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21 viewshttp://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/albums/edit/preview_6c615484.jpgdjmacdo
UV2_full_web.jpg
21 viewsPossibly this is (dot) SMNA - see related picture in this album for other view of mintmarkMatthew W2
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18 viewshttp://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/albums/edit/preview_5a096499.jpg
Deviant style; reverse legend retrograde
djmacdo
Sabina.jpg
80 viewsSabina Augusta Hadriani Avg pp. Diad and draped bust r.Hair coiled and piled on top of head.REV No legend Venus stg.r.viewed partially from behind,holding helmet and spear and resting on column against which rest shield.Weight 3,30gr RIC 4123 commentsspikbjorn
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8 viewsivus Augustus (died AD 14). Orichalcum dupondius (30mm, 15.45 gm, 6h). Rome, under Claudius, AD 42-50. DIVVS AVGVSTVS, radiate head of the deified Augustus left between S – C /A, Livia seated to left holding grain ears in right hand and long torch wrapped in left arm. RIC (Claudius) 101 (R2). BMCRE (Claudius) 224. Cohen 93. Rare! Boldly struck on a large, heavy flan, from dies of exceptional style. Fantastic portrait and natural chocolate brown patina. Choice Extremely Fine. From The Lexington Collection. Ex UBS 78 (Basel, 9 September 2008), lot 1377. One of the first acts of Claudius, after his accession as emperor, was to propose that the late Livia, wife of Augustus, be deified. The Senate granted this honor in AD AD 42, 13 years after her death, and the appropriate celebrations were made. This attractive coin could be viewed as commemorating the event, depicting the long-deified Augustus along new, with his newly elevated wife. The work of cutting the dies was obviously considered important enough to be given to a master engraver, as both the portrait of Augustus and the graceful image of Livia are of outstanding quality.1 commentsRonald
combined~0.jpg
40 viewsHere are two views of a 10 tray cabinet I built for a collector in Singapore. I absolutely love the grain pattern!!

CabinetsByCraig.net
cmcdon0923
001a.jpg
Collection overview143 viewsAll my countermarked Spanish coins.

Click on the picture to enlarge.
1 commentsmauseus
rjb_car_69_10_05.jpg
6956 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
AE antoninianus
Obv "IMP CARAVSIVS PF AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "LEG IIII FL"
Lion walking right, head turned to viewer
-/-//-
Unmerked London mint
RIC 69
mauseus
rjb_2016_05_06.jpg
18bis16 viewsAllectus 293-6
Antoninianus
IMP C ALLECTVS PF AVG
Radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right viewed from rear
FELICITAS AVG
Felicitas standing left holding caduceus and cornucopia
RIC lists FELICITAS SEC as a reverse, however this looks to read AVG. Similarly Burnett only lists FELICITAS SEC but then only with a cuirassed bust on the obverse
London mint
S/A//ML
RIC 22
mauseus
Treb_Gall_BMC_654.jpg
4 Trebonianus Gallus12 viewsTREBONIANUS GALLUS
Ć 30mm of Antioch, Syria.

O: AVTOK K G OVIB TPEB GALLOC CEB, laureate, draped & cuirassed bust r.; viewed from behind

R: ANTIOCEWN MHTRO KOLWN D-E, SC in ex, tetrastyle temple of Tyche of Antioch, river-god Orontes swimming at her feet; above shrine, ram leaping r.
Sear 2809, SNGCop 292, BMC 654, SGI 4350.

Coin discussed and authenticated on FORVM board
Sosius
iersab.jpg
Kingdom of JERUSALEM. Struck during the siege of Jerusalem by Sibylla, Queen of Jerusalem and Balian of Ibelin in 1187 . Bi Denier .125 viewsKingdom of Jerusalem . Struck during the siege of Jerusalem by Sibylla, Queen of Jerusalem and Balian of Ibelin in 1187 . Bi Denier .
+ TVRRIS DAVIT (legend retrograde), Tower of David
+ SЄPVLChRVM DOMINI, view of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher
Slocum 288; cf. C.J. Sabine, “Numismatic iconography of the Tower of David and the Holy Sepulchre,” NC 1979, pl. 17, 3; N. du Quesne Bird, “Two deniers from Jerusalem, Jordan,” NumCirc LXXIII.5 (May 1965), p. 109; Metcalf, Crusades, p. 77; CCS 51.
Very Rare . Thirteen known example .
The Ernoul chronicle refers to Balian of Ibelin and the patriarch Heraclius of Jerusalem stripped the silver and gold edicule from the Church of the Holy Sepulcher for striking coins to pay those defending the city at it's last stand .
2 commentsVladislav D
0191-a00.JPG
Plautilla, overview296 viewsThere are five main types of portrait for Plautilla’s denarii at the Rome mint :

A - With a draped bust right, hair coiled in horizontal ridges and fastened in bun in high position. Her facial expression is juvenile
B - Hair being coiled in vertical ridges, with bun in low position. Plautilla looks here more like a young beautiful woman
C - The third bust shows a thinner face of Plautilla with hair in vertical ridges and no bun but braids covering her neck
D - The fourth type has a similar appearance with the former, but the vertical ridges disappear, hair being plastered down, still showing the right ear
E - Plautilla appears with mid long hair plastered down and covering her ears

In the mean time there are seven different reverses :

1 - CONCORDIAE AETERNAE
2 - PROPAGO IMPERI
3 - CONCORDIA AVGG
4 - CONCORDIA FELIX
5 - PIETAS AVGG
6 – DIANA LVCIFERA

Not every combination exists, but some of the above reverses can be shared by several obverse portraits. Noticeable also is an evolution of the obverse legend, being PLAVTILLAE AVGVSTAE (a) in 202, and becoming PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA (b) soon after

You can see the evolution of this interesting coinage in my Plautilla's gallery.
3 commentsPotator II
gracesmodius.jpg
32 viewsROME
PB Tessera (17mm, 2.96 g, 12 h)
The Charites (the Three Graces) standing, the left and right facing, the middle with back to view
Modius with three grain ears
Rostovtzev 358; Milan 52; München 67-70; BM 1330-3, 1335-8, 1340-1; Staal Appendix A, p. 148 (this coin illustrated)

Ex Mark Staal Three Graces Collection (Classical Numismatic Group Electronic Auction 300), lot 432 (part of)
1 commentsArdatirion
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23 viewsROME
PB Tessera (17mm, 2.80 g, 12h)
The Charites (the Three Graces) standing, the left and right facing, the middle with back to view
Modius with three grain ears
Rostovtzev 358.72 = Scholz 461 (this coin); Milan 52; München 67-70; BM 1330-3, 1335-8, 1340-1

Ex Trau Collection
Ardatirion
00018x00.jpg
37 viewsIONIA, Ephesos
PB Tessera (20mm, 3.30 g)
The Charites (the Three Graces) standing, the left and right facing, the middle with back to view
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç 53 var. (reverse type)

Ex Mark Staal Three Graces Collection; Classical Numismatic Group Electronic Auction 232, lot 515 (part of). Found near Ephesus.
Ardatirion
new.jpg
28 viewsIONIA, Ephesos
PB Tessera (18mm, 4.03 g)
The Charites (the Three Graces) standing, the left and right facing, the middle with back to view
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç 53 var. (reverse type)

Ex Mark Staal Three Graces Collection (Classical Numismatic Group Electronic Auction 300), lot 432 (part of)
1 commentsArdatirion
masks1.JPG
25 viewsIONIA, Ephesos
PB Tessera (12mm, 1.43 g)
Comedy and tragedy masks; AΞI below
The Charites (the Three Graces) standing, the left and right facing, the middle with back to view
Cf. Gülbay & Kireç 140-2/53 (for obv./rev.)
Ardatirion
00003x00~9.jpg
21 viewsIONIA, Ephesos
PB Tessera
The Charites (the Three Graces) standing, the left and right facing, the middle with back to view; uncertain legend around
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç -
Ardatirion
973330.jpg
32 viewsBRITISH TOKENS, Tudor. temp. Mary–Edward VI.1553-1558.
PB Token (27mm, 5.29 g). St. Nicholas (‘Boy Bishop’) type. Cast in East Anglia (Bury St. Edmund’s?)
Mitre, croizer to right; all within border
Long cross pattée with trefoils in angles; scrollwork border
Rigold, Tokens class X.B, 1; Mitchiner & Skinner group Ra, 1

Ex Classical Numismatic Review XXXIX.1 (Spring 2014), no. 973330

Britain in the late middle ages played host to a popular regional variant of the ‘Feast of Fools’ festival. Every year on the feast of St. Nicholas, a boy was elected from among the local choristers to serve as ‘bishop.’ Dressed in mitre and bearing the croizer of his office, the young boy paraded through the city accompanied by his equally youthful ‘priest’ attendants. The ‘bishop’ performed all the ceremonies and offices of the real bishop, save for the actual conducting of mass. Though this practice was extinguished with the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1539, it was briefly revived under Queen Mary, who took particular interest in the festival, when the lucky boy was referred to as ‘Queen Mary’s Child.’ The celebration of the boy bishop died out completely early in the reign of Elizabeth.

Evidence of this custom is particularly prevalent in East Anglia, specifically at Bury St. Edmunds. Beginning in the late 15th century, the region produced numerous lead tokens bearing the likeness of a bishop, often bearing legends relating to the festival of St. Nicholas. Issued in sizes roughly corresponding to groats, half groats, and pennies, these pieces were undoubtedly distributed by the boy bishop himself, and were likely redeemable at the local abbey or guild for treats and sweetmeats. Considering the endemic paucity of small change in Britain at the time, it is likely that, at least in parts of East Anglia, these tokens entered circulation along with the other private lead issues that were becoming common.
Ardatirion
helio_jup_temple_res.jpg
(0193) SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS34 views193 - 211 AD
AE 24 mm; 9.36 g
O: Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right;
R: Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus Heliopolitanus, viewed in perspective from above; numerous columns and flight of steps in front
Syria, Heliopolis; cf. SNG Cop 429; SNG München 1031
laney
LPisoFrugiDenarius_S235.jpg
(502a) Roman Republic, L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi, 90 B.C.157 viewsSilver denarius, S 235, Calpurnia 11, Crawford 340/1, Syd 663a, VF, rainbow toning, Rome mint, 3.772g, 18.5mm, 180o, 90 B.C. obverse: laureate head of Apollo right, scorpion behind; Reverse naked horseman galloping right holding palm, L PISO FRVGI and control number CXI below; ex-CNA XV 6/5/91, #443. Ex FORVM.


