiberius, paternal grandmother of the Emperor Caligula and Empress Agrippina the Younger, mother of the Emperor Claudius, and both maternal great-grandmother and paternal great-aunt of the Emperor Nero

for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
gaius_RIC_I_14.jpg
04 Gaius (Caligula) RIC I 014120 viewsGaius (Caligula). 37-41 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome Mint, 37-38 A.D. (3.55g, 19.1m, 5h). Obv: [C CAE]SAR AVG GERM P M TR POT, laureate head right. Rev: AGRIPPINA MAT C CAES AVG GERM, Agrippina, bust, draped right, hair falling in queue down her neck. RIC I 14 (R), RSC 2. Ex personal collection Steve McBride.

Agrippina “the elder” was Gaius’ mother. Falsely accused of wrongdoing by Tiberius, Agrippina was exiled and died of starvation, whether self-imposed or at the orders of Tiberius, is not clear. Upon ascending the throne, Gaius, recovered his mother’s ashes, and restored her name. This coin commemorates the veneration of his mother.
10 commentsLucas H
Caligula_denarius.jpg
04 Gaius (Caligula) RIC I 2221 viewsGaius (Caligula) 37-41 A.D. AR Denarius. Lugdunum (Lyons) Mint 37 AD. (3.3g, 18.5mm, 2h). Obv: C CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR POT COS, bare head right. Rev: anepigraphic, Augustus, radiate head right between two stars. RIC I 2, BMC 4, Sear 1808. Ex personal collection Steve McBride/Incitatus Coins.

Son of Germanicus, Gaius was adopted by Tiberius and was proclaimed Emperor on Tiberius’ death. His reign, marked by cruelty, was ended when he was assassinated by the Praetorian Guard. There is some question when the Imperial Mint was moved from Lugdunum to Rome, but the majority view holds at least Gaius’ early issues were still from Lugdunum.

With more than moderate wear and damage, this coin still has an almost complete obverse legend, and is a decent weight. It was very difficult for me to track down a denarius of Gaius.
2 commentsLucas H
RIC_26_Denario_Tiberio.jpg
04-01- TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)33 viewsAR Denario 20 mm 3.7 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas sin ornamentos apoyadas en una plataforma (doble-linea), portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda.

Este denario es el comúnmente llamado “el Penique del Tributo” de la muy conocida historia relatada en el Evangelio de San Mateo (22,17-21) del Nuevo Testamento.

Acuñada 16 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum - Hoy Lyon Francia
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #26 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE Vol.1 #34 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8 Pag.75 - CBN #16 - RSC Vol. II #16 Pag.1 - Hendin #916 Pag.418
mdelvalle
RIC_26_Denario_Tiberio_1.jpg
04-02 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)24 viewsAR Denario 19x18 mm 3.3 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas sin ornamentos apoyadas en una plataforma (doble-linea), portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda.

Este denario es el comúnmente llamado “el Penique del Tributo” de la muy conocida historia relatada en el Evangelio de San Mateo (22,17-21) del Nuevo Testamento.

Acuñada 16 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum - Hoy Lyon Francia
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #26 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE Vol.1 #34 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8 Pag.75 - CBN #16 - RSC Vol. II #16 Pag.1 - Hendin #916 Pag.418
mdelvalle
AS TIBERIO RIC 464.jpg
04-03 - TIBERIO Como Cesar de Augusto (4 - 14 D.C.)67 viewsAE AS 29 mm 9.0 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR AVGVST F IMP[ERAT V]" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIFEX TRIB[VN] POTESTATE X[II]" - Leyenda alrededor de gran "S C ".

Acuñada 8 - 10 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 (Augustus) #469 Pag.78 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1755 var. Pag.345 - BMCRE (Augustus) #271 - Cohen Vol.1 #27 Pag.192 - DVM #3 Pag.75 - CBN (Augustus) #878
mdelvalle
AS TIBERIO RIC 464_1.jpg
04-04 - TIBERIO Como Cesar de Augusto (4 - 14 D.C.)66 viewsAE AS 29 x 28 mm 9.3 gr.

Anv: "[TI C]AESAR AVGV[ST F IMPERAT V]" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a derecha.
Rev: "[PONTIFEX·TRIB]VN·POTESTATE·X[II]" - Leyenda alrededor de gran "S C ".

Acuñada 8 - 10 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 (Augustus) #469 Pag.78 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1755 var. Pag.345 - BMCRE (Augustus) #271 - Cohen Vol.1 #27 Pag.192 - DVM #3 Pag.75 - CBN (Augustus) #878
mdelvalle
RIC_28_Denario_Forrado_Tiberio.jpg
04-05 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)26 viewsFALSIFICACIÓN ANCIANA,
Denario Forrado 18.5 mm 2.5 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas ornamentadas apoyadas directamente en el piso, portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda.
Este denario es el comúnmente llamado “el Penique del Tributo” de la muy conocida historia relatada en el Evangelio de San Mateo (22,17-21) del Nuevo Testamento.

Acuñada 16 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: No oficial

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #28 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE Vol.1 #45 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8b Pag.75 - CBN #16 - RSC Vol. II #16b Pag.1 - Hendin #916 Pag.418
mdelvalle
RIC_28_Denario_Tiberio.jpg
04-06 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)26 viewsAR Denario 19 mm 3.7 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas ornamentadas apoyadas en una plataforma (triple-linea), portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda.

Este denario es el comúnmente llamado “el Penique del Tributo” de la muy conocida historia relatada en el Evangelio de San Mateo (22,17-21) del Nuevo Testamento.

Acuñada 16 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum - Hoy Lyon Francia
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #28 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE Vol.1 #45 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8b Pag.75 - CBN #16 - RSC Vol. II #16b Pag.1 - Hendin #916 Pag.418
mdelvalle
Denario_Tiberius_RIC_30_2_Fourree.jpg
04-09 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)45 viewsFALSIFICACIÓN ANCIANA,
Denario Forrado 19x18 mm 2.5 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas ornamentadas apoyadas directamente en el piso, portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda.
Este denario es el comúnmente llamado “el Penique del Tributo” de la muy conocida historia relatada en el Evangelio de San Mateo (22,17-21) del Nuevo Testamento.
Acuñada 16 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: No oficial

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #30 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE Vol. I #42 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8a Pag.75 - CBN #16 - RSC Vol. II #16b Pag.1 - Hendin #916 Pag.418
mdelvalle
RIC_30_Denario_Forrado_Tiberio.jpg
04-09 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)21 viewsFALSIFICACIÓN ANCIANA,
Denario Forrado 19x18 mm 2.5 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas ornamentadas apoyadas directamente en el piso, portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda.
Este denario es el comúnmente llamado “el Penique del Tributo” de la muy conocida historia relatada en el Evangelio de San Mateo (22,17-21) del Nuevo Testamento.
Acuñada 16 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: No oficial

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #30 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE Vol. I #42 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8a Pag.75 - CBN #16 - RSC Vol. II #16b Pag.1 - Hendin #916 Pag.418
mdelvalle
Denario Tiberio RIC 26.jpg
04-10 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)108 viewsAR Denario 19 mm 3.7 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas sin ornamentos, portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda.

Acuñada 14 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum - Hoy Lyon Francia

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #26 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE #34 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8 Pag.75 - CBN #5 - RSC Vol. II #16 Pag.1
1 commentsmdelvalle
Denario_Tiberio_RIC_26_anterior.jpg
04-10 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)69 viewsAnv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas sin ornamentos apoyadas en una plataforma (doble-linea), portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda.

Este denario es el comúnmente llamado “el Penique del Tributo” de la muy conocida historia relatada en el Evangelio de San Mateo (22,17-21) del Nuevo Testamento.

Acuñada 16 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum - Hoy Lyon Francia
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #26 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE Vol.1 #34 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8 Pag.75 - CBN #16 - RSC Vol. II #16 Pag.1 - Hendin #916 Pag.418
mdelvalle
Denario_Tiberio_RIC_26_1.jpg
04-11 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)70 viewsAR Denario 19x18 mm 3.3 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas sin ornamentos apoyadas en una plataforma (doble-linea), portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda.

Este denario es el comúnmente llamado “el Penique del Tributo” de la muy conocida historia relatada en el Evangelio de San Mateo (22,17-21) del Nuevo Testamento.

Acuñada 16 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum - Hoy Lyon Francia
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #26 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE Vol.1 #34 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8 Pag.75 - CBN #16 - RSC Vol. II #16 Pag.1 - Hendin #916 Pag.418
mdelvalle
Denario_Tiberio_RIC_29_2.jpg
04-12 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)85 viewsAR Denario 19 mm 3.7 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas ornamentadas apoyadas en una plataforma (triple-linea), portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda.

Este denario es el comúnmente llamado “el Penique del Tributo” de la muy conocida historia relatada en el Evangelio de San Mateo (22,17-21) del Nuevo Testamento.

Acuñada 16 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum - Hoy Lyon Francia
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #28 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE Vol.1 #45 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8b Pag.75 - CBN #16 - RSC Vol. II #16b Pag.1 - Hendin #916 Pag.418
mdelvalle
RIC_30_Denario_Tiberio.jpg
04-12 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)21 viewsAR Denario 18x16 mm 3.6 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas ornamentadas apoyadas directamente en el piso, portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda, Livia descansa sus pies sobre una pequeña plataforma.

Este denario es el comúnmente llamado “el Penique del Tributo” de la muy conocida historia relatada en el Evangelio de San Mateo (22,17-21) del Nuevo Testamento.

Acuñada 16 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum - Hoy Lyon Francia
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #30 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE Vol.1 #48 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8c Pag.75 - CBN #16 - RSC Vol. II #16a Pag.1 - Hendin #916 Pag.418
mdelvalle
Denario_Tiberio_RIC_30_1.jpg
04-14 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)89 viewsAR Denario 18x16 mm 3.6 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas ornamentadas apoyadas directamente en el piso, portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda, Livia descansa sus pies sobre una pequeña plataforma.

Este denario es el comúnmente llamado “el Penique del Tributo” de la muy conocida historia relatada en el Evangelio de San Mateo (22,17-21) del Nuevo Testamento.

Acuñada 16 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum - Hoy Lyon Francia
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #30 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE Vol.1 #48 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8c Pag.75 - CBN #16 - RSC Vol. II #16a Pag.1 - Hendin #916 Pag.418
1 commentsmdelvalle
RIC_469_AS_Tiberio.jpg
04-15 - TIBERIO Como Cesar de Augusto (4 - 14 D.C.)16 viewsAE AS 29 mm 9.0 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR AVGVST F IMP[ERAT V]" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIFEX TRIB[VN] POTESTATE X[II]" - Leyenda alrededor de gran "S C ".

Acuñada 8 - 10 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.I (Augustus) #469 Pag.78 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1755 var. Pag.345 - BMCRE (Augustus) #271 - Cohen Vol.1 #27 Pag.192 - DVM #3 Pag.75 - CBN (Augustus) #878
mdelvalle
RIC_469_AS_Tiberio_1.jpg
04-16 - TIBERIO Como Cesar de Augusto (4 - 14 D.C.)17 viewsAE AS 29 x 28 mm 9.3 gr.

Anv: "[TI C]AESAR AVGV[ST F IMPERAT V]" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a derecha.
Rev: "[PONTIFEX·TRIB]VN·POTESTATE·X[II]" - Leyenda alrededor de gran "S C ".

Acuñada 8 - 10 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.I (Augustus) #469 Pag.78 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1755 var. Pag.345 - BMCRE (Augustus) #271 - Cohen Vol.1 #27 Pag.192 - DVM #3 Pag.75 - CBN (Augustus) #878
mdelvalle
AS TIBERIO RIC 211.jpg
04-20 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)60 viewsAE AS 27 mm 8.9 gr.
Emisión póstuma restituida por Tito

Anv: "[TI CAES]AR DIVI AVG F AVGVST IMP VIII" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "IMP T CAES DIVI VESP AVG REST" - Leyenda alrededor de gran "S C ".

Acuñada 80 - 81 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 (Tito) #211 Pag.143 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 (Tito) #2591 Pag.331 - BMCRE #284 - Cohen Vol.1 (Tiberio) #73 Pag.196 - DVM #20 Pag.77 - CBN #293
mdelvalle
RIC_33_AS_Tiberio.jpg
04-20 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)15 viewsAE AS 27 mm 9.0 gr.

Anv: "CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS IMP VII" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM TRIBVN POTEST XVII" - Livia ? sedente en trono a derecha, portando Cetro largo vertical en mano izq. y Patera en su mano der. extendida. "S C " en los campos.

Acuñada 15-16 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: R3

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #33 Pag.96 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1769 var. (Busto) Pag.348 - BMCRE #65 Pag.128 - Cohen Vol.1 (Tiberio) #17 Pag.191 - DVM #15 var. (Busto) Pag.76 - CBN II #39 Pag.44
mdelvalle
RIC_211_AS_Tiberio.jpg
04-30 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)15 viewsAE AS 27 mm 8.9 gr.
Emisión póstuma restituida por Tito

Anv: "[TI CAES]AR DIVI AVG F AVGVST IMP VIII" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "IMP T CAES DIVI VESP AVG REST" - Leyenda alrededor de gran "S C ".

Acuñada 80 - 81 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.II (Tito) #211 Pag.143 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 (Tito) #2591 Pag.331 - BMCRE #284 - Cohen Vol.1 (Tiberio) #73 Pag.196 - DVM #20 Pag.77 - CBN #293
mdelvalle
c3947.JPG
040 Claudius39 viewsClaudius Æ As. TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, bare head left / LIBERTAS AVGVSTA S-C, Libertas standing facing, with pileus and extending left hand. Cohen 47.




"Claudius was born at Lugdunum, in the consulship of Iullus Antonius and Fabius Africanus, on August 1st, 10 B.C., the very day when the first altar was dedicated there to Augustus the God; and he was given the name Tiberius Claudius Drusus. Subsequently he assumed the surname Germanicus after his brother had been admitted into the Julian House as Tiberius's adopted son."
Randygeki(h2)
011~1.JPG
041 Germanicus15 viewsGermanicus, Caesar
Died 10 Oct 19 A.D.

Æ As struck under Claudius. GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N, bare head right / TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P around S-C

Fair, 8.138g, 27.4mm, 180*, Rome min, 42 A.D., S 1905, RIC 106, BMC 215 ex Forvm ex Bill D.

"Germanicus inflicted serious defeats on the barbarian tribes in Germania and recovered the legionary standards lost by Varus. He was to be Tiberius' successor, but died of and unknown cause. His tremendous popularity helped his son Caligula ontain the throne after Tiberius died."

-----

"Such virtuous conduct brought Germanicus rich rewards. He was so deeply respected and loved by all his kindred that Augustus - I need hardly mention his other relatives - wondered for a long time wether to make him his successor, but at last ordered Tiberius to adopt him."
Randygeki(h2)
007~1.JPG
041 Germanicus 18 viewsGermanicus Æ As struck under Claudius. GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N, bare head right / TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P around S-C



"Germanicus, Father of Gaius Caesar(Caligula), son of Drusus and Antonia the Younger, was adopted by Tiberius, his paternal uncle."
Randygeki(h2)
ClaudI97or113.jpg
041-054 AD - Claudius - RIC I 097 or 113 - Libertas Reverse46 viewsEmperor: Claudius (r. 41-54 AD)
Date: 41-54 AD
Condition: Fair
Denomination: As

Obverse: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP (P P?)
Tiberius Claudius Caesar Emperor Pontifex Maximus Tribunicia Potestas Imperator (Pater Patriae?)
Bare head left

Reverse: LIBERTAS AVGVSTA
S - C to left and right
The Emperor restores liberty.
Libertas, draped, standing facing, head right, right holding pileus, left extended.

Rome mint
RIC I Claudius 97 or 113; VM 16
6.38g; 29.3mm; 210°
1 commentsPep
LarryW1913.jpg
0488 Maurice Tiberius, 582-60219 viewsAV tremissis, 17.8mm, 1.49g, EF, flat strike, 180deg,
Constantinople mint, 583 - 602 A.D.
d N TIbE-RI P P AVC, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VICTORI MAVRI AVS, cross; CONOB in exg
Sear 488; DO 14
Consigned to Forvm
Lawrence Woolslayer
RIC_45_AS_Druso_Cesar.jpg
05 - 10 - DRUSO (20 - 23 D.C.)15 viewsAE AS 28.65 mm 10.05 gr.
Emisión póstuma restituida por su padre Tiberio

Anv: "DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "PONTIF TRIBVN POTEST ITER" - Leyenda alrededor de gran "S C ".

Acuñada 23 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.I (Tiberio) #45 Pag.97 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1794 Pag.354 - BMCRE (Tiberius) #99 - Cohen Vol.1 #2 Pag.217 - CBN (Tiberius) #78
mdelvalle
1007381.JPG
050 Nero 57 viewsNero & Tiberius
Billon Tetradrachm of Alexandria.
Year 13

Egypt, Alexandria. Nero. Year 13 (66/67 AD). Billon Tetradrachm (12.92 gm, 24mm). NERW KL[AV SEB GER AV], radiate bust left wearing aegis, LIG before / TIBERIO[S KAISAR], laureate head of Tiberius right. Köln 187ff.; Milne 256ff.; Curtis 175ff. RPC 5295, BMCGr 114, SGI 637, sear5


New photo
3 commentsRandygeki(h2)
LarryW1909.jpg
0659 Focas, 602-61029 viewsÆ follis, 31.6mm, 11.1g, aF
Struck 606-607 at Nicomedia
DM FOCA PER AVG, bust of facing, wearing crown with pendilia and consular robes, and holding mappa and cross / [X]XXX with ANNO above, regnal year II at right, NIKO A in exg. Overstrike, apparently on follis of Maurice Tiberius
Ex: Glenn W. Woods
Sear 659; MIB 69b
Lawrence Woolslayer
2860420.jpg
08. Maurice Tiberius23 viewsAV Solidus (21mm, 4.41 g, 7h). Constantinople mint, 7th officina. Struck 583-602 AD.

O: Helmeted, draped, and cuirassed facing bust, holding globus cruciger

R: Angel standing facing, holding long staff surmounted by staurogram and globus cruciger; Z//CONOB. DOC 5g; MIBE 6; SB 478. VF, small dig on reverse.

Ex CNG

1 commentsSosius
GI 077c img.jpg
092 - Severus Alexander and Julia Maesa, AE25, Markianopolis, Dikaiosyne26 viewsAE25
Obv:– AVT K M AVP CEVH ALEXANDROC KAI IOVLIA MAICA, Confronted busts of Alexander and Maesa
Rev:– VP TIB IOVL FHCTOV MARKIANOPOLEITWN, Dikaiosyne/Aequitas standing with scales and cornucopiae; on her arm – her article of clothing. E in right field.
Magistrate Tiberius Julius Festus
Minted in Markianopolis, Moesia Inferior

Ref??? Any help most welcome.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
LarryW1925.jpg
0964 Constans II, AD 641-66853 viewsGold solidus, 20mm, 4.31g, EF
[legend blundered and fragmentary], facing busts of Contans II with long beard (on left), and Constantine IV, beardless (on right), each clad in chlamys, Constans wearing plumed crown (or helmet), his son wearing simple crown, cross in upper field between their heads / VICTORIA AVGU Δ, cross potent on three steps between facing standing figures of Heraclius (on left) and Tiberius (on right), both beardless, each wearing crown and chlamys and holding globus cruciger in right hand; CONOB in exergue. Some surface deposits on obverse and a little flatness in the striking affecting both sides.
Certificate of Authenticy by David R. Sear, ACCS
Ex: Forvm Ancient Coins
Sear 964; DOC 30d; MIB 31; Wroth (BMC) 55; Tolstoi 293
Lawrence Woolslayer
hierapolis_AE18.jpg
098-217 AD - HIERAPOLIS (Phrygia) AE18 62 viewsobv: - (bare head of Hercules)
rev: IERAPO-LITWN (winged Nemesis standing left, holding bridle, within dotted border)
ref: SNG Cop. 422. Weber, Hierapolis 142, 8
4.43gms, 18mm
Rare
Hierapolis can mean "sacred city", because of the several temples. The city was devastated by an earthquake which took place in 17 A.D. during the reign of Tiberius. In 60 AD, during the rule of emperor Nero, an even more severe earthquake left the city completely in ruins. Afterwards the city was rebuilt in Roman style with the financial support from the emperor. Hierapolis was visited by the Emperor Hadrian in 129 A.D., the Emperor Caracalla in 215 and the Emperor Valens in 370.
On obverse is a typical Hercules head, compare to my CORNELIA 58 denarius.
berserker
Medio_Asarion_BRITANICO_Smyrna_en_Ionia.jpg
11-20 - Smyrna en Ionia - BRITANICO (50 - 54 D.C.)17 viewsAE15 - 1/2 Assarión (Provincial)
15 mm 4,05 gr 0 hr.

Tiberio Claudio César Británico en latín Tiberius Claudius Caesar Britannicus (12 de febrero de 41 - 11 de febrero de 55) fue un noble romano, nacido del matrimonio entre el emperador Claudio y su tercera esposa, Valeria Mesalina. En el momento de su nacimiento, sólo un mes después del inicio del reinado de Claudio, fue nombrado heredero del Imperio; no obstante hubo tres factores: la condena a muerte de su madre a causa de bigamia, el matrimonio de Claudio con Agripina y la adopción de Nerón, descendiente del recordado Germánico, que provocaron que los ciudadanos romanos no le consideraran como sucesor imperial. Fue asesinado el día anterior a su decimocuarto cumpleaños. (Fuente Wikipedia)

Anv: "ZMYP" debajo - Busto vestido a cabeza desnuda viendo a derecha.
Rev: "ΕΠΙ ΦΙΛΙΣ ΤΟΥ ΕΙΚΑΔΙΟ Σ", (Philistos y Eikadios Magistrados), Nike avanzando a derecha, portando un trofeo sobre su hombro.

Acuñada 50 - 54 D.C.
Ceca: Smyrna en Ionia

Referencias: Vagi #650 - Lingren #562 - KLDSE XXXI #37 pag.223 - SNG Cop #1351 - SNG Von Aulock #7995 - BMC Vol.16 #284 Pag.270 - RPC I #2476 Pag.419
mdelvalle
12_caes_portraits_coll_res_lt.jpg
12 CAESARS PORTRAITS164 viewsObverse images from my collection.
R 1: Julius, Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula
R 2: Claudius, Nero, Galba, Otho
R 3: Vitellius, Vespasian, Titus, Domitian
2 commentslaney
tiberius memorial as.jpg
14-37 AD - AUGUSTUS memorial AE as - struck under Tiberius (22/23-(?)30 AD)53 viewsobv: DIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER (radiate head of Augustus left)
rev: Altar with double panelled door, uncertain ornaments in top, S-C either side of altar, PROVIDENT in ex.
ref: RIC I 81 (Tiberius), BMC146, C.228 (5frcs)
10.33gms, 26mm
Scarce
berserker
drusus as.jpg
14-37 AD - DRUSUS memorial AE As - struck under Tiberius (23 AD)50 viewsobv: DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N (bare head left)
rev: PONTIF TRIBVN POTEST ITER around large S-C
ref: RIC I 45 (Tiberius), C.2 (2frcs)
10.14gms, 29mm

Drusus (also called Drusus Junior or Drusus the Younger), the only son of Tiberius, became heir to the throne after the death of Germanicus. One of his famous act connected to the mutiny in Pannonia, what broke out when the death of Augustus (19 August 14) was made known. Drusus left Rome to deal with the mutiny before the session of the Senate on the 17 September, when Tiberius was formally adopted him as princeps. He have reached the military camp in Pannonia in the time for the eclipse of the moon in the early hours of the 27 September wich so daunted the mutineers. He was also governor of Illyricum from 17 to 20 AD. Ancient sources concur that Livilla, his wife poisoned him.
berserker
tiberius as.jpg
14-37 AD - TIBERIUS AE as - struck 22-23 AD39 viewsobv: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST IMP VIII (bare head left)
rev: PONTIF MAXIM TRIBVN POTEST XXIII around large S.C.
ref: RIC I 44, C.24 (5 frcs), BMC91
9.44gms, 27mm

In 6 AD Tiberius was in Carnuntum military camp. He led at least eight legions (VIII Augusta from Pannonia, XV Apollinaris and XX Valeria Victrix from Illyricum, XXI Rapax from Raetia, XIII Gemina, XIV Gemina and XVI Gallica from Germania Superior and an unknown unit) against king Maroboduus of the Marcomanni in Bohemia (Czechia). At the same time, I Germanica, V Alaudae, XVII, XVIII and XIX, - led by Caius Sentius Saturninus (governor of Germania) -, moved against Maroboduus along the Elbe. Saturninus led his forces across the country of the Chatti, and, cutting his way through the Hercynian forest, joining Tiberius on the north bank of the Danube, and both wanted to make a combined attack within a few leagues from the Marcomannic capital Boviasmum. It was the most grandiose operation that ever conducted by a Roman army, but a rebellion in Illyria obstructed its final execution.
berserker
tiberius RIC58-RR.jpg
14-37 AD - TIBERIUS AE As - struck 36-37 AD55 viewsobv: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST IMP VIII (laureate head left)
rev: PONTIF MAX TR POT XXXVII, S-C to left and right of rudder placed vertically across banded globe, small globe at base of rudder
ref: RIC 58 (R2), Cohen 13 (2frcs), BMC 117
10.58gms, 26mm
Very rare
1 commentsberserker
tiberius sest-.jpg
14-37 AD - TIBERIUS AE sestertius - struck 22-23 AD57 viewsobv: CIVITATIBVS ASIAE RESTITVTIS (Tiberius seated left on curule chair with patera and scepter)
rev: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS P M TR POT XXIIII / S.C.
ref: RIC I 48 (S), Cohen 3 (15frcs), BMC70
23.46g, 34mm
Very rare

The obverse legend refers to Tiberius' donations and tax remissions to twelve Asian cities devastated by an earthquake in 17 A.D., and another two cities which suffered an earthquake in 23 A.D.
berserker
tiberius_RIC28.jpg
14-37 AD - TIBERIUS AR denarius - struck 14-37 AD53 viewsobv: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS (laureate head right)
rev: PONTIF MAXIM (Livia (as Pax) seated right, holding olive-branch and inverted spear; ornate legs to chair)
ref: RIC I 28, RSC 16b (2frcs)
mint: Lugdunum
3,57gms, 18mm

The story of the Tribute Penny may be the best-known Biblical reference to a coin. Tiberius reigned during the ministry of Jesus and it is logical that his silver denarius was the coin used by Christ ("Give unto Caesar that which is Caesar's and give unto the Lord that which is the Lord's"). Although the inscription refers to Tiberius' position as Pontifex Maximus and there are no overt references to Livia, many scholars feel that users of the coins would have associated the figure with Livia and that this association was probably intended by Tiberius. An obligatory issue for collectors.
1 commentsberserker
tiberius tribute penny.jpg
16 - 37 A.D. Tiberius - Ric 30 "Tribute Penny"153 viewsSilver denarius, Lugdunum mint, 3.494g, 18.8mm, 225o, 16 - 37 A.D.;
TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right;
PONTIF MAXIM, Livia seated right holding scepter and branch, legs on chair ornamented, feet on footstool; nicely centered
RIC 30, RSC 16a, S 1763, VF

Jesus, referring to a "penny" asked, "Whose is this image and superscription?" When told it was Caesar, He said, ''Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's and unto God the things that are God's" (Matthew 22:20-21). Since Tiberius was Caesar at the time, this denarius type is attributed by scholars as the "penny" referred to in the Bible.
2 commentsjimwho523
LarryW1941.jpg
160 Tiberius II Constantine, AD 578-58242 viewsGold solidus, 23mm, 4.36g, gVF
Struck at Constantinople c. AD 579-582
D M Tib CONS-TANT PP AVI, bust facing, wears cuirass and crown with cross and pendilia, holds globus cruciger in right and shield decorated with horseman with left / VICTO(R)I-A AVCC Θ cross potent on four steps, CONOB in exegrue
Ex: Harlan Berk
DOC 4i; Sear 422; Berk 76
Lawrence Woolslayer
LarryW8000.jpg
165 Tiberius II Constantine, AD 578-58245 viewsGold solidus, 21mm, 4.41g, VF
Struck at Constantinople c. AD 579-582
D M Tib CONS-TANT PP AVI, bust facing, wears cuirass and crown with cross and pendilia, holds globus cruciger in right and shield decorated with horseman with left / VICTORI-A AVCC E cross potent on four steps, CONOB in exegrue
Ex: Beast Coins
DOC 4e; Sear 422; Berk 76
Lawrence Woolslayer
LarryW8001.jpg
168 Constans II, AD 641-66834 viewsGold solidus, 18mm, 4.46g, aEF
Struck c. AD 659-662 at Constantinople
[legend blundered and fragmentary], facing busts of Contans II with long beard (on left), and beardless Constantine IV, each clad in chlamys, Constans wearing plumed crown (or helmet), his son wearing simple crown, cross in upper field between their heads / VICTORI-A A-VGU Δ+, long cross on globus between facing standing figures of Heraclius (on left) and Tiberius, both beardless, each wearing crown and chlamys and holding globus cruciger in right hand; CoNoB in exergue. Obverse double struck, reverse flan mark in center.
Ex: Glenn Woods
Sear 963; DOC 29g var; MIB 30
Lawrence Woolslayer
LarryW1929.jpg
170 Constans II, AD 641-66857 viewsGold solidus, 20.2mm, 4.48g, EF
Struck AD 661-663 at Constantinople
[legend blundered and fragmentary], facing busts of Contans II with long beard (on left), and Constantine IV, beardless (on right), each clad in chlamys, Constans wearing plumed crown (or helmet), his son wearing simple crown, cross in upper field between their heads / VICTORIA AVGU H, cross potent on three steps between facing standing figures of Heraclius (on left) and Tiberius, both beardless, each wearing crown and chlamys and holding globus cruciger in right hand; CoNoB in exergue.
Certificate of Authenticity by David R. Sear, ACCS
Sear 964; DOC 30g; Wroth 58; Tolstoi 304; Ratto 1606
Lawrence Woolslayer
LarryW8002.jpg
172 Constans II, AD 641-66838 viewsGold solidus, 20mm, 4.41g, EF
Struck c. AD 661-663 at Constantinople
[legend blundered and fragmentary], facing busts of Contans II with long beard (on left), and beardless Constantine IV, each clad in chlamys, Constans wearing plumed crown (or helmet), his son wearing simple crown, cross in upper field between their heads / VICTORIA AVGU A, cross potent on three steps between facing standing figures of Heraclius (on left) and Tiberius, both beardless, each wearing crown and chlamys and holding globus cruciger in right hand; CoNoB in exergue.
Ex: Glenn Woods
Sear 964; DOC 30a; MIB 31
Lawrence Woolslayer
LarryW1940.jpg
180 Constantine IV Pogonatus, AD 668-68533 viewsGold solidus, 18mm, 4.31g, aEF
Struck at Constantinople c. 674-681
DN C-A-NUS P, bust facing, head slightly to right, wears short beard, cuirass, and helmet with plume and diadem; holds spear over shoulder and shield decorated with horseman / VICT(O)A [AVGU], cross potent on base with three steps between Heraclius (left) and Tiberius; each figure wears chlamys and crown, and holds globus cruciger, CoNoB in exergue
Ex: Harlan Berk
DOC 8 var; Sear 1154v; Berk -
Lawrence Woolslayer
AgrippaAsNeptune.jpg
1ah Marcus Agrippa36 viewsDied 12 BC
As, minted by Caligula.

Head left wearing rostral crownt, M AGRIPPA L F COS III
Neptune standing facing, head left, naked except for cloak draped behind him & over both arms, holding small dolphin in right hand & vertical trident in left, SC

RIC 58

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (c 63 BC–12 BC) was a close friend, and defence minister of the future emperor Augustus. He was responsible for many of his military victories, most notably Actium against the forces of Mark Antony and Cleopatra VII of Egypt. He was son-in-law to Augustus, maternal grandfather of the Emperor Caligula, father-in-law of the Emperors Tiberius and Claudius, and maternal great-grandfather of the Emperor Nero. He probably served in Caesar’s campaign of 46/45 BC against Pompey and Caesar regarded him highly enough to send him with Octavius in 45 BC to study at Apollonia. From then on Agrippa played a major part in Augustus’ career, as military commander and admiral, also undertaking major public works, and writing works on geography (following his survey of the Empire) and other subjects. He erected many fine buildings in Rome, including the original Pantheon on the Campus Martius (during his third consulship 27 BC). He married Claudia Marcella the Elder, daughter of Octavia the Younger in 28 BC, and Julia the Elder in 21 BC, with whom he had five children. His daughter Agrippina Vipsania the Younger the married Tiberius, and his daughter Agrippina Vipsania the Elder married Germanicus. His last campaign initiated the conquest of the upper Danube region, which would become the Roman province of Pannonia in 13 BC. Augustus had Agrippa’s remains placed in his own mausoleum. Ronald Syme offers a compelling case that Agrippa was much more co-ruler of the empire with Augustus than he was a subordinate.
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1ai Augustus25 views27 BC-14 AD

Denarius
Laureate head left, AVGVSTVS DIVI F
Apollo stg. Right, IMP XII

Van Meter notes that after about 15 BC, Augustus moved the production of gold and silver to Lugdunum and underscored the end of the moneyer issues by using "IMP" on the reverse.

RIC 180

Suetonius summarized Augusts' life in these words: He lost his father at the age of five (58BC). At twelve he delivered a funeral oration in honour of his grandmother Julia, Julius Caesar’s sister (51BC). At sixteen, having assumed the toga, he was decorated by Caesar during the African triumph (46BC) even though he had been too young to fight. When Caesar went to conquer Pompey’s sons in Spain (in 46BC), Augustus followed, despite still being weak from severe illness, and despite being shipwrecked on the way, with a minimal escort, over roads menaced by the enemy, so endearing himself greatly to Caesar, who quickly formed a high opinion of Augustus’ character, beyond merely his energetic pursuit of the journey.
After recovering the Spanish provinces, Caesar planned an expedition against the Dacians, to be followed by an attack on Parthia, and sent Augustus ahead (in 45BC) to Apollonia in Illyria, where he spent his time studying. When news came of Caesar’s assassination (in 44BC), and that the will named him as the main heir, Augustus considered seeking protection from the legions quartered there. However he decided it would be rash and premature, and chose to return to Rome, and enter on his inheritance, despite the doubts expressed by his mother, and strong opposition from his stepfather, the ex-consul Marcius Philippus.

Augustus went on to levy armies and rule the State; firstly for a twelve-year period (from 43BC to 30BC), initially with Mark Antony and Lepidus and then (from 33BC) with Antony alone; and later by himself for a further forty-four years (to his death in AD14).

In his youth he was betrothed to Servilia, the daughter of Publius Servilius Vatia Isauricus, but on his reconciliation with Mark Antony following their first dispute, the troops begged them to become allied by some tie of kinship, and he married (in 43BC) Claudia, Antony’s stepdaughter, born to Fulvia and Publius Clodius Pulcher, even though Claudia was barely of marriageable age. However he quarrelled with Fulvia, and divorced Claudia before the marriage had been consummated.

Not long afterwards (in 40BC), he married Scribonia, whose previous husbands had been ex-consuls, and to one of whom she had borne a child. He divorced her also ‘tired’, he wrote, ‘of her shrewish ways,’ and immediately took Livia Drusilla from her husband Tiberius Nero though she was pregnant at the time (38BC), loving and esteeming her alone to the end.
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1al Tiberius26 views14-37

As
Laureate head, left, TI CAESAR AVGVST F IMPERAT V
PONTIF MAXIM TRIBVN POTEST XXIII SC

This is one of a series of 12 Caesars pieces that were local finds in Serbia. There are better coins out there, but I'll hang onto these because they really got me into the hobby.

RIC 469

Per Suetonius: Within three years, however, both Lucius Caesar and Gaius Caesar were dead [in AD2 and 4 respectively], and Augustus now adopted both their brother Agrippa Postumus, and Tiberius, who was first required to adopt his nephew Germanicus [in 4 AD]. . . .

From that moment onwards, Augustus did all he could to enhance Tiberius’ prestige, especially after the disowning and banishment of Postumus [ca 6 AD] made it obvious that Tiberius was the sole heir to the succession. . . .

Tiberius acted like a traditional citizen, more modestly almost than the average individual. He accepted only a few of the least distinguished honours offered him; it was only with great reluctance that he consented to his birthday being recognised, falling as it did on the day of the Plebeian Games in the Circus, by the addition of a two-horse chariot to the proceedings; and he refused to have temples, and priests dedicated to him, or even the erection of statues and busts, without his permission; which he only gave if they were part of the temple adornments and not among the divine images. . . .

Moreover, in the face of abuse, libels or slanders against himself and his family, he remained unperturbed and tolerant, often maintaining that a free country required free thought and speech. . . . He even introduced a species of liberty, by maintaining the traditional dignities and powers of the Senate and magistrates. He laid all public and private matters, small or great, before the Senate consulting them over State revenues, monopolies, and the construction and maintenance of public buildings, over the levying and disbanding of troops, the assignment of legions and auxiliaries, the scope of military appointments, and the allocation of campaigns, and even the form and content of his replies to letters from foreign powers. . . .

Returning to Capreae, he abandoned all affairs of state, neither filling vacancies in the Equestrian Order’s jury lists, nor appointing military tribunes, prefects, or even provincial governors. Spain and Syria lacked governors of Consular rank for several years, while he allowed the Parthians to overrun Armenia, Moesia to be ravaged by the Dacians and Sarmatians, and Gaul by the Germans, threatening the Empire’s honour no less than its security. Furthermore, with the freedom afforded by privacy, hidden as it were from public view, he gave free rein to the vices he had concealed for so long. . . .
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1am Drusus22 viewsHeir to throne until assassination by Sejanus in 23

As

Bare head, left, DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N
PONTIF TRIBVN POTEST ITER SC

RIC 45

Nero Claudius Drusus, later adopted as Drusus Julius Caesar (13BC - 23AD), called Drusus the Younger, was the only child of Tiberius and his first wife, Vipsania Agrippina. Tiberius and Drusus delivered the only two eulogies for Augustus in front of the temple to the god Julius. In 14, after the death of Augustus, Drusus suppressed a mutiny in Pannonia. In 15 he became consul. He governed Illyricum from 17 to 20. In 21 he was again consul, while in 22 he received tribunicia potestas (tribunician power), a distinction reserved solely for the emperor or his immediate successor. Drusus married his paternal cousin Livilla in 4. Their daughter Julia was born shortly after. Their son Tiberius Gemellus (his twin brother Germanicus Gemellus died in infancy) was born in 19. By 23 Drusus, who made no secret of his antipathy towards Sejanus, looked likely to succeed Tiberius as emperor. Sources concur that with Livilla as his accomplice Sejanous poisoned her husband Drusus.

Suetonius says, "He lacked affection not only for his adopted son Germanicus, but even for his own son Drusus the Younger, whose vices were inimical to him, Drusus indeed pursing loose and immoral ways. So inimical, that Tiberius seemed unaffected by his death (in 23AD), and quickly took up his usual routine after the funeral, cutting short the period of mourning. When a deputation from Troy offered him belated condolences, he smiled as if at a distant memory, and offered them like sympathy for the loss of their famous fellow-citizen Hector!"
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1an Germanicus36 viewsAdopted by Tiberius in 4 AD, died mysteriously in 19

As, struck by Caligula

Bare head, left, GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N
C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT SC

RIC 57

Germanicus Julius Caesar (c16 BC-AD 19) was was born in Lugdunum, Gaul (modern Lyon). At birth he was named either Nero Claudius Drusus after his father or Tiberius Claudius Nero after his uncle. He received the agnomen Germanicus, in 9 BC, when it was posthumously awarded to his father in honour of his victories in Germania. Germanicus was the grandson-in-law and great-nephew of the Emperor Augustus, nephew and adoptive son of the Emperor Tiberius, father of the Emperor Caligula, brother of the Emperor Claudius, and the maternal grandfather of the Emperor Nero. He married his maternal second cousin Agrippina the Elder, a granddaughter of Augustus, between 5 and 1 BC. The couple had nine children. Two died very young; another, Gaius Julius Caesar, died in early childhood. The remaining six were: Nero Caesar, Drusus Caesar, the Emperor Caligula, the Empress Agrippina the Younger, Julia Drusilla, and Julia Livilla.

According to Suetonius: Germanicus, who was the son of Drusus the Elder and Antonia the Younger, was adopted (in 4AD) by Germanicus’s paternal uncle, Tiberius. He served as quaestor (in7AD) five years before the legal age and became consul (in12AD) without holding the intermediate offices. On the death of Augustus (in AD14) he was appointed to command the army in Germany, where, his filial piety and determination vying for prominence, he held the legions to their oath, though they stubbornly opposed Tiberius’s succession, and wished him to take power for himself.