A portion of the following text is a passage taken from the excellent article “The Calpurnii and Roman Family History: An Analysis of the Piso Frugi Coin in the Joel Handshu Collection at the College of Charleston,” by Chance W. Cook:

In the Roman world, particularly prior to the inception of the principate, moneyers were allotted a high degree of latitude to mint their coins as they saw fit. The tres viri monetales, the three men in charge of minting coins, who served one-year terms, often emblazoned their coins with an incredible variety of images and inscriptions reflecting the grandeur, history, and religion of Rome. Yet also prominent are references to personal or familial accomplishments; in this manner coins were also a means by which the tres viri monetales could honor their forbearers. Most obvious from an analysis of the Piso Frugi denarius is the respect and admiration that Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi, who minted the coin, had for his ancestors. For the images he selected for his dies relate directly to the lofty deeds performed by his Calpurnii forbearers in the century prior to his term as moneyer. The Calpurnii were present at many of the watershed events in the late Republic and had long distinguished themselves in serving the state, becoming an influential and well-respected family whose defense of traditional Roman values cannot be doubted.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi, who was moneyer in 90 B.C., depicted Apollo on the obverse and the galloping horseman on the reverse, as does his son Gaius. However, all of L. Piso Frugi’s coins have lettering similar to “L-PISO-FRVGI” on the reverse, quite disparate from his son Gaius’ derivations of “C-PISO-L-F-FRV.”

Moreover, C. Piso Frugi coins are noted as possessing “superior workmanship” to those produced by L. Piso Frugi.

The Frugi cognomen, which became hereditary, was first given to L. Calpurnius Piso, consul in 133 B.C., for his integrity and overall moral virtue. Cicero is noted as saying that frugal men possessed the three cardinal Stoic virtues of bravery, justice, and wisdom; indeed in the Thesaurus Linguae Latinae, a synonym of frugalitas is bonus, generically meaning “good” but also implying virtuous behavior. Gary Forsythe notes that Cicero would sometimes invoke L. Calpurnius Piso’s name at the beginning of speeches as “a paragon of moral rectitude” for his audience.

L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi’s inclusion of the laureled head of Apollo, essentially the same obverse die used by his son Gaius (c. 67 B.C.), was due to his family’s important role in the establishment of the Ludi Apollinares, the Games of Apollo, which were first instituted in 212 B.C. at the height of Hannibal’s invasion of Italy during the Second Punic War. By that time, Hannibal had crushed Roman armies at Cannae, seized Tarentum and was invading Campania.

Games had been used throughout Roman history as a means of allaying the fears
of the populace and distracting them from issues at hand; the Ludi Apollinares were no different. Forsythe follows the traditional interpretation that in 211 B.C., when C. Calpurnius Piso was praetor, he became the chief magistrate in Rome while both consuls were absent and the three other praetors were sent on military expeditions against Hannibal.

At this juncture, he put forth a motion in the Senate to make the Ludi Apollinares a yearly event, which was passed; the Ludi Apollinares did indeed become an important festival, eventually spanning eight days in the later Republic. However, this interpretation is debatable; H.H. Scullard suggests that the games were not made permanent until 208 B.C. after a severe plague prompted the Senate to make them a fixture on the calendar. The Senators believed Apollo would serve as a “healing god” for the people of Rome.

Nonetheless, the Calpurnii obviously believed their ancestor had played an integral role in the establishment of the Ludi Apollinares and thus prominently displayed
the head or bust of Apollo on the obverse of the coins they minted.

The meaning of the galloping horseman found on the reverse of the L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi coin is more complicated. It is possible that this is yet another reference to the Ludi Apollinares. Chariot races in the Circus Maximus were a major component of the games, along with animal hunts and theatrical performances.

A more intriguing possibility is that the horseman is a reference to C. Calpurnius Piso, son of the Calpurnius Piso who is said to have founded the Ludi Apollinares. This C. Calpurnius Piso was given a military command in 186 B.C. to quell a revolt in Spain. He was victorious, restoring order to the province and also gaining significant wealth in the process.

Upon his return to Rome in 184, he was granted a triumph by the Senate and eventually erected an arch on the Capitoline Hill celebrating his victory. Of course
the arch prominently displayed the Calpurnius name. Piso, however, was not an infantry commander; he led the cavalry.

The difficulty in accepting C. Calpurnius Piso’s victory in Spain as the impetus for the galloping horseman image is that not all of C. Piso Frugi’s coins depict the horseman or cavalryman carrying the palm, which is a symbol of victory. One is inclined to believe that the victory palm would be prominent in all of the coins minted by C. Piso Frugi (the son of L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi) if it indeed signified the great triumph of C. Calpurnius Piso in 186 B.C. Yet the palm’s appearance is clearly not a direct reference to military feats of C. Piso Frugi’s day. As noted, it is accepted that his coins were minted in 67 B.C.; in that year, the major victory by Roman forces was Pompey’s swift defeat of the pirates throughout the Mediterranean.

Chrestomathy: Annual Review of Undergraduate Research at the College of Charleston. Volume 1, 2002: pp. 1-10© 2002 by the College of Charleston, Charleston SC 29424, USA.All rights to be retained by the author.
http://www.cofc.edu/chrestomathy/vol1/cook.pdf


There are six (debatably seven) prominent Romans who have been known to posterity as Lucius Calpurnius Piso:

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi: (d. 261 A.D.) a Roman usurper, whose existence is
questionable, based on the unreliable Historia Augusta.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Licinianus: deputy Roman Emperor, 10 January 69 to15 January
69, appointed by Galba.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 27 A.D.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 1 B.C., augur

Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 15 B.C., pontifex

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus: Consul in 58 B.C. (the uncle of Julius Caesar)

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi: Moneyer in 90 B.C. (our man)


All but one (or two--if you believe in the existence of "Frugi the usurper" ca. 261 A.D.) of these gentlemen lack the Frugi cognomen, indicating they are not from the same direct lineage as our moneyer, though all are Calpurnii.

Calpurnius Piso Frugi's massive issue was intended to support the war against the Marsic Confederation. The type has numerous variations and control marks.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucius_Calpurnius_Piso
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/catalog/indexfrm.asp?vpar=55&pos=0

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


2 commentsCleisthenes
CnCorneliusLentulusMarcellinusARDenariusSear323.jpg
(503f) Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus Silver Denarius87 viewsCn. Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus Silver Denarius, Sear-323, Cr-393/1a, Syd-752, RSC-Cornelia 54, struck 76-75 BC at Spanish Mint, 3.94 grams, 18 mm. EF. Obverse: GPR above Diademed, draped and bearded bust of the Genius of the Roman People facing right, sceptre over shoulder; Reverse: EX in left field, SC in right field; CN LEN Q in exergue, Sceptre with wreath, terrestrial globe and rudder. An exceptional example that is especially well centered and struck on a slightly larger flan than normally encountered with fully lustrous surfaces and a most attractive irridescent antique toning. Held back from the Superb EF/FDC by a small banker's mark in the right obverse field, but still worthy of the finest collection of Roman Republican denarii. Ex Glenn Woods.

Re: CORNELIA 54:

“Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus may be the same moneyer whose issues have been already described (no.s 702-704). Mommsen suggested that these coins were struck in 74 B.C. as a special issue, authorized by the Senate, to defray the cost of armaments against Mithridates of Pontus and the Mediterranean pirates. But Grueber’s view that they were struck in 76 B.C. by Cn. Cornelius Lentulus acting in the capacity of quaestor of Pompey, seems more in accordance with the evidence of finds" (see: G. ii, p. 359n and The Coinage of the Roman Republic, by Edward A. Sydenham, 1976, pgs. 1).

H. A. Seaby shows the coin with the smaller head (Roman Silver Coins Vol. I, Republic to Augustus pg. 33) while David R Sear shows a coin sporting a larger version (Roman Coins and Their Values, pg. 132).

“Cn. Lentulus strikes in Spain in his capacity as quaestor to the proconsul Pompey, who had been sent to the peninsula to assist Q. Caecillus Metellus Piusagainst sertorius”(Roman Coins and Their Values, by David Sear, Vol.1, 2000, pg. 132).

This is not an imperatorial minted coin for Pompey. At the time these coins were minted the Procounsel Pompey was sent to Spain to aid in the war against Sertorius. The moneyer Cn Lentulus served as his Quaestor where he continued to mint coins for Rome.

CN = Cneaus; LEN = Lentulus

Cneaus was his first name. His last, or family name is Lentulus and this clan is a lesser clan within the Cornelii, which is what his middle name of Cornelius implies.

Q = This tells us that he was a Quaestor, or Roman magistrate with judicial powers at the time when the coin was issued, with the responsibility for the treasury. Had this been a position that he once held it would be noted on the coin as PROQ or pro [past] Questor.

For Further Reading on the Cornelia 54 & 55:

Coins of the Roman Republic in the British Museum, by H. A. Grueber. London, 1910, Vol. II, pgs. 358, 359, 52, 57

Roman Silver Coins Vol. I, Republic to Augustus, by H.A.Seaby 1952, pgs. 32-33

The Coinage of the Roman Republic, by Edward A. Sydenham, 1976, pgs. 122, 241

Roman Coins and Their Values, by David Sear, Vol.1, 2000, pg. 132, 133

Roman Republican Coinage Volume I by Michael H. Crawford 2001, pg. 407

by Jerry Edward Cornelius, April 2006, THE 81 ROMAN COINS OF THE CORNELIA
http://www.cornelius93.com/Cornelia54.html
1 commentsCleisthenes
rjb_lond2_07_08.jpg
(VII)11719 viewsConstantine II
FL CL CONSTANTINVS IVN N C
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right viewed from back
SOLI INVICTO COMITI
Sol standing left
S/P//PLN
RIC (VII) 117
mauseus
rjb_2009_10_07.jpg
(VII)14310 viewsConstantine II
CONSTANTINVS IVN N C
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right viewed from back
SOLI INVICTO COMITI
Sol standing left
crescent/-//PLN
RIC (VII) 143
mauseus
rjb_2010_11_01.jpg
(VII)29519 viewsCrispus
FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right viewed from the front
PROVIDENTIAE CAESS
Camp gate with two turrets, star between
-/-//PLON
RIC (VII) 295
1 commentsmauseus
rjb_2009_09_20.jpg
(VII)29627 viewsConstantine II
CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right viewed from the rear
PROVIDENTIAE CAESS
Camp gate with two turrets, star between, pellet in doorway
-/-//PLON
RIC (VII) 296 note
mauseus
rjb_08_09_f.jpg
(VII)29626 viewsConstantine II
CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right viewed from the rear
PROVIDENTIAE CAESS
Camp gate with two turrets, star between
-/-//PLON
RIC (VII) 296
mauseus
MarcusNysaMerge3a.jpg
*Lydia, Nysa. Marcus Aurelius. Regling, Nysa 86 37 viewsĆ23. Lydia, Nysa. Marcus Aurelius (Caesar AD 136–161; Emperor 161–180), laureate head to r., cuirassed bust with paludamentum, back to viewer. ΑΥ ΚΑΙ ΑΝΤΩΝΕΙΝΟC or "Imperator Caesar Antoninus" Rev., Zeus seated, holding patera and long scepter. ΕΠ ΓΡ ΑΣΙΑΤΙΚΟΥ Κ[ΟΡΝ] ΝΥΣΑ[ΕΩΝ]. Asiatikos Korn(eliou), grammateus. Regling, Nysa 86; RPC IV (temporary №) 1455. Ex Collegium Josephinum Bonn 1-9-2010.

Same dies as RPC IV specimen: http://rpc.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/coins/1455/

*Note: Made a slight adjustment to image for brightness, contrast, and intensity.
Mark Fox
nurnberg_1_kreuzer_1773.jpg
*SOLD*20 views Nürnberg - 1 Kreuzer

Attribution: KM #367; 'Stadtansichtskreuzer von Nürnberg' (city-view Kreuzer of Nuremberg) is the specific type
Date: AD 1773
Obverse: View of Nuremberg in Bavaria/Germany, Providence of God above, 1773 below
Reverse: Three Coat of Arms of Nuremberg – 1) Top is 'Freie und Reichsstadt' ('Free city and city of the German Empire), the meaning is that Nuremberg has no other ruler above it than
the Emperor himself; 2) right is a half eagle, black on golden field, in the l. half, and six red and six silver oblique stripes in the r. field; 3) left shows a golden harpyia (mythic bird) on a blue field, has a female head and is crowned.
Noah
coin289.JPG
002b. Livia48 viewsLivia, as history most often knows her, was the wife of Augustus for over fifty years, from 38 BC until his death in AD 14 , an astonishingly long time in view of life expectancy in ancient Rome. Although certainty about their inner lives and proof for what we would consider a loving relationship is necessarily lost to us, we can infer genuine loyalty and mutual respect between the two. They remained married despite the fact that she bore him no child. Livia's position as first lady of the imperial household, her own family connections, her confident personality and her private wealth allowed her to exercise power both through Augustus and on her own, during his lifetime and afterward. All the Julio-Claudian emperors were her direct descendants: Tiberius was her son; Gaius (Caligula), her great-grandson; Claudius, her grandson; Nero, her great-great-grandson.

Tiberius and Livia- Thessalonica, Macedonia/Size: 22.5mm/Reference: RPC 1567
Obverse: TI KAISAR SEBASTOS, bare head of Tiberius right Reverse: QESSALONIKEWN SEBASTOU, draped bust of Livia right.

Ex-Imperial Coins
ecoli
Nero_AE-AS_IMP-NERO-CAESAR-AVG-GERM_PACE-PR-VBIQ-PARTA-IANVM-CLVSIT_S-C_RIC-348_C-_Rome_66-AD_Q-001_6h_27mm_11,14g-s.jpg
014 Nero (54-68 A.D.), RIC I 0348, Rome, AE-As, PACE PR VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT, S-C,116 views014 Nero (54-68 A.D.), RIC I 0348, Rome, AE-As, PACE PR VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT, S-C,
avers: IMP-NERO-CAESAR-AVG-GERM, Laureate head left.
revers: PACE-PR-VBIQ-PARTA-IANVM-CLVSIT, View of one front of the temple of Janus, with latticed window to left, and garland hung across closed double doors on the right, S C across fields.
exe: S/C//--, diameter: 27mm, weight: 11,14g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 66 AD., ref: RIC-348, C-,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Diocletian_ant6.jpg
026 - Diocletian (284-305 AD), pre-reform Antoninianus - RIC 30634 viewsObv. IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev. CONCORDIA MILITVM, emperor standing right, holding parazonium and receiving Victory om globe from Jupiter, standing left, holding sceptre.
Minted in Cyzicus (A in field, XXI in exe), first officina.

There is one die matching obv. to this coin on Coinarchives: http://www.coinarchives.com/a/lotviewer.php?LotID=117756&AucID=137&Lot=917 .
pierre_p77
LitraRoma.jpg
026/3 Litra or 1/8 ounce40 viewsAnonymous. Ć Litra or 1/8 ounce. Rome. 234-231 BC. ( 3.43g, 15mm, 5h) Obv: Laureate head of Apollo right Rev: Horse rearing left, wearing bridle, bit, and reins; ROMA below.

Crawford 26/3; Sydenham 29 (Half-litra); Kestner 56-65; BMCRR Romano-Campanian 70-74 (Half-litra)

This coin is attributed as a Litra by Crawford, others define it as half-litra. However, it could be argued that "1/8 ounce piece" is the better description.

First of all, on litra and half-litra:

"According to Crawford, the weight standard of the series 26 litra and half litra are based on a litra of 3.375 grams . The half litra in Crawford is described as having a dog on the reverse rather than a horse, and the average weight of the half litra of several specimens is described as 1.65 grams. BMCRR does refer to these as half litrae; but keep in mind that Grueber was writing circa 1900 and based on older scholarship. Sydenham was writing in the 1950s. Of the three major works cited, Crawford is the most current and likely based on a greater number of more recent finds."

Andrew Mccabe:

"It's very doubtful to me that the word "litra" is correct. Much more likely, these small bronze coins were simply fractions of the Aes Grave cast coinage system, as they come in weights of 1/4, 1/8 and 1/16 ounce, and the Aes Grave coinage generally had denominations from As down to Semuncia (1/2 ounce). So this coin would be 1/8 ounce coin. That's my view, which differs from their long term designation as "Litra", which presume them to be overvalued token bronze coinage on the Sicilian model, whereby bronze coins had value names that indicate a relationship to the silver coinage.

Litra, the word, is from the same stem as Libra, i.e. pound, would suggest a denomination of a (light) Sicilian pound of bronze, which sometimes equates in value to a small silver coin in Sicily weighing about 1/12 didrachm (about 0.6 grams) so by this definition, a Litra = an Obol. But it hardly stands up to scrutiny that such a tiny bronze coin, weighing 3.375 grams, could have been equivalent to a 0.6 gram silver obol. It would imply a massive overvaluation of bronze that just does not seem credible.

So. throw out the Litras, and call these coins 1/8 ounce pieces, and I think we have a sensible answer."

Paddy
Faustina_sen_Ag-Den_DIVA-FAVSTINA_AED-DIV-FAVSTINAE_RIC-III-AP-343_RSC-1_Rome_150-AD_Q-001_11h_17mm_2,95g-s~0.jpg
036 Faustina Senior (100-141 A.D.), RIC III 0343 (A.Pius), Rome, AR-Denarius, AED DIV FAVSTINAE, Hexastyle temple,84 views036 Faustina Senior (100-141 A.D.), RIC III 0343 (A.Pius), Rome, AR-Denarius, AED DIV FAVSTINAE, Hexastyle temple,
Wife of Antoninus Pius.
avers:- DIVA-FAVSTINA, Diademed and draped bust right.
revers:- AED-DIV-FAVSTINAE, Front view of temple of six columns on five steps, fencing before. Within is a statue of Faustina. Varying ornaments on temple.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 17mm, weight: 2,95g, axis: 11h,
mint: Rome, date: 150 A.D., ref: RIC-III-343 (Antoninus Pius)p- , RSC-191, BMCRE-306 (Pius),
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Faustina_sen_Ag-Den_DIVA-AVG-FAVSTINA_DEDICATIO-AEDIS_RIC-III-AP-388_RSC-191_Rome_141-AD_Q-001_7h_19-17mm_3,03g-s.jpg
036 Faustina Senior (100-141 A.D.), RIC III 0388 (A.Pius), Rome, AR-Denarius, DEDICATIO AEDIS, Hexastyle temple,88 views036 Faustina Senior (100-141 A.D.), RIC III 0388 (A.Pius), Rome, AR-Denarius, DEDICATIO AEDIS, Hexastyle temple,
Wife of Antoninus Pius.
avers:- DIVA-AVG-FAVSTINA, Draped bust right.
revers:- DEDICATIO-AEDIS, Frontal view of a hexastyle temple, Victories in corners.
exerg: , diameter: 17-19mm, weight: 3,03g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 141-161 A.D., ref: RIC-III-388 (Antoninus Pius)p- , RSC-191, BMCRE-306 (Pius),
Q-001
This coin type records the dedication of the
temple of Divus Antoninus and Diva Faustina. The
dedication ceremonies took place in 142 AD, and
construction was completed in 150 AD. The temple
still stands today, overlooking the Forum.
quadrans
Caligula_denarius.jpg
04 Gaius (Caligula) RIC I 2223 viewsGaius (Caligula) 37-41 A.D. AR Denarius. Lugdunum (Lyons) Mint 37 AD. (3.3g, 18.5mm, 2h). Obv: C CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR POT COS, bare head right. Rev: anepigraphic, Augustus, radiate head right between two stars. RIC I 2, BMC 4, Sear 1808. Ex personal collection Steve McBride/Incitatus Coins.

Son of Germanicus, Gaius was adopted by Tiberius and was proclaimed Emperor on Tiberius’ death. His reign, marked by cruelty, was ended when he was assassinated by the Praetorian Guard. There is some question when the Imperial Mint was moved from Lugdunum to Rome, but the majority view holds at least Gaius’ early issues were still from Lugdunum.