He followed this with victory in Germany, for which he celebrated a triumph (in 17 AD), and was chosen as consul for a second time (18 AD) though unable to take office as he was despatched to the East to restore order there. He defeated the forces of the King of Armenia, and reduced Cappadocia to provincial status, but then died at Antioch, at the age of only thirty-three (in AD 19), after a lingering illness, though there was also suspicion that he had been poisoned. For as well as the livid stains which covered his body, and the foam on his lips, the heart was found entire among the ashes after his cremation, its total resistance to flame being a characteristic of that organ, they say, when it is filled with poison.

All considered Germanicus exceptional in body and mind, to a quite outstanding degree. Remarkably brave and handsome; a master of Greek and Latin oratory and learning; singularly benevolent; he was possessed of a powerful desire and vast capacity for winning respect and inspiring affection.

His scrawny legs were less in keeping with the rest of his figure, but he gradually fleshed them out by assiduous exercise on horseback after meals. He often killed enemy warriors in hand-to-hand combat; still pleaded cases in the courts even after receiving his triumph; and left various Greek comedies behind amongst other fruits of his studies.

At home and abroad his manners were unassuming, such that he always entered free or allied towns without his lictors.

Whenever he passed the tombs of famous men, he always offered a sacrifice to their shades. And he was the first to initiate a personal search for the scattered remains of Varus’s fallen legionaries, and have them gathered together, so as to inter them in a single burial mound.

As for Germanicus, Tiberius appreciated him so little, that he dismissed his famous deeds as trivial, and his brilliant victories as ruinous to the Empire. He complained to the Senate when Germanicus left for Alexandria (AD19) without consulting him, on the occasion there of a terrible and swift-spreading famine. It was even believed that Tiberius arranged for his poisoning at the hands of Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso, the Governor of Syria, and that Piso would have revealed the written instructions at his trial, had Tiberius not retrieved them during a private interview, before having Piso put to death. As a result, the words: ‘Give us back Germanicus!’ were posted on the walls, and shouted at night, all throughout Rome. The suspicion surrounding Germanicus’ death (19 AD) was deepened by Tiberius’s cruel treatment of Germanicus’s wife, Agrippina the Elder, and their children.
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1ao Caligula30 views37-41

As
Bare head, left, C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT
Vesta std, VESTA SC

RIC 38

The son of Germanicus, modern research suggests, was not as bad a ruler as history generally supposes, but the winners write the history, and Caligula had the dubious honor of being the first loser to die in the purple at the hand of assassins.

Suetonius recorded: Gaius Caesar (Caligula) was born on the 31st of August AD12, in the consulship of his father, Germanicus, and Gaius Fonteius Capito. The sources disagree as to his place of birth. Gnaeus Lentulus Gaetulicus claims it was Tibur (Tivoli), Pliny the Elder, says it was among the Treveri in the village of Ambitarvium, above Confluentes (the site of Koblenz) at the junction of the Moselle and Rhine. . . . His surname Caligula (‘Little Boot’) was bestowed on him affectionately by the troops because he was brought up amongst them, dressed in soldier’s gear.

Caligula accompanied his father, Germanicus, to Syria (in AD 19). On his return, he lived with his mother, Agrippina the Elder until she was exiled (in 29 AD), and then with his great-grandmother Livia. When Livia died (in 29 AD), he gave her eulogy from the rostra even though he was not of age. He was then cared for by his grandmother Antonia the Younger, until at the age of eighteen Tiberius summoned him to Capreae (Capri, in AD 31). On that day he assumed his gown of manhood and shaved off his first beard, but without the ceremony that had attended his brothers’ coming of age.

On Capraea, though every trick was tried to lure him, or force him, into making complaints against Tiberius, he ignored all provocation, . . . behaving so obsequiously to his adoptive grandfather, Tiberius, and the entire household, that the quip made regarding him was well borne out, that there was never a better slave or a worse master.

Even in those days, his cruel and vicious character was beyond his control, and he was an eager spectator of torture and executions meted out in punishment. At night, disguised in wig and long robe, he abandoned himself to gluttony and adulterous behaviour. He was passionately devoted it seems to the theatrical arts, to dancing and singing, a taste in him which Tiberius willingly fostered, in the hope of civilizing his savage propensities.

And came near to assuming a royal diadem at once, turning the semblance of a principate into an absolute monarchy. Indeed, advised by this that he outranked princes and kings, he began thereafter to claim divine power, sending to Greece for the most sacred or beautiful statues of the gods, including the Jupiter of Olympia, so that the heads could be exchanged for his own. He then extended the Palace as far as the Forum, making the Temple of Castor and Pollux its vestibule, and would often present himself to the populace there, standing between the statues of the divine brothers, to be worshipped by whoever appeared, some hailing him as ‘Jupiter Latiaris’. He also set up a special shrine to himself as god, with priests, the choicest sacrificial victims, and a life-sized golden statue of himself, which was dressed each day in clothes of identical design to those he chose to wear.

He habitually committed incest with each of his three sisters, seating them in turn below him at large banquets while his wife reclined above. . . . His preferred method of execution was by the infliction of many slight wounds, and his order, issued as a matter of routine, became notorious: ‘Cut him so he knows he is dying.’
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1ap Claudius29 views41-54

As
Bare head, left, TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP
Libertas, LIBERTAS AVGVSTA SC

RIC 97

According to Suetonius: Claudius was born at Lugdunum (Lyon) on the 1st of August 10BC in the consulship of Iullus Antonius and Fabius Africanus, on the day when the very first altar to Augustus was dedicated there, the child being given the name Tiberius Claudius Drusus. When his elder brother Germanicus was adopted into the Julian family (in 4 AD), he added the name Germanicus also. He lost his father when still an infant (in 9 BC), and throughout his childhood and youth was severely afflicted by various stubborn ailments so that his mind and body lacked vigour, and even when he attained his majority he was not considered capable of a public or private career.

Nevertheless, he applied himself to liberal studies from his earliest youth, and often published examples of his proficiency in each area, though even so he was excluded from public office and failed to inspire any brighter hopes for his future. His mother Antonia the Younger often condemned him as an unfinished freak of Nature, and when accusing someone of stupidity would say: ‘He’s a bigger fool than my son Claudius.’ His grandmother Augusta (Livia) always treated him with utter contempt, and rarely even spoke to him, admonishing him, when she chose to do so, in brief harsh missives, or via her messengers. When his sister Livilla heard the prophecy that he would be Emperor some day, she prayed openly and loudly that Rome might be spared so cruel and unmerited a fate.

Having spent the larger part of his life in such circumstances, he became emperor at the age of fifty (in AD41) by a remarkable stroke of fate. Caligula’s assassins had dispersed the crowd on the pretext that the Emperor wished for solitude, and Claudius, shut out with the rest, retired to a room called the Hermaeum, but shortly afterwards, terrified by news of the murder, crept off to a nearby balcony and hid behind the door-curtains. A Guard, who was wandering about the Palace at random, spotting a pair of feet beneath the curtain where Claudius was cowering, dragged the man out to identify him, and as Claudius fell to the ground in fear, recognised him, and acclaimed him Emperor.

Eutropius summarizes: His reign was of no striking character; he acted, in many respects, with gentleness and moderation, in some with cruelty and folly. He made war upon Britain, which no Roman since Julius Caesar had visited; and, having reduced it through the agency of Cnaeus Sentius and Aulus Plautius, illustrious and noble men, he celebrated a magnificent triumph. Certain islands also, called the Orcades, situated in the ocean, beyond Britain, he added to the Roman empire, and gave his son the name of Britannicus. . . . He lived to the age of sixty-four, and reigned fourteen years; and after his death was consecrated3 and deified.

This was the first "good" coin I ever bought and therefore marks the begiining of an addiction.
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1aq Agrippina junior31 viewsMarried Claudius 49 AD

Diobol of Alexandria

Draped bust right, wreathed with corn, hair bound in plait behind, AGRIPPEINA CЄBACTH
Draped bust of Euthenia right, wreathed with corn, holding ears of corn, ЄYQH-NIA across fields, L-IB below

Milne 124

Agrippina the Younger, Julia Agrippina, or Agrippinilla (Little Agrippina) after 50 AD known as Julia Augusta Agrippina (c16 AD –59) was sister of Caligula, niece and fourth wife of Claudius and the mother of Nero. In 28, Tiberius arranged for Agrippina to marry her paternal second cousin Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus. Their only son was named Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, after Domitius’s recently deceased father. This child would become the Emperor Nero. In 39, Agrippina and her sister Livilla, with their maternal cousin, Drusilla’s widower, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, were involved in a failed plot to murder Caligula, and make Lepidus emperor. Lepidus was executed. Agrippina and Livilla were exiled by their brother to the Pontine Islands.

Suetonius says, "But it was Agrippina the Younger, his brother Germanicus’s daughter, who ensnared him, assisted by a niece’s privilege of exchanging kisses and endearments. At the next Senate meeting, he primed a group of Senators to propose that he ought to marry Agrippina, as it was in the public interest, and that such marriages between uncle and niece should from then on be regarded as lawful, and no longer incestuous. He married her (AD 49) with barely a day’s delay, but only one freedman and one leading centurion married their respective nieces, to follow suit. Claudius himself, with Agrippina, attended the centurion’s wedding."

The Euthenia reverse reminds one of "euthanasia." which is what some suspect she did to Claudius to elevate her son Nero to the purple.
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1ar Nero52 views54-68

As

Bare head, right, IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P MAX TR P P P
Genius, GENIO AVGVSTI

RIC 86

Suetonius wrote: Nero was born nine months after the death of Tiberius, at Antium, at sunrise on the 15th of December (AD 37). . . . While he was still a young stripling he took part in a successful performance of the Troy Game in the Circus, in which he exhibited great self-possession. At the age of twelve or so (sometime in AD 50), he was adopted by Claudius, who appointed Annaeus Seneca, already a member of the Senate, as his tutor. The following night, it is said, Seneca dreamed that his young charge was really Caligula, and Nero soon proved the dream prophetic by seizing the first opportunity to reveal his cruel disposition. . . . After Claudius’s death (AD 54) had been announced publicly, Nero, who was not quite seventeen years old, decided to address the Guards in the late afternoon, since inauspicious omens that day had ruled out an earlier appearance. After being acclaimed Emperor on the Palace steps, he was carried in a litter to the Praetorian Camp where he spoke to the Guards, and then to the House where he stayed until evening. He refused only one of the many honours that were heaped upon him, that of ‘Father of the Country’, and declined that simply on account of his youth.

Eutropius summarized: To him succeeded NERO, who greatly resembled his uncle Caligula, and both disgraced and weakened the Roman empire; he indulged in such extraordinary luxury and extravagance, that, after the example of Caius Caligula, he even bathed in hot and cold perfumes, and fished with golden nets, which he drew up with cords of purple silk. He put to death a very great number of the senate. To all good men he was an enemy. At last he exposed himself in so disgraceful a manner, that he danced and sung upon the stage in the dress of a harp-player and tragedian. He was guilty of many murders, his brother, wife, and mother, being put to death by him. He set on fire the city of Rome, that he might enjoy the sight of a spectacle such as Troy formerly presented when taken and burned.

In military affairs he attempted nothing. Britain he almost lost; for two of its most noble towns4 were taken and levelled to the ground under his reign. The Parthians took from him Armenia, and compelled the Roman legions to pass under the yoke. Two provinces however were formed under him; Pontus Polemoniacus, by the concession of King Polemon; and the Cottian Alps, on the death of King Cottius.

15 When, having become detestable by such conduct to the city of Rome, and being deserted at the same time by every one, and declared an enemy by the senate, he was sought for to be led to punishment (the punishment being, that he should be dragged naked through the streets, with a fork placed under his head,5 be beaten to death with rods, and then hurled from the Tarpeian rock), he fled from the palace, and killed himself in a suburban villa of one of his freed-men, between the Salarian and Nomentane roads, at the fourth milestone from the city. He built those hot baths at Rome, which were formerly called the Neronian, but now the Alexandrian. He died in the thirty-second year of his age, and the fourteenth year of his reign; and in him all the family of Augustus became extinct.

Having successfully dispatched his scheming mother Agrippina in 59 and survived a decade on the throne, Nero must have felt like a genius when this was minted ca 64 AD!
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1at Galba31 views68-69

Denarius

Laureate head, right, SER GALBA IMP CAESAR AVG P M TR P
Victory standing on globe, VICTORIA PR

RIC 111

Suetonius recorded: Servius Galba, the future emperor was born on the 24th of December, 3BC, in the consulship of Marcus Valerius Messala and Gnaeus Lentulus, at a hillside mansion near Terracina, on the left of the road to Fundi (Fondi). He was formally adopted by his stepmother Livia Ocellina, and took the name Livius and the surname Ocella, also changing his forename to Lucius, until he became Emperor.

It is common knowledge that when calling on Augustus to pay his respects, with other boys of his age, the Emperor pinched his cheek, and said in Greek: ‘You too will have a taste of power, my child.’ And when Tiberius heard the prophecy that Galba would be emperor in old age, he commented: ‘Well let him be, it’s no concern of mine.’

Galba achieved office before the usual age and as praetor (in 20AD), controlling the games at the Floralia, he was the first to introduce a display of tightrope-walking elephants. He next governed Aquitania, for almost a year, and not long afterwards held the consulship for six months (in 33AD). When Caligula was assassinated (in 41AD), Galba chose neutrality though many urged him to seize the opportunity for power. Claudius expressed his gratitude by including him among his intimate friends, and Galba was shown such consideration that the expedition to Britain was delayed to allow him to recover from a sudden but minor indisposition. Later he was proconsul in Africa for two years (44/45AD), being singled out, and so avoiding the usual lottery, to restore order in the province, which was riven by internecine rivalry and an indigenous revolt. He re-established peace, by the exercise of ruthless discipline, and the display of justice even in the most trifling matters. . . .

But when word from the City arrived that Nero was dead and that the people had sworn allegiance to him, he set aside the title of governor and assumed that of Caesar. He then began his march to Rome in a general’s cloak, with a dagger, hanging from his neck, at his chest, and did not resume the toga until his main rivals had been eliminated, namely the commander of the Praetorian Guard in Rome, Nymphidius Sabinus, and the commanders in Germany and Africa, Fonteius Capito and Clodius Macer. . . . His prestige and popularity were greater while winning power than wielding it, though he showed evidence of being a more than capable ruler, loved less, unfortunately, for his good qualities than he was hated for his bad ones.

He was even warned of the danger of imminent assassination, the day before his death, by a soothsayer, as he offered the morning sacrifice. Shortly afterwards he learnt that Otho had secured the Guards camp, and when his staff advised him to carry the day by his presence and prestige, by going there immediately, he opted instead to stay put, but gather a strong bodyguard of legionaries from their billets around the City. He did however don a linen corselet, though saying that frankly it would serve little against so many weapons. False reports, put about by the conspirators to lure him into appearing in public, deceived a few of his close supporters, who rashly told him the rebellion was over, the plotters overthrown, and that the rest of the troops were on their way to congratulate him and carry out his orders. So he went to meet them, with such confidence, that when a soldier boasted of killing Otho, he snapped out: ‘On whose authority?’ before hastening on to the Forum. The cavalrymen who had been ordered to find and kill him, who were spurring through the streets scattering the crowds of civilians, now caught sight of him in the distance and halted an instant before galloping towards him and cutting him down, while his staff ran for their lives.
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1av Vitellius42 views69

Denarius
Portrait, right, A VITELLIVS GERMAN IMP TR P
Vesta std., PONT MAX

RIC 107

According to Suetonius: Lucius’s son Aulus, the future emperor, was born on the 24th of September 15AD, or according to some authorities on the 7th, during the consulship of Drusus Caesar and Norbanus Flaccus. . . . His boyhood and early youth were spent on Capreae (Capri) among Tiberius’s creatures, he himself being marked by the nickname of ‘Spintria’ (sex-token) throughout his life, and suspected of having secured his father’s first promotion to office by surrendering his own chastity. As he grew older, though contaminated by every kind of vice, Vitellius gained and kept a prominent place at court, winning Caligula’s friendship by his devotion to chariot-racing and Claudius’s by his love of dice. With Nero he was even closer. . . .

Honoured, as these emperors’ favourite, with high office in the priesthood, as well as political power, he governed Africa (under Nero, in 60/61AD) as proconsul, and was then Curator of Public Works (in 63AD), employing a contrasting approach, and with a contrasting effect on his reputation. In his province he acted with outstanding integrity over two successive years, since he served as deputy also to his brother who succeeded him (61/62AD) yet during his administration of the City he was said to have stolen various temple offerings and ornaments, and substituted brass and tin for the gold and silver in others. . . .

Contrary to all expectations, Galba appointed Vitellius to Lower Germany (in 68AD). Some think it was brought about by Titus Vinius, whose influence was powerful at that time, and whose friendship Vitellius had previously won through their mutual support for the ‘Blues’ in the Circus. But it is clear to everyone that Galba chose him as an act of contempt rather than favour, commenting that gluttons were among those least to be feared, and Vitellius’s endless appetite would now be able to sate itself on a province. . . .

He entered Rome to the sound of trumpets, surrounded by standards and banners, wearing a general’s cape, sword at his side, his officers in their military cloaks also, and the men with naked blades. With increasing disregard for the law, human or divine, he then assumed the office of High Priest on the anniversary of the Allia (18th July), arranged the elections for the next ten years, and made himself consul for life. . . .

Vitellius’s worst vices were cruelty and gluttony. . . . By the eighth month of his reign (November 69AD) the legions in Moesia and Pannonia had repudiated Vitellius, and sworn allegiance to Vespasian despite his absence, following those of Syria and Judaea who had done so in Vespasian’s presence. . . .

The vanguard of Vespasian’s army had now forced its way into the Palace, unopposed, and the soldiers were ransacking the rooms, in their usual manner. They hauled Vitellius, unrecognised, from his hiding place, asked his name and where the Emperor might be. He gave some lying answer, but was soon identified, so he begged for safe custody, even if that meant imprisonment, claiming he had important information for Vespasian regarding his security. However his arms were bound behind him and a noose flung over his head, and he was dragged along the Sacred Way to the Forum, amid a hail of mockery and abuse, half-naked, with his clothes in tatters. His head was held back by the hair, like a common criminal and, with a sword-point under his chin so that he was forced to look up and reveal his face, he was pelted with filth and dung, denounced as arsonist and glutton, and taunted with his bodily defects by the crowd. For, Vitellius was exceptionally tall, and his face was usually flushed from some drinking bout. He had a huge belly, too, and one thigh crippled by a blow from a four-horse chariot which struck him when he was in attendance on Caligula who was driving. At last, after being tormented by a host of cuts from the soldiers’ swords, he was killed on the Gemonian Stairs, and his body dragged with a hook to the Tiber.
1 commentsBlindado
trib_p5_TN.jpg
2. Tiberius Denarius "Tribute Penny"114 viewsDenarius, Lugdunum Mint
AD 16 to 37
Obv. TICAESARDIVI AVGFAVGVSTVS
Rev. PONTIF MAXIM; female figure, possibly Livia, holding scepter and branch
1 commentsZam
Tib_Constantine_Follis.jpg
20. Tiberius II8 viewsTiberius II
AE follis, Nicomedia

DM TIb CONSTANT PP AVG, crowned, mantled bust facing, holding mappa and eagle-tipped sceptre, cross above eagle / Large m, ANNO left, cross above, regnal year to right, mintmark
NIKOA.

SB 441, MIB 35 VF
1 commentsSosius
2012.JPG
2012 Highlights87 views A few favorites from 2012

1: Lucania, Metapontum didrachm, c. 350 - 330 BC

2: Julius Caesar denarius, 44 BC

3: Publius Fonteius P.f. Capito denarius, c. 55 - 54 BC

4: Tiberius, denarius, 15 - 16 AD

5: Titus, Antioch denarius, 72 - 73 AD

6: Asia Minor, Carian Islands drachm, c. 88 - 84 BC

7: Tiberius, Olba, Cilicia Æ 24, c. 14 - 16 AD

8: Caius Fonteius denarius, 114 - 113 BC

9: Severus Alexander denarius, 231 AD

10: Maximinus I, Alexandria tetradrachm, 235 - 236 AD
4 commentsSPQR Coins
BOTLAUREL_2018.JPG
201870 viewsTHIS YEAR'S WINNERS
CLICK ON A COIN FOR ITS DETAILS



*Alex
297-1b_Quinctia.jpg
297/1b. Quinctia - denarius (112-111 BC)31 viewsAR Denarius (Rome, 112-111 BC)
O/ Bust of Hercules seen from behind, with head turned to left and club over shoulder.
R/ Desultor right, wearing cuirass; control-mark behind; rat right between TI Q below; D.S.S. incuse on tablet in exergue.
3.82g; 118mm
Crawford 297/1b (87 obverse dies/109 reverse dies)
- Naville Numismatics Live Auction 36, lot 534.

* Tiberius Quinctius:

The attribution of this issue to a Tiberius Quinctius is dubious as the few letters on the reverse could mean different things. Crawford rules out the possibility that the Q stands for Quaestor, so it should only be the first letter of a nomen, hence the attribution to a Quinctius. However a Quinctilius is also possible.

The significance of the rat below the horses is an enigma. It apparently cannot be related to any cognomen; Crawford may be right to reject previous attempts to link it to a name -- the solution is probably not as easy as simply translating "rat", "mouse" or "rodent" in Latin. Mus ("mouse") was nonetheless an attested cognomen, but the gens Decia that bore it was already extinct by the end of the 2nd century.

The reverse with the desultor was perhaps a statue, as the legend DSS stands for "de Senatus Sententia", usually found on public monuments.
2 commentsJoss
a40.jpg
3.5 Maurice Tiberius Follis42 viewsMaurice Tiberius
AE Follis
Constantinople Mint
ANNO XIIII - 596 AD
Zam
caligula dupondius RIC56.jpg
37-41 AD - AUGUSTUS memorial Æ dupondius - struck under Caligula 43 viewsobv: DIVVS AVGVSTVS (radiate head of Augustus left), dividing S C
rev: CONSENSV SENAT ET EQ ORDIN P Q R (laureate & togate statue of Gaius Caligula seated left on curule chair, holding branch)
ref: RIC I 56 (Gaius); BMCRE 88; C.87 (at Augustus-as struck Tiberius-4 frcs). BMC90
mint: Rome
15.80gms, 29mm
Rare

In reverse the whole text: CONSENSV. SENATus ET EQuestris ORDINis Populi Que Romani. This coin probably features an image of an actual statue of the Caligula. Dio Cassius notes, that the Senate ordered a guard to keep watch at each of Caligula's statues. (Dio Cassius LIX.26). Just a few coin has S-C on the obverse, like this.
berserker
caligula_RIC36-R.jpg
37-41 AD - CALIGULA AE sestertius - struck 37-38 AD79 viewsobv: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS P M TR POT (Pietas, veiled, seated left and holding patera, left elbow resting on small statue of Spes), PIETAS in exergue
rev: DIVO-AVG (Gaius sacrificing before garlanded hexastyle temple; one attendant leading bull to altar, the other holding a patera), S-C across field
ref: RIC I 36 (R), BMCRE 41, Cohen 9 (15frcs)
27.38gms, 33mm
Very rare

This issue commemorates Gaius Caligula's dedication of the Temple of the Divus Augustus and the young emperor's sense of pietas. The PIETAS beneath the figure of the emperor drives home the point that he is fulfilling his duty by dedicating the temple to his great-grandfather. Construction of the Temple of the Divus Augustus began under Tiberius and, perhaps, under the direction of Livia herself, in the general area behind the Basilica Julia (though the actual site remains unknown), and was subsequently dedicated by Caligula.
2 commentsberserker
germanicus as.jpg
37-41 AD - GERMANICUS memorial AE As - struck under Caligula 34 viewsobv: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N (bare head left)
rev: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT around large S-C
ref: RIC I 35 (Caligula), C.1 (3frcs), BMC49
8.63gms, 28mm

Germanicus was a brilliant young Julio-Claudian who distinguished himself on the battlefield many times. Most notably in Germania where he inflicted serious defeats on the barbarian tribes and recovered the legionary standards lost in the catastrophic Varus disaster. He was chosen Tiberius' succesor, but died of an unknown cause in 19 AD.
berserker
agrippina RIC102(claudius).jpg
41-54 AD - AGRIPPINA Senior AE Sestertius - struck under Claudius (ca.42-43 AD)43 viewsobv: AGRIPPINA M F GERMANICI CAESARIS (draped bust right, hair behind in an elaborate plait)
rev: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P around large SC
ref: RIC I 102 [Claudius], Cohen 3, BMC 219
mint: Rome
25.89gms, 35mm
Rare

Agrippina was the wife of Germanicus, and the father of six children who survived into adulthood, including the emperor Caligula. She was banished by Tiberius to the island of Pandataria, where she died of starvation in 33 AD. Her memory was honored under Caligula and Claudius.
berserker
antonia_AE17_RPC1582.jpg
41-54 AD - ANTONIA AE16 of Thessalonica - struck under Claudius 29 viewsobv: ANTWNIA (draped bust right, hair tied in queue down neck)
rev: TECCALO-NEIKEWN (Nike on globe left, holding wreath and palm)
ref: RPC 1582, SNG ANS 840
mint: Thessalonica, Macedonia
4.74 gms, 16 mm
Very rare - original green patina

Antonia was daughter of Marc Antony and Octavia, wife of Nero Claudius Drusus, sister-in-law of Tiberius, mother of Claudius, and grandmother of Caligula.
berserker
Nero Claudius Drusus sest - R.jpg
41-54 AD - NERO CLAUDIUS DRUSUS AE Sestertius - struck under Claudius (42-43 AD)38 viewsobv: NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMANICVS IMP (bare head of Drusus left)
rev: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P (Claudius, togate, holding laurel branch and roll, seated left on curule chair set on globe, resting both feet on cuirass on ground, several shields, spears, and a helmet are also scattered around him, a sword rests against the globe beneath the curule chair), S-C in ex.
ref: RIC I 109 [Claudius], Cohen 8 (10 frcs), BMCRE 208
26.36gms, 34mm, orichalcum
Rare

Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus, son of Livia, brother of Tiberius and father of Claudius was the governor of Gaul in 13 BC, initiated a series of successful campaigns against the Germans. Died in a fall from his horse in 9 BC.
berserker
coins446.JPG
501. Constantine I Ostia Sol16 viewsOstia
Although Ostia was probably founded for the sole purpose of military defence — since through the Tiber's mouths armies could eventually reach Rome by water — in time the port became a commercial harbour, and a very important one too. Many of the goods that Rome received from its colonies and provinces passed through Ostia. In this role, Ostia soon replaced Pozzuoli (Puteoli, near Naples).

In 87 BC, the town was razed by Marius, and again in 67 BC it was sacked by pirates. After this second attack, the town was re-built and provided with protective walls by Cicero. The town was then further developed during the 1st century AD, mainly under the influence of Tiberius, who ordered the building of the first Forum. The town was also soon enriched by the construction of a new harbour on the northern mouths of the Tiber (which reaches the sea with a larger mouth in Ostia, Fiumara Grande, and a narrower one near to the current Fiumicino international airport). The new harbour, not surprisingly called Portus, was excavated from the ground at the orders of the emperor Claudius; it has an hexagonal form, in order to reduce the waves strength. The town was provided with all the services a town of the time could require; in particular, a famous lighthouse. Archaeologists also discovered the public latrinas, organised for collective use as a series of seats that lets us imagine today that the function was also a social moment. In addition, Ostia had a large theatre, public baths and a fire fighting service. You can still see the mosaic floors of the baths near today's entrance to the town.

Trajan too, required a widening of the naval areas, and ordered the building of another harbour, again pointing towards the north. It must be remembered that at a relatively short distance, there was also the harbour of Civitavecchia (Centum Cellae), and Rome was starting to have a significant number of harbours, the most important remaining Portus.

Ostia grew to 50,000 inhabitants in the 2nd century AD and in time focused its naval activities on Portus. With the end of the Roman Empire, Ostia fell slowly into decay, and was finally abandoned in the 9th century due to the fall of the Roman empire in combination with repeated invasions and sackings by Arab pirates; the inhabitants moved to Gregoriopolis. In the Middle Ages, bricks from buildings in Ostia were used for several other occasions. The Leaning Tower of Pisa was entirely built of material originally belonging to Ostia. A "local sacking" was carried out by baroque architects, who used the remains as a sort of marble store for the palazzi they were building in Rome. Soon after, foreign explorers came in search of ancient statues and objects. The Papacy started organising its own investigations with Pope Pius VII and the research still continues today. It has been estimated that two thirds of the ancient town have currently been found.

001. Constantine I Ostia

RIC VI Ostia 85 S

ecoli
582-602 Maurice Tibère S534 an4.jpg
582-602 Maurice Tiberius - half-follis from Antioch26 viewsBlundered legend (?) , bust facing wearing consular robe, holding mappa and scepter xith eagle
ANNO / IIII , Large XX ; exergue R

Sear 534
Ginolerhino
641-668 Constans II S1013-14.jpg
641-668 Constans II - follis from Constantinole36 viewsBust of Constans II facing, holding cross on globe
Busts of Constantine IV, Heraclius and Tiberius around M

Sear 1013-1014
1 commentsGinolerhino
641-668 Constans II S1023-25.jpg
641-668 Constans II - follis from Thessalonica23 viewsBust of Constans II facing, holding cross on globe
Busts of Constantine IV, Heraclius and Tiberius around M , exergue : Θ

Sear 1023-1025
Ginolerhino
Constans II 665.jpg
665-666 Constans II - follis from Constantinople33 viewsMinted in Constantinople in 665-6.
Obverse : Left : Constans II standing in military attire, right : Constantine IV his son wearing crown and chlamys.
Reverse : M between Heraclius and Tiberius, each wearing crown and chlamys and holding a globe cruciger.
According to Sear (1012) this follis was minted only in the year 25.
Ginolerhino
SevAlex-AE25-Marcian.jpg
69. Severus Alexander.20 viewsAE 25, Marcianopolis, Moesia.
Obverse: AVT K M AVPH CEVH AΛEΞANΔPOC / Laureate bust of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: VΠ TIB IOVΛ ΦHCTVO MAPKIANOΠOΛITΩN / Eagle holding wreath in its beak.
9.47 gm., 25 mm.

This coin was minted when Tiberius Julius Festus was Legate.
Callimachus
AugustusAE19Sardeis.jpg
702a, Augustus, 16 January 27 B.C. - 19 August 14 A.D.35 viewsAugustus, 27 BC - 14 AD. AE 19mm (5.98 gm). Lydia, Sardeis. Diodoros Hermophilou. Obverse: head right. Reverse: Zeus Lydios standing facing holding scepter and eagle. RPC I, 489, 2986; SNG von Aulock 3142. aVF. Fine portrait. Ex Tom Vossen.

De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers

AUGUSTUS (31 B.C. - 14 A.D.)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

In the course of his long and spectacular career, he put an end to the advancing decay of the Republic and established a new basis for Roman government that was to stand for three centuries. This system, termed the "Principate," was far from flawless, but it provided the Roman Empire with a series of rulers who presided over the longest period of unity, peace, and prosperity that Western Europe, the Middle East and the North African seaboard have known in their entire recorded history. Even if the rulers themselves on occasion left much to be desired, the scale of Augustus's achievement in establishing the system cannot be overstated. Aside from the immense importance of Augustus's reign from the broad historical perspective, he himself is an intriguing figure: at once tolerant and implacable, ruthless and forgiving, brazen and tactful. Clearly a man of many facets, he underwent three major political reinventions in his lifetime and negotiated the stormy and dangerous seas of the last phase of the Roman Revolution with skill and foresight. With Augustus established in power and with the Principate firmly rooted, the internal machinations of the imperial household provide a fascinating glimpse into the one issue that painted this otherwise gifted organizer and politician into a corner from which he could find no easy exit: the problem of the succession.

(For a very detailed and interesting account of the Age of Augustus see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/auggie.htm)

Death and Retrospective

In his later years, Augustus withdrew more and more from the public eye, although he continued to transact public business. He was getting older, and old age in ancient times must have been considerably more debilitating than it is today. In any case, Tiberius had been installed as his successor and, by AD 13, was virtually emperor already. In AD 4 he had received grants of both proconsular and tribunician power, which had been renewed as a matter of course whenever they needed to be; in AD 13, Tiberius's imperium had been made co-extensive with that of Augustus. While traveling in Campania, Augustus died peacefully at Nola on 19 August, AD 14. Tiberius, who was en route to Illyricum, hurried to the scene and, depending on the source, arrived too late or spent a day in consultation with the dying princes. The tradition that Livia poisoned her husband is scurrilous in the extreme and most unlikely to be true. Whatever the case about these details, Imperator Caesar Augustus, Son of a God, Father of his Country, the man who had ruled the Roman world alone for almost 45 years, or over half a century if the triumviral period is included, was dead. He was accorded a magnificent funeral, buried in the mausoleum he had built in Rome, and entered the Roman pantheon as Divus Augustus. In his will, he left 1,000 sesterces apiece to the men of the Praetorian guard, 500 to the urban cohorts, and 300 to each of the legionaries. In death, as in life, Augustus acknowledged the true source of his power.

The inscription entitled "The Achievements of the Divine Augustus" (Res Gestae Divi Augustae; usually abbreviated RG) remains a remarkable piece of evidence deriving from Augustus's reign. The fullest copy of it is the bilingual Greek and Latin version carved into the walls of the Temple of Rome and Augustus at Ancyra in Galatia (for this reason the RG used to be commonly referred to as the Monumentum Ancyranum). Other evidence, however, demonstrates that the original was inscribed on two bronze pillars that flanked the entrance to the Mausoleum of Augustus in Rome. The inscription remains the only first-person summary of any Roman emperor's political career and, as such, offers invaluable insights into the Augustan regime's public presentation of itself.

In looking back on the reign of Augustus and its legacy to the Roman world, its longevity ought not to be overlooked as a key factor in its success. People had been born and reached middle age without knowing any form of government other than the Principate. Had Augustus died earlier (in 23 BC, for instance), matters may have turned out very differently. The attrition of the civil wars on the old Republican aristocracy and the longevity of Augustus, therefore, must be seen as major contributing factors in the transformation of the Roman state into a monarchy in these years. Augustus's own experience, his patience, his tact, and his great political acumen also played their part. All of these factors allowed him to put an end to the chaos of the Late Republic and re-establish the Roman state on a firm footing. He directed the future of the empire down many lasting paths, from the existence of a standing professional army stationed at or near the frontiers, to the dynastic principle so often employed in the imperial succession, to the embellishment of the capital at the emperor's expense. Augustus's ultimate legacy, however, was the peace and prosperity the empire was to enjoy for the next two centuries under the system he initiated. His memory was enshrined in the political ethos of the Imperial age as a paradigm of the good emperor; although every emperor adopted his name, Caesar Augustus, only a handful earned genuine comparison with him.

Copyright © 1999, Garrett G. Fagan.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Augustus (the first Roman emperor, in whose reign Jesus Christ was born) is without any doubt one of the most important figures in Roman history.

It is reported that when he was near death, Augustus addressed those in attendance with these words, "If I have played my part well, applaud!"

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr
Cleisthenes
TiberiusTributePennyRICI30RSCII16aSRCV1763.jpg
703a, Tiberius, 19 August 14 - 16 March 37 A.D., Tribute Penny of Matthew 22:20-2146 viewsSilver denarius, RIC I 30, RSC II 16a, SRCV 1763, gVF, Lugdunum mint, 3.837g, 18.7mm, 90o, 16 - 37 A.D.; obverse TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right; reverse PONTIF MAXIM, Pax/Livia seated right holding scepter and branch, legs on chair ornamented, feet on footstool; toned. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Tiberius (A.D. 14-37)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

Introduction
The reign of Tiberius (b. 42 B.C., d. A.D. 37, emperor A.D. 14-37) is a particularly important one for the Principate, since it was the first occasion when the powers designed for Augustus alone were exercised by somebody else. In contrast to the approachable and tactful Augustus, Tiberius emerges from the sources as an enigmatic and darkly complex figure, intelligent and cunning, but given to bouts of severe depression and dark moods that had a great impact on his political career as well as his personal relationships.

. . . .

Early life (42-12 B.C.)
Tiberius Claudius Nero was born on 16 November 42 B.C. to Ti. Claudius Nero and Livia Drusilla. Both parents were scions of the gens Claudia which had supplied leaders to the Roman Republic for many generations. . . [I]n 39 B.C., his mother Livia divorced Ti. Claudius Nero and married Octavian, thereby making the infant Tiberius the stepson of the future ruler of the Roman world. Forever afterward, Tiberius was to have his name coupled with this man, and always to his detriment.

. . . .

Accession and Early Reign (A.D. 14 - 23)
The accession of Tiberius proved intensely awkward. After Augustus had been buried and deified, and his will read and honored, the Senate convened on 18 September to inaugurate the new reign and officially "confirm" Tiberius as emperor. Such a transfer of power had never happened before, and nobody, including Tiberius, appears to have known what to do. Tacitus's account is the fullest. . . Rather than tactful, he came across to the senators as obdurate and obstructive. He declared that he was too old for the responsibilities of the Principate, said he did not want the job, and asked if he could just take one part of the government for himself. The Senate was confused, not knowing how to read his behavior. Finally, one senator asked pointedly, "Sire, for how long will you allow the State to be without a head?" Tiberius relented and accepted the powers voted to him, although he refused the title "Augustus."

. . . .

Tiberius allowed a trusted advisor to get too close and gain a tremendous influence over him. That advisor was the Praetorian Prefect, L. Aelius Sejanus, who would derail Tiberius's plans for the succession and drive the emperor farther into isolation, depression, and paranoia.

Sejanus (A.D. 23-31)
Sejanus hailed from Volsinii in Etruria. He and his father shared the Praetorian Prefecture until A.D. 15 when the father, L. Seius Strabo, was promoted to be Prefect of Egypt, the pinnacle of an equestrian career under the Principate. Sejanus, now sole Prefect of the Guard, enjoyed powerful connections to senatorial houses and had been a companion to Gaius Caesar on his mission to the East, 1 B.C. - A.D. 4. Through a combination of energetic efficiency, fawning sycophancy, and outward displays of loyalty, he gained the position of Tiberius's closest friend and advisor.

. . . .

[I]n a shocking and unexpected turn of events, [a] letter sent by Tiberius from Capri initially praised Sejanus extensively, and then suddenly denounced him as a traitor and demanded his arrest. Chaos ensued. Senators long allied with Sejanus headed for the exits, the others were confused -- was this a test of their loyalty? What did the emperor want them to do? -- but the Praetorian Guard, the very troops formerly under Sejanus's command but recently and secretly transferred to the command of Q. Sutorius Macro, arrested Sejanus, conveyed him to prison, and shortly afterwards executed him summarily. A witch-hunt followed. . . All around the city, grim scenes were played out, and as late as A.D. 33 a general massacre of all those still in custody took place.

Tiberius himself later claimed that he turned on Sejanus because he had been alerted to Sejanus's plot against Germanicus's family. This explanation has been rejected by most ancient and modern authorities, since Sejanus's demise did nothing to alleviate that family's troubles.

. . . .

The Last Years (A.D. 31-37)
The Sejanus affair appears to have greatly depressed Tiberius. A close friend and confidant had betrayed him; whom could he trust anymore? His withdrawal from public life seemed more complete in the last years. Letters kept him in touch with Rome, but it was the machinery of the Augustan administration that kept the empire running smoothly. Tiberius, if we believe our sources, spent much of his time indulging his perversities on Capri.

. . . .

Tiberius died quietly in a villa at Misenum on 16 March A.D. 37. He was 78 years old. There are some hints in the sources of the hand of Caligula in the deed, but such innuendo can be expected at the death of an emperor, especially when his successor proved so depraved. The level of unpopularity Tiberius had achieved by the time of his death with both the upper and lower classes is revealed by these facts: the Senate refused to vote him divine honors, and mobs filled the streets yelling "To the Tiber with Tiberius!" (in reference to a method of disposal reserved for the corpses of criminals).

Tiberius and the Empire
Three main aspects of Tiberius's impact on the empire deserve special attention: his relative military inertia; his modesty in dealing with offers of divine honors and his fair treatment of provincials; and his use of the Law of Treason (maiestas).

. . . .

Conclusion
. . . Tiberius's reign sporadically descended into tyranny of the worst sort. In the right climate of paranoia and suspicion, widespread denunciation led to the deaths of dozens of Senators and equestrians, as well as numerous members of the imperial house. In this sense, the reign of Tiberius decisively ended the Augustan illusion of "the Republic Restored" and shone some light into the future of the Principate, revealing that which was both promising and terrifying.

[For the entire article please refer to http://www.roman-emperors.org/tiberius.htm]

Copyright © 1997, Garrett G. Fagan. Used by permission.

"Some of the things he did are hard to believe. He had little boys trained as minnows to chase him when he went swimming and to get between his legs and nibble him. He also had babies not weaned from their mother breast suck at his chest and groin . . . "
(Suetonius. The Twelve Caesars. Trans. Robert Graves. London: Penguin Books, 1979. XLIV).