With more than moderate wear and damage, this coin still has an almost complete obverse legend, and is a decent weight. It was very difficult for me to track down a denarius of Gaius.
2 commentsLucas H
RIC_IV-I_536D_Julia-Domna,_AR-Den,_IVLIA_DO_MNA_AVG,_VENERI_VICTR,_Roma,_RSC-194,_BMCRE-49,_S-6608,_194_AD,_Q-001,_0h,_15,5-19mm,_2,74g-s.jpg
050 Julia Domna (170-217 A.D.), RIC IV-I 536D, Roma, AR-Denarius, VENERI VICTR, Venus standing right, #164 views050 Julia Domna (170-217 A.D.), RIC IV-I 536D, Roma, AR-Denarius, VENERI VICTR, Venus standing right, #1
avers: IVLIA DOMNA AVG, Bust draped right.
reverse: VENERI VICTR, Venus standing right, her back turned to the viewer, draped from the waist down and leaning on a short column with her left elbow; holding a palm branch with her left arm and an apple in her extended right hand.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter:15,5-19,0mm, weight: 2,74g, axis: 0h,
mint: Roma, date: 194 A.D., ref: RIC IV-I 536D, RSC 194, BMCRE 49, Sear 6608,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
RIC_IV-I_633_Julia-Domna,_AR-Den,_IVLIA_DO_MNA_AVG,_VENER_VICTOR,_Emesa(Homs),_RSC-189,_BMCRE-423,_194-195_AD,_Q-001,_6h,_17,0-17,5mm,_3,15g-s.jpg
050 Julia Domna (170-217 A.D.), RIC IV-I 633, Emesa(Homs), AR-Denarius, VENER VICTOR, Venus standing right, Scarce! #166 views050 Julia Domna (170-217 A.D.), RIC IV-I 633, Emesa(Homs), AR-Denarius, VENER VICTOR, Venus standing right, Scarce! #1
avers: IVLIA DO MNA AVG, Bust draped right.
reverse: VENER VICTOR, Venus standing right, her back turned to the viewer, draped from the waist down and leaning on a short column with her left elbow; holding a palm branch with her left arm and an apple in her extended right hand.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter:17,0-17,5mm, weight: 3,15g, axis: 6h,
mint: Emesa(Homs), date: 194-195 A.D., ref: RIC IV-I 633, RSC 189, BMCRE 423, Scarce!
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
059p_Annia_Faustina_(-221_A_D_),_RPC_IV_(T)_6277,_Pamphylia,_Aspendus,_AE-18,__________,_Q-001_6h_17-18mm_3,91g-s.jpg
059p Annia Faustina ( ?-221 A.D.), RPC IV (T) 6277, Pamphylia, Aspendus, AE-18, ΑСΠƐΝΔΙΩΝ, Front view of double-pediment temple, Rare !180 views059p Annia Faustina ( ?-221 A.D.), RPC IV (T) 6277, Pamphylia, Aspendus, AE-18, ΑСΠƐΝΔΙΩΝ, Front view of double-pediment temple, Rare !
avers: ΑΝΝΙΑΝ ΦΑΥϹΤƐΙΝΑΝ ϹƐΒ, Diademed and draped bust of Annia Faustina, right.
reverse: ΑСΠƐΝΔΙΩΝ, Front view of double-pediment temple enclosing a statue of Aphroditai Kastnietides each.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17,0-18,0mm, weight: 3,91g, axis: 6 h,
mint: Pamphylia, Aspendus, date: 221 A.D., ref: RPC IV (T) 6277, Peus 388, 1 Nov. 2006, lot 1132, R !,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
076-Philippus-II_AR-Ant_IMP-M-IVL-PHILIPPVS-AVG_PM-T-RP-VI-COS-PP_RIC-Not-in_Antioch_249-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
076b Philippus II. (244-7 A.D., Caes, 247-9 A.D. Aug.), RIC IV-III --- Not in!!!, Antioch, AR-Antoninianus, P M TR P VI COS P P, Emperor standing left, Rare!!!,75 views076b Philippus II. (244-7 A.D., Caes, 247-9 A.D. Aug.), RIC IV-III --- Not in!!!, Antioch, AR-Antoninianus, P M TR P VI COS P P, Emperor standing left, Rare!!!,
avers:- IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right viewed from the front.
revers:- P M TR P VI COS P P, Emperor veiled, standing left, holding scepter and sacrificing out of patera over lighted tripod.
exergo: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 249 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-III-Not in RIC !!!,Unlisted RIC with this obverse style, Rare !!! (known = 6), RSC 40var.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
M_53_half_p.jpg
1 Innocent XI undated Half Piastre M5336 viewsAn interesting obverse type featuring a completely unsymmetrical 3/4 view of the pope's arms. The lion and eagle are remarkably lifelike, quite unusual for elements of coats of arms, and both appear to be ready to leave the coin. The eagle seems particularly interested in testing his wings, perhaps having noticed the lion is watching him with a lean and hungry look.

The reverse translates to "to the greedy it shall not be given." A number of the reformed coins of this pope featured legends encouraging charity.
stlnats
Augustus-Quietus_sm.jpg
1) Augustus - Quietus112 views
Click image for a closer view
5 commentsSosius
coin215.JPG
101. Nerva40 viewsNerva

Nerva is credited with beginning the practice of adopting his heir rather than selecting a blood relative. Nerva's reign was more concerned with the continuation of an existing political system than with the birth of a new age. Indeed, his economic policies, his relationship with the senate, and the men whom he chose to govern and to offer him advice all show signs of Flavian influence. In many respects, Nerva was the right man at the right time. His immediate accession following Domitian's murder prevented anarchy and civil war, while his age, poor health and moderate views were perfect attributes for a government that offered a bridge between Domitian's stormy reign and the emperorships of the stable rulers to follow.

Denarius. IMP NERVA CAES AVG P M TR POT II, laureate head right / COS III PATER PATRAE, ladle, sprinkler, jug & lituus. RSC 51.
ecoli
T-3203_107_Severina_AE-Ant-Silvered_SEVERINA-PF-AVG_CONCORDIA-AVG_V_XXI_RIC-19v__T-3203_Antioch_iss-7_off-5_275-AD_Q-001_0h_23mm_4,61g-s.jpg
107 Severina (270-275 A.D.), T-3203 (Estiot), RIC V-I 019var, Antioch, AE-Antoninianus, CONCORDIA AVG, V//XXI, Emperor and Empress, R!203 views107 Severina (270-275 A.D.), T-3203 (Estiot), RIC V-I 019var, Antioch, AE-Antoninianus, CONCORDIA AVG, V//XXI, Emperor and Empress, R!
avers:- SEVERINA-PF-AVG, Empress right, diademed, draped, on a lunar crescent. (E2)
revers:- CONCORDIA-AVG, Emperor togate (no laurel crown) standing right, clasping the hand of Empress standing left. (Emperor and Empress 1)
"A very interesting coin from the historical point of view as it belongs to the issues dating from Severina's interregnum after the assassination of Aurelian (september-november 275).
"As far as the organisation of coin production was concerned, we see that from the end of 274, certain officinae in some of the mints struck coins exclusively for Severina: this is the case with issues 2-4 at Lyon, issues 10-11 at Rome and issue 4 at Ticinum. After the death of Aurelian, the officinae are no longer shared between Aurelian and Severina: at Lyon, there is a 5th issue attested by coins in the name of Severina only, and the same applies to the 12th issue at Rome where the empress monopolizes the six active équipes, and the 5th issue at Ticinum, where all six officinae struck coins just for Severina. It is clear that the Empress as regent was exercising alone power and right to coin.
In fact the evidence shows that all eight mints that were active in the autumn of 275 across the Empire were producing issues in the name of Severina alone. The mint at Serdica struck coins for Severina with the legend Severina Augusta.The mint at Antioch exceptionally gave the Empress the titles P(ia) F(elix), normally reserved for emperors; on the reverse, the legend is changed from the plural form Concordia Augg (Augustorum) to the singular Concordia Aug, which may be expanded as Concordia Augustae. The type no longer shows the standard reverse, Aurelian shaking the hand of Concordia, but an anonymous male figure, now without laurel-wreath and sceptre, shaking the hand of Severina, who is easily recognizable by her characteristic hairdress and is shown in a larger size. At Alexandria, coins in the name of Severina continued to be struck as the mint received the news of Aurelian’s assassination, and stopped issuing his coins: the hoards from Karanis have 5 tetradrachms of the 7th year of Aurelian (that is after 29 August 275), but 25 of Severina."
(From the website Monnaies de l'Empire Romain / Roman Imperial Coinage 268-276 AD : http://www.ric.mom.fr/en/info/hist5#severine)"
by S. Estiot. Thank you S. Estiot.
exerg: V//XXI, diameter: 23mm, weight: 4,61g, axes: 0h,
mint: Antioch, iss-7, off-5, date: 275 A.D., ref: RIC-19var., T-3203 (Estiot), C-,
Q-001
quadrans
128-1_Decia_2.jpg
128/1. Decia - denarius (206-200 BC)19 viewsAR Denarius (uncertain mint, 206-200 BC)
O/ Helmeted head of Roma right; X behind head.
R/ The Dioscuri galloping right; shield & carnyx below horses; ROMA in exergue.
4.01g; 20.5mm
Crawford 128/1 (less than 10 obverse dies/less than 12 reverse dies)
- Privately bought from Münzen & Medaillen Basel.
- Ex collection of Elvira Elisa Clain-Stefanelli (1914-2001), former director of the National Numismatic Collection (part of the Smithsonian Institute).
- Naville Numismatics Live Auction 29, lot 479.

* Anonymous (shield & carnyx), Decius?:

This very rare issue has traditionally been attributed to a descendant of a line of three heroes named Publius Decius Mus. The first of that name was Consul in 340 BC; he received the Grass Crown after having saved his army from destruction against the Samnites, then sacrificed himself at the Battle of Vesuvius during his consulship in an act of devotio (exchanging his life against the victory of his army). His son was four times Consul (312, 308, 297 and 295 BC) and similarly sacrificed himself at the Battle of Sentinum in 295 BC against a coalition of Etruscans, Samnites, and Gauls. The third of that name was Consul in 279 BC and fought against Pyrrhus, who successfully thwarted his attempt to sacrifice himself like his ancestors (cf. discussion in Broughton, vol. I, p. 193).

300 years later, Trajan restored several issues of the Republic, including this one, but with the addition of DECIVS MVS on the obverse (RIC 766). Babelon thus assumed that this denarius was minted by the son of the last Publius Decius Mus (Decia 1). In this hypothesis, the shield and Carnyx refers to the second Mus -- the one who fought the Gauls.

However, Crawford contested this view, writing: "The restoration of this issue by Trajan with the added legend DECIVS MVS provides no grounds whatever for supposing that it was originally struck by someone of that name - the family was certainly extinct by this period."

It is still very strange that Trajan picked this rare denarius, from an irregular mint, for restoration. He could have chosen many other anonymous issues of the early Roman coinage, and simply add the name of Decius Mus. It thus shows that the imperial mint had retained some specimens or archives of previous issues up to the 3rd century BC, because due to its rarity, this denarius had already disappeared from circulation by the time of Trajan. A list of the magistrates behind each issue could therefore have been kept as well; Trajan might have selected the moneyers whom he thought were significant for the history of Rome and restored their issue. A Publius Decius Subulo was living in these years (Livy, xliii. 17) and perhaps minted this coin; his name could have been preserved in the archives of the mint, which might have led Trajan to pick his denarius for restoration.
1 commentsJoss
RI 130am img.jpg
130 - Tacitus Antoninianus - RIC 065 (A in left field | A in right field) – 16 views18 viewsObv:– IMP CL TACITVS AVG, Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– TEMPORVM FELICITAS, Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (A in left field | A in right field), Emission 5, Officina 1, from March to April A.D. 286
References:– Cohen 144, RIC 65 Bust type C
maridvnvm
ROBERT_II_AR_Groat_of_Perth.JPG
1371 – 1390, Robert II, AR Groat minted at Perth, Scotland4 viewsObverse: + ROBERTVS DEI GRA REX SCOTORVM. Crowned bust of Robert II facing left, sceptre topped with a lis and with a star at its base before, within double tressure of six arches broken at the king's neck, small trefoils in spandrels, surrounded by beaded inner circle. Mintmark, cross pattée in legend and small crosses in spaces between words. The whole within beaded outer circle.
Reverse: + DnS PTECTOR MS ┼ LIBATOR MS (God is my protector and redeemer) / VILLA DE PERTh X. Long cross pattée dividing two concentric legends separated by two beaded circles into quarters, pierced mullet in each quarter of inner circle. Mintmark, cross pattées in both inner and outer legends, but cross set as saltire in inner legend, small cross over crescent after DnS in outer legend. The whole within beaded outer circle.
Diameter: 30mm | Weight: 3.87gms | Die Axis: 12
SPINK: 5136 | SCBI: 35, 460-72

Robert II's coinage was maintained at the same standard and in the same general style as that of David’s last issue, but coins were struck at Perth and Dundee in addition to those of the Edinburgh mint.

Robert II was the first Scottish king of the Stewart line, he was the son of Walter, the sixth hereditary High Steward of Scotland, and of Marjorie Bruce, daughter of Robert the Bruce. Robert II acted as regent during part of the period of imprisonment in England of David II and was himself imprisoned in England when Edward III was declared to be David’s successor. The Scots never accepted this arrangement and, after several years of secret negotiations between David II and Edward III, in 1370 Robert was released. He peacefully succeeded to the throne on David II's death the following year.
Robert II succeeded to the throne at the age of 54 and was viewed by many in his kingdom as past his best. In November 1384 he was effectively deposed by his eldest son John, Earl of Carrick. John, however, was seriously injured after being kicked by a horse, and Robert II's second son, Robert, Earl of Fife, later the Duke of Albany, was appointed as Guardian of Scotland instead. Robert II died at Dundonald Castle on 19 April 1390, and was buried at Scone. He was succeeded by his son John, who confusingly took the name Robert III, probably because in Scotland "John" was a name too closely associated with John Balliol, the erstwhile protégé of Edward I.
*Alex
rjb_pius2_06_09.jpg
13822 views23 views
Antoninus Pius 138-61 AD
AE 18 mm
Nicomedia in Bithynia
Rev Demeter standing left
BMC 13
1 commentsmauseus
faustina_I_RIC343.jpg
138-161 AD - FAUSTINA Senior AR denarius - struck 150 AD41 viewsobv: DIVA FAVSTINA (draped bust right)
rev: AED DIV FAVSTINAE (front view of temple of six columns on five steps, fencing before, statue of Faustina within)
ref: RIC III 343 (S) (AntPius), RSC 1 (10frcs), BMC 339
3.34gms, 18mm,
Scarce

This coin represents the aedes, or templum, with which, after her death, the elder Faustina was honoured by Antoninus Pius. According to Capitolinus, it was situated in the Via Sacra, and was at first dedicated to Faustina alone. But, after the decease of the husband, religious rites were paid therein to him also. A nice coin with an image of a building which still stands today in Rome.
berserker
CtG AE3.jpg
1403a,1, Constantine I (the Great), 307-337 A.D.46 viewsConstantine I (the Great), 307-337 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 16, C -, VF, 2.854g, 19.1mm, 180o, Constantinople mint, 327 A.D. Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, rosette diademed head right; Reverse: GLORIA EXERCITVS, Soldier standing left, head right, resting left hand on shield and holding inverted spear in right, G in left field, CONS in exergue; very rare (R3).

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
1 commentsCleisthenes
Const1GlrEx.jpg
1403b, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.37 viewsConstantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D., Bronze AE 3, RIC 137, VF, Constantinople mint, 1.476g, 16.4mm, 180o, 336 - 337 A.D. Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, laurel and rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, two soldiers, each holding spear and shield on ground, flanking standard, CONS[ ] in exergue. Ex FORVM.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTGDafne.jpg
1403c, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.49 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC VII 35, choice aEF, Constantinople mint, 3.336g, 20.0mm, 180o, 328 A.D.; Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, laurel and rosette diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: CONSTANTINI-ANA DAFNE, Victory seated left on cippus, head right, palm frond in each hand, trophy and captive before, CONS in exergue, B left; scarce. Ex FORVM.

"The information about Constantine's campaign across [the Danube] is obscure and untrustworthy. The question, therefore, of what he achieved by this enterprise was, and is, subject to contradictory interpretations. On the one hand, the Panegyrists claimed that he had repeated the triumphs of Trajan. On the other, his own nephew, Julian the Apostate, spoke for many when he expressed the view that this second 'conquest' of Dacia was incomplete and extremely brief . . . monetary commemoration was accorded to the building, at about the same time [AD 328], of the river frontier fortress of Constantiniana Dafne (Spantov, near Oltenita) . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix, 1998. 58-9).

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
1 commentsCleisthenes
CTGKyzAE3.jpg
1403d, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Cyzicus)37 viewsConstantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 199, gVF, corrosion, Cyzicus, 1.402g, 16.2mm, 0o, 336 - 337 A.D. Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, laurel and rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS•, two soldiers, each holding spear and shield on ground, flanking standard, SMKA in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTGVOTXXX.jpg
1403e, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Heraclea)28 viewsConstantine the Great, Bronze AE 3, RIC 69, VF, Heraclea, 3.38g, 19.0mm, 180o, 325 - 326 A.D. Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: D N CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, VOT XXX in wreath, SMHD in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
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1403f, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Heraclea)20 viewsBronze follis, RIC 5, F/aF, 3.513g, 20.4mm, 180o, Heraclea mint, 313 A.D.; obverse IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse IOVI CONSER-VATORI AVGG, Jupiter standing left holding Victory and scepter, eagle with wreath in beek at feet, B in right field, SMHT in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTGaeFolNico.jpg
1403g, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Nicomedia)22 viewsConstantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. Bronze follis, RIC 12, aVF, Nicomedia mint, 2.760g, 22.0mm, 0o, 313 - 317 A.D. Obverse: IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: IOVI CONS-ERVATORI, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath in beak left, G right, SMN in exergue; scarce.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTG.jpg
1403h, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Siscia)36 viewsBronze follis, RIC 232b, gVF, Siscia, 3.87g, 23.8mm, 180o, early 313 A.D. Obverse: IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG NN, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath in beak left, E right, SIS in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTG_SisCmpGte.jpg
1403i, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Siscia)42 viewsSilvered AE 3, RIC 214, VF, Siscia mint, 3.187g, 19.3mm, 0o, 328 - 329 A.D.
Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right; Reverse PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, campgate with two turrets, star above, ASIS and double crescent in exergue.

Flavius Valerius Constantinus, Constantine the Great, was the son of Helena and the First Tetrarchic ruler Constantius I. Constantine is most famous for his conversion to Christianity and the battle of the Milvian Bridge where he defeated emperor Maxentius. It is reputed that before the battle, he saw the words "In Hoc Signo Victor Eris" (By this sign you shall conquer) emblazoned on the sun around the Chi Rho, the symbol of Christianity. Other sources claim the vision came to Constantine I in a dream. The story continues that after placing this Christogram on the shields of his army, he defeated his opponent and thus ruled the empire through divine providence. Constantine I also shifted the capital of the empire to Constantinople, establishing the foundation for an Empire that would last another 1000 years. He died in 337 and his sons divided the Roman territories.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power, and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
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1403j, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Thessalonica)26 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 153, VF, Thessalonica mint, 2.955g, 19.7mm, 0o, 326 - 328 A.D. Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, campgate with two turrets, star above, dot right, SMTSG in exergue.

Flavius Valerius Constantinus, Constantine the Great, was the son of Helena and the First Tetrarchic ruler Constantius I. Constantine is most famous for his conversion to Christianity and the battle of the Milvian Bridge where he defeated emperor Maxentius. It is reputed that before the battle, he saw the words "In Hoc Signo Victor Eris" (By this sign you shall conquer) emblazoned on the sun around the Chi Rho, the symbol of Christianity. Other sources claim the vision came to Constantine I in a dream. The story continues that after placing this Christogram on the shields of his army, he defeated his opponent and thus ruled the empire through divine providence. Constantine I also shifted the capital of the empire to Constantinople, establishing the foundation for an Empire that would last another 1000 years. He died in 337 and his sons divided the Roman territories.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power, and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
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1405a, Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. (Alexandria)39 viewsBronze AE 4, RIC 37, gVF, Egypt, Alexandria, 1.54g, 15.0mm, 180o, 345-347 A.D. Obverse: D N CONSTANS P F AVG, pearl diademed head right; Reverse: VOT XX MVLT XXX in wreath, SMALA• in exergue.