Jesus, referring to a "penny" asked, "Whose is this image and superscription?" When told it was Caesar, He said, ''Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's and unto God the things that are God's" (Matthew 22:20-21). Since Tiberius was Caesar at the time, this denarius type is attributed by scholars as the "penny" referred to in the Bible(Joseph Sermarini).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
TiberiusHierapolis.jpg
703b, Tiberius, 19 August 14 - 16 March 37 A.D., Hierapolis, Phrygia104 viewsBronze AE 16, RPC I 2966 (1 specimen), F, Phrygia, Hierapolis, 3.300g, 15.6mm, 0o; Obverse: TIBEPIOC KAISAR, laureate head right; Reverse: IERAPOLEITWN ZOSIMOS [...], Apollo Archegetes (Lairbenos) standing left, playing lyre; reverse countermarked with star of six rays, in oval punch, 2.5 x 3.5 mm, Howgego 445 (3 pcs, 1 of which from this magistrate); dark patina; very rare. Ex FORVM.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

TIBERIUS (A.D. 14-37)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

The reign of Tiberius Claudius Nero (b. 42 B.C., d. A.D. 37, emperor A.D. 14-37) is a particularly important one for the Principate, since it was the first occasion when the powers designed for Augustus alone were exercised by somebody else. In contrast to the approachable and tactful Augustus, Tiberius emerges from the sources as an enigmatic and darkly complex figure, intelligent and cunning, but given to bouts of severe depression and dark moods that had a great impact on his political career as well as his personal relationships. His reign abounds in contradictions. Despite his keen intelligence, he allowed himself to come under the influence of unscrupulous men who, as much as any actions of his own, ensured that Tiberius's posthumous reputation would be unfavorable; despite his vast military experience, he oversaw the conquest of no new region for the empire; and despite his administrative abilities he showed such reluctance in running the state as to retire entirely from Rome and live out his last years in isolation on the island of Capri. His reign represents, as it were, the adolescence of the Principate as an institution. Like any adolescence, it proved a difficult time.

. . . .

It is all but inevitable that any historical assessment of Tiberius will quickly devolve into a historiographical assessment of Tacitus. So masterful is Tacitus's portrayal of his subject, and so influential has it been ever since, that in all modern treatments of Tiberius, in attempting to get at the man, must address the issue of Tacitus's historiographical methods, his sources, and his rhetoric. The subject is too vast to address here, but some points are salient. Tacitus's methods, especially his use of innuendo and inference to convey notions that are essentially editorial glosses, makes taking his portrayal of Tiberius at face value inadvisable. Further, his belief in the immutable character of people -- that one's character is innate at birth and cannot be changed, although it can be disguised -- prevents him from investigating the possibility that Tiberius evolved and developed over his lifetime and during his reign. Instead, Tacitus's portrayal is one of peeling back layers of dissimulation to reach the "real" Tiberius lurking underneath.

Overall, Tiberius's reign can be said to show the boons and banes of rule by one man, especially a man as dark, awkward, and isolated as Tiberius. For the people of the provinces, it was a peaceful and well-ordered time. Governors behaved themselves, and there were no destructive or expensive wars. In the domestic sphere, however, the concentration of power in one person made all the greater the threat of misbehavior by ambitious satellites like Sejanus or foolish friends like Piso. Furthermore, if the emperor wished to remain aloof from the mechanics of power, he could do so. Administrators, who depended on him for their directions, could operate without his immediate supervision, but their dealings with a man like Sejanus could lead to disaster if that man fell from grace. As a result, although he was not a tyrant himself, Tiberius's reign sporadically descended into tyranny of the worst sort. In the right climate of paranoia and suspicion, widespread denunciation led to the deaths of dozens of Senators and equestrians, as well as numerous members of the imperial house. In this sense, the reign of Tiberius decisively ended the Augustan illusion of "the Republic Restored" and shone some light into the future of the Principate, revealing that which was both promising and terrifying.

[For the complete article please refer to http://www.roman-emperors.org/tiberius.htm]

By Garrett G. Fagan, Pennsylvania State University.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.


Hierapolis in History

Usually said to be founded by Eumenes II, king of Pergamum (197-159 BC), Hierapolis may actually have been established closer to the 4th century BC by the Seleucid kings.

The name of the city may derive from Hiera, the wife of Telephus (son of Hercules and grandson of Zeus), the mythical founder of Pergamum. Or it may have been called the "sacred city" because of the temples located at the site. (The name Pamukkale is sometimes used just to refer to the white terraces, but the modern name of the whole area is also Pamukkale.)

With Colossae and Laodicea, Hierapolis became part of the tri-city area of the Lycus River valley. Hierapolis was located across the river from the other two cities and was noted for its textiles, especially wool. The city was also famous for its purple dye, made from the juice of the madder root.

The hot springs at Hierapolis (which still attract visitors today) were believed to have healing properties, and people came to the city to bathe in the rich mineral waters in order to cure various ailments.

Hierapolis was dedicated to Apollo Lairbenos, who was said to have founded the city. The Temple of Apollo that survives in ruins today dates from the 3rd century AD, but its foundations date from the Hellenistic period.

Also worshipped at Hierapolis was Pluto, god of the underworld, probably in relation to the hot gases released by the earth (see the Plutonium, below). The chief religious festival of ancient Hierapolis was the Letoia, in honor of the the goddess Leto, a Greek form of the Mother Goddess. The goddess was honoured with orgiastic rites.

Hierapolis was ceded to Rome in 133 BC along with the rest of the Pergamene kingdom, and became part of the Roman province of Asia. The city was destroyed by an earthquake in 60 AD but rebuilt, and it reached its peak in the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD.

Famous natives of Hierapolis include the Stoic philosopher Epictetus (c.55-c.135 AD) and the philosopher and rhetorician Antipater. Emperor Septimus hired Antipater to tutor his sons Caracalla and Geta, who became emperors themselves.

Hierapolis had a significant Jewish population in ancient times, as evidence by numerous inscriptions on tombs and elsewhere in the city. Some of the Jews are named as members of the various craft guilds of the city. This was probably the basis for the Christian conversion of some residents of Hierapolis, recorded in Colossians 4:13.

In the 5th century, several churches as well as a large martyrium dedicated to St. Philip (see "In the Bible," below) were built in Hierapolis. The city fell into decline in the 6th century, and the site became partially submerged under water and deposits of travertine. It was finally abandoned in 1334 after an earthquake. Excavations began to uncover Hierapolis in the 19th century.

Hierapolis in the Bible

Hierapolis is mentioned only once in the Bible, when St. Paul praises Epaphras, a Christian from Colossae, in his letter to the Colossians. Paul writes that Epaphras "has worked hard for you and for those in Laodicea and in Hierapolis" (Colossians 4:12-13). Epaphras was probably the founder of the Christian community at Hierapolis.

Ancient tradition also associates Hierapolis with a biblical figure, reporting that Philip died in Hierapolis around 80 AD. However, it is not clear which Philip is menat. It could be Philip the Apostle, one of the original 12 disciples, who is said to have been martyred by upside-down crucifixion (Acts of Philip) or by being hung upside down by his ankles from a tree.

Or Philip could be Philip the Evangelist, a later disciple who helped with administrative matters and had four virgin-prophetess daughters (Acts 6:1-7; 21:8-9). Early traditions say this Philip was buried in Hierapolis along with his virgin daughters, but confusingly call him "Philip the Apostle"! In any case, it seems a prominent person mentioned in Acts did die in Hierapolis.
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/turkey/hierapolis-pamukkale.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
CaligulaSmyrnaRPC2473.jpg
704a, Caligula, 16 March 37 - 24 January 41 A.D.100 viewsCaligula, 37 - 41 AD, Ionia, Smyrna. AE 17mm. Klose, Smyrna 27a. RPC 2473. 2.89 gm. Fine. Menophanes, Aviola, Procos, 37-38 AD. Obverse: AION, laureate head right; Reverse: Nike holding wreath right. Ex Tom Vossen.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

GAIUS (CALIGULA) (A.D. 37-41)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (Caligula) was born on 31 August, A.D. 12, probably at the Julio-Claudian resort of Antium (modern Anzio), the third of six children born to Augustus's adopted grandson, Germanicus, and Augustus's granddaughter, Agrippina. Caligula was the Roman Emperor between A.D. 37-41). Unfortunately, his is the most poorly documented reign of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. The literary sources for these four years are meager, frequently anecdotal, and universally hostile.[[1]] As a result, not only are many of the events of the reign unclear, but Gaius himself appears more as a caricature than a real person, a crazed megalomaniac given to capricious cruelty. Although some headway can be made in disentangling truth from embellishment, the true character of the youthful emperor will forever elude us.

As a baby he accompanied his parents on military campaigns in the north and was shown to the troops wearing a miniature soldier's outfit, including the hob-nailed sandal called caliga, whence the nickname by which posterity remembers him. His childhood was not a happy one, spent amid an atmosphere of paranoia, suspicion, and murder. Instability within the Julio-Claudian house, generated by uncertainty over the succession, led to a series of personal tragedies.

When Tiberius died on 16 March A.D. 37, Gaius was in a perfect position to assume power, despite the obstacle of Tiberius's will, which named him and his cousin Tiberius Gemellus joint heirs. (Gemellus's life was shortened considerably by this bequest, since Gaius ordered him killed within a matter of months.) Backed by the Praetorian Prefect Q. Sutorius Macro, Gaius asserted his dominance. He had Tiberius's will declared null and void on grounds of insanity, accepted the powers of the Principate as conferred by the Senate, and entered Rome on 28 March amid scenes of wild rejoicing. His first acts were generous in spirit: he paid Tiberius's bequests and gave a cash bonus to the Praetorian Guard, the first recorded donativum to troops in imperial history.

The ancient sources are practically unanimous as to the cause of Gaius's downfall: he was insane. The writers differ as to how this condition came about, but all agree that after his good start Gaius began to behave in an openly autocratic manner, even a crazed one. The sources describe his incestuous relations with his sisters, laughable military campaigns in the north, the building of a pontoon bridge across the Bay at Baiae, and the plan to make his horse a consul. Their unanimous hostility renders their testimony suspect, especially since Gaius's reported behavior fits remarkably well with that of the ancient tyrant, a literary type enshrined in Greco-Roman tradition centuries before his reign. Further, the only eye-witness account of Gaius's behavior, Philo's Embassy to Gaius, offers little evidence of outright insanity, despite the antagonism of the author, whom Gaius treated with the utmost disrespect.

The conspiracy that ended Gaius's life was hatched among the officers of the Praetorian Guard, apparently for purely personal reasons. It appears also to have had the support of some senators and an imperial freedman. As with conspiracies in general, there are suspicions that the plot was more broad-based than the sources intimate, and it may even have enjoyed the support of the next emperor Claudius, but these propositions are not provable on available evidence. On 24 January A.D. 41 the praetorian tribune Cassius Chaerea and other guardsmen caught Gaius alone in a secluded palace corridor and cut him down. He was 28 years old and had ruled three years and ten months.

Whatever damage Tiberius's later years had done to the carefully crafted political edifice created by Augustus, Gaius multiplied it a hundredfold. When he came to power in A.D. 37 Gaius had no administrative experience beyond his honorary quaestorship, and had spent an unhappy early life far from the public eye. He appears, once in power, to have realized the boundless scope of his authority and acted accordingly. For the elite, this situation proved intolerable and ensured the blackening of Caligula's name in the historical record they would dictate. The sensational and hostile nature of that record, however, should in no way trivialize Gaius's importance. His reign highlighted an inherent weakness in the Augustan Principate, now openly revealed for what it was -- a raw monarchy in which only the self-discipline of the incumbent acted as a restraint on his behavior. That the only means of retiring the wayward princes was murder marked another important revelation: Roman emperors could not relinquish their powers without simultaneously relinquishing their lives.

Copyright © 1997, Garrett G. Fagan.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Ancient Smyrna

The 5,000 year-old city of Izmir is one of the oldest cities of the Mediterranean basin. The original city was established in the third millennium BC (at present day Bayraklı), at which time it shared with Troy the most advanced culture in Anatolia.


Greek settlement is attested by the presence of pottery dating from about 1000 BC. In the first millennium BC Izmir, then known as Smyrna, ranked as one of the most important cities of the Ionian Federation. During this period, it is believed that the epic poet Homer resided here.

Lydian conquest of the city around 600 BC brought this golden age to an end. Smyrna was little more than a village throughout the Lydian and subsequent sixth century BC Persian rule. In the fourth century BC a new city was built on the slopes of Mt. Pagos (Kadifekale) during the reign of Alexander the Great. Smyrna's Roman period, beginning in the first century BC, was its second great era.

In the first century AD, Smyrna became one of the earliest centers of Christianity and it was one of the Seven Churches of Revelation. Both Revelation and the Martyrdom of Polycarp indicate the existence of a Jewish community in Smyrna as early as the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. The letter to the church at Smyrna in Revelation indicates that the Christians were spiritually "rich" and apparently in conflict with the Jews (2:9).

The origins of the Christian community there, which was established in the 1st century, are unknown. Ignatius of Antioch stopped at Smyrna on his way to martyrdom in Rome in 107 AD, and he sent a letter back to the Christians there from later in his journey. Smyrna's bishop, Polycarp, was burned at the stake in Smyrna's stadium around 156 AD.

Byzantine rule came in the fourth century and lasted until the Seljuk conquest in 11th century. In 1415, under Sultan Mehmed Çelebi, Smyrna became part of the Ottoman Empire.

The city earned its fame as one of the most important port cities of the world during the 17th to 19th centuries. The majority of its population were Greek but merchants of various origins (especially Greek, French, Italian, Dutch, Armenian, Sephardi and Jewish) transformed the city into a cosmopolitan portal of trade. During this period, the city was famous for its own brand of music (Smyrneika) as well as its wide range of products it exported to Europe (Smyrna/Sultana raisins, dried figs, carpets, etc.).

Today, Izmir is Turkey's third largest city and is nicknamed "the pearl of Aegean." It is widely regarded as the most Westernized city of Turkey in terms of values, ideology, gender roles, and lifestyle.
© 2005-08 Sacred Destinations. All rights reserved.
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/turkey/izmir-history.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
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706a, Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D.73 views6, Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D. AE setertius, Date: 66 AD; RIC I 516, 36.71 mm; 25.5 grams; aVF. Obverse: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG PONT MAX TR POT PP, Laureate bust right; Reverse: S C, ROMA, Roma seated left, exceptional portrait and full obverse legends. Ex Ancient Imports.

NERO (54-68 A.D.)

It is difficult for the modern student of history to realize just how popular Nero actually was, at least at the beginning of his reign. Rome looked upon her new Emperor with hope. He was the student of Seneca, and he had a sensitive nature. He loved art, music, literature, and theatre. He was also devoted to horses and horse racing—a devotion shared by many of his subjects. The plebs loved their new Emperor. As Professor of Classics Judith P. Hallett (University of Maryland, College Park) says, “It is not clear to me that Nero ever changed or that Nero ever grew-up, and that was both his strength and his weakness. Nero was an extraordinarily popular Emperor: he was like Elvis” (The Roman Empire in the First Century, III. Dir. Margaret Koval and Lyn Goldfarb. 2001. DVD. PBS/Warner Bros. 2003).

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Herbert W. Benario
Emory University

Introduction and Sources
The five Julio-Claudian emperors are very different one from the other. Augustus dominates in prestige and achievement from the enormous impact he had upon the Roman state and his long service to Rome, during which he attained unrivaled auctoritas. Tiberius was clearly the only possible successor when Augustus died in AD 14, but, upon his death twenty-three years later, the next three were a peculiar mix of viciousness, arrogance, and inexperience. Gaius, better known as Caligula, is generally styled a monster, whose brief tenure did Rome no service. His successor Claudius, his uncle, was a capable man who served Rome well, but was condemned for being subject to his wives and freedmen. The last of the dynasty, Nero, reigned more than three times as long as Gaius, and the damage for which he was responsible to the state was correspondingly greater. An emperor who is well described by statements such as these, "But above all he was carried away by a craze for popularity and he was jealous of all who in any way stirred the feeling of the mob." and "What an artist the world is losing!" and who is above all remembered for crimes against his mother and the Christians was indeed a sad falling-off from the levels of Augustus and Tiberius. Few will argue that Nero does not rank as one of the worst emperors of all.

The prime sources for Nero's life and reign are Tacitus' Annales 12-16, Suetonius' Life of Nero, and Dio Cassius' Roman History 61-63, written in the early third century. Additional valuable material comes from inscriptions, coinage, papyri, and archaeology.


Early Life
He was born on December 15, 37, at Antium, the son of Cnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbusand Agrippina. Domitius was a member of an ancient noble family, consul in 32; Agrippina was the daughter of the popular Germanicus, who had died in 19, and Agrippina, daughter of Agrippa, Augustus' closest associate, and Julia, the emperor's daughter, and thus in direct descent from the first princeps. When the child was born, his uncle Gaius had only recently become emperor. The relationship between mother and uncle was difficult, and Agrippina suffered occasional humiliation. But the family survived the short reign of the "crazy" emperor, and when he was assassinated, it chanced that Agrippina's uncle, Claudius, was the chosen of the praetorian guard, although there may have been a conspiracy to accomplish this.

Ahenobarbus had died in 40, so the son was now the responsibility of Agrippina alone. She lived as a private citizen for much of the decade, until the death of Messalina, the emperor's wife, in 48 made competition among several likely candidates to become the new empress inevitable. Although Roman law forbade marriage between uncle and niece, an eloquent speech in the senate by Lucius Vitellius, Claudius' closest advisor in the senatorial order, persuaded his audience that the public good required their union. The marriage took place in 49, and soon thereafter the philosopher Seneca [[PIR2 A617]] was recalled from exile to become the young Domitius' tutor, a relationship which endured for some dozen years.

His advance was thereafter rapid. He was adopted by Claudius the following year and took the name Tiberius Claudius Nero Caesar or Nero Claudius Caesar Drusus Germanicus, was preferred to Claudius' natural son, Britannicus, who was about three years younger, was betrothed to the emperor's daughter Octavia, and was, in the eyes of the people, the clear successor to the emperor. In 54, Claudius died, having eaten some poisoned mushrooms, responsibility for which was believed to be Agrippina's, and the young Nero, not yet seventeen years old, was hailed on October 13 as emperor by the praetorian guard.


The First Years of Rule
The first five years of Nero's rule are customarily called the quinquennium, a period of good government under the influence, not always coinciding, of three people, his mother, Seneca, and Sextus Afranius Burrus, the praetorian prefect. The latter two were allies in their "education" of the emperor. Seneca continued his philosophical and rhetorical training, Burrus was more involved in advising on the actualities of government. They often combined their influence against Agrippina, who, having made her son emperor, never let him forget the debt he owed his mother, until finally, and fatally, he moved against her.

Nero's betrothal to Octavia was a significant step in his ultimate accession to the throne, as it were, but she was too quiet, too shy, too modest for his taste. He was early attracted to Poppaea Sabina, the wife of Otho, and she continually goaded him to break from Octavia and to show himself an adult by opposing his mother. In his private life, Nero honed the musical and artistic tastes which were his chief interest, but, at this stage, they were kept private, at the instigation of Seneca and Burrus.

As the year 59 began, Nero had just celebrated his twenty-first birthday and now felt the need to employ the powers which he possessed as emperor as he wished, without the limits imposed by others. Poppaea's urgings had their effect, first of all, at the very onset of the year, with Nero's murder of his mother in the Bay of Naples.

Agrippina had tried desperately to retain her influence with her son, going so far as to have intercourse with him. But the break between them proved irrevocable, and Nero undertook various devices to eliminate his mother without the appearance of guilt on his part. The choice was a splendid vessel which would collapse while she was on board. As this happened, she swam ashore and, when her attendant, having cried out that she was Agrippina, was clubbed to death, Agrippina knew what was going on. She sent Nero a message that she was well; his response was to send a detachment of sailors to finish the job. When she was struck across the head, she bared her womb and said, "Strike here, Anicetus, strike here, for this bore Nero," and she was brutally murdered.

Nero was petrified with fear when he learned that the deed had been done, yet his popularity with the plebs of Rome was not impaired. This matricide, however, proved a turning point in his life and principate. It appeared that all shackles were now removed. The influence of Seneca and Burrus began to wane, and when Burrus died in 62, Seneca realized that his powers of persuasion were at an end and soon went into retirement. Britannicus had died as early as 55; now Octavia was to follow, and Nero became free to marry Poppaea. It may be that it had been Burrus rather than Agrippina who had continually urged that Nero's position depended in large part upon his marriage to Octavia. Burrus' successor as commander of the praetorian guard, although now with a colleague, was Ofonius Tigellinus, quite the opposite of Burrus in character and outlook. Tigellinus became Nero's "evil twin," urging and assisting in the performance of crimes and the satisfaction of lusts.


Administrative and Foreign Policy
With Seneca and Burrus in charge of administration at home, the first half-dozen years of Nero's principate ran smoothly. He himself devoted his attention to his artistic, literary, and physical bents, with music, poetry, and chariot racing to the fore. But his advisors were able to keep these performances and displays private, with small, select audiences on hand. Yet there was a gradual trend toward public performance, with the establishment of games. Further, he spent many nights roaming the city in disguise, with numerous companions, who terrorized the streets and attacked individuals. Those who dared to defend themselves often faced death afterward, because they had shown disrespect for the emperor. The die was being cast for the last phases of Nero's reign.


The Great Fire at Rome and The Punishment
of the Christians
The year 64 was the most significant of Nero's principate up to this point. His mother and wife were dead, as was Burrus, and Seneca, unable to maintain his influence over Nero without his colleague's support, had withdrawn into private life. The abysmal Tigellinus was now the foremost advisor of the still young emperor, a man whose origin was from the lowest levels of society and who can accurately be described as criminal in outlook and action. Yet Nero must have considered that he was happier than he had ever been in his life. Those who had constrained his enjoyment of his (seemingly) limitless power were gone, he was married to Poppaea, a woman with all advantages save for a bad character the empire was essentially at peace, and the people of Rome enjoyed a full measure of panem et circenses. But then occurred one of the greatest disasters that the city of Rome, in its long history, had ever endured.

The fire began in the southeastern angle of the Circus Maximus, spreading through the shops which clustered there, and raged for the better part of a week. There was brief success in controlling the blaze, but then it burst forth once more, so that many people claimed that the fires were deliberately set. After about a fortnight, the fire burned itself out, having consumed ten of the fourteen Augustan regions into which the city had been divided.

Nero was in Antium through much of the disaster, but his efforts at relief were substantial. Yet many believed that he had been responsible, so that he could perform his own work comparing the current fate of Rome to the downfall of Troy. All his efforts to assist the stricken city could not remove the suspicion that "the emperor had fiddled while Rome burned." He lost favor even among the plebs who had been enthusiastic supporters, particularly when his plans for the rebuilding of the city revealed that a very large part of the center was to become his new home.

As his popularity waned, Nero and Tigellinus realized that individuals were needed who could be charged with the disaster. It so happened that there was such a group ready at hand, Christians, who had made themselves unpopular because of their refusal to worship the emperor, their way of life, and their secret meetings. Further, at this time two of their most significant "teachers" were in Rome, Peter and Paul. They were ideal scapegoats, individuals whom most Romans loathed, and who had continually sung of the forthcoming end of the world.

Their destruction was planned with the utmost precision and cruelty, for the entertainment of the populace. The venue was Nero's circus near the Mons Vaticanus. Christians were exposed to wild animals and were set ablaze, smeared with pitch, to illuminate the night. The executions were so grisly that even the populace displayed sympathy for the victims. Separately, Peter was crucified upside down on the Vatican hill and Paul was beheaded along the Via Ostiensis. But Nero's attempt, and hope, to shift all suspicion of arson to others failed. His popularity even among the lower classes was irrevocably impaired.

[For a detailed and interesting discussion of Nero’s reign please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/nero.htm]

The End - Nero's Death and its Aftermath
Nero's and Tigellinus' response to the conspiracy was immediate and long-lasting. The senatorial order was decimated, as one leading member after another was put to death or compelled to commit suicide. The year 66 saw the suicides of perhaps the most distinguished victims of the "reign of terror," Caius Petronius and Thrasea Paetus. Petronius, long a favorite of Nero because of his aesthetic taste, had been an able public servant before he turned to a life of ease and indolence. He was recognized as the arbiter elegantiae of Nero's circle, and may be the author of the Satyricon. At his death, he left for Nero a document which itemized many of the latter's crimes. Thrasea, a staunch Stoic who had been for some years an outspoken opponent of Nero's policies, committed suicide in the Socratic manner. This scene is the last episode in the surviving books of Tacitus' Annals.

In the year 68, revolt began in the provinces. . . the end of Nero's reign became inevitable. Galba claimed the throne and began his march from Spain. Nero panicked and was rapidly abandoned by his supporters. He finally committed suicide with assistance, on June 9, 68, and his body was tended and buried by three women who had been close to him in his younger days, chief of whom was Acte. His death scene is marked above all by the statement, "Qualis artifex pereo," (What an artist dies in me.) Even at the end he was more concerned with his private life than with the affairs of state.

The aftermath of Nero's death was cataclysmic. Galba was the first of four emperors who revealed the new secret of empire, that an emperor could be made elsewhere than in Rome. Civil war ensued, which was only ended by the victory of the fourth claimant, Vespasian, who established the brief dynasty of the Flavians. The dynasty of the Julio-Claudians was at an end.

Nero's popularity among the lower classes remained even after his death.

. . . .

It is not excessive to say that he was one of the worst of Rome's emperors in the first two centuries and more of the empire. Whatever talents he had, whatever good he may have done, all is overwhelmed by three events, the murder of his mother, the fire at Rome, and his savage treatment of the Christians.

Precisely these qualities are the reasons that he has remained so well known and has been the subject of many writers and opera composers in modern times. These works of fiction particularly merit mention: Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis, one of the finest works of the 1907 Nobel Laureate in Literature, and John Hersey's The Conspiracy. Nero unquestionably will always be with us.

Copyright (C) 2006, Herbert W. Benario.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
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707a, Galba, 3 April 68 - 15 January 69 A.D.66 viewsGalba AE As, 68-69 AD; cf. SRC 727, 729ff; 27.85mm, 12g; Rome: Obverse: GALBA IMP CAESAR…, Laureate head right; Reverse: S P Q R OB CIV SER in oak wreath; gF+/F Ex. Ancient Imports.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Galba (68-69 A.D.)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary


Introduction
The evidence for the principate of Galba is unsatisfactory. The sources either concentrate on the personality of the man, thereby failing to offer a balanced account of his policies and a firm chronological base for his actions; or, they focus on the final two weeks of his life at the expense of the earlier part of his reign. As a result, a detailed account of his principate is difficult to write. Even so, Galba is noteworthy because he was neither related to nor adopted by his predecessor Nero. Thus, his accession marked the end of the nearly century-long control of the Principate by the Julio-Claudians. Additionally, Galba's declaration as emperor by his troops abroad set a precedent for the further political upheavals of 68-69. Although these events worked to Galba's favor initially, they soon came back to haunt him, ending his tumultuous rule after only seven months.

Early Life and Rise to Power
Born 24 December 3 BC in Tarracina, a town on the Appian Way, 65 miles south of Rome, Servius Galba was the son of C. Sulpicius Galba and Mummia Achaica. Galba's connection with the noble house of the Servii gave him great prestige and assured his acceptance among the highest levels of Julio-Claudian society. Adopted in his youth by Livia, the mother of the emperor Tiberius, he is said to have owed much of his early advancement to her. Upon her death, Livia made Galba her chief legatee, bequeathing him some 50 million sesterces. Tiberius, Livia's heir, reduced the amount, however, and then never paid it. Galba's marriage proved to be a further source of disappointment, as he outlived both his wife Lepida and their two sons. Nothing else is known of Galba's immediate family, other than that he remained a widower for the rest of his life.

Although the details of Galba's early political career are incomplete, the surviving record is one of an ambitious Roman making his way in the Emperor's service. Suetonius records that as praetor Galba put on a new kind of exhibition for the people - elephants walking on a rope. Later, he served as governor of the province of Aquitania, followed by a six-month term as consul at the beginning of 33. Ironically, as consul he was succeeded by Salvius Otho, whose own son would succeed Galba as emperor. Over the years three more governorships followed - Upper Germany (date unknown), North Africa (45) and Hispania Tarraconensis, the largest of Spain's three provinces (61). He was selected as a proconsul of Africa by the emperor Claudius himself instead of by the usual method of drawing lots. During his two-year tenure in the province he successfully restored internal order and quelled a revolt by the barbarians. As an imperial legate he was a governor in Spain for eight years under Nero, even though he was already in his early sixties when he assumed his duties. The appointment showed that Galba was still considered efficient and loyal. In all of these posts Galba generally displayed an enthusiasm for old-fashioned disciplina, a trait consistent with the traditional characterization of the man as a hard-bitten aristocrat of the old Republican type. Such service did not go unnoticed, as he was honored with triumphal insignia and three priesthoods during his career.

On the basis of his ancestry, family tradition and service to the state Galba was the most distinguished Roman alive (with the exception of the houses of the Julii and Claudii) at the time of Nero's demise in 68. The complex chain of events that would lead him to the Principate later that year began in March with the rebellion of Gaius Iulius Vindex, the governor of Gallia Lugdunensis. Vindex had begun to sound out provincial governors about support for a rebellion perhaps in late 67 or early 68. Galba did not respond but, because of his displeasure with Neronian misgovernment, neither did he inform the emperor of these treasonous solicitations. This, of course, left him dangerously exposed; moreover, he was already aware that Nero, anxious to remove anyone of distinguished birth and noble achievements, had ordered his death. Given these circumstances, Galba likely felt that he had no choice but to rebel.

In April, 68, while still in Spain, Galba "went public," positioning himself as a vir militaris, a military representative of the senate and people of Rome. For the moment, he refused the title of Emperor, but it is clear that the Principate was his goal. To this end, he organized a concilium of advisors in order to make it known that any decisions were not made by him alone but only after consultation with a group. The arrangement was meant to recall the Augustan Age relationship between the emperor and senate in Rome. Even more revealing of his imperial ambitions were legends like LIBERTAS RESTITUTA (Liberty Restored), ROM RENASC (Rome Reborn) and SALUS GENERIS HUMANI (Salvation of Mankind), preserved on his coinage from the period. Such evidence has brought into question the traditional assessment of Galba as nothing more than an ineffectual representative of a bygone antiquus rigor in favor of a more balanced portrait of a traditional constitutionalist eager to publicize the virtues of an Augustan-style Principate.
Events now began to move quickly. In May, 68 Lucius Clodius Macer, legate of the III legio Augusta in Africa, revolted from Nero and cut off the grain supply to Rome. Choosing not to recognize Galba, he called himself propraetor, issued his own coinage, and raised a new legion, the I Macriana liberatrix. Galba later had him executed. At the same time, 68, Lucius Verginius Rufus, legionary commander in Upper Germany, led a combined force of soldiers from Upper and Lower Germany in defeating Vindex at Vesontio in Gallia Lugdunensis. Verginius refused to accept a call to the emperorship by his own troops and by those from the Danube, however, thereby creating at Rome an opportunity for Galba's agents to win over Gaius Nymphidius Sabinus, the corrupt praetorian prefect since 65. Sabinus was able to turn the imperial guard against Nero on the promise that they would be rewarded financially by Galba upon his arrival. That was the end for Nero. Deposed by the senate and abandoned by his supporters, he committed suicide in June. At this point, encouraged to march on Rome by the praetorians and especially by Sabinus, who had his own designs on the throne, Galba hurriedly established broad-based political and financial support and assembled his own legion (subsequently known as the legio VII Gemina). As he departed from Spain, he abandoned the title of governor in favor of "Caesar," apparently in an attempt to lay claim to the entire inheritance of the Julio-Claudian house. Even so, he continued to proceed cautiously, and did not actually adopt the name of Caesar (and with it the emperorship) until sometime after he had left Spain.

The Principate of Galba
Meanwhile, Rome was anything but serene. An unusual force of soldiers, many of whom had been mustered by Nero to crush the attempt of Vindex, remained idle and restless. In addition, there was the matter concerning Nymphidius Sabinus. Intent on being the power behind the throne, Nymphidius had orchestrated a demand from the praetorians that Galba appoint him sole praetorian prefect for life. The senate capitulated to his pretensions and he began to have designs on the throne himself. In an attempt to rattle Galba, Nymphidius then sent messages of alarm to the emperor telling of unrest in both the city and abroad. When Galba ignored these reports, Nymphidius decided to launch a coup by presenting himself to the praetorians. The plan misfired, and the praetorians killed him when he appeared at their camp. Upon learning of the incident, Galba ordered the executions of Nymphidius' followers. To make matters worse, Galba's arrival was preceded by a confrontation with a boisterous band of soldiers who had been formed into a legion by Nero and were now demanding legionary standards and regular quarters. When they persisted, Galba's forces attacked, with the result that many of them were killed.
Thus it was amid carnage and fear that Galba arrived at the capital in October, 68, accompanied by Otho, the governor of Lusitania, who had joined the cause. Once Galba was within Rome, miscalculations and missteps seemed to multiply. First, he relied upon the advice of a corrupt circle of advisors, most notably: Titus Vinius, a general from Spain; Cornelius Laco, praetorian prefect; and his own freedman, Icelus. Second, he zealously attempted to recover some of Nero's more excessive expenditures by seizing the property of many citizens, a measure that seems to have gone too far and to have caused real hardship and resentment. Third, he created further ill-will by disbanding the imperial corps of German bodyguards, effectively abolishing a tradition that originated with Marius and had been endorsed by Augustus. Finally, he seriously alienated the military by refusing cash rewards for both the praetorians and for the soldiers in Upper Germany who had fought against Vindex.

This last act proved to be the beginning of the end for Galba. On 1 January 69 ("The Year of the Four Emperors"), the troops in Upper Germany refused to declare allegiance to him and instead followed the men stationed in Lower Germany in proclaiming their commander, Aulus Vitellius, as the new ruler. In response, Galba adopted Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi Licinianus to show that he was still in charge and that his successor would not be chosen for him. Piso, although an aristocrat, was a man completely without administrative or military experience. The choice meant little to the remote armies, the praetorians or the senate, and it especially angered Otho, who had hoped to succeed Galba. Otho quickly organized a conspiracy among the praetorians with the now-familiar promise of a material reward, and on 15 January 69 they declared him emperor and publicly killed Galba; Piso, dragged from hiding in the temple of Vesta, was also butchered.

Assessment
In sum, Galba had displayed talent and ambition during his lengthy career. He enjoyed distinguished ancestry, moved easily among the Julio-Claudian emperors (with the exception of Nero towards the end of his principate), and had been awarded the highest military and religious honors of ancient Rome. His qualifications for the principate cannot be questioned. Even so, history has been unkind to him. Tacitus characterized Galba as "weak and old," a man "equal to the imperial office, if he had never held it." Modern historians of the Roman world have been no less critical. To be sure, Galba's greatest mistake lay in his general handling of the military. His treatment of the army in Upper Germany was heedless, his policy towards the praetorians short sighted. Given the climate in 68-69, Galba was unrealistic in expecting disciplina without paying the promised rewards. He was also guilty of relying on poor advisors, who shielded him from reality and ultimately allowed Otho's conspiracy to succeed. Additionally, the excessive power of his henchmen brought the regime into disfavor and made Galba himself the principal target of the hatred that his aides had incited. Finally, the appointment of Piso, a young man in no way equal to the challenges placed before him, further underscored the emperor's isolation and lack of judgment. In the end, the instability of the post-Julio-Claudian political landscape offered challenges more formidable than a tired, septuagenarian aristocrat could hope to overcome. Ironically, his regime proved no more successful than the Neronian government he was so eager to replace. Another year of bloodshed would be necessary before the Principate could once again stand firm.

Copyright (C) 1999, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
roman_emperor_otho.jpg
708a, Otho64 viewsOtho (69 A.D.)
John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction
In January 69 Otho led a successful coup to overthrow the emperor Galba. Upon advancing to the throne, he hoped to conciliate his adversaries and restore political stability to the Empire. These ambitions were never to be realized. Instead, our sources portray a leader never fully able to win political confidence at Rome or to overcome military anarchy abroad. As a result, he was defeated in battle by the forces of Vitellius, his successor, and took his own life at the conclusion of the conflict. His principate lasted only eight weeks.
Early Life and Career
Marcus Salvius Otho was born at Ferentium on 28 April 32 A. D. His grandfather, also named Marcus Salvius Otho, was a senator who did not advance beyond the rank of praetor. Lucius Otho, his father, was consul in 33 and a trusted administrator under the emperors Tiberius, Gaius and Claudius. His mother, Albia Terentia, was likely to have been nobly born as well. The cognomen "Otho" was Etruscan in origin, and the fact that it can be traced to three successive generations of this family perhaps reflects a desire to maintain a part of the Etruscan tradition that formed the family's background.
Otho is recorded as being extravagant and wild as a youth - a favorite pastime involved roving about at night to snare drunkards in a blanket. Such behavior earned floggings from his father, whose frequent absences from home on imperial business suggest little in the way of a stabilizing parental influence in Otho's formative years. These traits apparently persisted: Suetonius records that Otho and Nero became close friends because of the similarity of their characters; and Plutarch relates that the young man was so extravagant that he sometimes chided Nero about his meanness, and even outdid the emperor in reckless spending.
Most intriguing in this context is Otho's involvement with Nero's mistress, Poppaea Sabina, the greatest beauty of her day. A relationship between the two is widely cited in the ancient sources, but the story differs in essential details from one account to the next. As a result, it is impossible to establish who seduced whom, whether Otho ever married Poppaea, and whether his posting to Lusitania by Nero should be understood as a "banishment" for his part in this affair. About the only reliable detail to emerge is that Otho did indeed become governor of Lusitania in 59, and that he assumed the post as a quaestor, a rank below that of praetor or consul, the minimum usually required for the office. From here he would launch his initial thrust towards the imperial throne.
Overthrow of Galba
Nero's suicide in June 68 marked the end of the Julio-Claudian dynasty and opened up the principate to the prerogatives of the military beyond Rome. First to emerge was Servius Sulpicius Galba, governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, who had been encouraged to revolt by the praetorians and especially by Nymphidius Sabinus, the corrupt and scheming praetorian prefect at Rome. By this time Otho had been in Spain for close to ten years. His record seems to have been a good one, marked by capable administration and an unwillingness to enrich himself at the expense of the province. At the same time, perhaps seeing this as his best chance to improve his own circumstances, he supported the insurrection as vigorously as possible, even sending Galba all of his gold and his best table servants. At the same time, he made it a point to win the favor of every soldier he came in contact with, most notably the members of the praetorian guard who had come to Spain to accompany Galba to Rome. Galba set out from Spain in July, formally assuming the emperorship shortly thereafter. Otho accompanied him on the journey.
Galba had been in Rome little more than two months when on 1 January 69 the troops in Upper Germany refused to declare allegiance to him and instead followed the men stationed in Lower Germany in proclaiming their commander, Aulus Vitellius, as the new ruler. To show that he was still in charge Galba adopted his own successor, Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi Licinianus, an aristocrat completely without administrative or military experience. The choice meant little to the remote armies, the praetorians or the senate and particularly angered Otho, who had hoped to succeed Galba. Otho quickly organized a conspiracy among the praetorians with promise of a material reward, and on 15 January 69 they declared him emperor and publicly killed Galba; Piso, dragged from hiding in the temple of Vesta, was also butchered. On that same evening a powerless senate awarded Otho the imperial titles.
Otho's Principate in Rome
It is not possible to reconstruct a detailed chronology of Otho's brief eight and a half weeks as princeps in Rome (15 January-15 March). Even so, Galba's quick demise had surely impressed upon Otho the need to conciliate various groups. As a result, he continued his indulgence of the praetorian guard but he also tried to win over the senate by following a strict constitutionalist line and by generally keeping the designations for the consulship made by Nero and Galba. In the provinces, despite limited evidence, there are some indications that he tried to compensate for Galba's stinginess by being more generous with grants of citizenship. In short, Otho was eager not to offend anyone.
Problems remained, however. The praetorians had to be continually placated and they were always suspicious of the senate. On the other hand, the senate itself, along with the people, remained deeply disturbed at the manner of Otho's coming to power and his willingness to be associated with Nero. These suspicions and fears were most evident in the praetorian outbreak at Rome. Briefly, Otho had decided to move from Ostia to Rome a cohort of Roman citizens in order to replace some of Rome's garrison, much of which was to be utilized for the showdown with Vitellius. He ordered that weapons be moved from the praetorian camp in Rome by ship to Ostia at night so that the garrison replacements would be properly armed and made to look as soldierly as possible when they marched into the city. Thinking that a senatorial counter-coup against Otho was underway, the praetorians stormed the imperial palace to confirm the emperor's safety, with the result that they terrified Otho and his senatorial dinner guests. Although the praetorians' fears were eventually calmed and they were given a substantial cash payment, the incident dramatically underscored the unease at Rome in the early months of 69.
Otho's Offensive against Vitellius
Meanwhile, in the Rhineland, preparations for a march on Rome by the military legions that had declared for Vitellius were far advanced. Hampered by poor intelligence gathering in Gaul and Germany and having failed to negotiate a settlement with Vitellius in early 69, Otho finally summoned to Italy his forces for a counterattack against the invading Vitellian army. His support consisted of the four legions of Pannonia and Dalmatia, the three legions of Moesia and his own imperial retinue of about 9,000. Vitellius' own troops numbered some 30,000, while those of his two marshals, Aulus Caecina Alienus and Fabius Valens, were between 15,000 and 20,000 each.
Otho's strategy was to make a quick diversionary strike in order to allow time for his own forces to assemble in Italy before engaging the enemy. The strategy worked, as the diversionary army, comprised of urban cohorts, praetorians and marines all from Rome or nearby, was successful in Narbonese Gaul in latter March. An advance guard sent to hold the line on the Po River until the Danubian legions arrived also enjoyed initial success. Otho himself arrived at Bedriacum in northern Italy about 10 April for a strategy session with his commanders. The main concern was that the Vitellians were building a bridge across the Po in order to drive southward towards the Apennines and eventually to Rome. Otho decided to counter by ordering a substantial part of his main force to advance from Bedriacum and establish a new base close enough to the new Vitellian bridge to interrupt its completion. While en route, the Othonian forces, strung out along the via Postumia amid baggage and supply trains, were attacked by Caecina and Valens near Cremona on 14 April. The clash, know as the Battle of Bedriacum, resulted in the defeat of the Othonian forces, their retreat cut off by the river behind them. Otho himself, meanwhile, was not present, but had gone to Brixellum with a considerable force of infantry and cavalry in order to impede any Vitellian units that had managed to cross the Po.
The plan had backfired. Otho's strategy of obtaining victory while avoiding any major battles had proven too risky. Realizing perhaps that a new round of fighting would have involved not only a significant re-grouping of his existing troops but also a potentially bloody civil war at Rome, if Vitellius' troops reached the capital, Otho decided that enough blood had been shed. Two weeks shy of his thirty-seventh birthday, on 16 April 69, he took his own life.
Assessment
To be sure, Otho remains an enigma - part profligate Neronian wastrel and part conscientious military commander willing to give his life for the good of the state. Our sources are at a loss to explain the paradox. Perhaps, like Petronius, he saw it was safer to appear a profligate in Nero's court? In the final analysis, Otho proved to be an organized and efficient military commander, who appealed more to the soldier than to the civilian. He also seems to have been a capable governor, with administrative talents that recalled those of his father. Nevertheless, his violent overthrow of Galba, the lingering doubts that it raised about his character, and his unsuccessful offensive against Vitellius are all vivid reminders of the turbulence that plagued the Roman world between the reigns of Nero and Vespasian. Regrettably, the scenario would play itself out one more time before peace and stability returned to the empire.
Copyright (C) 1999, John Donahue
Edited by J.P.Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
VitelliusARdenariusVesta.jpg
709a, Vitellius, 2 January - 20 December 69 A.D.42 viewsVITELLIUS AR silver denarius. RSC 72, RCV 2200. 19mm, 3.2 g. Obverse: A VITELLIVS GERM IMP AVG TR P, laureate head right; Reverse - PONT MAXIM, Vesta seated right, holding scepter and patera. Quite decent. Ex. Incitatus Coins. Photo courtesy of Incitatus Coins.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Vitellius (69 A.D.)