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, was born between 320 and 323 A.D. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons.

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign.

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality. He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II, Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University and Robert Frakes, Clarion UniversityPublished: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
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1405n, Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. (Siscia)56 viewsConstans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 241, S 3978, VM 69, VF, Siscia, 2.32g, 18.3mm, 180o. Obverse: D N CONSTANS P F AVG, pearl diademed draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Phoenix radiate, standing on rocky mound, GSIS and symbol in ex; nice green patina.

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, was born between 320 and 323 A.D. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons.

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign.

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality. He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II, Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University and Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
U2476F1OVDKUXTA.jpeg
1405t, Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. (Thessalonica )39 viewsConstans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D., Bronze AE 3, unattributed; Thessalonica mint, 2.25g, 18.9mm, 0; aVF.

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, was born between 320 and 323 A.D. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons.

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign.

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality. He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II, Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University and Robert Frakes, Clarion University.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
U809F1JMXNTCBT.jpg
1407a, Constantius II, 337-361 A.D. (Antioch)51 viewsAE4, 337-361 A.D. Antioch, aVF/VF,Obv:– DN CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, Pearl and rosette diadem, head right/R: Wreath with VOT XX MVLT XXX, SMANB in exe.RIC VIII Antioch 113,Item ref: RI170b.

AE3, 2.80 grams, 330-333, Heraclea, aVF. Obv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C - Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed. R: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS - Two soldiers looking in at each other and both holding a spear; between them, two standards Exe: SMHB.

Constantius II was born in Illyricum in August AD 317, the son of Constantine the Great and Fausta, and was proclaimed Caesar in AD 323.

In AD 337, at the death of his father Constantine, he acceded to the throne together with his two brothers Constantine II and Constans. But this accession by the three brothers was tainted by the murder of their cousins Dalmatius and Hannibalianus, whom Constantine had also intended as joint heirs. These murders are believed to have been masterminded by Constantius II.

Eventually, Constantius II was left as the sole emperor of the Roman empire. Constantius elevated his cousin, Julian, to the rank of Caesar (junior emperor) and gave him his sister Helena in marriage. Julian was assigned the task of dealing with the Frankish leader, Silvanus, who had proclaimed himself emepror at Colonia Agrippina. Julian's success led his men to declare him Augustus. Julian, while reluctant to take the throne, accepted.

Constantius II, therefore, left the Mesopotamian frontier and marched his troops west, seeking to deal with the usurper. As he reached Cilicia in the winter of AD 361, he was overcome by a sudden fever and died at Mopsucrene. Julian, the Apostate, succeded him as Emperor.

Our chief source for Constantius' reign is the great historian Ammianus Marcellinus. He presents a mixed view of that emperor. In some ways a sound administrator and competent general, Constantius is also portrayed as easily influenced by those around him such as his wives, courtiers and the eunuchs of the court (Ammianus 21. 16. 16). Ammianus (21.16.18) also attacks Constantius' great interest in Church affairs--alleging that he bankrupted the courier service with calls for Church councils. Of course, imperial interest in Church affairs was a major policy of his father Constantine and it may be that Constantius was trying to emulate his model (if only with mixed success). Indeed, Constantius II (like his brothers Constantine II and Constans) was raised a Christian. Among his many laws is the famous CTh 16.10.2 of 341 which either prohibited or re-issued his father's prohibition of pagan sacrifices. Sympathetic to Arianism, he spent a great deal of his reign calling Church councils. One of the longest-reigned emperors in Roman history, Constantius is hard for the modern historian to fully understand both due to his own actions and due to the interests of the authors of primary sources for his reign.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University & Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
Cnstntius2b.jpg
1407h, Constantius II, 337-361 A.D. (Heraclea)32 viewsConstantius II 337-361 A.D. AE3, 2.80 grams, 330-333, Heraclea, aVF. Obverse: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C - Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed; Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS - Two soldiers looking in at each other and both holding a spear; between them, two standards; SMHB in exergue.

Constantius II was born in Illyricum in August AD 317, the son of Constantine the Great and Fausta, and was proclaimed Caesar in AD 323.

In AD 337, at the death of his father Constantine, he acceded to the throne together with his two brothers Constantine II and Constans. But this accession by the three brothers was tainted by the murder of their cousins Dalmatius and Hannibalianus, whom Constantine had also intended as joint heirs. These murders are believed to have been masterminded by Constantius II.

Eventually, Constantius II was left as the sole emperor of the Roman empire. Constantius elevated his cousin, Julian, to the rank of Caesar (junior emperor) and gave him his sister Helena in marriage. Julian was assigned the task of dealing with the Frankish leader, Silvanus, who had proclaimed himself emepror at Colonia Agrippina. Julian's success led his men to declare him Augustus. Julian, while reluctant to take the throne, accepted.

Constantius II, therefore, left the Mesopotamian frontier and marched his troops west, seeking to deal with the usurper. As he reached Cilicia in the winter of AD 361, he was overcome by a sudden fever and died at Mopsucrene. Julian, the Apostate, succeded him as Emperor.

Our chief source for Constantius' reign is the great historian Ammianus Marcellinus. He presents a mixed view of that emperor. In some ways a sound administrator and competent general, Constantius is also portrayed as easily influenced by those around him such as his wives, courtiers and the eunuchs of the court (Ammianus 21. 16. 16). Ammianus (21.16.18) also attacks Constantius' great interest in Church affairs--alleging that he bankrupted the courier service with calls for Church councils. Of course, imperial interest in Church affairs was a major policy of his father Constantine and it may be that Constantius was trying to emulate his model (if only with mixed success). Indeed, Constantius II (like his brothers Constantine II and Constans) was raised a Christian. Among his many laws is the famous CTh 16.10.2 of 341 which either prohibited or re-issued his father's prohibition of pagan sacrifices. Sympathetic to Arianism, he spent a great deal of his reign calling Church councils. One of the longest-reigned emperors in Roman history, Constantius is hard for the modern historian to fully understand both due to his own actions and due to the interests of the authors of primary sources for his reign.
By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University & Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Constantius II.jpg
1407r, Constantius II, 22 May 337 - 3 November 361 A.D.39 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 272, aVF, 2.203g, 18.1mm, 0o, Rome mint, 352 - 355 A.D.; obverse D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier spearing fallen horseman, RT in ex.

Constantius II was born in Illyricum in August AD 317, the son of Constantine the Great and Fausta, and was proclaimed Caesar in AD 323.

In AD 337, at the death of his father Constantine, he acceded to the throne together with his two brothers Constantine II and Constans. But this accession by the three brothers was tainted by the murder of their cousins Dalmatius and Hannibalianus, whom Constantine had also intended as joint heirs. These murders are believed to have been masterminded by Constantius II.

Eventually, Constantius II was left as the sole emperor of the Roman empire. Constantius elevated Julian to the rank of Caesar (junior emperor) and gave him his sister Helena in marriage. Julian was assigned the task of dealing with the Frankish leader, Silvanus, who had proclaimed himself emepror at Colonia Agrippina. Julian's success lead his men to declare him Augustus. Julian, while reluctant to take the throne, accepted.

Constantius II, therefore left the Mesopotamian frontier and marched his troops west, seeking to deal with the usurper. As he reached Cilicia in the winter of AD 361, he was overcome by a sudden fever and died at Mopsucrene. Julian, the Apostate, succeded him as Emperor.

Our chief source for Constantius' reign is the great historian Ammianus Marcellinus. He presents a mixed view of that emperor. In some ways a sound administrator and competent general, Constantius is also portrayed as easily influenced by those around him such as his wives, courtiers and the eunuchs of the court (Ammianus 21. 16. 16). Ammianus (21.16.18) also attacks Constantius' great interest in Church affairs--alleging that he bankrupted the courier service with calls for Church councils. Of course, imperial interest in Church affairs was a major policy of his father Constantine and it may be that Constantius was trying to emulate his model (if only with mixed success). Indeed, Constantius II (like his brothers Constantine II and Constans) was raised a Christian. Among his many laws is the famous CTh 16.10.2 of 341 which either prohibited or re-issued his father's prohibition of pagan sacrifices. Sympathetic to Arianism, he spent a great deal of his reign calling Church councils. One of the longest-reigned emperors in Roman history, Constantius is hard for the modern historian to fully understand both due to his own actions and due to the interests of the authors of primary sources for his reign.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University & Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
Julian2VotXConstantinople.jpg
1409a, Julian II "the Philosopher," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.143 viewsJulian II, A.D. 360-363; RIC 167; VF; 2.7g, 20mm; Constantinople mint; Obverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, helmeted & cuirassed bust right, holding spear & shield; Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath; CONSPB in exergue; Attractive green patina. Ex Nemesis.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Julian the Apostate (360-363 A.D.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University

Introduction

The emperor Flavius Claudius Julianus reigned from 360 to 26 June 363, when he was killed fighting against the Persians. Despite his short rule, his emperorship was pivotal in the development of the history of the later Roman empire. This essay is not meant to be a comprehensive look at the various issues central to the reign of Julian and the history of the later empire. Rather, this short work is meant to be a brief history and introduction for the general reader. Julian was the last direct descendent of the Constantinian line to ascend to the purple, and it is one of history's great ironies that he was the last non-Christian emperor. As such, he has been vilified by most Christian sources, beginning with John Chrysostom and Gregory Nazianzus in the later fourth century. This tradition was picked up by the fifth century Eusebian continuators Sozomen, Socrates Scholasticus, and Theodoret and passed on to scholars down through the 20th century. Most contemporary sources, however, paint a much more balanced picture of Julian and his reign. The adoption of Christianity by emperors and society, while still a vital concern, was but one of several issues that concerned Julian.