John F. Donahue
College of William and Mary


It is often difficult to separate fact from fiction in assessing the life and reign of Vitellius. Maligned in the ancient sources as gluttonous and cruel, he was also a victim of a hostile biographical tradition established in the regime of the Flavians who had overthrown him. Nevertheless, his decision to march against Rome in 69 was pivotal, since his subsequent defeat signalled the end of military anarchy and the beginning of an extended period of political stability under Vespasian and his successors.

Early Life and Career

Aulus Vitellius was born in September, 15 AD, the son of Lucius Vitellius and his wife Sestilia. One of the most successful public figures of the Julio-Claudian period, Lucius Vitellius was a three-time consul and a fellow censor with the emperor Claudius. Aulus seems to have moved with equal ease in aristocratic circles, successively winning the attention of the emperors Gaius, Claudius, and Nero through flattery and political skill.

Among his attested public offices, Vitellius was a curator of public works, a senatorial post concerned with the maintenance and repair of public buildings in Rome, and he was also proconsul of North Africa, where he served as a deputy to his brother, perhaps about 55 A. D. In addition, he held at least two priesthoods, the first as a member of the Arval Brethren, in whose rituals he participated from 57 A.D., and the second, as one of the quindecemviri sacris faciundis, a sacred college famous for its feasts.

With respect to marriage and family, Vitellius first wed a certain Petroniana, the daughter of a consul, sometime in the early to mid thirties A.D. The union produced a son, Petronianus, allegedly blind in one eye and emancipated from his father's control as a result of being named his mother's heir. Tradition records that Vitellius killed the boy shortly after emancipation amid charges of parricide; the marriage soon ended in divorce. A second marriage, to Galeria Fundana, daughter of an ex-praetor, was more stable than the first. It produced another son, who was eventually killed by the Flavians after the overthrow of Vitellius, as well as a daughter. Galeria is praised by Tacitus for her good qualities, and in the end it was she who saw to Vitellius' burial.

Rise to Power and Emperorship

Without doubt, the most fortuitous moment in Vitellius' political career was his appointment as governor of Lower Germany by the emperor Galba late in 68. The decision seemed to have caught everybody by surprise, including Vitellius himself, who, according to Suetonius, was in straitened circumstances at the time. The choice may have been made to reduce the possibility of rebellion by the Rhine armies, disaffected by Galba's refusal to reward them for their part in suppressing the earlier uprising of Julius Vindex. Ironically, it was Vitellius' lack of military achievement and his reputation for gambling and gluttony that may have also figured in his selection. Galba perhaps calculated that a man with little military experience who could now plunder a province to satisfy his own stomach would never become disloyal. If so, it was a critical misjudgement by the emperor.

The rebellion began on January 1, 69 ("The Year of the Four Emperors"), when the legions of Upper Germany refused to renew their oath of allegiance to Galba. On January 2, Vitellius' own men, having heard of the previous day's events, saluted him as emperor at the instigation of the legionary legate Fabius Valens and his colleagues. Soon, in addition to the seven legions that Vitellius now had at his command in both Germanies, the forces in Gaul, Britain, and Raetia also came over to his side. Perhaps aware of his military inexperience, Vitellius did not immediately march on Rome himself. Instead, the advance was led by Valens and another legionary general, Aulus Caecina Alienus, with each man commanding a separate column. Vitellius would remain behind to mobilize a reserve force and follow later.

Caecina was already one hundred fifty miles on his way when news reached him that Galba had been overthrown and Otho had taken his place as emperor. Undeterred, he passed rapidly down the eastern borders of Gaul; Valens followed a more westerly route, quelling a mutiny along the way. By March both armies had successfully crossed the Alps and joined at Cremona, just north of the Po. Here they launced their Batavian auxiliaries against Otho's troops and routed them in the First Battle of Bedriacum. Otho killed himself on April 16, and three days later the soldiers in Rome swore their allegience to Vitellius. The senate too hailed him as emperor.

When Vitellius learned of these developments, he set out to Rome from Gaul. By all accounts the journey was a drunken feast marked by the lack of discipline of both the troops and the imperial entourage. Along the way he stopped at Lugdunum to present his six-year-old son Germanicus to the legions as his eventual successor. Later, at Cremona, Vitellius witnessed the corpse-filled battlefield of Otho's recent defeat with joy, unmoved by so many citizens denied a proper burial.

The emperor entered Rome in late June-early July. Conscious of making a break with the Julio-Claudian past, Vitellius was reluctant to assume the traditional titles of the princes, even though he enthusiastically made offerings to Nero and declared himself consul for life. To his credit, Vitellius did seem to show a measure of moderation in the transition to the principate. He assumed his powers gradually and was generally lenient to Otho's supporters, even pardoning Otho's brother Salvius Titianus, who had played a key role in the earlier regime. In addition, he participated in Senate meetings and continued the practice of providing entertainments for the Roman masses. An important practical change involved the awarding of posts customarily held by freedmen to equites, an indication of the growth of the imperial bureaucracy and its attractiveness to men of ambition.

In other matters, he replaced the existing praetorian guard and urban cohorts with sixteen praetorian cohorts and four urban units, all comprised of soldiers from the German armies. According to Tacitus, the decision prompted a mad scramble, with the men, and not their officers, choosing the branch of service that they preferred. The situation was clearly unsatisfactory but not surprising, given that Vitellius was a creation of his own troops. To secure his position further, he sent back to their old postings the legions that had fought for Otho, or he reassigned them to distant provinces. Yet discontent remained: the troops who had been defeated or betrayed at Bedriacum remained bitter, and detachments of three Moesian legions called upon by Otho were returned to their bases, having agitated against Vitellius at Aquileia.

Flavian Revolt

The Vitellian era at Rome was short-lived. By mid-July news had arrived that the legions of Egypt under Tiberius Julius Alexander had sworn allegiance to a rival emperor, Titus Flavius Vespasianus, the governor of Judaea and a successful and popular general. Vespasian was to hold Egypt while his colleague Mucianus, governor of Syria, was to invade Italy. Before the plan could be enacted, however, the Danube legions, former supporters of Otho, joined Vespasian's cause. Under the leadership of Antonius Primus, commander of the Sixth legion in Pannonia, and Cornelius Fuscus, imperial procurator in Illyricum, the legions made a rapid descent on Italy.

Although his forces were only half of what Vitellius commanded in Italy, Primus struck first before the emperor could muster additional reinforcements from Germany. To make matters worse for the Vitellians, Valens was ill, and Caecina, now consul, had begun collaborating with the Flavians. His troops refused to follow his lead, however, and arrested him at Hostilia near Cremona. They then joined the rest of the Vitellian forces trying to hold the Po River. With Vitellius still in Rome and his forces virtually leaderless, the two sides met in October in the Second Battle of Bedriacum. The emperor's troops were soundly defeated and Cremona was brutally sacked by the victors. In addition, Valens, whose health had recovered, was captured while raising an army for Vitellius in Gaul and Germany; he was eventually executed.

Meanwhile, Primus continued towards Rome. Vitellius made a weak attempt to thwart the advance at the Apennine passes, but his forces switched to the Flavian side without a fight at Narnia in mid-December. At Rome, matters were no better. Vespasian's elder brother, Titus Flavius Sabinus, the city prefect, was successful in an effort to convince Vitellius to abdicate but was frustrated by the mob in Rome and the emperor's soldiers. Forced to flee to the Capitol, Sabinus was set upon by Vitellius' German troops and soon killed, with the venerable Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus set ablaze in the process. Within two days, the Flavian army fought its way into Rome. In a pathetic final move, Vitellius disguised himself in dirty clothing and hid in the imperial doorkeeper's quarters, leaning a couch and a mattress against the door for protection. Dragged from his hiding place by the Flavian forces, he was hauled off half-naked to the Forum, where he was tortured, killed, and tossed into the Tiber. The principate could now pass to Vespasian.

Assessment

Vitellius has not escaped the hostility of his biographers. While he may well have been gluttonous, his depiction as indolent, cruel, and extravagant is based almost entirely on the propaganda of his enemies. On the other hand, whatever moderating tendencies he did show were overshadowed by his clear lack of military expertise, a deficiency that forced him to rely in critical situations on largely inneffective lieutenants. As a result he was no match for his Flavian successors, and his humiliating demise was perfectly in keeping with the overall failure of his reign.

Copyright (C) 1999, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
VespasianPax_RICii10.jpg
710a, Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.134 viewsSilver denarius, RIC II, 10, aVF, 3.5 g, 18mm, Rome mint, 69-71 AD; Obverse: IMP CAESA[R] VESPASIANV[S AV]G - Laureate head right; Reverse: COS ITER [T]R POT - Pax seated left holding branch and caduceus. Ex Imperial Coins.


De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espèrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.





Cleisthenes
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AE AS OF CLAUDIUS RV/MINERVA 52 viewsWEIGHT: 11.6GR, DIAMETER: 27MM
Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (1 August 10 BC – 13 October AD 54), born Tiberius Claudius Drusus, then Tiberius Claudius Nero Germanicus until his accession, was Roman Emperor from 41 to 54 AD.

1 commentsAntonivs Protti
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AE Decanummium Maurice Tiberius42 viewsObverse: DN MAY CN P AY( or similar) Bust facing, wearing crown with trefoil ornament and consular robes, in r. hand, mappa; in l., eagle tipped sceptre.
Reverse: Large I between ANNP and regnal year (X, I), cross above THEUP in ex
Mint: Theoupolis (Antioch)
Date: 593/4 CE
Sear 537 DO 203-12
wileyc
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AE Decanummium Maurice Tiberius34 viewsObverse: DN TIb MAVRIC PP AV or similar, crowned and cuir. bust facing holding gl. cr. and shield
Reverse: Large I between ANNO and regnal yr I or II CAT in ex
Mint: Catania
Date: 582-4 CE
Sear 580 DO 264
13mm 2.78 gm
wileyc
sear_498.jpg
AE decanummium Maurice Tiberius, SB 49830 viewsObverse: DN TIbER PP AV or similar, crowned, dr., and cuir bust facing.
Reverse: Large I, cross above; to l., star, to r., officina letter (E), CON in ex
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 582-602 CE
Sear 498 DO 64
18mm 3.09gm
wileyc
sear_536.jpg
AE Decanummium Maurice Tiberius, SB 53638 viewsObverse: Legend is normally a blundered form of Tiberius in this case a nATST - MAV, bust facing, wearing crown with trefoil ornament and consular robes, in r. hand, mappa; in l. hand a eagle tipped sceptre.
Reverse: LArge X between ANNO and regnal yr (G) 6, cross above P or R below.
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 587/8 CE
Sear 536 DO 194-201
3.22gm
1 commentswileyc
sear_537.jpg
AE Decanummium Maurice Tiberius, SB 53716 viewsObverse: DN MAY CN P AY( or similar) Bust facing, wearing crown with trefoil ornament and consular robes, in r. hand, mappa; in l., eagle tipped sceptre.
Reverse: Large I between ANNP and regnal year (X), cross above THEUP in ex
Mint: Theoupolis (Antioch)
Date: 591/2 CE
Sear 537 DO 203-12
17mm 2.46gm
wileyc
sear_537a.jpg
AE Decanummium Maurice Tiberius, SB 53717 viewsObverse: DN MAY CN P AY( or similar) Bust facing, wearing crown with trefoil ornament and consular robes, in r. hand, mappa; in l., eagle tipped sceptre.
Reverse: Large I between ANNP and regnal year (X IIII), cross above THEUP in ex
Mint: Theoupolis (Antioch)
Date: 595/6 CE
Sear 537 DO 203-12
16mm 2.66gm
wileyc
sear_580a.jpg
AE Decanummium Maurice Tiberius, SB 58012 viewsObverse: DN TIb MAVRIC PP AV or similar, crowned and cuir. bust facing holding gl. cr. and shield
Reverse: Large I between ANNO and regnal yr GII (8), CAT in ex
Mint: Catania
Date: 582-4 CE
Sear 580 DO 264
12mm 3047 gm
wileyc
sear_537~1.jpg
AE Decanummium Maurice Tiberius, SB 58018 viewsObverse: DN MAY CN P AY( or similar) Bust facing, wearing crown with trefoil ornament and consular robes, in r. hand, mappa; in l., eagle tipped sceptre.
Reverse: Large I between ANNP and regnal year (X, u), cross above THEUP in ex
Mint: Theoupolis (Antioch)
Date: 597/8 CE
Sear 537 DO 203-12
17mm 2.68gm
wileyc
sear_472.jpg
AE decanummiun Tiberius II Constantine, SB 47230 viewsObverse: DM TIb CONSTANT PP AVG or similar, Crowned, cuir bust facing holding gl. cr.
Reverse: LArge I between two crosses all within wreath
Mint: Sicily per Hahn, Ravenna per Sear
Date: 578-582 CE
Sear 472 DO 66
14mm 2.61gm
wileyc
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AE follis Constans II SB 1023-5 18 viewsObverse: Bust of Constans facing with long beard earing plumed helmet possibly ornamented with cross not seen on this coin. Holding gl cr in field to rt K.
Reverse: Large M surmounted by facing bust of Constantine IV, to L., facing bust of Heraclius and that of Tiberius to r. each with crown and chlamys and gl cr . ex Theta
Mint: Thessalonica?
Date: 641-668 CE
SB 1023 or 1015 if Helmet of Contans has cross(1023) or without cross (1025)
13mm/18mm 4.95 gm
wileyc
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AE follis Constans II SB 111012 viewsObverse: Constans on l., with long beard holds long cross, Constantine IV on r., beardless , stg. facing, each wearing crown; Constans wears military attire, hid son wears chlamys and holds gl.cr.
Reverse: Large M, above monogram 35; in ex. SCL; to l. Heraclius beardless, stg. facing, wearing crown and chlamys, and holding gl, cr.; similar figure of Tiberius.
Mint: Syracuse
Date: 659-668
Sear 1110
15/19mm 1.82
wileyc
sb_1110a.jpg
AE follis Constans II SB 111018 viewsObverse: Constans on l., with long beard holds long cross, Constantine IV on r., beardless , stg. facing, each wearing crown; Constans wears military attire, hid son wears chlamys and holds gl.cr.
Reverse: Large M, above monogram 35; in ex. SCL; to l. Heraclius beardless, stg. facing, wearing crown and chlamys, and holding gl, cr.; similar figure of Tiberius.
Mint: Syracuse
Date: 659-668
Sear 1110
19mm 1.82
wileyc
sear_808.jpg
AE follis Heraclius, SB 80822 viewsObverse: Heraclius in center, Heraclius Constantine on r., and the Empress MArtina on l, all stg facing; each wearing crown and chlamys, and holding gl. cr. in r. hand two crosses in field either side of Heraclius head
Reverse: Large M, ANNO above, Monogram 23 or 24 to l., regnal yr to rt (X,GI,II)
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 628/9 CE
Sear 808 DO 99-103
28 mm 5.29 gm
Sear notes that this type is normally overstruck on coins of Maurice Tiberius or Phocas and often on half folles rather than folles due to the much reduced module of this issue. The weight of 5.29gm is indicative of this
wileyc
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AE follis Maurice Tiberius SB 49626 viewsObverse: DN MAVRICI TIBER PP AVG, crowned and mantled bust facing, holding gl cr., and shield sometimes without a shield but with cloak drawn across l., shoulder.
Reverse: ANNO to l., lg K,cross above, regnal yr 2 (II) to rt, Officina letter (delta) below,
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 583/4
SB 497
25mm, 6.13g
wileyc
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AE follis Maurice Tiberius SB 496a16 viewsObverse: ONMAVRC PP AV or similar, Crowned or helmeted , cuir, bust facing holding gl. d=cr. and shield.
Reverse: Large K, cross above; to L., ANNO, to r regnal yr (11) 2 officinae below (delta)
Mint: Constantinople
Date:583/4 CE
SB 496a
21mm, 4.30g
wileyc
sb511_26mm1146g.jpg
AE follis Maurice Tiberius SB 511a12 viewsObv: DN TIb CONSTANT PP AV or someother combination blundered, Crowned, cuir. bust facing, holding gl. cr. and shield;
Rev: Large M between ANNO (blundered) and regnal yr (III), cross above, NIKO below (N is blundered).
Mint: Nicomedia
Yr:584/5 CE
Sb 511a
26mm, 11.46g
wileyc
sb518yr828mm1060g.jpg
AE follis Maurice Tiberius SB 51829 viewsObverse: DN TIBER MAVRIC PP A, helmeted and cuirassed or crowned and cuirassed bust facing, holding cross on globe and shield.
Reverse: Large M, ANNO to left, cross or P over star above, regnal year GIII to right yr 9, officina letter B below; mintmark KYZ
Mint: Cyzicus
Date: 590/1 CE
Sear 518
28mm, 10.60g
1 commentswileyc
sear_494.jpg
AE follis Maurice Tiberius, SB 49417 viewsObverse: DN MAVRC TIbER PP AVG or similar, Helmeted and cuir bust facing, holding gl. cr. and shield,
Reverse: Large M, between ANNO and regnal yr XGI (17) Officina "gamma" CON in ex.
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 598/9 CE
Sear 494 DO 26-43
29mm 10.68gm
wileyc
sear_495.jpg
AE follis Maurice Tiberius, SB 49535 viewsObverse: DN MAVRICI TIbER PP AVG (or similar) Crowned bust facing, searing consular robes and holding mappa and eagle tipped sceptre.
Reverse: Large M, ANNO, regnal year,(XX) 10, P headed cross above, CON in ex
Mint: Constantinople
Date 591/2 CE
Sear 495 DO 44-5
30mm 12.35
wileyc
sb51229mm1079g.jpg
AE follis Maurice Tiberius, SB 51219 viewsObv: DN MAVRIC>TIbER PP A or similar usually incomplete. Helmeted or crowned (crowned here) and cuir, bust facing holding gl cuir and shield.
Reverse: Large M ANNO to rt., cross above, NIKO in exergue, regnal yr (XIII) yr 13
Date 595/5 CE
Mint: Nicomedia
Sear 512 DO 95-108
29mm, 10.79g
wileyc
sear_532.jpg
AE follis Maurice Tiberius, SB 53331 viewsObverse: Blundered form of TIANTAPPIV or similar, bust facing wearing crown, with trefoil ornament and consular robes, in r. hand mappa, in l. hand eagle tipped sceptre
Reverse: Large M, between ANNO and regnal yr IIII, cross above,THEUP' in ex.
Mint: Theoupolis (Antioch)
Date: 584/6 CE
Sear 532 DO 152-60
29mm 10.15gm
wileyc
sear_533.jpg
AE follis Maurice Tiberius, SB 53455 viewsObverse: DN MAUTI CN P AYT or similar bust facing wearing crown, with trefoil ornament and consular robes, in r. hand mappa, in l. hand eagle tipped sceptre
Reverse: Large M, between ANNO and regnal yr X, cross above, Officina "A", THEUP in ex.
Mint: Theoupolis (Antioch)
Date:591/2 CE
Sear 533 DO 161-63
28mm11.60
wileyc
sear_430.jpg
AE follis Tiberius II Constantine, SB 43035 viewsObverse: DM TIb CONSTANTANT PP AVI or similar, Crowned bust facing wearing consular robes, and holding mappa and eagle tipped sceptre above eagle, cross
Reverse: Large M, ANNO to l., cross above, regnal tr to l., GI (7), CON officina letter "gamma" to rt.
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 580/1 CE
Sear 430 DO 11-14
30mm 12.84
wileyc
sb430yr735mm1180g.jpg
AE follis Tiberius II Constantine, SB 430, yr 737 viewsObverse: dM TIb CONSTANT PP AVG, crowned and mantled bust facing, holding mappa and eagle-tipped sceptre, cross above eagle .
Reverse: Large m, ANNO to left, cross above, regnal year GI right, mintmark CON and officina letter A
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 580/1 CE
SB 430
35mm, 11.80g
wileyc
sb43425mm584g.jpg
AE follis Tiberius II Constantine, SB 43418 viewsObverse:. DM TIB CONTANT PP AV, crowned and cuirassed bust facing, holding cross on globe and shield.
Reverse:Large XX, cross above, mintmark CON, followed by officinae (delta)
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 578-582 CE
SB 435, MIB 29, DO 17
25mm, 5.84g
wileyc
sb493yr231mm1097g.jpg
AE Follis, Maurice Tiberius SB 49336 viewsObverse: DN MAVRCI PP AVG crowned and cuir. bust facing, holding gl. cr. and shield.
Reverse: Large M, ANNO to left cross above, regnal yr II (2) to rt, Officina letter E below. Con in exergue.
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 5883/4 CE
Sear 493, DO 21-5
31mm, 10.97g
wileyc
s_497.jpg
AE half follis Maurice Tiberius19 viewsObverse: DN MAVR TIbER PP AV or similar, Helmeted (or crowned) abd cuir. bust facing, holding gl. cr. shield
Reverse: Large K ANNO/regnal year, cross above Officina letter "E" below
Date 599/600 CE
Mint: Constantinople
Sear 497 DO 47-63
25 mm 9.62gm
wileyc
sear_534.jpg
AE half follis Maurice Tiberius26 viewsObverse: Legend is normally a blundered form of Tiberius bust facing, wearing crown with trefoil ornament and consular robes, in r. hand, mappa; in l. hand a eagle tipped sceptre.
Reverse: Large XX with pellet inbetween, between ANNO and regnal yr III Y (8) cross above. R below.
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 589/90 CE
Sear 534 DO 174-83
5.75gm
1 commentswileyc
sear_507a.jpg
AE half follis Maurice Tiberius30 viewsObverse: DN TIb CONSTANT PP AV MAurice on l., Constantina on r., seated facing on double throne, he holds gl. cr. in r. hand and she holds sceptre.
Reverse: Large K between ANNO and regnal yr I (1) cross above, TES below.
Mint: Thessalonica
Date: 582/3 CE
Sear 507a DO 71.2
20mm 5.49gm
wileyc
sear_497.jpg
AE half follis Maurice Tiberius, SB 49720 viewsObverse: DNMAURIC TIBER PP AV Crowned with shield. bust facingholding gl cr in r hand
Reverse: Large K, between ANNO and regnal year (XYIII[yr19}), cross above, officina below "delta"
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 600/01 AD
Sear 497 DO 47-63
20/25mm 3.74gm
wileyc
sear_497~0.jpg
AE half follis Maurice Tiberius, SB 49719 viewsObverse DN MAVR> TIBER PP AV or similar. helmeted or crowned (helmeted in this case) and cuir. bust facing, holding gl cr and shield
Reverse: Large K between ANNO and regnal year (U) 5, cross above sometime P headed star.
B below (officina)
Mint: Constantinople
Date 586/7 CE
Sear 497 DO 47-63
6.06 gm
wileyc
sear_497a.jpg
AE half follis Maurice Tiberius, SB 49718 viewsObverse: DN MAVR TIbER PPAV, helmeted and cuir, bust facing holding gl. cr. and sheild
Reverse: Large K between ANNO regnal yr XUII (17) to rt, cross above sometimes with p headed star above instead of cross, Officinae letter E below
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 598/9 CE
Sear 497 DO 47-63
26mm 9.58gm
wileyc
sear_497~1.jpg
AE half follis Maurice Tiberius, SB 49720 viewsObverse: DN MAVR TIbER PP AV or similar, Helmeted (or crowned) abd cuir. bust facing, holding gl. cr. shield
Reverse: Large K ANNO/regnal year U to r, cross above Officina letter "E" below
Date 586/7 CE
Mint: Constantinople
Sear 497 DO 47-63
19mm 5.45gm
wileyc
sear_534a.jpg
AE half follis Maurice Tiberius, SB 53432 viewsObverse: Legend is normally a blundered form of Tiberius bust facing, wearing crown with trefoil ornament and consular robes, in r. hand, mappa; in l. hand a eagle tipped sceptre.
Reverse: Large XX with pellet inbetween, between ANNO and regnal yr IIII (4) cross above. R below.
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 585/6 CE
Sear 534 DO 174-83
5.72gm
1 commentswileyc
sear_535.jpg
AE half follis Maurice Tiberius, SB 53532 viewsObverse:DN MAU(gamma)I. CN AUT or similarrarely with cross in field to l. bust facing, wearing crown with trefoil ornament and consular robes, in r. hand, mappa; in l. hand a eagle tipped sceptre
Reverse: Large K between ANNO and regnal yr. (X) 10, cross above
R below
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 591/2 CE
Sear 535 DO 184-93
5.80gm
wileyc
sear_535~0.jpg
AE half follis Maurice Tiberius, SB 53516 viewsObverse:DN MAU(gamma)I. CN AUT or similarrarely with cross in field to l. bust facing, wearing crown with trefoil ornament and consular robes, in r. hand, mappa; in l. hand a eagle tipped sceptre
Reverse: Large K between ANNO and regnal yr. (IIX) 10, cross above
R below
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 593/4 CE
Sear 535 DO 184-93
20mm 5.48gm
wileyc
sear_535~1.jpg
AE half follis Maurice Tiberius, SB 53515 viewsObverse: TIANTAPPIV blundered, Bust facing wearing crown with trefoil ornament and consular robes; in r. hand mappa; in L., eagle sceptre
Reverse: Large K, between ANNO and to r. regnal year (XX) 20, R in ex
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 601/2 CE
Sear 535 DO 184-93
21mm 4.42 gm
wileyc
sear_535~2.jpg
AE half follis Maurice Tiberius, SB 53518 viewsObverse: TIANTAPPIV blundered, Bust facing wearing crown with trefoil ornament and consular robes; in r. hand mappa; in L., eagle sceptre
Reverse: Large K between ANNO and regnal yr IIX, R below, cross above
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 588/9 CE
Sear 535 DO 184-93
19mm 4.45
wileyc
sb50924mm553g.jpg
AE Half-follis Maurice Tiberius, SB 50927 viewsObv: Helmeted sometimes crowned and cuir bust facing, holding gl cr. and shield.
Reverse: ANNO, large K, cross above regnal yr III to rt. TES below
Date: 584/5 CE
Mint: Thessalonica
sear 509
24mm, 5.53g

wileyc
sear_581.jpg
AE Maurice Tiberius decanummium11 viewsObverse: DN MAVRIC TIb PP AV or similar, crowned and cuir. bust facing holding gl. cr. and shield
Reverse: Large I between ANNO and regnal yr GII (8), CAT in ex
Mint: Catania
Date: 589/90 CE
Sear 581 DO 265-78
13mm 2.01 gm
wileyc
DSC_s501a.jpg
AE Pentanummium Maurice Tiberius, SB 501a14 viewsObverse: D.N. MAVRIC PP AV or similar
Reverse: Large E, officina letter "delta" to r.
Date: 582-602 AD
Mint: Constantinople
Sear 501a DO 68b-d
15mm 1.08gm
wileyc
sear_501.jpg
AE Pentanummium Maurice Tiberius, SB 501a16 viewsObverse: DN MAVRIC PP AV Diad., dr. and cuir. bust r.
Reverse: Large E, officina letter (B) to r.
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 582-602 AD
Sear 501a DO 68b-d
14 mm 1.37 gm
wileyc
DSC_s438.jpg
AE Pentanummium Tiberius II Constantine, SB 43839 viewsObverse: DM Tib CON PP (or similar), Diad., dr. and cuir. bust r.
Reverse: Large U
Mint: Constantinople
Date:578-582 AD
SB.438 DO 22
16mm 1.30 gm
wileyc
Dio_Maddonna!!!_090.JPG
AE18 Bronze de Macédoine sous Tiberius, 14-37 ap. J-C!31 views4.95 gr, patine foncée, relief, Etat: TTB++ frappe Philipi, rare!
Droit : AVG- Tête masculine à droite;
Rev.: Deux vaches à droite suivi par un paysan derrière, élaborant la terre. RPC 1657, var.
Prix estimé: 40 Euro.
Antonio Protti
DSC01501.JPG
AE18 Bronze de Macédoine sous Tiberius, 14-37 ap. J-C!29 views4.95 gr, patine foncée, relief, Etat: TTB++ frappe Philipi, rare!
Droit : AVG- Tête masculine à droite;
Rev.: Deux vaches à droite suivi par un paysan derrière, élaborant la terre. RPC 1657, var.
Prix estimé: 40 Euro. sold
Antonio Protti
Temnos.jpg
Aeolis, Temnos. Pseudo-autonomous Ae25. Senate/Nemeses92 viewsObv: IERACY NKLHTOC; Bust of youthful Senate r.
Rev: THM NE ITWN; Two Nemeses standing facing each other, drawing fold of drapery from breasts.
200-250 AD.
25mm, 6.5g.
SNG COP 21 266(1)

Temnos was a little town of Aeolia, near the Hermus River, which is shown on its coins. Situated at elevation it commanded the territories of Cyme, Phocaea, and Smyrna. Under Augustus it was already on the decline; under Tiberius it was destroyed by an earthquake; and in the time of Pliny it was no longer inhabited. It was however rebuilt.
ancientone
M.AGRPa1D+R.jpg
AGRIPPA79 viewsAE as. Cohen 3, RIC (tib.) 32, BMC 161
D/ M.AGRIPPA.L.F.COS.III Hd. l., wearing rostral crown.
R/ SC Neptune stg. l., holding dolphin and trident.
Struck by Tiberius
Rugser
agrippa.JPG
Agrippa (Died 12 B.C.)47 viewsÆ As
O: M. AGRIPPA. F. COS. III, head left, wearing rostral crown.
R: Neptune standing left, holding small dolphin and trident; S-C across field.
Rome mint. Struck under Gaius (Caligula)
27mm
9.72g
RIC I 58 (Gaius); MIR 3, 24-6; BMCRE 161 (Tiberius); Cohen 3
2 commentsMat
422_Agrippa.jpg
Agrippa - AE as6 viewsstruck by Caligula
Rome
38 AD
head wearing rostrate crown left
M•AGRIPPA•L_•F • COS III
Neptune standing left, holding dolphin and trident
S C
RIC I Gaius 58; BMCRE II Tiberius 161 - 168; Cohen I 3, BnF II Caligula 77 - 97, SRCV I 1812
10,51g
Johny SYSEL
Hendin1240web.jpg
Agrippa I170 viewsAgrippa I. 37-44 AD. AE 23, 11.45g. Caesarea Paneas Mint, Year 5, 40/1 AD.
O: [ΓΑΙΩ ΚΑΙΣΑΡΙ ΣΕΒΑΣΤΩ ΓΕΡΜΑΝΙΚΩ] (For Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus), Laureate head of Caligula left.
R: [ΝΟΜΙΣΜΑ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΓΡΙΠΠΑ] (coin of King Agrippa). LE (Year 5=40/41) in exergue; Germanicus stands in triumphal quadriga in honor of his recovery of the standards lost by Varus, car decorated with Nike standing right.
- Hendin 1240. TJC 230-1,116. AJC II 2. RPC 4976.

One of the rarest coin types of Agrippa I (26 listed?).

The grandson of Herod I, Agrippa I, so-named in honor of the victor of Actium, spent much of his youth in the Roman imperial court. Popular with the imperial family, including the emperor Tiberius, Agrippa passed much of his time in the home of Antonia Minor, the mother of Germanicus and the future emperor Claudius.

There, the boys became great friends, and as an older man, Agrippa became attached to the future emperor Gaius, being appointed governor of the territories of Batanaea and Trachonitis upon Gaius’ accession. Unfortunately contemporary politics placed a significant strain on the relationship between the king and Rome.

In AD 39 Agrippa’s uncle, Antipas, was accused of plotting with the Parthians and was exiled. Agrippa’s loyalty gained him his uncle’s forfeited territories. In AD 40 renewed riots between Greeks and Jews broke out in Alexandria, and Gaius, clearly unhappy with his Jewish subjects, provocatively ordered the installation of a statue of himself within the Holy of Holies in Jerusalem.

Agrippa, who had been unsuccessfully involved in trying to quell similar riots in Alexandria before, sought to emphasize his loyalty to local Roman officials by striking coinage which commemorated his long-standing friendship with Gaius and, especially, Germanicus.

Based on the dupondii struck in honor of the emperor’s father Germanicus, this coin includes the great general riding in his triumphal car in honor of his recovery of the standards lost by Varus, rather than portraying Agrippa himself, an identification emphasized by the specific inclusion of the word NOMISMA (Coin) in the legend.

By avoiding self promotion, Agrippa hoped to successfully navigate the treacherous waters which might result in his own removal from power.
4 commentsNemonater
agrippa_58.jpg
Agrippa RIC I, Gaius 58629 viewsAgrippa, died 12 BC, friend and son-in-law of Augustus
AE - As, 10.84g, 22.5mm
Rome, undated
obv. M AGRIPPA L F COS III
head l., with corona rostrata
rev. Neptune standing l., cloaked, r. holding small dolphin,
l. vertical trident
S C l. and r.
RIC I, Gaius 58; C.3; BMCR (Tiberius)161
about VF, black patina

CORONA ROSTRATA (or CORONA NAVALIS), a crown decorated with prows, dedicated to Agrippa due to the victory over Sextus Pompeius in the naval battle of Naulochos 36 BC.
Jochen
0035-510np_noir.jpg
Agrippa, As - *323 viewsPosthumous issue of Caligula, in honour of his grandfather (died 12 BC)
Rome mint, ca AD 37/41
M AGRIPPA L F COS III, head of Agrippa left with rostral crown
Neptun standing left, holding trident and dolphin. Large S C in fields
10.9 gr
Ref : RCV #1812, Cohen #3
Ex Alwin collection

The following commentary is a (quick) translation from CGB about a similar coin :

"Although Augustus associated his close friend Agrippa in his coinage, he didn't for him alone. Gaius honoured the memory of his grandfather, recalling he had been COS III in 27 BC while Augustus was COS VII at the same time.
Gaius, however, as the new emperor would like us to remember his double filiation : Through his father, Germanicus, he's descended from Nero Drusus and Antonia, thus from Tiberius ; through his mother Agrippina the elder, he tells us Agrippa and Julia are his grand parents and he's a grand grand son of Augustus. Agrippa remained prestigious all along the first century CE, although he had died 12 BC. Titus then Domitian will also strike this type, seemingly very succesfull towards population (see RCV 2589 and 2894)"
6 commentsPotator II
Agrippa_AE_As.JPG
Agrippa, Æ As. Struck under Caligula28 viewsObv: M AGRIPPA L F COS III, head left wearing rostral crown.
Rev: S-C, Neptune standing facing, head left, naked except for cloak draped behind him & over both arms, holding small dolphin in right hand & vertical trident in left. Agrippa Died 12 BC. Struck under Caligula 37-41 AD. Ref Agrippa AE As, RIC 58 [Caligula], Cohen 3, BMC 161 [Tiberius]. Sear Roman Coins and their Values (RCV 2000 Edition) Number 1812. Large 27mm. _3601
Antonivs Protti
AGRSSE01.JPG
Agrippina maior, grand daughter of Augustus, daughter of Agrippa, wife of Germanicus, mother of Gaius ("Caligula"), 14 BC- 33 AD230 viewsOrichalcum sestertius (26.9g, 36mm, 6h). Rome mint. Struck under Gaius, AD 37.
AGRIPPINA·M·F·MAT·C·CAESARIS·AVGVSTI, draped bust right
S·P·Q·R· in field above, MEMORIAE / AGRIPPINAE in two lines
Carpentum drawn by two mules moving left. The Carpentum's cover is supported by standing figures at the corners and its sides are ornamented.
Gaius had the ashes of his mother returned to Rome soon after he came to power in 37 AD. He celebrated the memory of his mother, father and brothers, all murdered by Tiberius, with a series of coins. The sestertius issue was reserved for the memory of his mother. Note the lack of S C on this issue which has S P Q R instead.
RIC 55; Cohen 1
2 commentsCharles S
Alexander_Severus_-_Julia_Maesa.jpg
Alexander Severus - Marcianopolis16 viewsAE pentassarion
Tiberius Julius Festus, consular legate
225-226 AD
laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Severus Alexander right, confronting diademed and draped bust of Julia Maesa left
AVT K M AVP CEVH AΛEZANΔPOC IOVΛIA MAICA·
Dikaiosyne (Aequitas) standing half left, holding scales and cornucopia
VΠ TIB IOVΛ ΦECTOV M(AP)KIANOΠOΛIT(ΩN)
E
Moushmov 727
11,12g
Johny SYSEL
1419_Alexander_Severus_Markianopolis.jpg
Alexander Severus - Marcianopolis2 viewsTiberius Julius Festus, consular legate
AE tetrasarion?
225-229 AD
laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right from behind
AVT K M AVP CEVH_·_AΛEZANΔPOC
eagle facing, head left, wreath in beak
VΠ TIB IOVA ΦHCT(OV) MAPKIANOΠOΛIT(ΩN)
SNGCop 246; Pick 1021.
9,2g
ex Aurea
Johny SYSEL
Nero.jpg
Alexandria Nero and Tiberius.1 viewsAlexandria Nero and Tiberius.Ancient Aussie
tiberius_amphipolis.jpg
Amphipolis, Macedonia; Artemis Tauropolos riding on bull18 viewsTiberius AE21, Amphipolis, Macedonia. 9,2 g, 21 mm. ΤΙ ΚΑΙΣΑΡ ΣΕΒΑΣΤΟΣ, bare head right / ΑΜΦΙΠΟΛΙΤΩΝ, Artemis Tauropolis riding bull right, veil flowing above. RPC 1632. BMC 80, SGI 259.Podiceps
ANASTASIA-1.jpg
Anastasia, wife of Tiberius II Constantine, 578-582 CE.207 viewsÆ ½ follis (21 mm). Thessalonica mint, 579 CE.
Obv. dmTibCONS TANTPPAV; Nimbate Tiberius and Anastasia seated facing on double throne. He holds globus cruciger; she holds sceptre.
Rev. Large K; above, cross; to left, A / N / N / O; to right regnal indicator V (5); beneath TЄS.
Berk 398, DOC 23, Sear 439.
EmpressCollector
tributepenny.jpg
ancient imitation of a tribute penny22 views17mm, 3.59g
obv: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS (blundered); laureate head right
rev: PONTIF MAXIM; Livia on throne right, scepter in right, branch in left hand
areich
Hendin-1333a.jpg
Ancient Judaea, Procuratorial: Valerius Gratus (15-26 CE) Æ Prutah, Jerusalem, RY 2 of Tiberius (Hendin 1333a; TJC 317; RPC 4959)8 viewsObv: IOY/ΛIA in two lines within wreath
Rev: Upright palm branch; across field, date (L B)

Plate Coin from Hendin
Quant.Geek
Hendin-1333b.jpg
Ancient Judaea, Procuratorial: Valerius Gratus (15-26 CE) Æ Prutah, Jerusalem, RY 2 of Tiberius (Hendin 1333b; TJC 317; RPC 4959)4 viewsObv: [IOY/ΛIA] blundered in two lines within wreath
Rev: Upright palm branch; across field, date (L B)

Plate Coin from Hendin
Quant.Geek
lot953611.jpg
Ancient Judaea, Procuratorial: Valerius Gratus (15-26 CE) Æ Prutah, Jerusalem, RY 4 of Tiberius (Hendin 1336; TJC 326)10 viewsObv: IOY ΛIA; vine leaf and small bunch of grapes
Rev: Narrow-necked amphora with scroll handles; across field, L Δ
Quant.Geek
Hendin-1338.jpg
Ancient Judaea, Procuratorial: Valerius Gratus (15-26 CE) Æ Prutah, Jerusalem, RY 4 of Tiberius (Hendin 1338; TJC 327; RPC 4964)11 viewsObv: TIB/KAI/CAP in three lines within wreath
Rev: IOY ΛIA; Upright palm branch; across field, L Δ
Quant.Geek
AncientRomanEmpire-AR-denarius-Tiberius-026000.jpg
Ancient Rome (Imperial): silver denarius of Tiberius, ca. 14-37 AD: the biblical "Tribute Penny"19 viewslordmarcovan
tombe.jpg
ANTIQUITIES, Roman, Legionary tomb materials213 viewsTomb found on 9 Sept. 1874 in Chassenard (130 km from Lyon) by a ploughing farmer. The items are from a Gallic nobleman having served in the Roman army, with his decorations (Torque), armour (chain mail), belt, accessories (strigils, ...), and a distinguished attribute of his former role : 4 iron dies (2 for Tiberius, 2 unrecognized).Roma_Orbis
Antonia~0.jpg
Antonia Augusta 66 viewsANTONIA AVGVSTA

Rev. TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP SC
Cladius veiled and togate stg left holding simpulum

Sear 1902

Antonia was the younger daughter of Mark Antony and Octavia and was born on January 31st 36B.C. She was married at age 20 to Tiberius' younger brother Nero Claudius Drusus and had two sons, the great Germanicus and the future emperor Claudius. She was widowed in 9 BC and refused to marry again and devoted her life to her families interests. Her wealth and status made her very influencial during Tiberius' reign and it was she who brought about the downfall of Sejanus.

On the accession of her grandson Caligula in 37 AD she received many honours but died later that year at the age of 73. She did not receive postumous honours until the reign of her son Claudius in 41 AD and all of the coinage in Antonia's name was issued by Claudius.

SOLD
Titus Pullo
Antonia~1.jpg
Antonia Augusta71 viewsANTONIA AVGVSTA
Head of Antonia right

TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP SC
Claudius veiled and togate standing left holding simpulum

11.47g

Sear 1902

Antonia was the younger daughter of Mark Antony and Octavia and was born on January 31st 36B.C. She was married at age 20 to Tiberius' younger brother Nero Claudius Drusus and had two sons, the great Germanicus and the future emperor Claudius. She was widowed in 9 BC and refused to marry again and devoted her life to her families interests. Her wealth and status made her very influencial during Tiberius' reign and it was she who brought about the downfall of Sejanus.

On the accession of her grandson Caligula in 37 AD she received many honours but died later that year at the age of 73. She did not receive postumous honours until the reign of her son Claudius in 41 AD and all of the coinage in Antonia's name was issued by Claudius.
Jay GT4
ant_felix.jpg
Antoninus Felix, Roman Procurator under Claudius 52 - 60 A.D. Hendin 6513 viewsJudaea, Antonius Felix, Roman Procurator under Claudius, 52 - 60 A.D. Bronze prutah, Hendin 651, Meshorer TJC 342, aF, Caesarea mint, 2.921g, 18.2mm, 0o, 54 A.D.; obverse “ΙΟΥ/ΛΙΑ ΑΓ/ΡΙΠΠΙ/ΝΑ” (Julia Agrippina - wife of Claudius), within a wreath tied at the bottom with an X; reverse , TI K“ΛΑΥΔ”IOC KAICAP “Γ”EPM (Tiberius Claudius Caesar Germanicus), two crossed palm fronds, L I“D” below (year 14). Ex FORVMPodiceps
2015-01-07_01_08_08-9.jpg
Antoninus Pius 3 views
Antoninus Pius. AD 138-161. Æ Dupondius (27mm, 10.58 g, 11h). Rome mint. Struck AD 159. Radiate head right / TEMPLVM DIV AVG REST, octastyle temple within which are the seated figures of Divus Augustus and Livia. RIC III 1017. VF, dark brown surfaces with touches of green, some pitting and minor smoothing.


The second Temple of Divus Augustus, commenced under Tiberius and dedicated by Caligula in August AD 37, suffered during the great fire of 80, which began on the Capitoline Hill and spread into the Forum and onto the Palatine. It was possibly restored or rebuilt under Domitian, although it is not mentioned in the Chronographia. It received further restoration under Antoninus Pius in 158. The temple under Antoninus was Corinthian octastyle and contained the seated figures of Divus Augustus and Livia within, generally drawn on the coinage at an elevated level to suggest perspective.
Ancient Aussie
Divus_Antoninus_Pius_Æ_Sestertius_120.jpg
Antoninus Pius (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 4 viewsDIVVS ANTONINVS - Bare-headed and draped bust right
CONSECRATIO - Eagle standing right on globe, with head left and wings folded.
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (161-162 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 30.68g / 37mm / 360
Rarity: Scarce with draped bust.
References:
RIC 1262 (Aurelius) var. (bare head only)
Banti 68
BMCRE 871 (Aurelius) note
Provenances:
Roma Numismatics
Acquisition/Sale: Roma Numismatics Internet E-Sale 46 #630

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Two days before his death, Antoninus was at his ancestral estate at Lorium, in Etruria, about twelve miles (19 km) from Rome. He ate Alpine cheese at dinner quite greedily. In the night he vomited; he had a fever the next day. The day after that, 7 March 161, he summoned the imperial council, and passed the state and his daughter to Marcus. The emperor gave the keynote to his life in the last word that he uttered when the tribune of the night-watch came to ask the password - "aequanimitas" (equanimity). He then turned over, as if going to sleep, and died. His death closed out the longest reign since Augustus (surpassing Tiberius by a couple of months).
Gary W2
AntoSe65-4.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 1004, Sestertius of AD 159 (Temple of Divus Augustus)25 viewsÆ Sestertius (22.23g, Ø30mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 159.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXII laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Rev.: TEMPLVM DIV AVG REST (around) COS IIII (in ex.) S C (in field), Octastyle temple of Divus Augustus with statues of Augustus and Livia. The temple stands on a podium of three steps. Both statues in the centre, standing on a base, have the right arms raised. There are statues to the left near the foot of the steps and other statues of soldiers on pedestals at each side of the top step. The statuary on the roof can be identified as Augustus in quadriga flanked by Romulus on the right and Aeneas carrying Anchises on the left. Unidentified statuary in the pediment.

RIC 1004 (S); BMCRE 2063; Cohen 805; Strack 1167; Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali II-3) 406; Sear (Roman Coins and their Values II) 4235.
ex Triton VI (2003)

The second Temple of Divus Augustus, commenced under Tiberius and dedicated by Caligula in August AD 37, suffered during the great fire of 80 which began on the Capitoline Hill and spread into the Forum and onto the Palatine. It was possibly restored or rebuilt under Domitian, although it is not mentioned in the Chronographia, and it certainly received further restoration under Antoninus Pius in 158. The temple under Antoninus was Corinthian octastyle and contained the seated figures of Divus Augustus and Livia within, generally drawn on the coinage at an elevated level to suggest perspective.
Charles S
H-651.jpg
Antonius Felix5 viewsOBV: IOY/LIAA/PIPPI/NA, (Julia Agrippina - wife of Claudius)
within a wreath tied at bottom with an X.
REV: Two crossed palm branches, around, TI KLAVDIOC KAICAP GEPM.
(Tiberius Claudius Caesar Germanicus) Date Below (LIA - A.D. 54)
Hendin-651; AJC II Supp. 5, 32
A.D. 54 3.08gm 18mm
goldenancients
J12N-Felix H-651.jpg
Antonius Felix, procurator under Claudius, Æ Prutah, 52-59 CE106 viewsBronze prutah of Antonius Felix, procurator under Claudius, 52-59 CE, 2.50g, 17mm.

Obverse: TI KΛAVΔIOC KAICAP ΓEPM. Two crossed palm-branches; around, legend (Tiberius Claudius Caesar Germanicus); date below, LIΔ = Year 14 = 54 C.E.
Reverse: IOY/ΛIAAΓ/PIΠΠI/NA (Julia Agrippina - wife of Claudius) within a wreath tied at bottom with an X.

Reference: Hendin 651, Treasury of Jewish Coins 342. AJC II, Supp. V, 32

Added to collection: November 17, 2005
1 commentsDaniel Friedman
32653_Antonius_Felix_prutah,_Hendin_651.jpg
Antonius Felix, prutah, Hendin 6512 viewsJudaea, Antonius Felix, Roman Procurator under Claudius, 52 - 60 A.D. Bronze prutah, Hendin 651, over struck on earlier prutah, probably Agrippa I, Hendin 651, F, Caesarea mint, 0.952g, 14.9mm, 0o, 54 A.D.; obverse “ΙΟΥ/ΛΙΑ ΑΓ/ΡΙΠΠΙ/ΝΑ” (Julia Agrippina - wife of Claudius), within a wreath tied at the bottom with an X; reverse , TI K“ΛΑΥΔ”IOC KAICAP “Γ”EPM (Tiberius Claudius Caesar Germanicus), two crossed palm fronds, L I“Δ” below (year 14). Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
12_Caesar_portraits.jpg
Antony & The 12 Caesars256 viewsA variation on my other virtual coin trays. This one includes a lifetime portrait of Julius Caesar. It's difficult choosing which coin to include in this set, in some cases I only had one (Galba, Otho) but others I had many more to choose from. I do have better portraits of some but I thought these had more interesting reverse types or portrait styles:

Marcus Antonius denarius
Julius Caesar denarius
Augustus denarius
Tiberius denarius
Caligula AE As
Claudius AE As
Nero Dupondius
Galba AE As
Otho Tetradrachm
Vitellius denarius
Vespasian denarius
Titus denarius
Domitian denarius

Image is clickable for larger size.
To see the coins individually see them in my gallery.
9 commentsJay GT4
Tiberius_03.jpg
Asia Minor, Phrygia, Laodicea, Tiberius, Zeus25 viewsTiberius
Phrygia, Laodicea
Æ 19mm
Obv: ΣΕΒΑΣΤΟΣ. Bare head right.
Rev: ΔIOΣKOVPIΔHS TO ΔEVTEPON - ΛΑΟΔΙΚЄΩΝ, Zeus Laodikeos standing left, holding eagle and sceptre? Control monogram PK right.
Æ, 19mm, 6.51g
RPC 2911, SNG Copenhagen 549, BMC 143.
Ex Pecunem Gitbud&Naumann auction 28, Lot 278
shanxi
Laodikeia_02.jpg
Asia Minor, Phrygia, Laodikeia, Apollo, Crown of Isis16 viewsLaodikeia
Asia Minor, Phrygia
Pseudo-autonomous issue
AE13
Time of Tiberius, AD 10-37
Obv.: ΛAOΔIKEΩN laureate bust of Apollo right with lyre
Rev.: ΠΥΘHΣ ΠΥΘOΥ ΔIΣ, altar surmounted by headdress of Isis
AE, 13.6mm, 2.55g
Ref.: BMC Phrygia 62; SNG Cop 511; RPC I 2909
1 commentsshanxi
bosporus_aspurgus.jpg
Aspurgus, c. 14 - 37 A.D., In the Name of Tiberius. Tiberius/ Aspurgus21 viewsKingdom of Bosporus, Aspurgus, c. 14 - 37 A.D., In the Name of Tiberius. Bronze 12 nummi, RPC I 1903 (14 examples), MacDonald 300, F, 7.000g, 22.7mm, 0o, c. 35 - 37 A.D.; obverse “TIBERIOS KAISAROS”, laureate head of Tiberius right; reverse, diademed head of Aspurgus right, IB before, uncertain monogram behind; brown tone. This coin and coins of Caligula (RPC 1904, “Gaius Caesar Germanicus” 14 examples known to RPC) were both struck with this date, with young portraits, about which RPC notes, “the pieces with the portraits of Tiberius and Caligula were probably made at the end of the reign; the Tiberian pieces are so similar to the Caligulan ones that it seems very likely that both were made within a short space of time.” Could the young portrait on the obverse be viewed as that of Tiberius Gemellus? The grandson of Tiberius was named joint-heir with Caligula in the will of the emperor. Ex FORVMPodiceps
replicas.jpg
Assortment of replica Biblical coins344 viewsI'm told that these were made in the 50's for use in Sunday schools. 7 coins encased in a slab of plastic. From smallest to largest they are as follows:

Lepton of Caponius 6 AD
Lepton of Pontius Pilate 29 AD
Herod Antipas 29 AD
Denarius of Tiberius14-37 AD
Harod the Great 37 BC
Shekel of Tyre 126 BC
Vespasian 72 AD

Quality is not as good as modern replicas but it makes a nice addition to my desk. I don't think these coins would fool anyone! :D
Titus Pullo
41286_Livia,_Wife_of_Augustus_and_Mother_of_Tiberius,_Augusta,_Cilicia,_Time_of_Nero.jpg
Augusta, Cilicia, Time of Nero. AE 18, Tyche seated on throne, holding grain, river god Saros4 viewsLivia, Wife of Augustus and Mother of Tiberius, Augusta, Cilicia, Time of Nero. Bronze AE 18, RPC I 4013, SNG Levante 1238, SNG Cop -, aF, porous, Augusta mint, 6.084g, 18.2mm, 0o, 67 - 68 A.D.; obverse “ΣΕΒΑΣΤΗ ΛΙΟΥΙΑ”, draped bust right; reverse “ΑΥΓΟΥΣΤΑΝΩΝ”, Tyche seated on throne, holding grain, river god Saros at feet; rare. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
Avgvstvs.jpg
Augustus174 viewsAugustus, Copper As struck under Tiberius.
This type was struck by Tiberius to commemorate Augustus.
Denomination : Copper As. Mint : Rome.
Date : AD 22 to 23
Size : 26.4 x 27.0 mm Weight : 10.42 grams.
Reference : RIC I, page 99, #81. Sear-1789
Obverse : Radiate head of Augustus left, with DIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER around.
Reverse : Altar with doors closed, with PROVIDENT below, and S C in the fields.
b70
Augustusthunderbolt.jpg
Augustus63 viewsDIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER

Rev. SC winged thunderbolt

Copper as.
Issued under Tiberius in honour of Augustus
Titus Pullo
Augustus_Prov.jpg
Augustus69 viewsDIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER

Rev. PROVIDENT SC around alter

Posthumous issue by Tiberius Aug 19th 14 A.D.

SEAR 1789
Titus Pullo
augustus_RIC_207.jpg
Augustus135 viewsAugustus, denarius.
RIC I 207, RSC 43.
Lugdunum mint.
19.5 mm, 3.8 g
Obv. CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE, laureate head right.
Rev. AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT, C L CAESARES below, Gaius and Lucius standing front, each with a hand resting on a round shield, a spear, and in field above, a lituus right and simpulum left.

Gaius and Lucius were adopted in 17 BC by their maternal grandfather Augustus, who named the two boys his heirs. They were raised and educated by their grandparents. Lucius died in Gaul of an illness in 2 A.D and Gaius died two years later in Lycia, after being wounded during a campaign in Artagira. The death of both Gaius and Lucius, the Emperor's two most favored heirs, compelled Augustus to adopt his stepson, Tiberius, and his sole remaining grandson, Postumus Agrippa as his new respective heirs.

I love this Augustus portrait!
3 commentsMarsman
Augustus_RIC_83.jpg
Augustus61 viewsAugustus, as (struck under Tiberius).
RIC 83 (tib).
28 mm, 10,94 g.
A.D. 34 - 37.
Obv. DIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER, radiate head of Augustus left.
REV. Winged thunderbolt between large SC.
3 commentsMarsman
Augustus_as_RIC_81.jpg
Augustus89 viewsDivus Augustus, as (struck under Tiberius).
RIC 81.
29 mm, 10.8 g.
Obv. DIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER, radiate head of Augustus left.
Rev. PROVIDENT SC altar.
5 commentsMarsman
divusaug10_6612.jpg
AUGUSTUS31 viewsAE as. Struck under Tiberius. 34-37 AD. 10.66 grs. 12 h. Radiate head of Augustus left. DIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER / Winged thunderbolt upright. S C across fields.
RIC 83. BMC 157. Cohen 249.
Triskeles 13. Lot 244.
1 commentsbenito
Augustus1.jpg
Augustus13 viewsEmperor Tiberius as coin of Augustus, 34 AD, Roman mint. 27mm, 11g. Obverse: Head of Augustus, left, DIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER. Reverse: winged thunderbolt flanked by: S(enatvs) C(onsvlto) ("By decree of the senate").Neal A
818BB11D-E916-43CD-A83D-073AFD960262.jpeg
Augustus 19 viewsDivus Augustus. Died A.D. 14. AE as (27.45 mm, 9.88 g, 7 h). Rome, A.D. 34-37. DIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER, bare head left / winged thunderbolt between S-C. RIC 83 (Tiberius); BMCRE 157. aVF, rough.1 commentsecoli
collagemaker_2018060_Tdyos.jpg
Augustus12 viewsAE21, Corinthian, Struck by Tiberius, Issued by L. Arrius Peregrinus and L. Furius Labeo, duoviri. Struck 32-33 AD
Obverse: LARRIO PEREGRINO IIVIR, radiate head of Augustus left.
Reverse: LFVRIOLABEONE IIVIR, COR, hexastyle temple, GENT IVLI on pediment.
References: RPC 1151; BCD 379; BMC 520
Justin L
100_0727.JPG
Augustus & Tiberius15 viewsAugustus & Tiberius, as Caesar, Æ 22mm of Thessalonica. 4-14 AD. QESSALONIKEWN, laureate head of Augustus right / TIBERIOS KAISAR, bare head of Tiberius right. Moushmov 6683, SNGCop 400, BMC 74, SGI 176, RPC 1565.simmurray
coin12.jpg
Augustus & Tiberius15 viewsAugustus & Tiberius, as Caesar, Æ 22mm of Thessalonica. 4-14 AD. QESSALONIKEWN, laureate head of Augustus right / TIBERIOS KAISAR, bare head of Tiberius right. Moushmov 6683, SNGCop 400, BMC 74, SGsimmurray
RIC_Claudius_on_Augustus_Martini-Pangerl_58.JPG
Augustus (Caius Julius Caesar Octavianus) (27 B.C. – 14 A.D.) and Tiberius (Tiberius Julius Caesar) (14-37 A.D.)28 viewsHowgego 602, Martini-Pangerl 58, on a RIC I (Augustus) ___

Countermark of Tiberius often encountered on coins found in the Moesia region (Bulgaria), on an AE as (25 mm) issued by Augustus in the name of a moneyer. Rome mint.

Obv: [illegible], bare head of Augustus, right.

Rev: [illegible], S—C in field, TI•C•A countermark within a rectangular incuse.

From an uncleaned coin lot.
Stkp
RIC_Augustus-Caligula_Martini-Pangerl_90,_95__etc.JPG
Augustus (Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus) (27 B.C. – 14 A.D.) and Tiberius (Tiberius Julius Caesar) (14-37 A.D.) or Caligula (Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus) (37-41 A.D.)26 viewsMartini-Pangerl 90 (re TI•CÆ), 75 & 83 (re AVG), 98 (re helmet), 95-97 (re dolphin)

AE 23-26 mm

Obv: TI•CÆ, AVG and helmet countermarks on an unidentified undertype.

Rev: Dolphin countermark on an unidentified undertype.

The TI•CÆ countermark is late Augustinian and is often combined with the dolphin and helmet countermarks. The AVG countermark is probably associated with Tiberius or Caligula.

From an uncleaned coin lot.
Stkp
augusto_provident_as_(Tiberio)_Ric81.jpg
Augustus - as10 viewsPROVIDENT
Tiberius Ric 81
1 commentsantvwala
augusto_provident.jpg
Augustus - as8 viewsPROVIDENT
Tiberius Ric 81
antvwala
002A.jpg
Augustus AE As 186 viewsDivus Augustus struck under Tiberius
RIC I 81 (Tiberius-old RIC), Cohen 228, Sear5 1789
10.73 gm, 28 mm
DIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER, rad. head left
S-C either side of large altar, PROVIDENT in ex.
9 commentsMark Z2
Augustus13_opt.jpg
AUGUSTUS AE As, RIC 81 [tib], Provident77 viewsOBV: DIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER, radiate head left
REV: S-C either side of large altar, PROVIDENT in ex.


Minted in Rome under Tiberius, 31-37 AD
3 commentsLegatus
auli~0.jpg
Augustus and Livia , Colonial Romula (Seville), Minted by Tiberus13 viewsAugustus and Livia, minted by Tiberius, 14 Aug 19 - 16 Mar 37 A.D.
This coin associates Livia with globe and crescent symbols and refers to her as Augusta Genetrix Orbis, Sacred Mother of the World. This extraordinary title was never official and is not used on any other coin type for any empress.
5474. Orichalcum dupondius, RPC I 73, Alverez Burgos 1587, aF, Colonia Romula mint, 25.1g, 33.4mm, 180°, obverse PERM DIVI AVG COL ROM, Augustus radiate head right, star above, thunderbolt right; reverse IVLIA AVGVSTA GENETRIX ORBIS, Livia head left on globe, crescent above;
sold 4-2018
NORMAN K
Auguste 21 D.jpg
Augustus As35 viewsPosthumous issues by Tiberius
Copper As. Obv.:DIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER ; rad. hd. of Augustus l.
Rev.: PROVIDENT S C , facade of altar-enclosure of the Ar Providentiae Augusti, with double panelled door and horns of the altar visible above.
RIC 81
Tanit
Augustus 4.jpg
Augustus As44 viewsAE As - Posthmous issues by Tiberius.
Obv: DIVVS AVGUSTVS PATER; rad. hd. of Augustus left.
Rev: S C ; eagle on globe
Cohen 247
1 commentsTanit
augustus_2~0.jpg
Augustus As28 viewsAE As Posthumous issues by Tiberius
Obv: DIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER ; rad. hd. l.
Rev: S C ; winged thunderbolt

Cohen 249
Tanit
Tibere.jpg
Augustus As28 viewsPosthumous issues by Tiberius
Copper As.
Obv.:DIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER ; rad. hd. of Augustus l.
Rev.: PROVIDENT S C , facade of altar-enclosure of the Ar Providentiae Augusti, with double panelled door and horns of the altar visible above.

RIC 81
Tanit
101.jpg
Augustus As, Issue by Tiberius21 viewsAugustus, struck by Tiberius, circa 15 - 16 AD
Æ As, 28mm. 10.9 grams
Obverse: DIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER, Radiate head left, thunderbolt left.
Reverse: S C, Draped female figure seated right with feet on stool and holding patera and long sceptre.

Reference:
RIC71 (Tiberius)

Provenance:
Ebay, August 1008, $150
1 commentsKen Dorney
arici72tibOR.jpg
Augustus As, RIC I 72 (Tiberius)48 viewsRome mint, Divus Augustus As, Struck under Tiberius, circa AD 15-16 AE, 26mm 9.10g, RIC I 72 (Tiberius); BMCRE 151-154 (Tiberius); BN 44-48 (Tiberius); Cohen 244
O: DIVVS AVGV-STVS • PATER •, radiate head of Divus Augustus left; star above; thunderbolt before
R: S C across field, draped female figure (Livia) seated right, feet on stool, holding scepter in left hand and patera in right
casata137ec
Augustus_tiberius.jpg
Augustus by Tiberius (14-37 AD)18 viewsDivus Augustus Æ As. Struck under Tiberius, circa 31-37 AD. DIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER, radiate head left / S-C either side of large altar, PROVIDENT in ex. Cohen 228. SEAR 1789. mestreaudi
augustus_comme.jpg
Augustus Commemorative minted by Tiberius, Countermarked by Vespasian11 viewsAugustus, 16 January 27 B.C. - 19 August 14 A.D., Commemorative minted by Tiberius, Countermarked by Vespasian. Copper as, RIC I Tiberius 81, Pangerl 94, coin Fair, countermark Fine, Rome mint, 8.935g, 28.8mm, 0o, c. 22 - 30 A.D.; obverse DIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER, radiate head left, capricorn in rectangular countermark right; reverse PROVIDENT S C, altar with double panelled door, ornaments on top. Vespasian used the Capricorn countermark, as had Augustus. It was his birth-sign too. ex FORVMPodiceps
137c.jpg
Augustus Denarius - Butting Bull (RIC 167a)53 viewsAR Denarius
Lugdunum, 15-13 BC
3.77g

Obv: Bare head of Augustus (R)
AVGVSTVS DIVI F

Rev: Bull butting (R)
IMP X in exergue

RIC 167a BMC 451

In 15 BC Augustus was acclaimed Imperator for the tenth time on behalf of Drusus and Tiberius' victories in Raetia.

Ex. Baldwin's Auction 65, 4 May 2010, lot 1166
Ex. Alfred Franklin Collection
Ex. Baldwin's Auction 99. 6 May 2016, lot 276
5 commentsKained but Able
Augustus D 3.jpg
Augustus Dupondius37 viewsPosthumous issues by Tiberius
AE Dupondius. Obv.: DIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER ; rad. hd. l. ; Rev.: SC ; legend in field, surrounded by oak-wreath.
RIC 79 Tiberius
Posthumous issues by Tiberius
Tanit
2015-01-07_01_07_50-17.jpg
Augustus EMERITA Spain5 viewsAugustus EMERITA Spain city gate. RPC 42, 25mm, 13.1gm. TiberiusAncient Aussie
Augustus_otho.jpg
Augustus moneyer's series AE As39 viewsCAESAR AVGVST PONT MAX TRIBVNIC POT

Rev. M SALVIVS OTHO III VIR A A A FF around large SC

Rome 7 BC
Sear 1685
Titus Pullo
August.jpg
Augustus Provident62 viewsDIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER
Radiate head of Augustus left

PROVIDENT SC around alter

Posthumous issue by Tiberius Aug 19th 14 A.D.

9.73g

SEAR 1789; RIC
Jay GT4
Augustus_RIC_222.jpg
Augustus RIC 022444 viewsOctavian as Augustus, 27 BC – 14 AD Denarius
Lugdunum circa 13-14,
18mm., 3.56g.
Obv: Laureate head r.
Rev. Tiberius in triumphal quadriga r., holding laurel branch and eagle-tipped sceptre.
RSC 301. RIC 224.
Ex: Naville Numismatics Live auction 50 Lot 439 June 23, 2019
3 commentsorfew
augustus_providntj.jpg
Augustus under Tiberius18 viewsCopper as Commemorative minted by Tiberius 22 - 30 A.D
Obverse: DIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER, radiate head left
Reverse: PROVIDENT S C, altar with double panelled door, ornaments on top
1 commentsDk0311USMC
Augustus_Eagle~0.jpg
Augustus Æ As by Tiberius58 viewsDIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER
Radiate head left.

SC
Eagle standing on globe, head right., wings half spread

Rome, c. AD 34-37

11.95g

Minted under Tiberius

RIC 82; Cohen 247; BMC 155

Ex-Indalo colecciones

4 commentsJay GT4
Augustus_RIC_I_81.jpg
Augustus, AE As, RIC I 814 viewsAugustus
27 B.C. – 14 A.D.

Coin: AE As

Obverse: DIVVS ● AVGVSTVS ● PATER, radiate bust facing to left.
Reverse: A large Altar. S - C across the fields. PROVIDENT in exergue.

Weight: 10.71 g, Diameter: 28.8 x 28 x 2.2 mm, Die axis: 220°, Mint: Rome, posthumous issue by Tiberius, 31-37 A.D. Reference: RIC I 81
Masis
Augustus_RPC_I_1557.jpg
Augustus, AE22, Barbaric As, Countermarked5 viewsAugustus
27 B.C. – 14 A.D.

AE22 "Barbaric" As, Countermarked

Obverse: Bare headed bust facing right. Countermarks of AVG, TICAE (Tiberius Caesar) and Subsequently an S (which may signify the coins downgrading to a Semis).
Reverse: A laurel Wreath.

Weight: 7.69 g, Diameter: 22 x 23 x 1.8 mm, Die axis: 0°, Mint: The Balkans, 27 B.C. - 14 A.D. Reference: Similar to the AE22's of Thessalonica for Augustus, RPC I 1557
Masis
Augustus_RPC_I_1557_Second_example.jpg
Augustus, AE22, Barbaric As, Countermarked10 viewsAugustus
27 B.C. – 14 A.D.

Coin: AE22 "Barbaric" As, Countermarked

Obverse: Bare headed bust facing right. Countermarks of AVG, ⏊I●CA (Tiberius Caesar).
Reverse: SC within a Laurel Wreath.

Weight: 6.97 g, Diameter: 22.5 x 25.2 x 1.4 mm, Die axis: 0°, Mint: The Balkans, 27 B.C. - 14 A.D. Reference: Similar to the AE22's of Thessalonica for Augustus, RPC I 1557
Masis
Augustus_RPC_I_32.jpg
Augustus, AE26, RPC I 3210 viewsAugustus
27 B.C. – 14 A.D.

Coin: AE26

Obverse: DIVVS AVGVSTVS PA-TER, radiate bust facing left.
Reverse: COL - AVGVST - EMERITA, around the city of Emerita.

Weight: 8.87 g, Diameter: 26.3 x 26 x 2.6 mm, Die axis: 190°, Mint: Emerita, Spain, posthumous issue by Tiberius, 14-37 A.D. Reference: RPC I 32
Masis
346.jpg
Augustus, Posthumous12 viewsAugustus, Posthumous as struck under the reign of Tiberius
DIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER, Radiate head of Augustus left
PROVIDENT, Altar, S C in field
11.02 gr
Ref : Cohen #228, RCV #1789, RIC I # 81
2 commentsAncient Aussie
0030-510np_noir.jpg
Augustus, Posthumous as324 viewsAs struck under the reign of Tiberius
DIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER, Radiate head of Augustus left
PROVIDENT, Altar, S C in field
11.02 gr
Ref : Cohen #228, RCV #1789, RIC I # 81
3 commentsPotator II
TibeAs02-3.jpg
Augustus, RIC 237, for Tiberius, As of AD 10-14 (Altar of Ludunum)11 viewsÆ As (10.2g, Ø 25mm, 2h) Lugdunum mint. Struck AD 10-14.
Obv.: TI CAESAR AVGVST F·IMPERAT V, bare head of Tiberius left
Rev.: ROM ET AVG (ex.), Altar of Lugdunum decorated with the corona civica between laurel branches flanked by stylized male figures; left and right of the altar, Victories on columns facing one another.
RIC (Augustus) 237; Cohen (Tiberius) 31; Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 56/1
ex D.Ruskin (Oxford, 1994)
Dedication of the altar in Ludugnum (Lyon) presided over by Tiberius together with Augustus in 10 BC.
Charles S
Tibeas05-3.jpg
Augustus, RIC 245, for Tiberius, As of AD 10-14 (Altar of Lugdunum) 7 viewsÆ As (8.5g, Ø24mm, 4h) Lugdunum mint. Struck AD 10-14.
Obv.: TI CAESAR AVGVST F IMPERAT VII, laureate head of Tiberius right.
Rev.: ROM ET AVG (ex.), Altar of Lyons decorated with the corona civica between laurel branches flanked by stylized male figures; left and right of the altar, Victories on columns facing one another.
RIC (Augustus) 245; Cohen (Tiberius) 37; BMCRE 585; Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 56/1
ex G.Henzen, 1995
Dedication of the altar in Ludugnum (Lyon) presided over by Tiberius together with Augustus in 10 BC.
Charles S
augustus_375_counterrmarked.jpg
Augustus, RIC 375 (countermarked)17 viewsAugustus, 27 BE - AD 14
AE dupondius, 7.50g, 28mm, 0°
struck under moneyer C. Cassius Celer , Rome, 16 BC
obv. [AVGVSTVS TRIBVNIC POTES]
(legend in 3 lines in corona civica)
rev. [C CASSIVS CEL]ER IIIVI[R AAAFF]
around big S - C
ref. RIC I, 375
countermarked:
obv. AVG (MPC 75), TICAE (AE ligate; MPC 90)
rev. CAE (MPC 77), PP (MPC 81)

AVC, TICAE refer to the emperor Tiberius Claudius. The abbreviation AVC is most likely another title of Tiberius and stands not for Augustus Caesar.
MPC = Martini Prangerl Collection
Jochen
Augustus-RIC82.JPG
Augustus, RIC 8120 viewsDIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER
AE as, 28mm, 9.03g
Radiate head left
Alter, SC to sides, PROVIDENT below
Minted under Tiberius
novacystis
augustus_RIC81.jpg
Augustus, RIC 8219 viewsAugustus, RIC 82
DIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER
Radiate head left
Alter, SC to sides, PROVIDENT below
AE as, 27mm, 8.96g
Minted under Tiberius
novacystis
AUG-1-ROMAN.jpg
Augustus, RIC I-82 Rome13 viewsAE As
Rome mint, 34-37 A.D.
27mm, 9.36g
RIC I-82 (Tiberius) , RCVv.1-1790

Obverse:
DIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER
Radiate head left

Reverse:
S-C to left and right of eagle standing on globe, head right, wings half spread.

Struck during the reign of Tiberius
rubadub
xE7Ks4WzaFy3M5MtNb6CZRs92jwGe8.jpg
Augustus. Posthumous AE As Winged Thunderbolt29 viewsDIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER, head of Augustus left.
Large winged thunderbolt between S - C.
RIC: 83 for Tiberius. 34-37 AD. Rome. _3820
Antonivs Protti
Augustus_RPC_I_1557_Second_example~0.jpg
AVG ⏊I●CA, AE22, Barbaric As106 viewsAugustus
27 B.C. – 14 A.D.

Coin: AE22 "Barbaric" As, Countermarked

Obverse: Bare headed bust facing right. Countermarks of AVG, ⏊I●CA (Tiberius Caesar).
Reverse: SC within a Laurel Wreath.

Weight: 6.97 g, Diameter: 22.5 x 25.2 x 1.4 mm, Die axis: 0°, Mint: The Balkans, 27 B.C. - 14 A.D. Reference: Similar to the AE22's issued by Thessalonica for Augustus (R.P.C. I 1557)
Masis
RIAugustusAsCounterM~0.JPG
AVG and TICAE on AUGUSTUS AS (25 BC)312 views(26mm - 10.8g). Obv: Bust right (CAESAR), countermarked "AVG" (AVGUSTUS) & "TICAE" (TIBERIUS CAESAR). Rev: Legend within wreath (AVGVSTVS). Minted in Ephesus. Reference for this coin is RIC 486. Augustus was adopted by Julius Caesar as heir. After the assassination of Caesar, Octavian and Mark Antony fought together and won the resulting Civil War. They shared the rule of the Roman Empire. Antony's alliance with Cleopatra provoked a split with Octavian that led to a new Civil War. At the Battle of Actium (31 BC) Antony was defeated and Octavian became the sole ruler of the Empire. He was declared "Augustus" and became the proto-type emperor of Rome.1 commentskerux
064n.jpg
AVG and TI•CAE239 viewsSYRIA: SELEUCIS & PIERIA. Antiochia ad Orontem. Augustus. Æ 24. 27 B.C. - A.D. 14. Obv: AVGVST•-TR•POT (?). Laureate head right; 2 countermarks: (1) before head, (2) on neck. Rev: Large SC inside circle, inside laurel-wreath. Ref: BMC 130. Axis: 360°. Weight: 8.72 g. CM(1): AVG in rectangular punch, 9 x 4.5 mm. Howgego 577 (1 pcs). CM(2): TI•CÆ in rectangular punch, 4 x 9 mm.Howgego 602 (1 pcs). Note: These countermarks were more commonly applied to imperial coins, the place of application likely being somewhere in the Balkan provinces, the countermarking probably taking place during the reign of Tiberius. Collection Automan.Automan
Augustus_RPC_I_1557~0.jpg
AVG TICAE & S, AE22, Barbaric AE As111 viewsAugustus
27 B.C. – 14 A.D.

Coin: AE22 "Barbaric" As, Countermarked

Obverse: Bare headed bust facing right. Countermarks of AVG, TICAE (Tiberius Caesar) and subsequently an S (which may signify the coins downgrading to a Semis).
Reverse: A laurel Wreath.