It is fortunate that extensive writings from Julian himself exist, which help interpret his reign in the light of contemporary evidence. Still extant are some letters, several panegyrics, and a few satires. Other contemporary sources include the soldier Ammianus Marcellinus' history, correspondence between Julian and Libanius of Antioch, several panegyrics, laws from the Theodosian Code, inscriptions, and coinage. These sources show Julian's emphasis on restoration. He saw himself as the restorer of the traditional values of Roman society. Of course much of this was rhetoric, meant to defend Julian against charges that he was a usurper. At the same time this theme of restoration was central to all emperors of the fourth century. Julian thought that he was the one emperor who could regain what was viewed as the lost glory of the Roman empire. To achieve this goal he courted select groups of social elites to get across his message of restoration. This was the way that emperors functioned in the fourth century. By choosing whom to include in the sharing of power, they sought to shape society.

Early Life

Julian was born at Constantinople in 331. His father was Julius Constantius, half-brother of the emperor Constantine through Constantius Chlorus, and his mother was Basilina, Julius' second wife. Julian had two half-brothers via Julius' first marriage. One of these was Gallus, who played a major role in Julian's life. Julian appeared destined for a bright future via his father's connection to the Constantinian house. After many years of tense relations with his three half-brothers, Constantine seemed to have welcomed them into the fold of the imperial family. From 333 to 335, Constantine conferred a series of honors upon his three half-siblings, including appointing Julius Constantius as one of the consuls for 335. Julian's mother was equally distinguished. Ammianus related that she was from a noble family. This is supported by Libanius, who claimed that she was the daughter of Julius Julianus, a Praetorian Prefect under Licinius, who was such a model of administrative virtue that he was pardoned and honored by Constantine.

Despite the fact that his mother died shortly after giving birth to him, Julian experienced an idyllic early childhood. This ended when Constantius II conducted a purge of many of his relatives shortly after Constantine's death in 337, particularly targeting the families of Constantine's half-brothers. ulian and Gallus were spared, probably due to their young age. Julian was put under the care of Mardonius, a Scythian eunuch who had tutored his mother, in 339, and was raised in the Greek philosophical tradition, and probably lived in Nicomedia. Ammianus also supplied the fact that while in Nicomedia, Julian was cared for by the local bishop Eusebius, of whom the future emperor was a distant relation. Julian was educated by some of the most famous names in grammar and rhetoric in the Greek world at that time, including Nicocles and Hecebolius. In 344 Constantius II sent Julian and Gallus to Macellum in Cappadocia, where they remained for six years. In 351, Gallus was made Caesar by Constantius II and Julian was allowed to return to Nicomedia, where he studied under Aedesius, Eusebius, and Chrysanthius, all famed philosophers, and was exposed to the Neo-Platonism that would become such a prominent part of his life. But Julian was most proud of the time he spent studying under Maximus of Ephesus, a noted Neo-Platonic philospher and theurgist. It was Maximus who completed Julian's full-scale conversion to Neo-Platonism. Later, when he was Caesar, Julian told of how he put letters from this philosopher under his pillows so that he would continue to absorb wisdom while he slept, and while campaigning on the Rhine, he sent his speeches to Maximus for approval before letting others hear them. When Gallus was executed in 354 for treason by Constantius II, Julian was summoned to Italy and essentially kept under house arrest at Comum, near Milan, for seven months before Constantius' wife Eusebia convinced the emperor that Julian posed no threat. This allowed Julian to return to Greece and continue his life as a scholar where he studied under the Neo-Platonist Priscus. Julian's life of scholarly pursuit, however, ended abruptly when he was summoned to the imperial court and made Caesar by Constantius II on 6 November 355.

Julian as Caesar

Constantius II realized an essential truth of the empire that had been evident since the time of the Tetrarchy--the empire was too big to be ruled effectively by one man. Julian was pressed into service as Caesar, or subordinate emperor, because an imperial presence was needed in the west, in particular in the Gallic provinces. Julian, due to the emperor's earlier purges, was the only viable candidate of the imperial family left who could act as Caesar. Constantius enjoined Julian with the task of restoring order along the Rhine frontier. A few days after he was made Caesar, Julian was married to Constantius' sister Helena in order to cement the alliance between the two men. On 1 December 355, Julian journeyed north, and in Augusta Taurinorum he learned that Alamannic raiders had destroyed Colonia Agrippina. He then proceeded to Vienne where he spent the winter. At Vienne, he learned that Augustudunum was also under siege, but was being held by a veteran garrison. He made this his first priority, and arrived there on 24 June 356. When he had assured himself that the city was in no immediate danger, he journeyed to Augusta Treverorum via Autessioduram, and from there to Durocortorum where he rendezvoused with his army. Julian had the army stage a series of punitive strikes around the Dieuse region, and then he moved them towards the Argentoratum/Mongontiacum region when word of barbarian incursions reached him.

From there, Julian moved on to Colonia Agrippina, and negotiated a peace with the local barbarian leaders who had assaulted the city. He then wintered at Senonae. He spent the early part of the campaigning season of 357 fighting off besiegers at Senonae, and then conducting operations around Lugdunum and Tres Tabernae. Later that summer, he encountered his watershed moment as a military general. Ammianus went into great detail about Julian's victory over seven rogue Alamannic chieftains near Argentoratum, and Julian himself bragged about it in his later writing. After this battle, the soldiers acclaimed Julian Augustus, but he rejected this title. After mounting a series of follow-up raids into Alamannic territory, he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia, and on the way defeated some Frankish raiders in the Mosa region. Julian considered this campaign one of the major events of his time as Caesar.

Julian began his 358 military campaigns early, hoping to catch the barbarians by surprise. His first target was the Franks in the northern Rhine region. He then proceeded to restore some forts in the Mosa region, but his soldiers threatened to mutiny because they were on short rations and had not been paid their donative since Julian had become Caesar. After he soothed his soldiers, Julian spent the rest of the summer negotiating a peace with various Alamannic leaders in the mid and lower Rhine areas, and retired to winter quarters at Lutetia. In 359, he prepared once again to carry out a series of punitive expeditions against the Alamanni in the Rhine region who were still hostile to the Roman presence. In preparation, the Caesar repopulated seven previously destroyed cities and set them up as supply bases and staging areas. This was done with the help of the people with whom Julian had negotiated a peace the year before. Julian then had a detachment of lightly armed soldiers cross the Rhine near Mogontiacum and conduct a guerilla strike against several chieftains. As a result of these campaigns, Julian was able to negotiate a peace with all but a handful of the Alamannic leaders, and he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia.

Of course, Julian did more than act as a general during his time as Caesar. According to Ammianus, Julian was an able administrator who took steps to correct the injustices of Constantius' appointees. Ammianus related the story of how Julian prevented Florentius, the Praetorian Prefect of Gaul, from raising taxes, and also how Julian actually took over as governor for the province of Belgica Secunda. Hilary, bishop of Poitiers, supported Ammianus' basic assessment of Julian in this regard when he reported that Julian was an able representative of the emperor to the Gallic provincials. There is also epigraphic evidence to support Julian's popularity amongst the provincial elites. An inscription found near Beneventum in Apulia reads:
"To Flavius Claudius Julianus, most noble and sanctified Caesar, from the caring Tocius Maximus, vir clarissimus, for the care of the res publica from Beneventum".

Tocius Maximus, as a vir clarissimus, was at the highest point in the social spectrum and was a leader in his local community. This inscription shows that Julian was successful in establishing a positive image amongst provincial elites while he was Caesar.

Julian Augustus

In early 360, Constantius, driven by jealousy of Julian's success, stripped Julian of many troops and officers, ostensibly because the emperor needed them for his upcoming campaign against the Persians. One of the legions ordered east, the Petulantes, did not want to leave Gaul because the majority of the soldiers in the unit were from this region. As a result they mutinied and hailed Julian as Augustus at Lutetia. Julian refused this acclamation as he had done at Argentoratum earlier, but the soldiers would have none of his denial. They raised him on a shield and adorned him with a neck chain, which had formerly been the possession of the standard-bearer of the Petulantes and symbolized a royal diadem. Julian appeared reluctantly to acquiesce to their wishes, and promised a generous donative. The exact date of his acclamation is unknown, but most scholars put it in February or March. Julian himself supported Ammianus' picture of a jealous Constantius. In his Letter to the Athenians, a document constructed to answer charges that he was a usurper, Julian stated that from the start he, as Caesar, had been meant as a figurehead to the soldiers and provincials. The real power he claimed lay with the generals and officials already present in Gaul. In fact, according to Julian, the generals were charged with watching him as much as the enemy. His account of the actual acclamation closely followed what Ammianus told us, but he stressed even more his reluctance to take power. Julian claimed that he did so only after praying to Zeus for guidance.

Fearing the reaction of Constantius, Julian sent a letter to his fellow emperor justifying the events at Lutetia and trying to arrange a peaceful solution. This letter berated Constantius for forcing the troops in Gaul into an untenable situation. Ammianus stated that Julian's letter blamed Constantius' decision to transfer Gallic legions east as the reason for the soldiers' rebellion. Julian once again asserted that he was an unwilling participant who was only following the desire of the soldiers. In both of these basic accounts Ammianus and Julian are playing upon the theme of restoration. Implicit in their version of Julian's acclamation is the argument that Constantius was unfit to rule. The soldiers were the vehicle of the gods' will. The Letter to the Athenians is full of references to the fact that Julian was assuming the mantle of Augustus at the instigation of the gods. Ammianus summed up this position nicely when he related the story of how, when Julian was agonizing over whether to accept the soldiers' acclamation, he had a dream in which he was visited by the Genius (guardian spirit) of the Roman state. The Genius told Julian that it had often tried to bestow high honors upon Julian but had been rebuffed. Now, the Genius went on to say, was Julian's final chance to take the power that was rightfully his. If the Caesar refused this chance, the Genius would depart forever, and both Julian and the state would rue Julian's rejection. Julian himself wrote a letter to his friend Maximus of Ephesus in November of 361 detailing his thoughts on his proclamation. In this letter, Julian stated that the soldiers proclaimed him Augustus against his will. Julian, however, defended his accession, saying that the gods willed it and that he had treated his enemies with clemency and justice. He went on to say that he led the troops in propitiating the traditional deities, because the gods commanded him to return to the traditional rites, and would reward him if he fulfilled this duty.