Weight: 7.69 g, Diameter: 22 x 23 x 1.8 mm, Die axis: 0°, Mint: The Balkans, 27 B.C. - 14 A.D. Reference: Similar to the
AE22's issued by Thessalonica for Augustus (RPC I 1557)
Masis
Tiberius_37.jpg
B265 views Tiberius AR Denarius

Attribution: RIC I 30, RSC II 16a, SRCV I 1763, Lugdunum
Date: 19 August, AD 14 – 16 March, AD 37
Obverse: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head r.
Reverse: PONTIF MAXIM, Livia, as Pax, seated r., holding olive branch & long scepter; ornate legs to chair
Size: 19 mm
Weight: 3.6 grams
* NOTE: chipped piece & metal adhesions from prior mounting of coin as jewelry
(Image of Tiberius courtesy of Bill Storage: Ara Pacis Museum, Rome)

"He was large and strong of frame, and of a stature above the average... He strode along with his neck stiff and bent forward, usually with a stern countenance and for the most part in silence, never or very rarely conversing with his companions... All of these mannerisms of his, which were disagreeable and signs of arrogance, were remarked by Augustus, who often tried to excuse them to the senate and people by declaring that they were natural failings, and not intentional." - Suetonius Life of Tiberius LXVIII

When Augustus died on August 19, AD 14, Tiberius was considered to be the logical successor. The issue, however, was that there had never been a transfer of power by succession, only through seizure of leadership by force. Although Tiberius superficially sought to preserve the idea of the emperor being “First Citizen” to appease the senate, it was abundantly clear who was in control of the empire. Tiberius made a clever move to sequester the support of the legions through a pay increase. The reverse of this coin depicts Livia seated. Being Tiberius’ mother, she campaigned relentlessly to place her son as the natural heir to the position of emperor. Once in control, Tiberius allowed her to keep the title of Augusta, granted to her by Augustus in his will, but refused her the honor of being recognized as “Mother of her Country” or that of lictor. This was an astute political move to limit Livia’s influence. In the long run Tiberius was unable to maintain the demeanor or tact that Augustus possessed, and was seen as a stiff and arrogant tyrant by many. Tiberius spent much of the latter part of his reign at his private retreat on the island of Capri. He fell ill in AD 37 and died March 16 at the age of 77 in his seaside villa at Misenum.
The denarius of Tiberius with Livia as Pax on the reverse is commonly known as the 'Tribute Penny,' the coin to which Jesus referred to when he was discussing paying taxes to the Romans, and said "render to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's" (Mark 12:17 & Matthew 22:20-21). Although there are two other reverse types on denarii of Tiberius, they were only issued during the first two years of his reign, while the Pax reverse was employed throughout the remainder, making it the more likely coin referred to. The term 'penny' is from the AD 1611 King James translation of the Bible, and was adopted since the penny was the standard denomination of the time.
6 commentsNoah
Tib-Constant-578-582-AD_AE-36_DN-TIB-CONS-TANT-P-P-AVG_m_ANNO_VI_NIKO-B_SB-441-p-108_const_Q-001_axis-h__36mm_17_06g-s.jpg
B 007 Tiberius II. Constantine (578-582 A.D.), -/CONB, SB 0434, AE-Half-Follis (20 Nummia), Constantinopolis,94 viewsB 007 Tiberius II. Constantine (578-582 A.D.), -/CONB, SB 0434, AE-Half-Follis (20 Nummia), Constantinopolis,
avers:- Dm Tb CO NTANT P P A, Crowned and cuirassed bust facing, holding cross on globe and shield.
revers:- No legends, Large XX, Cross above, mintmark CON and officina letter B.
exe: -/-//CONB, diameter: 24,5-25,5mm, weight: 5,77g, axis-7h,
mint: Constantinopolis, date: 579-80 A.D., ref: SB-434, p-107,
Q-001
quadrans
Tib-Constant-578-582-AD_AE-36_dM-TIB-CON-STANT-P-P-AVG_m_ANNO_VI_CON-A_SB-430-p-108_Constantinopolis_578-79-AD_Q-001_7h_30-32mm_13,25g-s.jpg
B 007 Tiberius II. Constantine (578-582 A.D.), SB 0430, -/CONA, AE-Follis (40 Nummia), Constantinopolis, Year UI,138 viewsB 007 Tiberius II. Constantine (578-582 A.D.), SB 0430, -/CONA, AE-Follis (40 Nummia), Constantinopolis, Year UI,
avers:- dM TIb CON STANT P P AVG, Facing bust of Tiberius, holding mappa and eagle tipped scepter, wearing consular robes.
revers:- Large M Exe: CON A - Cross above, regnal date to right (6-th year, 578/79 A.D.) and ANNO to left. (Constantinopolis).
exe: A/N/N/O/VI//CONA, diameter: 30-32mm, weight: 13,25g, axis-7h,
mint: Constantinopolis, date: 578-79 A.D., ref: SB-430,
Q-001
quadrans
Tib-Constant_AE-36_DN-TIB-CONS-TANT-P-P-AVG_m_ANNO_VI_NIKO-B_SB-441_Q-001_36mm_17_06g-s.jpg
B 007 Tiberius II. Constantine (578-582 A.D.), SB 0441, -/NIKOB, AE-Follis (40 Nummia), Nicomedia, Year UI,295 viewsB 007 Tiberius II. Constantine (578-582 A.D.), SB 0441, -/NIKOB, AE-Follis (40 Nummia), Nicomedia, Year UI,
avers:- Dn TIb CONS TANT P P AVG, Facing bust of Tiberius, holding mappa and eagle tipped scepter, wearing consular robes.
revers:- Large M Exe: NIKO-B - Cross above, regnal date to right (6-th year, 579/80 A.D.) and ANNO to left. (Nicomedia).
exe: A/N/N/O/VI//NIKOB, diameter: 36mm, weight: 17,06g, axis-h,
mint: Nicomedia, date: 579-80 A.D., ref: SB-441,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
Maurice-Tiberius-582-602-AD_AE-Follis_D-N-MAVRIC-TIBER-PP-AVG_M_ANNO_II_CON_E_SB-0493-p-118_Constantinopolis_Q-001_axis-1h_29-31mm_11,18g-s.jpg
B 008 Maurice Tiberius (582-602 A.D.), SB 0493, E/CON, AE-Follis (40 Nummia), Constantinopolis, Year II,298 viewsB 008 Maurice Tiberius (582-602 A.D.), SB 0493, E/CON, AE-Follis (40 Nummia), Constantinopolis, Year II,
avers:- D N MAVRIC TIbER P P AVG, helmeted and cuirassed or crowned and cuirassed bust facing, holding cross on globe and shield
revers:- Large M, A/N/N/O to left, cross above, regnal year II to right, officina letter E below; mintmark CON, Constantinopolis,
exe: ANNO/II//CON, diameter: 29-31mm, weight:11,18g, axis: h,
mint: Constantinopolis, date: 587 A.D., ref: SB-0493,
Q-001
quadrans
B_008_Maurice-Tiberius_(582-602_A_D_),_AE-Follis_D-N-mAVRIC-TIbER-P-P-AVG_M_ANNO_II_CON_Gamma_SB-0494-p-118_Constantinopolis_Q-001_6h_30-31mm_11,23g-s.jpg
B 008 Maurice Tiberius (582-602 A.D.), SB 0494, Γ/CON, AE-Follis (40 Nummia), Constantinopolis, Year II,82 viewsB 008 Maurice Tiberius (582-602 A.D.), SB 0494, Γ/CON, AE-Follis (40 Nummia), Constantinopolis, Year II,
avers: D N mAVRIC TIbER P P AVG, helmeted and cuirassed or crowned and cuirassed bust facing, holding cross on globe and shield
revers: Large M, A/N/N/O to left, cross above, regnal year II to right, officina letter Γ below; mintmark CON, Constantinopolis,
exe: Γ//CON, diameter: 30-31mm, weight:11,23g, axis: 6h,
mint: Constantinopolis, date: 587 A.D., ref: SB-0494,
Q-001
quadrans
Maurice-Tiberius_AE-31_-----TIBER-PP_M_ANNO_VI_NIKO_B_SB-0512_Q-001_11_34g.jpg
B 008 Maurice Tiberius (582-602 A.D.), SB 0512, B/NIKO, AE-Follis (40 Nummia), Nicodemia, Year UII,177 viewsB 008 Maurice Tiberius (582-602 A.D.), SB 0512, B/NIKO, AE-Follis (40 Nummia), Nicodemia, Year UII,
avers:- D N MAVRIC TIbER P P A, helmeted and cuirassed or crowned and cuirassed bust facing, holding cross on globe and shield ( TIBER P P )
revers:- "M" ANNO/UII/B, Large M, ANNO to left, cross above, regnal year VI to right, officina letter B below; mintmark NIKO, Nicomedia
exe: ANNO/UII//NIKO, diameter: 30-31mm, weight:11,34g, axis: h,
mint: Nicomedia, date: 587 A.D., ref: SB-0512,
Q-001
quadrans
Maurice-Tiberius_AE-30_----MAxx-TIBER_M_ANNO_XI_KYZ_A_SB-0518_Q-001_12_31g.jpg
B 008 Maurice Tiberius (582-602 A.D.), SB 0518, A/KYZ, AE-Follis (40 Nummia), Cyzicus, Year XI,180 viewsB 008 Maurice Tiberius (582-602 A.D.), SB 0518, A/KYZ, AE-Follis (40 Nummia), Cyzicus, Year XI,
avers:- D N MAVRIC TIBER P P A, helmeted and cuirassed or crowned and cuirassed bust facing, holding cross on globe. ( MA TIBER P P)
revers:- "M" ANNO/XI/A, Large M, ANNO to left, cross above, regnal year XI to right, officina letter A below; mintmark KYZ.
exe: ANNO/XI//KYZ, diameter: 30mm, weight:12,31g, axis: h,
mint: Cyzicus, date: 592 A.D., ref: SB-0518,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Maurice-Tiberius-582-602-AD_AE-30_PITINTIO~-~_OTSITANTPPIV_m_ANNO_II_THEUPOL_SB-532-p-127_MIB-95_Theupolis_586-7-AD_Q-001_6h_30mm_12,99g-s.jpg
B 008 Maurice Tiberius (582-602 A.D.), SB 0532, -/THEUPOL, AE-Follis (40 Nummia), Theupolis (Antioch), Year II, 135 viewsB 008 Maurice Tiberius (582-602 A.D.), SB 0532, -/THEUPOL, AE-Follis (40 Nummia), Theupolis (Antioch), Year II,
avers:- PITINTIO~-~_OTSITANT P P IV, Garbled legend, crowned and mantled bust facing, trefoil or \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\|/ pattern on crown, holding mappa and eagle-tipped sceptre.
revers:- "M" ANNO/II, Large m, ANNO to left, cross above, regnal year to right; (no letter below), mintmark THEUPOL. Theupolis (Antioch),
exe: ANNO/II//THEUPOL, diameter: 30mm, weight:12,99g, axis:6h,
mint: Theupolis (Antioch), date: 586-587 A.D., ref: SB-0532, p-127, MIB-95,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Maurice-Tiberius-582-602-AD_AE-Follis_D-N-MAVRICI-CN_P-AVT_M_ANNO_XI_THEUPS_Gamma_SB-0533-p-127_Theupolis(Antioch)_Q-001_6h_28,5-29mm_12,52g-s.jpg
B 008 Maurice Tiberius (582-602 A.D.), SB 0533, Γ/THEUPS, AE-Follis (40 Nummia), Theupolis (Antioch), Year XI,91 viewsB 008 Maurice Tiberius (582-602 A.D.), SB 0533, Γ/THEUPS, AE-Follis (40 Nummia), Theupolis (Antioch), Year XI,
avers:- D N MAVRICI C N P AVT, Garbled legend, crowned and mantled bust facing, holding mappa and eagle-tipped sceptre.
revers:- "M" ANNO/XI, Large M, ANNO to left, cross above, regnal year (XI) to right; Γ below, mintmark THEUPS. Theupolis (Antioch),
exe: ANNO/XI// THEUPS, diameter: 28,5-29mm, weight:12,52g, axis:6h,
mint:Theupolis (Antioch), date: 586-587 A.D., ref: SB-0533, p-127,
Q-001
quadrans
B_008_Maurice-Tiberius_(582-602_A_D_),_AE-Follis_D-N-MAVRICI-CN_P-AVT_M_ANNO_X_IIII_THEUPS_Gamma_SB-0533-p-127_Theupolis(Antioch)_Q-001_6h_26-29mm_10,65g-s.jpg
B 008 Maurice Tiberius (582-602 A.D.), SB 0533, Γ/THEUPS, AE-Follis (40 Nummia), Theupolis (Antioch), Year XIIII,88 viewsB 008 Maurice Tiberius (582-602 A.D.), SB 0533, Γ/THEUPS, AE-Follis (40 Nummia), Theupolis (Antioch), Year XIIII,
avers:- D N MAVRICI C N P AVT, Garbled legend, crowned and mantled bust facing, holding mappa and eagle-tipped sceptre.
revers:- "M" ANNO/XIIII, Large M, ANNO to left, cross above, regnal year (XIIII) to right; Γ below, mintmark THEUPS. Theupolis (Antioch),
exe: ANNO/XIIII// THEUPS, diameter: 26-29mm, weight:10,65g, axis:6h,
mint:Theupolis (Antioch), date: 586-587 A.D., ref: SB-0533, p-127,
Q-001
quadrans
B_014_Constans_II_(641-668_AD)_AE-Follis_No-legend_Constans-II_and_Constantine-IV_M-l_Heraclius-r_Tiberius_TKw-mon_SCL_Syracuse_SB-1110_DOC-181_Q-002_h_20-24mm_g-s.jpg
B 014 Constans II. (641-668 A.D.), SB 1110, Syracuse, -/-//SCL, AE-24-Follis (40 Nummia), #1112 viewsB 014 Constans II. (641-668 A.D.), SB 1110, Syracuse, -/-//SCL, AE-24-Follis (40 Nummia), #1
avers: - No legend, Constans with long beard, on left, left hand on hip, crowned and in military dress, holding long cross, and Constantine IV, unbearded and crowned, on right, holding cross on globe.
revers: - Large M, Heraclius, crowned, wearing chlamys, standing on left, holding cross on globe, TKw monogram above, Tiberius, crowned, wearing chlamys, standing on right, holding cross on globe.
exerg: -/-//SCL, diameter: 20-24mm, weight: g, axes: h,
mint: Syracuse, date: , ref: SB 1110, DOC 181.
Q-001
quadrans
B_014_Constans_II_(641-668_AD)_AE-Follis_No-legend_Constans-II_and_Constantine-IV_M-l_Heraclius-r_Tiberius_TKw-mon_SCL_Syracuse_SB-1110_DOC-181_Q-001_6h_21,5-24mm_3,80g-s.jpg
B 014 Constans II. (641-668 A.D.), SB 1110, Syracuse, -/-//SCL, AE-24-Follis (40 Nummia), #2119 viewsB 014 Constans II. (641-668 A.D.), SB 1110, Syracuse, -/-//SCL, AE-24-Follis (40 Nummia), #2
avers: - No legend, Constans with long beard, on left, left hand on hip, crowned and in military dress, holding long cross, and Constantine IV, unbearded and crowned, on right, holding cross on globe.
revers: - Large M, Heraclius, crowned, wearing chlamys, standing on left, holding cross on globe, TKw monogram above, Tiberius, crowned, wearing chlamys, standing on right, holding cross on globe.
exerg: -/-//SCL, diameter: 21,5-24mm, weight: 3,80g, axes:6h,
mint: Syracuse, date: , ref: SB 1110, DOC 181.
Q-002
quadrans
half_follis_BCC_B10.jpg
BCC B1019 viewsByzantine Period
Maurice Tiberius 582-602 CE
AE Half Follis, Antioch Mint
Obv:Facing bust, wearing consular robe
and crown, holding eagle-tipped scepter
and mappa. Legend blundered.
Rev:XX , above, cross, to left
ANNO, to right III/U, (year 8=589-90 CE),
below R.
22mm. 6.27gm. Axis:180
SB 534
v-drome
maurice_Islamic_c_m_BCC_B15.jpg
BCC B1529 viewsByzantine Caesarea
Maurice Tiberius 582-602 CE
AE Follis, Antioch
Obv: [D N MAVRI] - CN P AVT
Facing bust, crown with trefoil ornament,
Rev:Large M, to left ANNO, to right X/II
below: Γ? In ex: THEUP.
Unidentified, possibly Heraclian, countermark in
circular punch. 28mm. 10.72gm. Axis:180
SB 533
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maurice_cm_eagle.jpg
BCC b4x103 viewsByzantine - Caesarea Maritima
Maurice Tiberius 582-602CE
AE follis 40 nummia
Obv: DN MAURC PP AVI
crowned and cuirassed bust
facing, holding cross on globe.
REV: Large M , cross above
ANNO II, officina Δ , in ex.
C[ON] with rare eagle countermark.
30x32mm. 11.30g. Original Axis:180
1 commentsv-drome
Pilate_small_mod_BCC_j21.jpg
BCC J2119 viewsJudaea
Pontius Pilate - Tiberius
26-36 C.E.
Obv:TIBEPI[OY KAICAPOC]?
around Lituus.
Rev:Date LIH (year 18=31CE)
within wreath. Ligatured LI
13.5mm. 1.23gm. Axis:240
Very small flan
AE Prutah Hendin III 650
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Pilate_LIH_BCC_J22.jpg
BCC J2222 viewsJudaea
Pontius Pilate - Tiberius
26-36 C.E.
Obv:[TIB]EPIOY KAIC[APOC]
around Lituus.
Rev:Date LIH (year 18=31CE)
within wreath.
15.2mm. 1.93gm. Axis:330
AE Prutah Hendin III 650
v-drome
Pilate_BCC_J23_LIZ.jpg
BCC J2322 viewsJudaea BCC j23
Pontius Pilate - Tiberius
26-36 C.E.
Obv:TIBEP[IOY K]AICAPOC around Lituus.
Rev:Date LIZ (year 17=30CE)
within wreath. LI ligatured.
16.0mm. 1.69gm. Axis:10h(300)
AE Prutah Hendin III 649
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Tiberius_BCC_J33_Gratus.jpg
BCC J3319 viewsJudaea - Procurators
Tiberius - Valerius Gratus
AE Prutah 15-26C.E.
Obv:TIB/KAI/CAP
within wreath.
Rev: ΙΟΥ−ΛΙΑ across
Palm branch, curving to right.
Date L-IA? (year 11)
15.0mm. 2.20gm. Axis:330
Hendin III 647 (1338).
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gratus_prutah.jpg
BCC j544 viewsJudaea AE Prutah
Valerius Gratus- Tiberius 15-26 C.E.
OBV:Vine leaf with grapes.
above, [IΟΥΛΙΑ] (Livia)
REV:narrow necked amphora
with scroll handles flanked
by date: L Δ (year 4)
16mm. 2.42g. Axis:180
Hendin 643
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tiberiou_Ls20.jpg
BCC Ls2027 viewsLead Seal
Late Roman to Early Byz?
Obv: ΤΙΒ/ΕΡΙ/ΟΥ
Greek inscription in 3 lines,
“of Tiberius”.
Rev: TIB/ERI/U
This is an interesting example of a
bilingual seal. The Latin inscription is a
transliteration of the Greek inscription on the
obverse, and uses the Greek case ending "ou".
19x17mm. 4.06gm. Axis:0
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augustus_.jpg
BCC rgp4326 viewsRoman Greek Provincial
Augustus? 27 BCE-14 CE
or Tiberius 14- 37 CE
Alexandria, Egypt
Obv: Σ?-E across field. (ΣΕΒΑΣΤΟC)
Head of Emperor right.
Rev: Uncertain inscription in
oak-wreath. (possibly LΔΙ =year 14)
15mm 2.67gm. Axis:0
This rare coin was attributed to Caesarea
Maritima by De Saulcy. Hill, BMC, rejected
this, declaring Alexandria more likely.
Ref: Kadman Caesarea, “Coins Excluded
from the Corpus” #VI.
v-drome
thothorses_2_k.jpg
Bosporan Kingdom, Tiberius Julius Thothorses, c. AD 278-308/95 viewsAE Stater, 20mm, 7.6g, 12h; Uncertain mint (Panticapaeum?), AD 290.
Obv.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΘΟΘΩΡΣΟΥ; Diademed, draped bust of king right.
Rev.: Laureate head of Diocletian right, tamga in right field // ΖΠΦ (587 = 290 AD).
Reference: cf. Anokhin 735, Mionnet 2, 160ff.
Notes: eBay, 10/23/15, rq
John Anthony
Tiberius.jpg
Bronze coin of Tiberius14 viewsRoman bronze coin of Tiberius, minted in Philippi Macedonia around 37AD. 16 mm, 2.79 g.

Obverse: TI AVG, bare head of Tiberius right

Reverse: Two priests ploughing right with yoke of oxen

Attribution: Like RPC I 1657 but underweight
chuy1530
Claudius.jpg
Bronze Quadrans minted under Claudius13 viewsA bronze quadrans minted under Claudius. 16 mm, 3.4 g.

Obverse: a hand holding up a set of scales, and between the pans of the scales are the letters PNR, which possibly mean PONDUS NUMMORUM RESTITUTUM = "The Weight of the Coinage Restored", or something similar. Around the edge is the partially-visible inscription [TI] CLAVDIV[S CAESAR AVG] = "Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus".

Reverse: a large SC standing for SENATUS CONSULTO = "By Decree of the Senate", with the encircling inscription PON M TR P IMP COS DES IT = "Pontifex Maximus, Holding Tribunician Power, Consul Designate for the Second Time".

Attribution: RIC 1 Claudius 85
chuy1530
constans_ii_SOLIDUS.jpg
BYZANTINE EMPIRE - Constans II69 viewsBYZANTINE EMPIRE - Constans II (641-668 AD) AV Solidus. Struck c. 661-663 AD. Constantinople. Facing busts of Constans, bearded and Constantine IV, beardless; cross between heads D N CONST. . ./ VICTORIA AVGU Cross potent on three steps between standing figures of Heraclius and Tiberius. CONOB in exurge (Constantinople mint). Sear # sb0964. 4.42 g. Coin was mounted in 18k bezel, so some minor field damage. dpaul7
BYZANTINE_MAURICE_TIB_CHERSON_MINT.jpg
BYZANTINE EMPIRE - MAURICE TIBERIAS 31 viewsBYZANTINE EMPIRE - MAURICE TIBERIAS (582-602 CE) Bronze Pentanummia (Half-Follis). Cherson mint. Obv.: ΧΕΡCONOC Maurice on left; Empress Constantina on right, both standing facing & nimbate, Emperor holds globus cruciger; Empress holds long cruciform sceptre. Rev.: Large Δ to left, cross above it; to right - Theodosius, son of Maurice, stands facing, nimbate, holding long staff surmounted by XI-RHO symbol. Reference: Sear #610.

*NOTE: There is a controversy in the attribution: Anokhin (and other Russian experts) assign the varieties with XEPCWNOC to Justin II, instead of the older attribution to Maurice used by Sear. Anokhin assigns only those with DNMAVRIC PP AVG to Maurice. Grierson does not outright deny it, but has his doubts. Very similar coins were issued in the name of Maurice, so older attributions of the "XEPCONOC" types were also to Maurice, but now some scholars have argued that they were originally issued by Justin II. Under the old attribution the obverse figures are Maurice and his wife and the reverse figure is his son Theodosius. Grierson (p. 73) says, "If the coins all belong together it would seem reasonable to regard them as an insurrectionary coinage struck at Cherson in 602, the intention of the rebels having been initially to depose Maurice in favor of his son Theodosius and not the upstart adventurer Phocas." According to this theory, the revolt prompted a new coin with a neutral legend, which was replaced by the emperor's name when the outcome favored Maurice. This attribution is accepted by Sear.

Anokhin (1980) and Hahn (1978) concur in attributing them to Justin II (and the following period). Anokhin argues the two-figure type resembles the regular type introduced by Justin II and Sophia. However, a type can resemble one of Justin II and be issued a few years later. Anokhin says (p. 92) "if the striking commenced from the moment Theodosius was named Augustus, i.e. in 590, all three series with differing types would have had to be issued within limits between 590-602, which is unlikely." Hahn also argues that there are several minor varieties which would probably take a number of years to mint. However, the varieties are clearly very similar and not numerous. I think there is no need to postulate more than ten years to mint three very similar types, all of which are scarce.

Anokhin (p. 92) argues "if we assign the coins described to Maurice we expose their failure to correspond with empire-wide coins, which have on the obverse a portrait of Maurice alone." But that argument is feeble -- we know Maurice minted such coins that fail to correspond with empire-wide coins -- some of the coins we are attributing have his name on them!

Anokhin (p. 93) thinks the reverse figure, if a real person, could "be Tiberius, the future emperor, who was proclaimed Caesar in December 574 and who reigned as co-regent jointly with Sophia during the last four years of the life of Justin II who was mentally ill." However, he does not accept that it is a real person and says "it most likely represents some symbolic figure or a saint."

Hahn notes that the reverse figure seems to be a Caesar (because the pendillia are lacking) and says in the later 6th century the only appropriate Caesar is Tiberius II under Justin II. However, the older attribution already had an acceptable Caesar, just in the early 7th instead of the late 6th century. Hahn notes the first issue, with the "M" and "K" has a capital omega in "XERCWNOC", rather than the later "O", as do some of the "H" and delta pieces. Clearly, the "M" and "K" are the first of the series. However, that does not make them issued by Justin II.

Hahn admits, as noted by Grierson, that the two-figure type is very similar to some coins of Focas, showing a continuum of types could equally well be at either end of the potential attribution period. Hahn gives the attribution to Justin II and calls it "secure." It may well be that the "M" and "K" types began under Justin II, but the Hahn paper presents no convincing evidence.

If we postulate this type began under Justin II, it is hard to explain why it pops up again under Maurice with a 12-year gap from the end of Justin II (578) until Maurice (582-602) promotes Theodosius to Caesar (May 26, 590). Unless, of course, it was minted throughout the period as a type immobilise. (Thanks for ancients.info for the argument text). My own research of my Russian resources vs. Sear and others confirm all of the above!
dpaul7
tiberiusii01.jpg
BYZANTINE EMPIRE - TIBERIUS II CONSTANTINE129 viewsTIBERIUS II CONSTANTINE AE follis. Tiberius II Constantine, DNTibCONS TANT PP AVC; crowned and cuirassed bust facing, holding cross on globe and shield, cross to right bust facing/Large M ANNO II, cross, tHeuP (Antioch) in exurge. SB447, DOC 39
Facing bust of Tiberius II wearing crown with cross and consular robes, holding mappa and scepter. Struck regnal year 2, 580 AD. 30mm, 12.2g. Nice desert patina. Antioch was nearly razed by an earthquake in November, 528 AD. Afterwards, the city adopted the name Theupolis.
1 commentsdpaul7
TIBERIUS_CONSTANTINE_qu_follis.jpg
BYZANTINE EMPIRE - Tiberius II Constantine44 viewsBYZANTINE EMPIRE - Tiberius II Constantine (578-582) AE 1/4-Follis. Obverse: Bust facing wearing helmet with cross rectangular lamination on his face: D M TIB CON-ST PP AVC. Reverse: Large X, cross above. Constantinople mint. Sear 436. 21.4 mm, 4.85 grams. 1 commentsdpaul7
mtiberius.jpg
Byzantine Empire, Maurice Tiberius, AD 582-6026 viewsAE Follis; Constantinople mint, AD 583.
Obv.: dN mAVRC PP AV, crowned, draped and cuirassed bust facing, holding cross on globe and shield.
Rev.: Large M, ANNO to left, cross above, regnal year II to right, officina letter A below, mintmark CON.
Reference: Sear Byzantine 493.
Notes: sold to Eng, 11/15.
John Anthony
Screenshot_2018-08-27_10_33_15.png
Byzantine Empire, Maurice Tiberius, AE Decanummium.1 viewsTheopolis as Antioch Year 10 = 591-592 A.D. 2.30g - 17.9mm, Axis 6h.

Obv: DN MAV CN P AV - Crowned and mantled bust facing, trefoil pattern on crown, holding mappa and eagle-tipped sceptre.

Rev: Large I, ANNO to left, cross above, regnal year X to right. Mintmark THEUP.

SB 537.
Christian Scarlioli
Screenshot_2018-08-27_11_12_29.png
Byzantine Empire, Maurice Tiberius, AE Decanummium.1 viewsConstantinople 582-602 A.D. 2.70g - 18.3mm, Axis 6h.

Obv: D N MAVRIC P P AV - Crowned, draped, and cuirassed bust facing.

Rev: Large I, star to left, cross above, officina letter B to right. Mintmark CON.

SB 499.
Christian Scarlioli
Screenshot_2018-07-09_14_16_47.png
Byzantine Empire, Maurice Tiberius, AE Follis.1 viewsConstantinople Year 2 = 583-584 A.D. 10.50g - 29.1mm, Axis 11h.

Obv: DN mAVRIC TIBER PP AVI - Crowned, cuirassed bust facing, holding cross on globe and shield.

Rev: Large M, ANNO to left, cross above, regnal year II (2) to right, officina letter Ɛ below. Mintmark CON.

SB492; DOC 20.
Christian Scarlioli
Screenshot_2018-09-13_12_05_22.png
Byzantine Empire, Tiberius II Constantine, AE Half Follis. Added to the Wildwinds site.1 viewsAntioch Year 2=583-584 A.D. 7.60g - 23.6mm, Axis 6h.

Obv: ..TAN-TI.. - Crowned and cuirassed bust facing, holding mappa and eagle-tipped sceptre.

Rev: Large X, ANNO to left, cross above, regnal year II to right, e below.

SB 453 (regnal year omitted); MIB 51.
Christian Scarlioli
Sear-1110.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Constans II & Contantine IV (641-668) Nummi, Syracuse (Sear-1110)28 viewsObv: Constans, holding long cross with right hand, and Constantine IV, both crowned, standing facing
Rev: Large M; to the left, crowned figure of Heraclius standing facing, monogram above; to right, crowned figure of Tiberius standing facing; SCL in exergue

This coin has been overstruck as you can see Constans & Constantine poking their faces on the reverse edge :-D.
SpongeBob
Sear-998.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Constans II (641-668) AR Hexagram, Constantinople (Sear-998; DOC 57; MIB-152; Yannopoulos 189-223)39 viewsObv: To left, bust of Constans, facing, with long beard, wearing chlamys and crown with cross on circlet in front and behind it, plume. To right, Constantine IV, beardless, wearing chlamys and similar crown without plume. Between heads, cross
Rev: Cross potent on base over globe on three steps. To left, Heraclius, to right, smaller Tiberius, both beardless, each wearing chlamys and crown with cross
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Sear-1043.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Constans II (641-668) AV Solidus, Carthage (Sear 1043; DOC 125; MIB 72b)14 viewsObv: Crowned and draped facing busts of Constans, holding globus cruciger, and Constantine
Rev: Cross potent set on globe; at sides, crowned and draped facing busts of Heraclius and Tiberius; P below
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Sear-1209.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Constantine IV Pogonatus (668-685) AE Follis, Syracuse Mint (Sear-1209; Berk-740)14 viewsObv: Constantine IV standing facing, wearing helmet and cuirass and holding spear
Rev: Large M between facing standing figures of Heraclius on left and Tiberius on right; above M, monogram; in exergue, SCL
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Sear-1168.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Constantine IV Pogonatus (668-685) Hexagram, Constantinople (Sear-1168)19 viewsObv: D N CONATANY. Helmeted bust facing slightly right, holding spear and shield.
Rev: DEYS ADIYTA ROmANIS. Cross potent set on globe on three steps; Heraclius, holding long cross, and Tiberius, holding globus cruciger, standing facing on either side.
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Sear-1234.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Constantine IV Pogonatus (668-685) Æ Half Follis, Rome (Sear-1234; DOC 83; MIB 115)5 viewsObv: Crowned facing bust of Constantine, holding spear
Rev: Crowned facing busts of Heraclius and Tiberius; between, cross above X/X; ROM in exergue
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Sear-1438.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Justinian II with Tiberius (705-711) Æ Follis, Syracuse (Sear-1438; MIB-52; Anastasi-360)17 viewsObv: Justinian and Tiberius standing facing, each wearing crown and chlamys, and holding between them a long cross
Rev: Large M; monogram above, stars flanking; SCL
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Sear-494(1).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Maurice Tiberius (582-602 AD) Æ Follis, Constantinople, RY 7 (Sear-494; MIB 65d-67d)18 viewsObv: DN MAVRIC TIBER PP AVG; Helmeted and cuirassed bust facing, holding cross on globe and shield, sometimes with cross to right
Rev: Large M, ANNO to left, cross above, regnal year to right, officina letter below; CON in exergue
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Sear-494.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Maurice Tiberius (582-602 AD) Æ Follis, Constantinople, RY 8 (Sear 494; MIB 65d-67d)18 viewsObv: DN MAVRIC TIBER PP AVG; Helmeted and cuirassed bust facing, holding cross on globe and shield, sometimes with cross to right
Rev: Large M, ANNO to left, cross above, regnal year to right, officina letter below; CON in exergue

SOLD
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Sear-539(1).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Maurice Tiberius (582-602 AD) Æ Pentanummium, Antioch (Sear 539; MIB 103)8 viewsObv: Sear Monogram 15 of Maurice Tiberius
Rev: Large Ч, cross above
Dim: 15 mm, 1.40 g, 12 h



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Sear-539.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Maurice Tiberius (582-602 AD) Æ Pentanummium, Antioch (Sear-539; MIB-103)41 viewsObv: Sear Monogram 15 of Maurice Tiberius
Rev: Large Ч, pellet within, cross above


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Sear-542.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Maurice Tiberius (582-602 CE) AE pentanummium, Antioch (Sear-542; ; MIB-105)18 viewsObv: Monogram
Rev: Large E, cross to right
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Sear-551.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Maurice Tiberius (582-602 CE) AR 1/2 Siliqua, Carthage (Sear-551; DOC 239; MIBE 57)12 viewsObv: D N TIB [MA]-VRIC [PP A]; crowned, draped, and cuirassed bust of Maurice Tiberius facing
Rev: * SALVS MVNDI, cross within circular border of pellets
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Sear-537.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Maurice Tiberius (582-602 CE) Æ Decannumium, Theoupolis, RY16 (Sear 537; DOC 209; MIBE 102)6 viewsObv: Bust of Maurice Tiberius facing, wearing crown with trefoil ornament and consular robes, holding mappa and eagle-tipped scepter
Rev: Large I between A/N/N/O and X/ЧI; above, cross, in exergue, THЄЧp'
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Sear-607.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Maurice Tiberius (582-602) 8 pentanummi (Follis), Cherson Mint (Sear-607, DOC-I,303)28 viewsObv: Maurice and the Empress Constantina standing facing, both haloed, holding a globus cruciger one, the other a long cruciform scepter. Cross between heads. Legend aroud - DNmAV[...]PPAVG

Rev: Theodosius, son of Maurice, standing facing, nimbus, holding a long cross. Right, H with a cross above.
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Sear-553.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Maurice Tiberius (582-602) AR 1/2 Siliqua, Carthage (Sear-553; DOC 241; MIBE 61)12 viewsObv: D N MAVR Tb PP; helmeted and draped bust of Maurice Tiberius facing, wearing consular robes, holding mappa and globus cruciger
Rev: Cross potent on three steps, flanked by A-ω; all within circular pelleted border surrounded by laurel wreath
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Sear-512.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Maurice Tiberius (582-602) Follis, Kyzikos (Sear-512)13 viewsObv: D N mAVRIC TIbER P P A.
Helmeted and cuirassed bust facing, holding globus cruciger and shield.
Rev: Large M between A/N/N/O and G (date); above, cross; beneath, A; in exergue, NIKO.
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Sear-581.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Maurice Tiberius (582-602) Æ Decanummium, Catania Mint (Sear-581; DOC-265; MIB-136d)20 viewsObv: Cuirassed bust facing, wearing plumed helmet holding globus cruciger
Rev: Large I; at left, ΛNNO, at right, X II; CΛT in exergue
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Sear-498.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Maurice Tiberius (582-602) Æ Decanummium, Constantinople (Sear 498; DOC I 64c; Sommer 7.29; Tolstoi 107; Hahn MIB 73A)9 viewsQuant.Geek
Sear-498(1).JPG
Byzantine Empire: Maurice Tiberius (582-602) Æ Decanummium, Constantinople (Sear 498; DOC I 64c; Sommer 7.29; Tolstoi 107; Hahn MIB 73A)9 viewsQuant.Geek
Sear-583.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Maurice Tiberius (582-602) Æ Decanummium, Syracuse Mint (Sear-583; DOC-281)26 viewsObv: Helmeted, draped, and cuirassed bust facing, holding globus cruciger
Rev: Large X; SE CI LI A in angles
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Sear-583a.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Maurice Tiberius (582-602) Æ Decanummium, Syracuse Mint (Sear-583; DOC-281)12 viewsObv: Helmeted, draped, and cuirassed bust facing, holding globus cruciger
Rev: Large X; SE CI LI A in angles
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Sear-536.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Maurice Tiberius (582-602) Æ Decanummium, Theoupolis (Sear-536; DOC 196; MIBE-100b)21 viewsObv: Crowned facing bust, holding mappa and eagle-tipped scepter
Rev: Large X; cross above, e below; A/N/N/O III (date) across field
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Sear-532.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Maurice Tiberius (582-602) Æ Follis, Antioch (Sear 532; DOC 153; MIBE 95b)44 viewsObv: Crowned facing bust, wearing consular robe, holding mappa and eagle-tipped sceptre
Rev: Large m between A/N/N/O and II; above, cross; in exergue, THЄЧP'
Dim: 30 mm, 12.3 g
SpongeBob
Sear-533(2).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Maurice Tiberius (582-602) Æ Follis, Antioch (Sear 533; DOC 165a; MIB 96)13 viewsObv: Bust of Maurice Tiberius facing, wearing crown with trefoil ornament and consular robes, holding mappa in his right hand and eagle-tipped scepter with his left
Rev: Large M between A/N/N/O and X/III; above, cross; below, A; in exergue, THЄЧP'
Dim: 29 mm, 11.39 g, 5 h
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Sear-533(1).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Maurice Tiberius (582-602) Æ Follis, Antioch (Sear 533; DOC 172d; MIB 96)7 viewsObv: Bust of Maurice Tiberius facing, wearing crown with trefoil ornament and consular robes, holding mappa in his right hand and eagle-tipped scepter with his left
Rev: Large M between A/N/N/O and X/X; above, cross; below, S; in exergue, THЄЧP'
Dim: 27 mm, 11.43 g, 7 h
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Sear-533.JPG
Byzantine Empire: Maurice Tiberius (582-602) Æ Follis, Antioch Mint (Sear 533; DOC 167b; MIB 96C)7 viewsex-Tom Cederlind; ex-CNG

SOLD
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Sear-497.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Maurice Tiberius (582-602) Æ Half Follis, Cyzicus Mint (Sear-497; DOC 139b; MIBE-88D)13 viewsObv: [O] N mAVRIC TIЬЄR PPA; Bust facing, wearing cuirass and crown with cross; in right hand, globus cruciger
Rev: Large K; cross above; to left ANNO, to right GI, B below
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Sear-497(1).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Maurice Tiberius (582-602) Æ Half Follis, Cyzicus Mint (Sear-497; DOC 139b; MIBE-88D)10 viewsObv: [O] N mAVRIC TIЬЄR PPA; Bust facing, wearing cuirass and crown with cross; in right hand, globus cruciger
Rev: Large K; cross above; to left ANNO, to right G, B below
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Sear-540.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Maurice Tiberius (582-602) Æ Pentanummium, Antioch (Sear 540; MIB 104)18 viewsObv: Sear Monogram 16 of Maurice Tiberius
Rev: Large Ч, pellet within, cross above
Dim: 18 mm, 1.43 g
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Sear-501A(2).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Maurice Tiberius (582-602) Æ Pentanummium, Constantinople (Sear 501A; DOC 68c; MIB 74c)3 viewsObv: D N mAVRI or similar; Diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust of Maurice Tiberius to right
Rev: Large Є; to left Γ
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Sear-501A.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Maurice Tiberius (582-602) Æ Pentanummium, Constantinople (Sear 501A; MIB 74c)13 viewsObv: DN mAV RCPPAG or similar; Bust facing right, diademed, in cuirass and paludamentum
Rev: Large Є; to left A
Dim: 16mm, 1.43g
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Sear-501A(1).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Maurice Tiberius (582-602) Æ Pentanummium, Constantinople (Sear 501A; MIB 74c)7 viewsObv: D N mAVRI or similar; Diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust of Maurice Tiberius to right
Rev: Large Є; to left A
Dim: 16 mm, 1.60 g, 7 h
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Sear-501B.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Maurice Tiberius (582-602) Æ Pentanummium, Constantinople (Sear 501B; MIB 74d)6 viewsObv: DN mAV TIЬЄRPP or similar; Bust facing right, diademed, in cuirass and paludamentum
Rev: Large Є; to left rotated A
Dim: 16mm, 1.41g
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Sear-516.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Maurice Tiberius (582-602) Æ Pentanummium, Nicomedia (Sear 516; MIB 83; DOC 118)17 viewsObv: D N mAVRI or similar; Diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust of Maurice Tiberius to right
Rev: Large Є; to left N
Dim: 18 mm, 1.78 g, 6 h
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BLS_I-138.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Stephanos apo hypaton, patrikios and general kommerkiarios of the apotheke of First and Second Cappadocia (659-668 CE) Pb Seal (BLS I, 138-144)22 viewsObv: CTЄΦANϪ APϪ / PA TШN ΠATPIKI / ϪKAI ΓЄNIKϪ KOMM / ЄPKIA; Facing busts of Constans II, with helmet and long beard, on left, wearing crown and chlamys, and Constantine IV, on right, wearing crown and chlamys; both holding globus cruciger; above, cross
Rev: PIϪ AΠΟΘHKHC K / AΠΠΑΔOKIAC / ΠPШTHC KAI / ΔЄYTЄPAC; Facing busts of Heraclius, on left, wearing crown and chlamys, and Tiberius, on right, wearing crown and chlamys; both holding globus cruciger; above, cross
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Sear-438A.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Tiberius II Constantine (578-582 CE) Æ Pentanummium, Constantinople (Sear 438A; DOC 22; MIBE 33a)15 viewsObv: d m TIb PP AVI; diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Tiberius II, Constantine right
Rev: Large Ч
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Sear-438A(1).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Tiberius II Constantine (578-582 CE) Æ Pentanummium, Constantinople (Sear 438A; DOC 22; MIBE 33a)12 viewsObv: d m TIb PP AVI; diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Tiberius II, Constantine right
Rev: Large Ч
Dim: 18 mm, 1.79 g, 1 h
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Sear-441.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Tiberius II Constantine (578-582) AE Follis, Nicomedia (Sear-441)23 viewsObv: D m TIb CONSTANT P P AVC.
Crowned bust facing, wearing consular robes and holding mappa and eagle-tipped sceptre; above eagle, cross.
Rev: Large m between A/N/N/O and GI; above, cross; in exergue, NIKO B.
1 commentsSpongeBob
Sear-432.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Tiberius II Constantine (578-582) AE ¾ Follis, Constantinople (Sear-432)14 viewsObv: D M TIЬ CONSTANT P P A; Crowned, draped and cuirassed bust facing
Rev: Large XXX; cross above; CON B in exergue.
SpongeBob
Sear-436(1).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Tiberius II Constantine (578-582) Æ Decanummium, Constantinople (Sear-436; DOC 20b; MIBE 31a)10 viewsObv: DM TIB CONSTAN PP AVI (or similar); Crowned, draped, and cuirassed bust facing
Rev: Large X; cross above
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Sear-436.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Tiberius II Constantine (578-582) Æ Decanummium, Constantinople (Sear-436; DOC 20b; MIBE 31a)35 viewsObv: DM TIB CONSTAN PP AVI (or similar); Crowned, draped, and cuirassed bust facing;
Rev: Large X; cross above
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Sear-472.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Tiberius II Constantine (578-582) Æ Decanummium, Ravenna (Sear-472)9 viewsObv: DM TIB CONSTAN PP AVI (or similar); Crowned, cuirassed bust of Tiberius II facing, holding globus cruciger
Rev: Large I between two crosses; all within wreath
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Sear-430.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Tiberius II Constantine (578-582) Æ Follis, Constantinople, RY 6 (Sear 430; DOC 1c; MIBE 25)38 viewsObv: Crowned facing bust of Tiberius II Constantine, wearing consular robes, holding mappa and eagle-tipped scepter
Rev: Large M between A/N/N/O and Ч; above, cross; in exergue, CONЄ
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Sear-430(2).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Tiberius II Constantine (578-582) Æ Follis, Constantinople, RY 6 (Sear 430; DOC 1c; MIBE 25)16 viewsObv: Crowned facing bust of Tiberius II Constantine, wearing consular robes, holding mappa and eagle-tipped scepter
Rev: Large M between A/N/N/O and Ч; above, cross; in exergue, CONΓ
Dim: 35 mm, 16.70 g, 12 h
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Sear-430(1).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Tiberius II Constantine (578-582) Æ Follis, Constantinople, RY 7 (Sear 430; DOC 13c; MIBE 25)9 viewsObv: Crowned facing bust, wearing consular robes, holding mappa and eagle-tipped scepte with eagle. Cross above eagle. Legend around - D m TIb CONSTANT PP AVG
Rev: Large M between A/N/N/O and ЧI; above, cross; in exergue, CONΓ
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Sear-448(1).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Tiberius II Constantine (578-582) Æ Follis, Theopolis, RY 6 (Sear 448; DOC 41; MIBE 47)13 viewsObv: Crowned facing bust of Tiberius II Constantine, wearing crown surmounted with cross and consular robes, holding mappa and eagle-tipped scepter
Rev: Large M between A/N/N/O and Ч; above, cross; in exergue, THЄЧP'
Dim: 31 mm, 14.59 g, 7 h
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Sear-448.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Tiberius II Constantine (578-582) Æ Follis, Theopolis, RY 9 (Sear 448; DOC 44; MIBE 47)15 viewsObv: Crowned facing bust of Tiberius II Constantine, wearing crown surmounted with cross and consular robes, holding mappa and eagle-tipped scepter
Rev: Large M between A/N/N/O and ЧIII; above, cross; in exergue, THЄЧP'

From the Iconodule Collection
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Sear-452.JPG
Byzantine Empire: Tiberius II Constantine (578-582) Æ Half Follis, Theoupolis/Antioch, RY 8 (Sear 452; DOC 49; MIB 54)7 viewsObv: Crowned bust facing, wearing consular robes, holding mappa and eagle-tipped scepter; crown with cross
Rev: Large X • X; cross above, A/N/N/O ςII across field; mintmark below


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Sear-459(2).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Tiberius II Constantine (578–582 CE) Æ Pentanummium, Antioch/Theoupolis (Sear-459; MIBE 61)35 viewsObv: Sear Monogram 18 of Tiberius II Constantine
Rev: Large Ч; cross above



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Sear-459(1).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Tiberius II Constantine (578–582 CE) Æ Pentanummium, Antioch/Theoupolis (Sear-459; MIBE 61)17 viewsObv: Sear Monogram 18 of Tiberius II Constantine
Rev: Large Ч; cross above

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Sear-1395.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Tiberius III (698-705) AE 40 Nummi (Sear-1395, DOC II-32)42 viewsObv: No inscription; Bust facing, wearing crown with cross. In right hand, spear held before body. On left shoulder, shield with horseman device. In left field, star
Rev: Large M between two palm branches, above monogram; SCL in exergue
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Sear-1395(1).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Tiberius III (698-705) AE 40 Nummi (Sear-1395, DOC II-32)12 viewsObv: No inscription; Bust facing, wearing crown with cross. In right hand, spear held before body. On left shoulder, shield with horseman device. In left field, star
Rev: Large M between two palm branches, above monogram; SCL in exergue
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Sear-1367.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Tiberius III Apsimar (698-705) Æ Follis, Constantinople (Sear 1367; DOC 11)13 viewsObv: Emperor standing, wearing military garb, paludamentum, and crown with cross; In right hand, globus cruciger and in left, long cross
Rev: Large M; cross above, to left, A/N/N/O; B below; CON in exergue
Dim: 29 mm, 3.30g

Overstruck as usual, on an indeterminate host coin
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theodosius~0.jpg
Byzantine Theodosius 1/3 Siliqua15 viewsTheodosius, son of Maurice Tiberius (590-602).
1/3 Siliqua (200 Nummi). Carthage, 592-597.
AR 0.3 gr.
DNTHEODO SIVSPPA. Bust facing, wearing cuirass and crown with trefoil ornament above circle.
Rv. Large N • M; above, +; beneath, CC, all within circle of dots surrounded by wreath.

BNC Maurice Tiberius 6; MIB Maurice Tiberius 62; Sear 615A.


Extremely rare.
1 commentsTanit
Constantine4.jpg
BYZANTINE, Constantine IV, AV Solidus.111 viewsConstantine IV, Pogonatus, 15 July 668 - 10 July 685 A.D.

Cf. Sear 1153.
Constantine IV ruled jointly with his father, Constans II, from A.D.654 to A.D.668, and then with his brothers, Heraclius and Tiberius, from A.D.659 until A.D. 681.
Constantine IV, Pogonatus should be credited with saving Europe from Muslim conquest when, after besieging Constantinople for four years, the Arabs led by caliph Muawija I were forced to retreat. The use by the Byzantines of the famous "Greek Fire" having made the city impregnable. In A.D.681 Constantine IV deposed his two brothers. Constantine IV was succeeded by his 16 year old son Justinian II in A.D.685.

1 commentsgoldcoin
ByzantineFoureeSolidus~0.jpg
BYZANTINE, Maurice Tiberius AV (Fouree) Solidus539 viewsMaurice Tiberius AV Solidus.
Obverse: D N MAVRC TIb PP AVG, helmeted and cuirassed facing bust, holding globus cruciger
Reverse: VICTORI AAVCCC, angel holding long P-headed cross and globus cruciger; Exergue: CONOB.
Attribution: DOC I 5f; MIB II 6. SBV #sb0478 (Thanks to Wildwinds.com)
This coin seems heavy to be plated silver. I have yet to weigh it. I believe the core to be lead; however, I am unsure.
4 commentsGunner
FORVM_Maurice_Tiberius_Bronze_follis_Rare.jpg
BYZANTINE, Maurice Tiberius, 582 - 602 A.D. Constantinople mint, 4th officina. 34 viewsMinted 586 - 587 A.D. Bronze follis, 9.558g, 29.0mm, 0o, F. Obv: helmeted and cuirassed bust facing, globus cruciger in right, shield in left, cross right; D N mAVRC TIbeRI PP AVC. Rev: large M between ANNO and U (regnal year 5), cross above, D below, CON in ex. Ref: SBCV 494, DOC I 28d var (cross right). RARE VARIETYBard Gram O
Picture_1~1.png
BYZANTINE, MAURICE TIBERIUS, A.D. 582-60218 viewsMAURICE TIBERIUS
A.D. 582-602 Æ Half follis, Obv. Helmeted bust facing Rev. Large K between ANNO and III, + above, Β below, mint of Constantinople. 6.68gm, 25mm
jessvc1
948_mauritius_tiberius_ges.jpg
BYZANTINE, Maurice Tiberius, AE Follis18 viewsMauritius Tiberius follis from Kyzikus - Offizin 2 - year 3 or 8Franz-Josef M
mauritius_tiberius_follis.jpg
BYZANTINE, Maurice Tiberius, AE Follis18 views40 nummis Follis Theopolis year 8Franz-Josef M
maurice tiberius follis antioch.jpg
Byzantine, Maurice Tiberius, AE Follis, Antioch115 viewsObv: Bust facing, wearing crown and consular robes. Mappa in right hand, eagle-tipped sceptre in left.
Struck 582-602 A.D. at Antioch.
BCV: 532
1 commentsJericho
1720332.jpg
BYZANTINE, Maurice Tiberius, Solidus70 viewsDate: 582-602 AD
Mint: Constantinople
Obverse: Draped and cuirassed bust facing, wearing plumed helmet and holding globus cruciger.
Reverse: Angel standing facing, holding staff terminating in Christogram and globus cruciger.
BCV 477
Bought on CNG, ex John A. Seeger Collection. Pic made by CNG
Xulodue
Antioch_Maurice_Tiberius_AE_Follis_582-602~0.jpg
BYZANTINE, Maurice Tiberius, Theoupolis (Antioch), 582-602, AE Follis 410 views[D N M]AURI-C N P AUT Crowned bust of Maurice facing, bearing consular mantle, holding mappa in right hand and eagle tipped sceptre in left hand. / Large M flanked by A/N/N/O – X/III (regnal year 13 equivalent to 594/95 AD), cross above, Γ below, THEUP (Theoupolis) in exergue. Sear Byzantine 533; DO 161-73.
(28 mm, 11.75 g, 6h)
7 commentsLloyd T
Mauricius Tiberius.jpg
BYZANTINE, Mauricius Tiberius55 viewsMauricius Tiberius, 582 - 602 AD
Solidus, Constantinopel, 4,29g, VF

obv: O.N.MAVRC.TIb.PP.AVG (Dr. and cuir. bust facing, wearing plumed helmet and holding gl. cr.)
rev: VICTORIA AVGGI (officinae I), (angel stg. facing, holding staff surmounted by P and gl.cr.; in ex., CONOB)

"Maurice Tiberius
August 13, 582 through November 22, 602.
Maurice Tiberius was an excellant military officer and was responsible for the curbing the Persians during the end of Justin II's reign. And during his reign he used diplomatic means to bring peace with the Persians. The western part of the empire saw a reuniting of control over much of Italy, Sicily and North Africa, but the Balkans proved to be his downfall. Due to losses of territory and prestige in the Balkan peninsula, a military revolt occurred with Phocas taking over as emperor. Maurice Tiberius and his two sons fled Constantinople, only to be slain a month or so later"
Nico
maurtib195.jpg
BYZANTINE, Mauricius Tiberius, Sear 0533.46 viewsMauricius Tiberius (582-602)
Follis, Antioch, 3rd officina, regnal year 20.
W. Kutschenko
09625p00.jpg
BYZANTINE, Mauricius Tiberius, Sear 0535.43 viewsMauricius Tiberius (582-602)
Half Follis, Antioch, regnal year 12.
W. Kutschenko
Tiberius III Apsimar~0.jpg
BYZANTINE, Tiberius III Apsimar, A.D.698-705, AV Solidus111 viewsTIBERIUS III (Apsimar). 698-705 AD. AV Solidus (20mm, 4.01 gm, 6h). Italian mint.
Obv: d TIbE RI Au, crowned and cuirassed facing bust, holding spear and shield.
Rev: VICTORIA AuSu, cross potent on three steps; small crosses flanking; CONOB.
DOC II 22 (Syracuse); MIB II 34 (Syracuse); SB 1381 (Syracuse). VF, ragged flan. Rare.
All the references ascribe this piece to Syracuse, but style and more importantly the metal content are not normal for Syracuse at this period. Probably one of the Italian mints, but Ricotti Prina, the source for a number of Italian attributions, does not list this coin.
goldcoin
111.jpg
C▪II in rectangular punch182 viewsSYRIA: COMMAGENE. Tiberius. Æ 29 (Dupondius). A.D. 19-21. Obv: (TI•CAESA)R•DIVI•AVGVSTI•F•A(VGVS-TVS). Laureate head right; countermark below chin. Rev: (PONT•)MAXIM•COSIII•IMPVII•TR•PO(T•XXII). Two crossed cornucopiae, between which winged caduceus. Ref: RPC 3868; RIC 90. Axis: 360°. Weight: 13.36 g. CM: C▪II in rectangular punch, 6.5 x 4.5 mm. Howgego -. Collection Automan.Automan
111~0.jpg
C▪II in rectangular punch134 viewsSYRIA: COMMAGENE. Tiberius. Æ 29 (Dupondius). A.D. 19-21. Obv: (TI•CAESA)R•DIVI•AVGVSTI•F•A(VGVS-TVS). Laureate head right; countermark below chin. Rev: (PONT•)MAXIM•COSIII•IMPVII•TR•PO(T•XXII). Two crossed cornucopiae, between which winged caduceus. Ref: RPC 3868; RIC 90. Axis: 360°. Weight: 13.36 g. CM: C▪II in rectangular punch, 6.5 x 4.5 mm. Ref: Howgego -. Collection Automan.Automan
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-jL32v9k6T0fUkE3l-Agrippa.jpg
Caligula (Agrippa) (Augustus) Coin: Bronze AS6 viewsM AGRIPPA. L. F. COS. III - Head left, wearing rostral crown
S-C across field - Neptune standing left, holding small dolphin and trident.
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (37-41 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 11.70g / 28.45mm / 6h
Rarity: Common
References:
RIC I 58 (Gaius)
BMCRE 161 (Tiberius)
Cohen 3
Acquisition/Sale: 22noelnoel22 Ebay $0.00 08/18
Notes: Aug 24, 18 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Agrippa, Military Commander, Friend of Augustus, Grandfather of Caligula, Great-grandfather of Nero
Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa was a boyhood friend of Augustus and a renowned military commander on land and sea, winning the famous battle of Actium against the forces of Marcus Antonius and Cleopatra. Declared Augustus' successor, Agrippa's brilliant career ended when he predeceased Augustus in 12 B.C. He was married to Augustus' daughter Julia; father of Gaius and Lucius Caesars, Agrippa Postumus, Julia and Agrippina Senior; grandfather of Caligula, and great-grandfather of Nero.
Gary W2
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-3qs59GR6xcPDlCaligula_2.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Dupondius 12 viewsNERO ET DRVSVS CAESARES - Nero and Drusus on horseback riding right
C. CAESAR. DIVI. AVG. PRON. AVG. P. M. TR. P. III. P. P. around large S. C. - Legend surrounding large S C
Mint: Rome (39-40 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 13.04g / 32mm / 6h
Rarity: R3
References:
RIC I 42 (Gaius)
BMCRE p. 156, n. ‡
Provenances:
Artemide Aste
Acquisition/Sale: Artemide Aste Internet 46e #266 $0.00 02/19

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

The TR P III (39-40 AD) date of Caligula's base coinage is the scarcest of all his dates. The TR P (37-38 AD) is the most common followed by his TR P IIII (40-41 AD). Caligula did not issue base coinage from Rome with the TR P II (38-39 AD) date.

From: Incitatus Coins
Nero and Drusus were the elder brothers of Caligula, and the sons of Germanicus. Both were heirs of Tiberius and both were killed by the machinations of Sejanus. Caligula survived Sejanus, and the subsequent years, to become emperor. He immediately proclaimed his informed uncle Claudius as his co-consul, an appointment made so that Caligula could, in essence, rule as sole consul. Claudius was given the modest
task of preparing a celebration of Caligula's brothers, including statues in their honor. According to 'I Claudius', Claudius encountered difficulty in completing these statues on time. The completed statues appear on this coinage.

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA


From Joe Geranio:
The dupondii issues of the brothers of Caligula , Nero and Drusus Caesar was no doubt to remind the Roman populace about the Dioscuri the saviors of the Roman state. The Dioscuri won a miraculous battle in 496 B.C. and then on the same day appear in the Roman Forum to tell the populace about the victory, no doubt Caligula wanted to associate himself with the Dioscuri with this issue of the gods represented as Nero and Drusus Caesars galloping on their horses with ease as though the wind is blowing in their hair. This familial propaganda would cement that the sons of Germanicus and Agrippina would reign and were in control.

This type was issued by Caligula for his two deceased brothers, Nero Julius Caesar and Drusus Julius Caesar Germanicus. Nero Caesar was Tiberius' oldest adoptive grandson and was the emperor's most obvious successor until 29 A.D. when he was accused of treason along with his mother, Agrippina the Elder. He was exiled to the island of Ponza where he was either induced to commit suicide or starved to death before October 31. In 30, his brother Drusus Caesar was also accused of treason and exiled and imprisoned. He starved to death in prison in 33, reduced to chewing the stuffing of his bed.

From Suetonius:
But he (Claudius) was exposed also to actual dangers. First in his very consulship, when he was all but deposed, because he had been somewhat slow in contracting for and setting up the statues of Nero and Drusus, the emperor's brothers.


From COINWEEK:
THE ANNALS OF THE ROMAN HISTORIAN TACITUS (56 – 117 CE) survived in one damaged medieval manuscript at the Monte Cassino monastery. The section covering the reign of Emperor Caligula is missing, and we rely largely on fragmentary chapters of Cassius Dio’s Roman History (155-235 CE) and the Twelve Caesars of Suetonius (c.69 – 140 CE), a gossip writer who was the Perez Hilton of Imperial Rome. There are few contemporary eyewitness sources – some passages in the writings of Seneca (4 BCE – 65 CE) and Philo of Alexandria (c. 25 BCE – 50 CE ).

The story is not a happy one.

The future emperor was born on August 31 in the year 12, probably at Antium (Anzio) south of Rome. His father Germanicus, nephew of Emperor Tiberius, was a successful and popular general. His mother, Agrippina “the Elder”, was the daughter of Marcus Agrippa, the brilliant organizer who was largely responsible for Octavian’s victory in the Roman civil war (32-30 BCE).

“Caligula” is a nickname. It means “little boot” in Latin, because as a child he wore a miniature military uniform including tiny hobnailed boots, much to the delight of his father’s veteran legionaries. He grew up to dislike it. His given name, which appears on his coins, variously abbreviated, was Gaius (or Caius) Julius Caesar Germanicus. “Caesar” here is not a title, but a personal name, inherited through Germanicus Julius Caesar, grandson of Emperor Augustus, the adopted son of the famous Julius Caesar (100 – 44 BCE).

A New Hope
“TO MAKE AN INEXPERIENCED AND ALMOST UNKNOWN YOUNG MAN, BROUGHT UP UNDER A SERIES OF AGED AND REPRESSIVE GUARDIANS, MASTER OF THE WORLD, ALMOST LITERALLY OVERNIGHT, ON THE SOLE RECOMMENDATION THAT HIS FATHER HAD BEEN A THOROUGHLY DECENT FELLOW WAS TO COURT DISASTER IN A QUITE IRRESPONSIBLE FASHION.”
–BARRETT, CALIGULA: THE CORRUPTION OF POWER (1990)

When the reclusive, miserly and increasingly paranoid Emperor Tiberius died on March 16, 37 CE at the age of 78, most Romans greeted Caligula’s accession joyfully. Caligula’s early coinage celebrates his descent from his great-grandfather, the deified Augustus.

Caligula’s laurel-crowned portrait appears on the obverse of his gold aurei and silver denarii surrounded by his titles. On one reverse, which bears no inscription, the head of Augustus, wearing the sun god’s spiky radiate crown, appears between two stars. Another type omits the stars and adds the inscription, “Divine Augustus, Father of the Nation”. On some examples, the portrait seems to have the features of the unpopular Tiberius, who was never deified by the Senate. Perhaps the mint engravers, who had copied and recopied the portrait of Tiberius for 22 years, automatically reproduced a familiar face.

On his birthday in the year 37, Caligula dedicated the Temple of Augustus, which had been under construction for over two decades in the Roman forum. The event is commemorated on a magnificent brass sestertius. On the obverse a veiled seated figure is labeled PIETAS (“piety”) – an untranslatable Latin term for the Roman virtue that combined profound respect for ancestral traditions and meticulous observance of ritual obligations. The reverse shows Caligula in his role as Pontifex Maximus, high priest of the state religion, sacrificing an ox before a richly decorated temple. The finest known example of this coin sold for over $269,000 USD in a November 2013 Swiss auction.

Addressing the Guards
The orderly succession and survival of any Roman emperor depended on the Praetorian Guard, an elite force of bodyguards stationed in the capital. It was organized into nine battalions, or “cohorts”, each of 500 to 1,000 men.

On his accession, one of Caligula’s first official acts was to present each guardsman with a thousand sestertii bequeathed by Tiberius in his will, adding another thousand of his own. The reverse of a rare bronze sestertius, which may have been specially struck for this payment, shows Caligula standing on a platform with his arm raised in a formal gesture of greeting to a rank of guards. The abbreviated inscription ADLOCUT COH means “Address to the Cohorts”. Remarkably, this coin lacks the inscription SC (“by decree of the Senate”), which normally appeared on all Roman bronze coinage. An outstanding example of this type (“undoubtedly the finest specimen known”) brought over $634,000 in a 2014 European auction.

Family Ties
Caligula issued numerous types honoring the memory of his parents. Some of these continued under the reign of his uncle and successor, Claudius.

A handsome brass dupondius (worth half a sestertius or two asses) shows Germanicus riding in a chariot, celebrating his triumph (May 26, 17 CE) over German tribes. On the reverse, Germanicus stands in armor, holding an eagle-tipped scepter as a symbol of command. The inscription reads, “Standards Regained From the Defeated Germans”. This commemorates the return of sacred eagle standards captured when Roman legions of P. Quinctilius Varus were ambushed and annihilated eight years previously (September, 9 CE) in the Teutoburg Forest of north-central Germany. Examples of this type have sold for $500 to $3,000 in recent auctions.

Agrippina the Elder, mother of Caligula, was honored on a bronze sestertius. The obverse inscription surrounding her strong, dignified portrait translates: “Agrippina, daughter of Marcus, mother of emperor Gaius Caesar”. On the reverse, the legend “To the Memory of Agrippina” appears beside a carpentum, a ceremonial cart drawn by two mules that paraded an image of Agrippina on special occasions.

A superb, pedigreed example of this coin (“Very rare and among the finest specimens known. A delicate portrait of sublime style, Tiber tone”) sold for over $98,000 in a November 2013 Swiss auction. More typical examples sell for $1,000 to $3,000.

Perhaps the best-known coin of Caligula is a rare sestertius that depicts his three sisters, Agrippina the Younger, Drusilla and Julia Livilla as the personifications of Securitas, Concordia and Fortuna respectively. Caligula was close to his sisters, and lavished public honors on them in a way that shocked traditional Roman values. This inevitably led later writers to charge the emperor with incestuous relations, a rumor that is almost certainly false.

In recent auctions, exceptional examples of this type have sold for prices ranging from $15,000 to 21,000. Worn or corroded examples that have been “tooled” to improve the detail can sometimes be found for under $2,000. Cast forgeries are common, mostly modern, some dating back to the Renaissance that are collectable in their own right.

Small Change
Perhaps the most enigmatic coin of Caligula’s reign was the smallest regular Roman denomination, the quadrans. It took 64 of these little coppers to equal the value of one silver denarius – a day’s pay for a manual worker. On the obverse, the emperor’s name and titles surround a “liberty cap” – the felt hat worn by freed slaves – bracketed by the letters “SC”. The reverse inscription continues the emperor’s titles, surrounding the large letters “RCC”.

For many years, the consensus of numismatic scholars was that this abbreviation stood for remissa ducentesima, celebrating Caligula’s repeal of an unpopular one-half percent sales tax (“one part in two hundred” – “CC” being the Roman numeral for 200). A brilliant 2010 study by David Woods argues that this interpretation is unlikely, and RCC probably stands for something like res civium conservatae (“the interests of citizens have been preserved”).

The quadrans is probably the most affordable coin of Caligula, with decent examples appearing at auction for under $100.

The Making of a Monster
SO MUCH FOR CALIGULA THE EMPEROR; THE REST OF THIS HISTORY MUST NEEDS DEAL WITH CALIGULA THE MONSTER.
— SUETONIUS, THE TWELVE CAESARS, 22.1

Caligula fell seriously ill in October, 37 CE. After he recovered, his personality (always rather dark) took a decided turn for the worse. He became increasingly paranoid, ordering the execution or forcing the suicide of many who were previously close to him. He reportedly took special delight in having people tortured to death in his presence. As his increasingly bizarre expenditures emptied the treasury, he had wealthy Romans executed in order to seize their assets. Nevertheless, Suetonius reports that Caligula was devoted and faithful to his fourth and last wife, Milonia Caesonia, “who was neither beautiful nor young”.



The Death of Caligula

On January 24, 41 CE, conspirators including Cassius Chaerea, an officer of the Praetorian Guard, stabbed Caligula to death as he left a theatrical performance. Caesonia and her young daughter were also murdered. The only certainly identifiable contemporary portrait of Caesonia appears on a rare provincial bronze issued by Caligula’s childhood friend, Herod Agrippa I (11 BCE – 44 CE), the Roman client-king of Judaea.

Collecting the Monster
Gold and silver issues of Caligula are scarce, and in high demand from collectors, especially those determined to complete a set of the “Twelve Caesars” – all the Roman rulers from Julius Caesar to Domitian. Some of the bronzes are quite common, particularly the bronze as with Vesta reverse – decent examples can be found at auction for well under $200. For bronzes in the highest grades, with pristine surfaces and untouched patinas, the sky’s the limit.

For an emperor who was supposedly feared and hated by the Romans by the end of his short reign – only three years and 10 months – Caligula’s coins seem to have a good survival rate, and few that reach the numismatic market are mutilated. Some have the first ‘C’ of the emperor’s personal name filed off or scratched out, but it is rare to find deliberate ancient gouges or cuts across the portrait.

Any collector approaching the coinage of Caligula seeking evidence of madness, decadence and depravity will be disappointed. Coinage is conservative, and these coins present an idealized portrait of a rather dorky young man, along with a series of stock images reflecting the conventions of classical art that the Romans adopted from the Greeks
Gary W2
Nero_and_Drusus_Caes.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Dupondius 9 viewsNERO ET DRVSVS CAESARES - Nero and Drusus Caesar on horseback riding r., cloaks flying behind them.
C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P IIII PP - Legend around S C
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (40-41AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 15.99g / 29mm / 180
Rarity: R2
References:
Cohen 2
RIC Gaius 49
BMC Gaius 70
CBN Gaius 120
Provenances:
Bertolami Fine Arts
Acquisition/Sale: Bertolami Finearts Vcoins

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

From: Incitatus Coins
Nero and Drusus were the elder brothers of Caligula, and the sons of Germanicus. Both were heirs of Tiberius and both were killed by the machinations of Sejanus. Caligula survived Sejanus, and the subsequent years, to become emperor. He immediately proclaimed his informed uncle Claudius as his co-consul, an appointment made so that Caligula could, in essence, rule as sole consul. Claudius was given the modest
task of preparing a celebration of Caligula's brothers, including statues in their honor. According to 'I Claudius', Claudius encountered difficulty in completing these statues on time. The completed statues appear on this coinage.

From Joe Geranio:
The dupondii issues of the brothers of Caligula , Nero and Drusus Caesar was no doubt to remind the Roman populace about the Dioscuri the saviors of the Roman state. The Dioscuri won a miraculous battle in 496 B.C. and then on the same day appear in the Roman Forum to tell the populace about the victory, no doubt Caligula wanted to associate himself with the Dioscuri with this issue of the gods represented as Nero and Drusus Caesars galloping on their horses with ease as though the wind is blowing in their hair. This familial propaganda would cement that the sons of Germanicus and Agrippina would reign and were in control.

Historical Context

Suetonius states in (Caligula 22.1-2) “Up until now I have been discussing Caligula in his capacity as an emperor; we must now consider him in his capacity as a monster….

Eventually Caligula began to claim for himself a Divine majesty;…..he extended a part of the Palatine palace all the way out to the Forum, transforming the Temple of Castor and Pollux into an entrance hall for the Palace. There in the Temple he would often take his seat between the twin gods, presenting himself for worship to those he approached.”

Dio, (History 59.28.5) states, “ Caligula went so far as to divide in two the Temple of the Dioscuri in the Roman Forum, making a passageway to the Palatine that went right between the two cult statues. As a result, he was fond of saying that he regarded the Dioscuri as his gate-keepers. NEW ARCHAEOLOGY: Regarding the extension from the palace - http://news.stanford.edu/news/2003/september10/caligula-910.html Stanford Report, September 10, 2003, this was thought for years until 2003 to have been impossible.
Did Caligula have a God complex?

From Suetonius:
But he (Claudius) was exposed also to actual dangers. First in his very consulship, when he was all but deposed, because he had been somewhat slow in contracting for and setting up the statues of Nero and Drusus, the emperor's brothers.

From Roma:
Nero and Drusus were the brothers of the future emperor Caligula, and the children of Germanicus and Agrippina the Elder. More significantly Tiberius adopted both sons as grandchildren, and it was thought that Nero, being the oldest, would succeed Tiberius. However, Nero and his mother were accused of treason in 29 AD, and Nero’s demise quickly followed when he was exiled to the island of Ponza. Drusus suffered a similar fate a year later in 30 AD and, having been accused of plotting against his Grandfather and Emperor, he was thrown into prison in 33 AD where he was left to starve.

Additional images:
The Circus of Caligula and Nero

Circus of Nero (or Circus of Gaius (Caligula)) was a circus in ancient Rome placed at the location of today's Basilica of St. Peter in Vatican. All that is left today of this circus is obelisk that stood at its center.

Caligula (31 August 12 AD - 22 January 41 AD), a Roman emperor, began construction of this circus in the year 40 AD on the land of his mother, Agrippina. Claudius, who succeeded him, finished construction. Grimaldi says that the circus was 90 meters wide and 161 long. It was a place where Caligula and Nero trained racing with four horse chariots. In 65 AD, the first fist public persecution of Christians happened in this circus and Christian tradition says that Saint Peter lost his life there two years later. Saint Peter's tomb is in this area, in the cemetery near where the Circus was. Obelisk that stood in the center was placed there by Caligula. It was later (in 16th century) moved to Saint Peter's Square by the architect Domenico Fontana.

The Circus was abandoned by the middle of the 2nd century AD so Constantine built the first basilica (Old St. Peter) at the site of the Circus using some of the existing structure. Most of the ruins of the Circus survived until mid-15th century. They were finally destroyed to make a space for the construction of the new St. Peter's Basilica.
Gary W2
40_AD_NERO___DRUSUS_.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Dupondius 9 viewsNERO ET DRVSVS CAESARES - Statue of Nero and Drusus Caesar riding right cloaks flying
C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT - Legend surrounding S C
Mint: Rome (37-38AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 12.50g / 29mm / 180
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC 1-Gaius 34
BMCRE 44 (Caligula
BN 52 (Caligula)
Provenances:
Incitatus Coins
Acquisition/Sale: Incitatus Coins Vcoins

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

From: Incitatus Coins
Nero and Drusus were the elder brothers of Caligula, and the sons of Germanicus. Both were heirs of Tiberius and both were killed by the machinations of Sejanus. Caligula survived Sejanus, and the subsequent years, to become emperor. He immediately proclaimed his informed uncle Claudius as his co-consul, an appointment made so that Caligula could, in essence, rule as sole consul. Claudius was given the modest
task of preparing a celebration of Caligula's brothers, including statues in their honor. According to 'I Claudius', Claudius encountered difficulty in completing these statues on time. The completed statues appear on this coinage.

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA


From Joe Geranio:
The dupondii issues of the brothers of Caligula , Nero and Drusus Caesar was no doubt to remind the Roman populace about the Dioscuri the saviors of the Roman state. The Dioscuri won a miraculous battle in 496 B.C. and then on the same day appear in the Roman Forum to tell the populace about the victory, no doubt Caligula wanted to associate himself with the Dioscuri with this issue of the gods represented as Nero and Drusus Caesars galloping on their horses with ease as though the wind is blowing in their hair. This familial propaganda would cement that the sons of Germanicus and Agrippina would reign and were in control.

This type was issued by Caligula for his two deceased brothers, Nero Julius Caesar and Drusus Julius Caesar Germanicus. Nero Caesar was Tiberius' oldest adoptive grandson and was the emperor's most obvious successor until 29 A.D. when he was accused of treason along with his mother, Agrippina the Elder. He was exiled to the island of Ponza where he was either induced to commit suicide or starved to death before October 31. In 30, his brother Drusus Caesar was also accused of treason and exiled and imprisoned. He starved to death in prison in 33, reduced to chewing the stuffing of his bed.

From Suetonius:
But he (Claudius) was exposed also to actual dangers. First in his very consulship, when he was all but deposed, because he had been somewhat slow in contracting for and setting up the statues of Nero and Drusus, the emperor's brothers.

From Roma:
Nero and Drusus were the brothers of the future emperor Caligula, and the children of Germanicus and Agrippina the Elder. More significantly Tiberius adopted both sons as grandchildren, and it was thought that Nero, being the oldest, would succeed Tiberius. However, Nero and his mother were accused of treason in 29 AD, and Nero’s demise quickly followed when he was exiled to the island of Ponza. Drusus suffered a similar fate a year later in 30 AD and, having been accused of plotting against his Grandfather and Emperor, he was thrown into prison in 33 AD where he was left to starve.
Gary W2
Nero_and_Drusus_Caes~0.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Dupondius13 viewsNERO ET DRVSVS CAESARES - Nero and Drusus Caesar on horseback riding r., cloaks flying behind them.
C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P IIII PP - Legend around S C
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (40-41AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 15.99g / 29mm / 180
Rarity: R2
References:
Cohen 2
RIC Gaius 49
BMC Gaius 70
CBN Gaius 120
Provenances:
Bertolami Fine Arts
Acquisition/Sale: Bertolami Finearts Vcoins

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

From: Incitatus Coins
Nero and Drusus were the elder brothers of Caligula, and the sons of Germanicus. Both were heirs of Tiberius and both were killed by the machinations of Sejanus. Caligula survived Sejanus, and the subsequent years, to become emperor. He immediately proclaimed his informed uncle Claudius as his co-consul, an appointment made so that Caligula could, in essence, rule as sole consul. Claudius was given the modest
task of preparing a celebration of Caligula's brothers, including statues in their honor. According to 'I Claudius', Claudius encountered difficulty in completing these statues on time. The completed statues appear on this coinage.

From Joe Geranio:
The dupondii issues of the brothers of Caligula , Nero and Drusus Caesar was no doubt to remind the Roman populace about the Dioscuri the saviors of the Roman state. The Dioscuri won a miraculous battle in 496 B.C. and then on the same day appear in the Roman Forum to tell the populace about the victory, no doubt Caligula wanted to associate himself with the Dioscuri with this issue of the gods represented as Nero and Drusus Caesars galloping on their horses with ease as though the wind is blowing in their hair. This familial propaganda would cement that the sons of Germanicus and Agrippina would reign and were in control.

Historical Context

Suetonius states in (Caligula 22.1-2) “Up until now I have been discussing Caligula in his capacity as an emperor; we must now consider him in his capacity as a monster….

Eventually Caligula began to claim for himself a Divine majesty;…..he extended a part of the Palatine palace all the way out to the Forum, transforming the Temple of Castor and Pollux into an entrance hall for the Palace. There in the Temple he would often take his seat between the twin gods, presenting himself for worship to those he approached.”

Dio, (History 59.28.5) states, “ Caligula went so far as to divide in two the Temple of the Dioscuri in the Roman Forum, making a passageway to the Palatine that went right between the two cult statues. As a result, he was fond of saying that he regarded the Dioscuri as his gate-keepers. NEW ARCHAEOLOGY: Regarding the extension from the palace - http://news.stanford.edu/news/2003/september10/caligula-910.html Stanford Report, September 10, 2003, this was thought for years until 2003 to have been impossible.
Did Caligula have a God complex?

From Suetonius:
But he (Claudius) was exposed also to actual dangers. First in his very consulship, when he was all but deposed, because he had been somewhat slow in contracting for and setting up the statues of Nero and Drusus, the emperor's brothers.

From Roma:
Nero and Drusus were the brothers of the future emperor Caligula, and the children of Germanicus and Agrippina the Elder. More significantly Tiberius adopted both sons as grandchildren, and it was thought that Nero, being the oldest, would succeed Tiberius. However, Nero and his mother were accused of treason in 29 AD, and Nero’s demise quickly followed when he was exiled to the island of Ponza. Drusus suffered a similar fate a year later in 30 AD and, having been accused of plotting against his Grandfather and Emperor, he was thrown into prison in 33 AD where he was left to starve.

Additional images:
The Circus of Caligula and Nero

Circus of Nero (or Circus of Gaius (Caligula)) was a circus in ancient Rome placed at the location of today's Basilica of St. Peter in Vatican. All that is left today of this circus is obelisk that stood at its center.

Caligula (31 August 12 AD - 22 January 41 AD), a Roman emperor, began construction of this circus in the year 40 AD on the land of his mother, Agrippina. Claudius, who succeeded him, finished construction. Grimaldi says that the circus was 90 meters wide and 161 long. It was a place where Caligula and Nero trained racing with four horse chariots. In 65 AD, the first fist public persecution of Christians happened in this circus and Christian tradition says that Saint Peter lost his life there two years later. Saint Peter's tomb is in this area, in the cemetery near where the Circus was. Obelisk that stood in the center was placed there by Caligula. It was later (in 16th century) moved to Saint Peter's Square by the architect Domenico Fontana.

The Circus was abandoned by the middle of the 2nd century AD so Constantine built the first basilica (Old St. Peter) at the site of the Circus using some of the existing structure. Most of the ruins of the Circus survived until mid-15th century. They were finally destroyed to make a space for the construction of the new St. Peter's Basilica.

Per RIC-Rarity 2
Gary W2
Caligula_sestertius.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 21 viewsC CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT - Laureate head left
AD LOCVT - Gaius Caligula stg. l. on daïs, extending r. hand in gesture of address (ad locutio), a sella castrensis (camp stool) to r., before him stand five soldiers r., all helmeted, holding shields, and parazonia, four aquilae behind them, in ex. COH,
Exergue: COH


Mint: Rome (37-38AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 24.69g / 34mm / 180
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC 32
Sear'88 #612
Cohen 1
MIR 3, 6-4
BMCRE 33
Provenances:
Baldwin's of St. James's
Acquisition/Sale: Baldwin's of St. James's Internet 8/9-20-17 #31

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

From CNG:
Before a battle or on parade, the emperor would address his troops in an event known as an adlocutio cohortium (address to the cohorts). This was an important opportunity for the emperor to be present among his troops to inspire morale. This sestertius was issued on the occasion of a donative for the Praetorian Guard and was the first to employ the adlocutio as a reverse type.

The orderly succession and survival of any Roman emperor depended on the Praetorian Guard, an elite force of bodyguards stationed in the capital. It was organized into nine battalions or “cohorts” each of 500 – 1000 men. On his accession, one of Caligula’s first official acts was to present each guardsman with a thousand sestertii bequeathed by Tiberius in his will, adding another thousand of his own[7]. The reverse of a rare bronze sestertius, which may have been specially struck for this payment, shows Caligula standing on a platform with his arm raised in a formal gesture of greeting to a rank of guards. The abbreviated inscription ADLOCUT COH means “Address to the Cohorts.” Remarkably, this coin lacks the inscription SC (“by decree of the Senate”) which normally appeared on all Roman bronze coinage.

Highly unusual on this type is the lack of the letters S C, which designate a coin issued by decree of the Senate (Senatus Consulto). From Republican times, the formula had been used on both silver and bronze coinage, but under the Empire, the emperor took responsibility for the precious metal coinage and left only the base metal coins to be issued by the Senate and accordingly marked S C. Imperial bronze coinage without the formula is generally thought to have been issued under special circumstances and under an authority other than the Senate. The ADLOCVT(io) COH(ortium) sestertii are thought to have been a special distribution issue for the Praetorian Guard personally funded out of the emperor's own purse.
The lack of S C suggests that this interesting issue was undertaken and paid for by the emperor. Cassius Dio (59.2) writes “... in company with the senate, he inspected the Pretorians at drill and distributed to them the money that had been bequeathed them, amounting to a thousand sesterces apiece.”

From Jeff Starck, Coin World:
Many Roman coins bear the giant letters SC, shorthand for “senatus consulto” or “senatus consultum.” The fact that they are missing from this coin suggests that the coin was not issued with the approval of the Roman senate. This was an obvious statement of authority by the fairly new leader Caligula.

“There is no reason to believe its exclusion was accidental,” according to the catalog. “The inescapable message to the senate was that the emperor’s newfound authority was assured by his relationship with the [prateorean] guard.”

Tiberius died in 37 A.D., perhaps with the aid of Sertorius Macro, who had authority as a prefect in the prateorean guard; Macro then offered his support to Caligula, who received full authority from the state.

Tiberius’ will allocated 1,000 sestertii for each guard, an amount that Caligula doubled upon realizing that his power rested largely in the support of the guard.

These payments were handed out during a ceremony that is presumably pictured on the coin’s reverse, where Caligula is shown standing before the seat of the army chief, delivering a speech to five soldiers. The inscription ADLOCVT COH describes the image, the abbreviation identifying the adlocutio (speech from the emperor to his army).

The curule chair was for senior magistrates including dictators, masters of the horse, consuls, praetors, censors, and the curule aediles. As a form of a throne, it might be given as an honor to foreign kings recognized formally as a friend (amicus) by the Roman people or senate. Designed for use by commanders in the field, the curule chair could be folded for easy transport. It had no back, low arms, curved legs forming an X, and was traditionally made of or veneered with ivory.
Gary W2
Caligula_Three_Siste.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 15 viewsC CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT - Laureate head left
AGRIPPINA DRVSILLA IVLIA - AGRIPPINA DRVSILLA IVLIA, the three sisters of Caligula standing, in the guises of Securitas, Concordia, and Fortuna, S C (senatus consulto) in exergue
Exergue: SC


Mint: Rome (37-38AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 27.88g / 35.6mm / 180
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC I 33
BMCRE p. 152, 36
BnF II 47
Cohen I 4
SRCV I 1800
Provenances:
Forvm Ancient Coins
Acquisition/Sale: Forvm Ancient Coins Internet

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

From Numismatica Ars Classica:
Many aspects of Caligula's reign have captured the imagination of historians, but the sexual relationships he is said to have pursued with his sisters is perhaps most shocking of all. It is on par with the exploits of Elagabalus or the alleged seduction of young Nero by his deranged mother Agrippina Jr., who, by no mere coincidence, was one of Caligula's sisters.
Caligula's incestuous relationships with his sisters are alleged by the relatively contemporary historians Suetonius and Josephus. Much later, in the fourth and fifth centuries, these original claims were echoed by various writers, including Eutropius, Aurelius Victor, St. Jerome, Orosius and the anonymous compiler of the Epitome de caesaribus. The truth of the claims, of course, is impossible to confirm, and there is a healthy dose of scepticism among modern scholars.
Whatever personal or sexual affection Caligula may have felt toward his sisters, this coinage is purely political and dynastic in flavour. His sisters are each named and are shown in the guise of personifications: the eldest, Agrippina Junior, as Securitas, the middle-sister, Drusilla, as Concordia, and the youngest, Julia Livilla, as Fortuna.
This remarkable type was produced on two occasions, his initial coinage of 37-38, and again in 39-40. The example offered here belongs to the first coinage, which was issued when all three of the imperial women were alive. Drusilla, Caligula's favourite sister (and the one with whom he is said to have had an enduring incestuous relationship), died tragically on June 10, 38, nearly three months after the last coins of the initial issue were struck.
By the time the last issue was produced (beginning March 18, 39), Drusilla had been accorded the status of a goddess, providing the curious circumstance of a goddess being portrayed in the guise of a personification. Life in the palace worsened after Drusilla's death and Caligula's affection for his remaining two sisters declined.
The circumstances reported by the ancient sources are nothing short of bizarre: Drusilla had been married to Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, who had also been Caligula's lover. After Drusilla died, Lepidus extended his sexual liaisons to include Agrippina and Julia Livilla, his former sisters-in-law. By late in 39 this web of relationships seems to have evolved into a failed plot by Lepidus against Caligula, who executed Lepidus and sent his two sisters into exile out of their suspected complicity.
All of this palace intrigue occurred in the midst of the second issue of 'three sisters' sestertii, the production of which Caligula probably halted immediately since of the three sisters shown, one was dead and two were in exile for having plotted against his life.

From Wikisource:
It is easy to understand why the peace and harmony which had been reestablished for a moment in the troubled imperial family by the advent of Caligula should have been of brief duration. His grandmother and his sisters were Romans, educated in Roman ideals, and this exotic madness of his could inspire in them only an irresistible horror. This brought confusion into the imperial family, and after having suffered the persecutions of Sejanus and his party, the unhappy daughters of Germanicus found themselves in the toils of the exacting caprices of their brother. In fact, in 38, Caligula had already broken with his grandmother, whom the year before he had had proclaimed Augusta; and between the years 38 and 39, catastrophes followed one another in the family with frightful rapidity. His sister Drusilla, whom, as Suetonius tells us, he already treated as a lawful wife, died suddenly of some unknown malady while still very young. It is not improbable that her health may have been ruined by the horror of the wild adventure, which was neither human nor Roman, into which her brother sought to drag her by marriage. Caligula suddenly declared her a goddess, to whom all the cities must pay honors. He had a temple built for her, and appointed a body of twenty priests, ten men and ten women, to celebrate her worship; he decreed that her birthday should be a holiday, and he wished the statue of Venus in the Forum to be carved in her likeness.

But in proportion as Caligula became more and more fervid in this adoration of his dead sister, the disagreement between himself and his other two sisters became more embittered. Julia Livilla was exiled in 38; Agrippina, the wife of Domitius Enobarbus°, in 39, and about this same time the venerable Antonia died. It was noised about that Caligula had forced her to commit suicide, and that Agrippina and Livilla had taken part in a conspiracy against the life of the emperor. How much truth there may be in these reports it is difficult to say, but the reason for all these catastrophes may be affirmed with certainty. Life in the imperial palace was no longer possible, especially for women, with this madman who was transforming Rome into Alexandria and who wished to marry a sister. Even Tiberius, the son of Drusus and co-heir to the empire with Caligula, was at about this time defeated in some obscure suit and disappeared.

Many aspects of Caligula’s reign have captured the imagination of historians, but the sexual relationships he is said to
have pursued with his sisters is perhaps most shocking of all. It is on par with the exploits of Elagabalus or the alleged
seduction of young Nero by his deranged mother Agrippina Jr., who, by no mere coincidence, was one of Caligula’s
sisters.
Caligula’s incestuous relationships with his sisters are alleged by the relatively contemporary historians Suetonius and
Josephus. Much later, in the fourth and fifth centuries, these original claims were echoed by various writers, including
Eutropius, Aurelius Victor, St. Jerome, Orosius and the anonymous compiler of the Epitome de caesaribus. The truth of
the claims, of course, is impossible to confirm, and there is a healthy dose of skepticism among modern scholars.
Whatever personal or sexual affection Caligula may have felt toward his sisters, this coinage is purely political and
dynastic in flavour. His sisters are each named and are shown in the guise of personifications: the eldest, Agrippina Junior,
as Securitas, the middle-sister, Drusilla, as Concordia, and the youngest, Julia Livilla, as Fortuna.
This remarkable type was produced on two occasions, his initial coinage of 37-38, and again in 39-40. The example
offered here belongs to the first coinage, which was issued when all three of the imperial women were alive. Drusilla,
Caligula’s favourite sister (and the one with whom he is said to have had an enduring incestuous relationship), died
tragically on June 10, 38, nearly three months after the last coins of the initial issue were struck.
By the time the last issue was produced (beginning March 18, 39), Drusilla had been accorded the status of a goddess,
providing the curious circumstance of a goddess being portrayed in the guise of a personification. Life in the palace
worsened after Drusilla’s death and Caligula’s affection for his remaining two sisters declined.
The circumstances reported by the ancient sources are nothing short of bizarre: Drusilla had been married to Marcus
Aemilius Lepidus, who had also been Caligula’s lover. At least after Drusilla died, Lepidus extended his sexual liaisons to
include Agrippina and Julia Livilla, his former sisters-in-law. By late in 39 this web of relationships seems to have evolved
into a failed plot by Lepidus against Caligula, who executed Lepidus and sent his two sisters into exile out of their
suspected complicity.
All of this palace intrigue occurred in the midst of the second issue of ‘three sisters’ sestertii, the production of which
Caligula probably halted immediately since of the three sisters shown, one was dead and two were in exile for having
plotted against his life.
Gary W2
Caligula_Three_Siste~0.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius61 viewsC CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT - Laureate head left
AGRIPPINA DRVSILLA IVLIA - AGRIPPINA DRVSILLA IVLIA, the three sisters of Caligula standing, in the guises of Securitas, Concordia, and Fortuna, S C (senatus consulto) in exergue
Exergue: SC


Mint: Rome (37-38AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 27.88g / 35.6mm / 180
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC I 33
BMCRE p. 152, 36
BnF II 47
Cohen I 4
SRCV I 1800
Provenances:
Forvm Ancient Coins
Acquisition/Sale: Forvm Ancient Coins Internet

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

From Numismatica Ars Classica:
Many aspects of Caligula's reign have captured the imagination of historians, but the sexual relationships he is said to have pursued with his sisters is perhaps most shocking of all. It is on par with the exploits of Elagabalus or the alleged seduction of young Nero by his deranged mother Agrippina Jr., who, by no mere coincidence, was one of Caligula's sisters.
Caligula's incestuous relationships with his sisters are alleged by the relatively contemporary historians Suetonius and Josephus. Much later, in the fourth and fifth centuries, these original claims were echoed by various writers, including Eutropius, Aurelius Victor, St. Jerome, Orosius and the anonymous compiler of the Epitome de caesaribus. The truth of the claims, of course, is impossible to confirm, and there is a healthy dose of scepticism among modern scholars.
Whatever personal or sexual affection Caligula may have felt toward his sisters, this coinage is purely political and dynastic in flavour. His sisters are each named and are shown in the guise of personifications: the eldest, Agrippina Junior, as Securitas, the middle-sister, Drusilla, as Concordia, and the youngest, Julia Livilla, as Fortuna.
This remarkable type was produced on two occasions, his initial coinage of 37-38, and again in 39-40. The example offered here belongs to the first coinage, which was issued when all three of the imperial women were alive. Drusilla, Caligula's favourite sister (and the one with whom he is said to have had an enduring incestuous relationship), died tragically on June 10, 38, nearly three months after the last coins of the initial issue were struck.
By the time the last issue was produced (beginning March 18, 39), Drusilla had been accorded the status of a goddess, providing the curious circumstance of a goddess being portrayed in the guise of a personification. Life in the palace worsened after Drusilla's death and Caligula's affection for his remaining two sisters declined.
The circumstances reported by the ancient sources are nothing short of bizarre: Drusilla had been married to Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, who had also been Caligula's lover. After Drusilla died, Lepidus extended his sexual liaisons to include Agrippina and Julia Livilla, his former sisters-in-law. By late in 39 this web of relationships seems to have evolved into a failed plot by Lepidus against Caligula, who executed Lepidus and sent his two sisters into exile out of their suspected complicity.
All of this palace intrigue occurred in the midst of the second issue of 'three sisters' sestertii, the production of which Caligula probably halted immediately since of the three sisters shown, one was dead and two were in exile for having plotted against his life.

From Wikisource:
It is easy to understand why the peace and harmony which had been reestablished for a moment in the troubled imperial family by the advent of Caligula should have been of brief duration. His grandmother and his sisters were Romans, educated in Roman ideals, and this exotic madness of his could inspire in them only an irresistible horror. This brought confusion into the imperial family, and after having suffered the persecutions of Sejanus and his party, the unhappy daughters of Germanicus found themselves in the toils of the exacting caprices of their brother. In fact, in 38, Caligula had already broken with his grandmother, whom the year before he had had proclaimed Augusta; and between the years 38 and 39, catastrophes followed one another in the family with frightful rapidity. His sister Drusilla, whom, as Suetonius tells us, he already treated as a lawful wife, died suddenly of some unknown malady while still very young. It is not improbable that her health may have been ruined by the horror of the wild adventure, which was neither human nor Roman, into which her brother sought to drag her by marriage. Caligula suddenly declared her a goddess, to whom all the cities must pay honors. He had a temple built for her, and appointed a body of twenty priests, ten men and ten women, to celebrate her worship; he decreed that her birthday should be a holiday, and he wished the statue of Venus in the Forum to be carved in her likeness.

But in proportion as Caligula became more and more fervid in this adoration of his dead sister, the disagreement between himself and his other two sisters became more embittered. Julia Livilla was exiled in 38; Agrippina, the wife of Domitius Enobarbus°, in 39, and about this same time the venerable Antonia died. It was noised about that Caligula had forced her to commit suicide, and that Agrippina and Livilla had taken part in a conspiracy against the life of the emperor. How much truth there may be in these reports it is difficult to say, but the reason for all these catastrophes may be affirmed with certainty. Life in the imperial palace was no longer possible, especially for women, with this madman who was transforming Rome into Alexandria and who wished to marry a sister. Even Tiberius, the son of Drusus and co-heir to the empire with Caligula, was at about this time defeated in some obscure suit and disappeared.

Many aspects of Caligula’s reign have captured the imagination of historians, but the sexual relationships he is said to
have pursued with his sisters is perhaps most shocking of all. It is on par with the exploits of Elagabalus or the alleged
seduction of young Nero by his deranged mother Agrippina Jr., who, by no mere coincidence, was one of Caligula’s
sisters.
Caligula’s incestuous relationships with his sisters are alleged by the relatively contemporary historians Suetonius and
Josephus. Much later, in the fourth and fifth centuries, these original claims were echoed by various writers, including
Eutropius, Aurelius Victor, St. Jerome, Orosius and the anonymous compiler of the Epitome de caesaribus. The truth of
the claims, of course, is impossible to confirm, and there is a healthy dose of skepticism among modern scholars.
Whatever personal or sexual affection Caligula may have felt toward his sisters, this coinage is purely political and
dynastic in flavour. His sisters are each named and are shown in the guise of personifications: the eldest, Agrippina Junior,
as Securitas, the middle-sister, Drusilla, as Concordia, and the youngest, Julia Livilla, as Fortuna.
This remarkable type was produced on two occasions, his initial coinage of 37-38, and again in 39-40. The example
offered here belongs to the first coinage, which was issued when all three of the imperial women were alive. Drusilla,
Caligula’s favourite sister (and the one with whom he is said to have had an enduring incestuous relationship), died
tragically on June 10, 38, nearly three months after the last coins of the initial issue were struck.
By the time the last issue was produced (beginning March 18, 39), Drusilla had been accorded the status of a goddess,
providing the curious circumstance of a goddess being portrayed in the guise of a personification. Life in the palace
worsened after Drusilla’s death and Caligula’s affection for his remaining two sisters declined.
The circumstances reported by the ancient sources are nothing short of bizarre: Drusilla had been married to Marcus
Aemilius Lepidus, who had also been Caligula’s lover. At least after Drusilla died, Lepidus extended his sexual liaisons to
include Agrippina and Julia Livilla, his former sisters-in-law. By late in 39 this web of relationships seems to have evolved
into a failed plot by Lepidus against Caligula, who executed Lepidus and sent his two sisters into exile out of their
suspected complicity.
All of this palace intrigue occurred in the midst of the second issue of ‘three sisters’ sestertii, the production of which
Caligula probably halted immediately since of the three sisters shown, one was dead and two were in exile for having
plotted against his life.

Per RIC-Rare
3 commentsGary W2
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-8hDqgyvl4MzVjv-Agrippina.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius (Agrippina I)9 viewsAGRIPPINA M F MAT C CAESARIS AVGVSTI - Bust of Agrippina the Elder, right, her hair falling in queue down her neck
SPQR MEMORIAE AGRIPPINAE - Carpentum, with ornamented cover and sides, drawn right by two mules
Mint: Rome (37-41AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 22.00g / 34mm / 180
Rarity: Common
References:
RIC 1-Gaius 55
Trillmich Group II; BMCRE 81-5 (Caligula)
BN 128 (Caligula)
BMCRE 86-7 (Caligula)
Cohen 1
Acquisition/Sale: sesterc1975 Ebay

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Caligula's mother.

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

Agrippina Sr.,one of the most tragically unfortunate women of Roman history. Agrippina was destined to achieve the highest possible status that did not happen. In 29AD she was deprived of her freedom, and in 33AD of life itself. This sestertii dedicated to Agrippina was produced by her son Caligula, The inscription, SPQR MEMORIAE AGRIPPINAE, is itself dedicatory from the Senate and the Roman people to the memory of Agrippina.

Of this coin, minted at Rome, in gold and silver, Agrippina occupies the most distinguished place, namely the obverse side. She styles herself (by implication) the wife of Claudius, and, in direct terms, the mother of Nero; as though the government of the empire had been in her hands, and her son only Caesar. It is on this account that Tacitus (Ann. 23), asks -- What help is there in him, who is governed by a woman? It is not to be wondered at therefore, adds Vaillant, if the oaken garland was decreed to this woman and to her son, as it had already been to Caligula and to Claudius, ob cives servatos, by the Senate, whom she assembled in the palace, where she sat discreetly veiled. Praest. Num. Impp. ii. 60.

Agrippina the Elder, mother of Caligula, was honored on a bronze sestertius. The obverse inscription surrounding her strong, dignified portrait translates: “Agrippina, daughter of Marcus, mother of emperor Gaius Caesar.” On the reverse, the legend “To the Memory of Agrippina” appears beside a carpentum, a ceremonial cart drawn by two mules that paraded an image of Agrippina on special occasions.

Three issues of sestertii were struck in honour of Agrippina Senior, one of the most tragically unfortunate women of
Roman history. She began life as a favoured member of the Julio-Claudian family during the reign of her grandfather
Augustus, and upon her marriage to Livia’s grandson Germanicus, she seemed destined to achieve the highest possible
status.
However, upon the death of Augustus and the accession of Tiberius, her life took a turn for the worse: supreme power had
shifted from the bloodlines of the Julii to the Claudii. Though her marriage represented and ideal union of Julian and
Claudian, it was not destined to survive Tiberius’ reign. Germanicus died late in 19 under suspicious circumstances, after
which Agrippina devoted the next decade of her life to openly opposing Tiberius until in 29 he deprived her of freedom,
and in 33 of life itself.
The sestertii dedicated to Agrippina are easily segregated. The first, produced by her son Caligula, shows on its reverse a
carpentum; the second, issued by her brother Claudius, shows SC surrounded by a Claudian inscription, and the third is
simply a restoration of the Claudian type by Titus, on which the reverse inscription is instead dedicated to that emperor.
Though both Caligula and Claudius portrayed Agrippina, each did so from their own perspective, based upon the nature of
their relationship with her. The inscription on Caligula’s coin, AGRIPPINA M F MAT C CAESARIS AVGVSTI, describes
her as the daughter of Marcus (Agrippa) and the mother of Gaius (Caligula). While Claudius also identifies her as
Agrippa’s daughter, his inscription ends GERMANICI CAESARIS, thus stressing her role as the wife of his brother
Germanicus. It is also worth noting that on the issue of Caligula Agrippina has a slender profile like that of her son,
whereas on Claudius’ sestertii her face is more robust, in accordance with his appearance.
The carpentum reverse is not only a superbly executed type, but has a foundation in the recorded events of the day.
Suetonius (Gaius 15) describes the measures taken by Caligula to honour his family at the outset of his reign, which
included gathering the ashes of his mother and brothers, all victims of persecution during the reign of Tiberius. Upon
returning to Rome, Caligula, with his own hands, transferred to an urn his mother’s ashes “with the utmost reverence”; he
then instituted Circus games in her honour, at which “…her image would be paraded in a covered carriage.”
There can be little doubt that the carpentum on this sestertius relates to the special practice initiated by Caligula. The
inscription, SPQR MEMORIAE AGRIPPINAE, is itself dedicatory from the Senate and the Roman people to the memory
of Agrippina.
Gary W2
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-zg2aP0ewwCVrhb-Caligula_damnatio.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze AS13 viewsC CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT - Bare head left
Vesta SC - Vesta, veiled and draped, seated left, on throne with ornamented back and legs, holding patera in right hand and long transverse sceptre in left
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (37-38 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 10.40g / 28mm / 6h
Rarity: Common
References:
RIC I 38
BMCRE 46
BN 54
Cohen 27
Acquisition/Sale: indalocolecciones eBay

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

DAMNATIO MEMORIAE: This coin seems to have suffered a 'Damnatio Memoriae'. It looks as if the portrait has had cut marks applied to the jaw and neck areas. Interestingly, the ancient writers said that on his assassination, the first strike to Caligula was to his jaw or neck/shoulder areas. Damnatio memoriae is a modern Latin phrase meaning "condemnation of memory", i.e., that a person is to be excluded from official accounts.


ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

From The Dictionary of Roman Coins:
Caligula, the grand nephew and murderer of Tiberius, most worthy to succeed that emperor, because of an equally infamous, though not so able a tyrant, reigned from A.D. 37 to A.D. 41.

His real appellation was Caius Caesar, but about the time of Augustus' death, he, still a child, being with the army of the lower Rhine, the soldiers, with whom he was a great favorite, were accustomed in the joking parlance of the camp, to give him the nickname of Caligula (from Caligae) because he constantly appeared in the usual military leggings.

Hence Ausonius, in his poem, referring to this cruel wretch, says --

Post hunc castrensis caligae cognomine
Caesar Successit, saevo saevior ingenio.

As emperor, however, he was always called Caius, and he considered himself insulted by the name of Caligula.

He was the youngest son of Germanicus, the nephew of Tiberius and Agrippina; born in 12 A.D. on the day before the calends of September, at Antium, as Suetonius has proved at great length (in Caligula, ch. 8). In 17 A.D., he went into Syria with his father, at whose death, within two years, he returned to Rome with his mother. After she was banished, he was transferred to his great grand-mother Julia and when she diet to his grand-mother Antonia.

In 31 A.D., after the violent deaths of his brothers Nero and Drusus, and also of Sejanus, whose plots he alone had escaped he was he was the apparent successor to the empire and invested with the Pontificate.

In 33 A.D., on the same day he assumed the toga he laid aside his beard, he was nominated questor and Tiberius invited him to Capraea. He moved in with Tiberius, feigning ignorance or indifference, regarding the murder of his relations, as though it did not concern him. He so obsequiously obeyed Tiberius the it was a common expression, that "there never was a better servant, or a worse master." (Sueton, ch. 10)

In 37 A.D., Tiberius was attacked with a severe illness from which he was recovering when Caligula, at the instigation of Maero, the praetorian prefect, put and end to his life by smothering him.

Caligula entered Rome after Tiberius' death and compelled the Senate to join him, by a Senatus Consultum, in depriving Tiberius, son Drusus junior and the elder Tiberius' heir in his last will, of his right to the empire.

The funeral ceremonies of were performed with due pomp by Caligula.

On the eighth month of his reign he was attacked with severe sickness. On his recovery, he adopted his brother Tiberius, gave him the title of Princeps Juventutis, and afterwards put him to death.

In the calends of July he entered upon the office of Consul Suffectus, as colleague to his uncle Claudius, and after two months resigned it.

In 38 A.D. he conceded to Soaemus, the kingdom of Arabians of Ituraea; to Cotys, Armenia Minor; to Polemon, the son of Polemon, his father's dominions.

Dion wrote, "In a short time he assumed so much the air of a king, that all those honors, which Augustus had accepted only when duly arrived at the sovereignty, and even then with hesitation as they were decreed from time to time, and many of which Tiberius altogether declined, were by Caligula grasped in one day, with the exception only of Pater Patriae, which, however was not long deferred."

In 39 A.D., in the calends of January, he entered his second Consulate and resigned the office in thirty days. (Sueton ch. 17)

Having exhausted the treasury by his profuse expenditure on public spectacles and other extravagances, he endeavoured to repair the deficiency by the slaughter of wealthy citizens; and then proceeded to Gaul, their to practice the like system of murder and spoliation.

The name of Germanicus does not appear on coins of this year, nor ever subsequently.

In 40 A.D., Caligula, without a colleague, entered his third consulate, at Lugdunum (Lyon), in Gaul; and resigned it on the ides of January. (Sueton. ch. 17)

Having invited over from Africa, Ptolemy, the son of Juba, he put him to death on the pretence of the young prince's ostentatious bearing. (Dion, B. lix. 25)

Proceeding to the ocean, as if about to invade Britain, he ordered his soldiers to gather shell-fish, and returned as a conqueror, laden with the spoils of the sea. (Sueton. ch. 46)

L. Vitellius, prefect of Syria, the same year, gave such a lesson to Artabanus, the Persian, who was threatening an invasion of Armenia that the later abandoned his design, and paid his adoration to the statues of Augustus and of Caligula. (Dion, I. e.)

In 41 A.D., he began hid fourth consulate, on the 7th of the ides of January. Shortly afterwards (viz. on the 9th of the calends of February), he was assassinated by the conspirators Cassius Chaerea and Cornelius Sabinus.

Caligula's accession to the empire was hailed with joy by the Roman people; but their satisfaction was based on no solid foundations, being the result rather of their deep-rooted attachment to his father Germanicus. He seeming, indeed, responded to the fond wishes of the nation, by many acts of piety, justice, and moderation. But it too soon became apparent that these virtues were not of natural growth but owed their exhibition to the policy of Tiberius, who wished through their influences to consolidate his own power in the empire. For there was not act of cruelty, folly, meanness or infamy, which this monster and madman did not delight in perpetrating. He caused his horse, whom he called Incitatus, to be introduced at dinner time, setting before him gilded corn, and drinking his health in golden cups; and he would have created him consul, had he lived long enough. He imitated all the gods and goddesses, in the adoration which he caused to be paid to him, becoming by turns Jupiter, Bacchus, Hercules, Juno, Diana, and Venus. He constructed a bridge of vessels joined together from Puteoli to Baiae, and crossing over with his troops invaded puteoli and then recrossed it in a kind of triumph, delighting in hearing himself called Alexander the Great. By his absurd and extravagant undertakings of this kind, before the year was fully expired, he had squandered the enormous sums of money left by Tiberius. (Vicies ae septics millies IIS. -- See Sestertium).

He both claimed and receive divine worship, and was the greatest blasphemer that ever lived; yet he quailed in the conviction of a deity, and crept under his bed whenever he heard thunder. With savage inhumanity he attended executions in person, and made parents behold the merciless torments inflicted on their children. He contracted and dissolved marriages with equal caprice and dishonesty. Besides his incestuous union with Drusilla, he seized and repudiated three wives, and was at last permanently attached to Caesonia a mother of children by another man, and without your or beauty, but of depravity corresponding with his own.

Other instances of his incredible cruelty and lust may be found in Suetonius, Philo, and Dion. Such infatuations are evident tokens not only of a brutal nature, but also of a distempered intellect. Nor is it possible to entertain other than supreme contempt for the base servility of the Romans, who could offer solemn adoration to a wretch openly guilty of the most detestable and unnatural crimes; and whose adage was oderint, dum metuant (Let them hate so long as they fear).

The gold and silver coins of Caligula are of considerable rarity. Sestertii are also rare. Ases are more common, yet still expensive due to popularity of collecting the infamous emperor and because they generally exhibit good workmanship. When Caligula was destroyed, the dastardly senators, who had so recently sacrificed to him, ordered all his statues to be demolished, his acts abrogated, his money melted down and his inscriptions defaced, in order that his memory might be extinguished forever. Yet this sentence has not prevented a considerable number of his coins from reaching us, though consequently, except for ases, they are of considerable rarity when in good preservation. The coins of Caligula, minted at Rome, do not exhibit Imperator as a surname. This title is used on colonial coins. The only imperial coin of Caligula bearing IMP is a denarius.

On his coins, Caligula resembles his grandfather, but is less noble and has a malignant expression. He was at great pains to cherish this horrid index of his cruel disposition.

Gary W2
Gary W2
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-2WcIZv40JXVImci-Caligula_69.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze As11 viewsC CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT - Bare head left
VESTA SC - Vesta Seated Left, Holding Patera & Sceptre
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (37-38AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 11.61g / 29mm / 180
Rarity: Common
References:
RIC I 38
Acquisition/Sale: timeman21 Ebay

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

From The Dictionary of Roman Coins:
Caligula, the grand nephew and murderer of Tiberius, most worthy to succeed that emperor, because of an equally infamous, though not so able a tyrant, reigned from A.D. 37 to A.D. 41.

His real appellation was Caius Caesar, but about the time of Augustus' death, he, still a child, being with the army of the lower Rhine, the soldiers, with whom he was a great favorite, were accustomed in the joking parlance of the camp, to give him the nickname of Caligula (from Caligae) because he constantly appeared in the usual military leggings.

Hence Ausonius, in his poem, referring to this cruel wretch, says --

Post hunc castrensis caligae cognomine
Caesar Successit, saevo saevior ingenio.

As emperor, however, he was always called Caius, and he considered himself insulted by the name of Caligula.

He was the youngest son of Germanicus, the nephew of Tiberius and Agrippina; born in 12 A.D. on the day before the calends of September, at Antium, as Suetonius has proved at great length (in Caligula, ch. 8). In 17 A.D., he went into Syria with his father, at whose death, within two years, he returned to Rome with his mother. After she was banished, he was transferred to his great grand-mother Julia and when she diet to his grand-mother Antonia.

In 31 A.D., after the violent deaths of his brothers Nero and Drusus, and also of Sejanus, whose plots he alone had escaped he was he was the apparent successor to the empire and invested with the Pontificate.

In 33 A.D., on the same day he assumed the toga he laid aside his beard, he was nominated questor and Tiberius invited him to Capraea. He moved in with Tiberius, feigning ignorance or indifference, regarding the murder of his relations, as though it did not concern him. He so obsequiously obeyed Tiberius the it was a common expression, that "there never was a better servant, or a worse master." (Sueton, ch. 10)

In 37 A.D., Tiberius was attacked with a severe illness from which he was recovering when Caligula, at the instigation of Maero, the praetorian prefect, put and end to his life by smothering him.

Caligula entered Rome after Tiberius' death and compelled the Senate to join him, by a Senatus Consultum, in depriving Tiberius, son Drusus junior and the elder Tiberius' heir in his last will, of his right to the empire.

The funeral ceremonies of were performed with due pomp by Caligula.

On the eighth month of his reign he was attacked with severe sickness. On his recovery, he adopted his brother Tiberius, gave him the title of Princeps Juventutis, and afterwards put him to death.

In the calends of July he entered upon the office of Consul Suffectus, as colleague to his uncle Claudius, and after two months resigned it.

In 38 A.D. he conceded to Soaemus, the kingdom of Arabians of Ituraea; to Cotys, Armenia Minor; to Polemon, the son of Polemon, his father's dominions.

Dion wrote, "In a short time he assumed so much the air of a king, that all those honors, which Augustus had accepted only when duly arrived at the sovereignty, and even then with hesitation as they were decreed from time to time, and many of which Tiberius altogether declined, were by Caligula grasped in one day, with the exception only of Pater Patriae, which, however was not long deferred."

In 39 A.D., in the calends of January, he entered his second Consulate and resigned the office in thirty days. (Sueton ch. 17)

Having exhausted the treasury by his profuse expenditure on public spectacles and other extravagances, he endeavoured to repair the deficiency by the slaughter of wealthy citizens; and then proceeded to Gaul, their to practice the like system of murder and spoliation.

The name of Germanicus does not appear on coins of this year, nor ever subsequently.

In 40 A.D., Caligula, without a colleague, entered his third consulate, at Lugdunum (Lyon), in Gaul; and resigned it on the ides of January. (Sueton. ch. 17)

Having invited over from Africa, Ptolemy, the son of Juba, he put him to death on the pretence of the young prince's ostentatious bearing. (Dion, B. lix. 25)

Proceeding to the ocean, as if about to invade Britain, he ordered his soldiers to gather shell-fish, and returned as a conqueror, laden with the spoils of the sea. (Sueton. ch. 46)

L. Vitellius, prefect of Syria, the same year, gave such a lesson to Artabanus, the Persian, who was threatening an invasion of Armenia that the later abandoned his design, and paid his adoration to the statues of Augustus and of Caligula. (Dion, I. e.)

In 41 A.D., he began hid fourth consulate, on the 7th of the ides of January. Shortly afterwards (viz. on the 9th of the calends of February), he was assassinated by the conspirators Cassius Chaerea and Cornelius Sabinus.

Caligula's accession to the empire was hailed with joy by the Roman people; but their satisfaction was based on no solid foundations, being the result rather of their deep-rooted attachment to his father Germanicus. He seeming, indeed, responded to the fond wishes of the nation, by many acts of piety, justice, and moderation. But it too soon became apparent that these virtues were not of natural growth but owed their exhibition to the policy of Tiberius, who wished through their influences to consolidate his own power in the empire. For there was not act of cruelty, folly, meanness or infamy, which this monster and madman did not delight in perpetrating. He caused his horse, whom he called Incitatus, to be introduced at dinner time, setting before him gilded corn, and drinking his health in golden cups; and he would have created him consul, had he lived long enough. He imitated all the gods and goddesses, in the adoration which he caused to be paid to him, becoming by turns Jupiter, Bacchus, Hercules, Juno, Diana, and Venus. He constructed a bridge of vessels joined together from Puteoli to Baiae, and crossing over with his troops invaded puteoli and then recrossed it in a kind of triumph, delighting in hearing himself called Alexander the Great. By his absurd and extravagant undertakings of this kind, before the year was fully expired, he had squandered the enormous sums of money left by Tiberius. (Vicies ae septics millies IIS. -- See Sestertium).

He both claimed and receive divine worship, and was the greatest blasphemer that ever lived; yet he quailed in the conviction of a deity, and crept under his bed whenever he heard thunder. With savage inhumanity he attended executions in person, and made parents behold the merciless torments inflicted on their children. He contracted and dissolved marriages with equal caprice and dishonesty. Besides his incestuous union with Drusilla, he seized and repudiated three wives, and was at last permanently attached to Caesonia a mother of children by another man, and without your or beauty, but of depravity corresponding with his own.

Other instances of his incredible cruelty and lust may be found in Suetonius, Philo, and Dion. Such infatuations are evident tokens not only of a brutal nature, but also of a distempered intellect. Nor is it possible to entertain other than supreme contempt for the base servility of the Romans, who could offer solemn adoration to a wretch openly guilty of the most detestable and unnatural crimes; and whose adage was oderint, dum metuant (Let them hate so long as they fear).

The gold and silver coins of Caligula are of considerable rarity. Sestertii are also rare. Ases are more common, yet still expensive due to popularity of collecting the infamous emperor and because they generally exhibit good workmanship. When Caligula was destroyed, the dastardly senators, who had so recently sacrificed to him, ordered all his statues to be demolished, his acts abrogated, his money melted down and his inscriptions defaced, in order that his memory might be extinguished forever. Yet this sentence has not prevented a considerable number of his coins from reaching us, though consequently, except for ases, they are of considerable rarity when in good preservation. The coins of Caligula, minted at Rome, do not exhibit Imperator as a surname. This title is used on colonial coins. The only imperial coin of Caligula bearing IMP is a denarius.

On his coins, Caligula resembles his grandfather, but is less noble and has a malignant expression. He was at great pains to cherish this horrid index of his cruel disposition.
Gary W2
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-ehW7BvU2jIvxxn-Caligula_countermark.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze As4 viewsC CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT (COUNTERMARK - Bare head left
VESTA SC - Vesta Seated Left, Holding Patera & Sceptre
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (37-38AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 9.60g / 29mm / 180
Rarity: Common
References:
RIC 38
BMCRE 46
BN 54
Cohen 27
Sear5 #1803
Acquisition/Sale: amarso66 Ebay

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

The countermark-TICA- is either from Claudius (Tiberius Claudius Augustus), or, less likely from Titus (Titus Caesar Augustus)

Since this coin was found in Spain, it escaped the Roman recall of Caligula coinage which was to be melted down in Rome. Also I suspect that token coinage was needed in the Western Provinces which thereby also helped keep this coin intact with the countermark of Claudius provided to inform the populace of a new emperor.
Gary W2
Caligula_and_Agripin.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze Fourre Denarius Fourree6 viewsC CAESAR AVG PON M TR POT III COS III - Laureate head right
AGRIPPINA MAT C CAES AVG GERM - Draped bust of Agrippina right
Mint: Rome (40AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 2.85g / 18mm / 180
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC I 22 (official)
Lyon 179 (official)
RSC 6 (official)
Acquisition/Sale: numismaticaprados Ebay

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

The reverse legend translates: 'Agrippina mother of Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus'

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

The accession of Gaius (Caligula) to the imperial throne on the death of his great-uncle Tiberius signalled a kind of "golden age" in that for the first time, not only did a direct biological descendant of Augustus become emperor, but one who could also claim a direct link with several important Republican figures. Through his mother, Agrippina Sr., Gaius was descended from Augustus, and also Agrippa, the victor of Actium. Gaius' father Germanaicus was the son of Nero Claudius Drusus and nephew of Tiberius, sons of Augustus' widow, Livia. Through his mother Antonia, Germanicus was the grandson of Mark Antony and Octavia, the sister of Augustus. Accordingly, many of his coins recall his dynastic connections to both the Julians and the Claudians as well as his own family, and included in their designs his mother and his three sisters.

“TO MAKE AN INEXPERIENCED AND ALMOST UNKNOWN YOUNG MAN, BROUGHT UP UNDER A SERIES OF AGED AND REPRESSIVE GUARDIANS, MASTER OF THE WORLD, ALMOST LITERALLY OVERNIGHT, ON THE SOLE RECOMMENDATION THAT HIS FATHER HAD BEEN A THOROUGHLY DECENT FELLOW WAS TO COURT DISASTER IN A QUITE IRRESPONSIBLE FASHION.”
–BARRETT, CALIGULA: THE CORRUPTION OF POWER (1990)

THE ASSASSINATION OF CALIGULA
THE emperor Caligula came to his death in the following manner:

Of course his wanton and remorseless tyranny often awakened very deep feelings of resentment, and very earnest desires for revenge in the hearts of those who suffered by it; but yet so absolute and terrible was his power, that none dared to murmur or complain. The resentment, however, which the cruelty of the emperor awakened, burned the more fiercely for being thus restrained and suppressed, and many covert threats were made, and many secret plots were formed, from time to time, against the tyrant's life.

Among others who cherished such designs, there was a man named Cassius Chærea, an officer of the army, who, though not of high rank, was nevertheless a man of considerable distinction. He was a captain, or, as it was styled in those days, a centurion. His command, therefore, was small, but it was in the prætorian cohort, as it was called, a sort of body-guard of the commander-in-chief, and consequently a very honorable corps. Chærea was thus a man of considerable distinction on account of the post which he occupied, and his duties, as captain in the life guards, brought him very frequently into communication with the emperor. He was a man of great personal bravery, too, and was on this account held in high consideration by the army. He had performed an exploit at one time, some years before, in Germany, which, had gained him great fame. It was at the time of the death of Augustus, the first emperor. Some of the German legions, and among them one in which Chærea was serving, had seized upon the occasion to revolt. They alledged many and grievous acts of oppression as the grounds of their revolt, and demanded redress for what they had suffered, and security for the future. One of the first measures which they resorted to in the frenzy of the first outbreak of the rebellion, was to seize all the centurions in the camp, and to beat them almost to death. They gave them sixty blows each, one for each of their number, and then turned them, bruised, wounded, and dying, out of the camp. Some they threw into the Rhine. They revenged themselves thus on all the centurions but one. That one was Chærea. Chærea would not suffer himself to be taken by them, but seizing his sword he fought his way through the midst of them, slaying some and driving others before him, and thus made his escape from the camp. This feat gained him great renown.

One might imagine from this account that Chærea was a man of great personal superiority in respect to size and strength, inasmuch as extraordinary muscular power, as well as undaunted courage, would seem to be required to enable a man to make his way against so many enemies. But this was not the fact. Chærea was of small stature and of a slender and delicate form. He was modest and unassuming in his manners, too, and of a very kind and gentle spirit. He was thus not only honored and admired for his courage, but he was generally beloved for the amiable and excellent qualities of his heart.

The possession of such qualities, however, could not be expected to recommend him particularly to the favor of the emperor. In fact, in one instance it had the contrary effect. Caligula assigned to the centurions of his guard, at one period, some duties connected with the collection of taxes. Chærea, instead of practicing the extortion and cruelty common on such occasions, was merciful and considerate, and governed himself strictly by the rules of law and of justice in his collections. The consequence necessarily was that the amount of money received was somewhat diminished, and the emperor was displeased. The occasion was, however, not one of sufficient importance to awaken in the monarch's mind any very serious anger, and so, instead of inflicting any heavy punishment upon the offender, he contented himself with attempting to tease and torment him with sundry vexatious indignities and annoyances.

It is the custom sometimes, in camps, and at other military stations, for the commander to give every evening, what is called the parole or password, which consists usually of some word or phrase that is to be communicated to all the officers, and as occasion may require to all the soldiers, whom for any reason it may be necessary to send to and fro [38] about the precincts of the camp during the night. The sentinels, also, all have the password, and accordingly, whenever any man approaches the post of a sentinel, he is stopped and the parole is demanded. If the stranger gives it correctly, it is presumed that all is right, and he is allowed to pass on,—since an enemy or a spy would have no means of knowing it.

Now, whenever it came to Chærea's turn to communicate the parole, the emperor was accustomed to give him some ridiculous or indecent phrase, intended not only to be offensive to the purity of Chærea's mind, but designed, also, to exhibit him in a ridiculous light to the subordinate officers and soldiers to whom he would have to communicate it. Sometimes the password thus given was some word or phrase wholly unfit to be spoken, and sometimes it was the name of some notorious and infamous woman; but whatever it was, Chærea was compelled by his duty as a soldier to deliver it to all the corps, and patiently to submit to the laughter and derision which his communication awakened among the vile and wicked soldiery.

If there was any dreadful punishment to be inflicted, or cruel deed of any kind to be performed, Caligula took great pleasure in assigning the duty to Chærea, knowing how abhorrent to his nature it must be. At one time a senator of great distinction named Propedius, was accused of treason by one of his enemies. His treason consisted, as the accuser alledged, of