During 360 an uneasy peace simmered between the two emperors. Julian spent the 360 campaigning season continuing his efforts to restore order along the Rhine, while Constantius continued operations against the Persians. Julian wintered in Vienne, and celebrated his Quinquennalia. It was at this time that his wife Helena died, and he sent her remains to Rome for a proper burial at his family villa on the Via Nomentana where the body of her sister was entombed. The uneasy peace held through the summer of 361, but Julian concentrated his military operations around harassing the Alamannic chieftain Vadomarius and his allies, who had concluded a peace treaty with Constantius some years earlier. By the end of the summer, Julian decided to put an end to the waiting and gathered his army to march east against Constantius. The empire teetered on the brink of another civil war. Constantius had spent the summer negotiating with the Persians and making preparations for possible military action against his cousin. When he was assured that the Persians would not attack, he summoned his army and sallied forth to meet Julian. As the armies drew inexorably closer to one another, the empire was saved from another bloody civil war when Constantius died unexpectedly of natural causes on 3 November near the town of Mopsucrenae in Cilicia, naming Julian -- the sources say-- as his legitimate successor.

Julian was in Dacia when he learned of his cousin's death. He made his way through Thrace and came to Constantinople on 11 December 361 where Julian honored the emperor with the funeral rites appropriate for a man of his station. Julian immediately set about putting his supporters in positions of power and trimming the imperial bureaucracy, which had become extremely overstaffed during Constantius' reign. Cooks and barbers had increased during the late emperor's reign and Julian expelled them from his court. Ammianus gave a mixed assessment of how the new emperor handled the followers of Constantius. Traditionally, emperors were supposed to show clemency to the supporters of a defeated enemy. Julian, however, gave some men over to death to appease the army. Ammianus used the case of Ursulus, Constantius' comes sacrum largitionum, to illustrate his point. Ursulus had actually tried to acquire money for the Gallic troops when Julian had first been appointed Caesar, but he had also made a disparaging remark about the ineffectiveness of the army after the battle of Amida. The soldiers remembered this, and when Julian became sole Augustus, they demanded Ursulus' head. Julian obliged, much to the disapproval of Ammianus. This seems to be a case of Julian courting the favor of the military leadership, and is indicative of a pattern in which Julian courted the goodwill of various societal elites to legitimize his position as emperor.

Another case in point is the officials who made up the imperial bureaucracy. Many of them were subjected to trial and punishment. To achieve this goal, during the last weeks of December 361 Julian assembled a military tribunal at Chalcedon, empanelling six judges to try the cases. The president of the tribunal was Salutius, just promoted to the rank of Praetorian Prefect; the five other members were Mamertinus, the orator, and four general officers: Jovinus, Agilo, Nevitta, and Arbetio. Relative to the proceedings of the tribunal, Ammianus noted that the judges, " . . . oversaw the cases more vehemently than was right or fair, with the exception of a few . . .." Ammianus' account of Julian's attempt at reform of the imperial bureaucracy is supported by legal evidence from the Theodosian Code. A series of laws sent to Mamertinus, Julian's appointee as Praetorian Prefect in Italy, Illyricum, and Africa, illustrate this point nicely. On 6 June 362, Mamertinus received a law that prohibited provincial governors from bypassing the Vicars when giving their reports to the Prefect. Traditionally, Vicars were given civil authority over a group of provinces, and were in theory meant to serve as a middle step between governors and Prefects. This law suggests that the Vicars were being left out, at least in Illyricum. Julian issued another edict to Mamertinus on 22 February 362 to stop abuse of the public post by governors. According to this law, only Mamertinus could issue post warrants, but the Vicars were given twelve blank warrants to be used as they saw fit, and each governor was given two. Continuing the trend of bureaucratic reform, Julian also imposed penalties on governors who purposefully delayed appeals in court cases they had heard. The emperor also established a new official to weigh solidi used in official government transactions to combat coin clipping.

For Julian, reigning in the abuses of imperial bureaucrats was one step in restoring the prestige of the office of emperor. Because he could not affect all elements of society personally, Julian, like other Neo-Flavian emperors, decided to concentrate on select groups of societal elites as intercessors between himself and the general populace. One of these groups was the imperial bureaucracy. Julian made it very clear that imperial officials were intercessors in a very real sense in a letter to Alypius, Vicar of Britain. In this letter, sent from Gaul sometime before 361, the emperor praises Alypius for his use of "mildness and moderation with courage and force" in his rule of the provincials. Such virtues were characteristic of the emperors, and it was good that Alypius is representing Julian in this way. Julian courted the army because it put him in power. Another group he sought to include in his rule was the traditional Senatorial aristocracy. One of his first appointments as consul was Claudius Mamertinus, a Gallic Senator and rhetorician. Mamertinus' speech in praise of Julian delivered at Constantinople in January of 362 is preserved. In this speech, Claudius presented his consular selection as inaugurating a new golden age and Julian as the restorer of the empire founded by Augustus. The image Mamertinus gave of his own consulate inaugurating a new golden age is not merely formulaic. The comparison of Julian to Augustus has very real, if implicit, relevance to Claudius' situation. Claudius emphasized the imperial period as the true age of renewal. Augustus ushered in a new era with his formation of a partnership between the emperor and the Senate based upon a series of honors and offices bestowed upon the Senate in return for their role as intercessor between emperor and populace. It was this system that Julian was restoring, and the consulate was one concrete example of this bond. To be chosen as a consul by the emperor, who himself had been divinely mandated, was a divine honor. In addition to being named consul, Mamertinus went on to hold several offices under Julian, including the Prefecture of Italy, Illyricum, and Africa. Similarly, inscriptional evidence illustrates a link between municipal elites and Julian during his time as Caesar, something which continued after he became emperor. One concrete example comes from the municipal senate of Aceruntia in Apulia, which established a monument on which Julian is styled as "Repairer of the World."

Julian seems to have given up actual Christian belief before his acclamation as emperor and was a practitioner of more traditional Greco-Roman religious beliefs, in particular, a follower of certain late antique Platonist philosophers who were especially adept at theurgy as was noted earlier. In fact Julian himself spoke of his conversion to Neo-Platonism in a letter to the Alexandrians written in 363. He stated that he had abandoned Christianity when he was twenty years old and been an adherent of the traditional Greco-Roman deities for the twelve years prior to writing this letter.

(For the complete text of this article see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/julian.htm)

Julian’s Persian Campaign

The exact goals Julian had for his ill-fated Persian campaign were never clear. The Sassanid Persians, and before them the Parthians, had been a traditional enemy from the time of the Late Republic, and indeed Constantius had been conducting a war against them before Julian's accession forced the former to forge an uneasy peace. Julian, however, had no concrete reason to reopen hostilities in the east. Socrates Scholasticus attributed Julian's motives to imitation of Alexander the Great, but perhaps the real reason lay in his need to gather the support of the army. Despite his acclamation by the Gallic legions, relations between Julian and the top military officers was uneasy at best. A war against the Persians would have brought prestige and power both to Julian and the army.

Julian set out on his fateful campaign on 5 March 363. Using his trademark strategy of striking quickly and where least expected, he moved his army through Heirapolis and from there speedily across the Euphrates and into the province of Mesopotamia, where he stopped at the town of Batnae. His plan was to eventually return through Armenia and winter in Tarsus. Once in Mesopotamia, Julian was faced with the decision of whether to travel south through the province of Babylonia or cross the Tigris into Assyria, and he eventually decided to move south through Babylonia and turn west into Assyria at a later date. By 27 March, he had the bulk of his army across the Euphrates, and had also arranged a flotilla to guard his supply line along the mighty river. He then left his generals Procopius and Sebastianus to help Arsacius, the king of Armenia and a Roman client, to guard the northern Tigris line. It was also during this time that he received the surrender of many prominent local leaders who had nominally supported the Persians. These men supplied Julian with money and troops for further military action against their former masters. Julian decided to turn south into Babylonia and proceeded along the Euphrates, coming to the fortress of Cercusium at the junction of the Abora and Euphrates Rivers around the first of April, and from there he took his army west to a region called Zaitha near the abandoned town of Dura where they visited the tomb of the emperor Gordian which was in the area. On April 7 he set out from there into the heart of Babylonia and towards Assyria.

Ammianus then stated that Julian and his army crossed into Assyria, which on the face of things appears very confusing. Julian still seems to be operating within the province of Babylonia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The confusion is alleviated when one realizes that,for Ammianus, the region of Assyria encompassed the provinces of Babylonia and Assyria. On their march, Julian's forces took the fortress of Anatha, received the surrender and support of several more local princes, and ravaged the countryside of Assyria between the rivers. As the army continued south, they came across the fortresses Thilutha and Achaiachala, but these places were too well defended and Julian decided to leave them alone. Further south were the cities Diacira and Ozogardana, which the Roman forces sacked and burned. Soon, Julian came to Pirisabora and a brief siege ensued, but the city fell and was also looted and destroyed. It was also at this time that the Roman army met its first systematic resistance from the Persians. As the Romans penetrated further south and west, the local inhabitants began to flood their route. Nevertheless, the Roman forces pressed on and came to Maiozamalcha, a sizable city not far from Ctesiphon. After a short siege, this city too fell to Julian. Inexorably, Julian's forces zeroed in on Ctesiphon, but as they drew closer, the Persian resistance grew fiercer, with guerilla raids whittling at Julian's men and supplies. A sizable force of the army was lost and the emperor himself was almost killed taking a fort a few miles from the target city.
Finally, the army approached Ctesiphon following a canal that linked the Tigris and Euphrates. It soon became apparent after a few preliminary skirmishes that a protracted siege would be necessary to take this important city. Many of his generals, however, thought that pursuing this course of action would be foolish. Julian reluctantly agreed, but became enraged by this failure and ordered his fleet to be burned as he decided to march through the province of Assyria. Julian had planned for his army to live off the land, but the Persians employed a scorched-earth policy. When it became apparent that his army would perish (because his supplies were beginning to dwindle) from starvation and the heat if he continued his campaign, and also in the face of superior numbers of the enemy, Julian ordered a retreat on 16 June. As the Roman army retreated, they were constantly harassed by guerilla strikes. It was during one of these raids that Julian got caught up in the fighting and took a spear to his abdomen. Mortally wounded he was carried to his tent, where, after conferring with some of his officers, he died. The date was 26 June 363.

Conclusion

Thus an ignominious end for a man came about who had hoped to restore the glory of the Roman empire during his reign as emperor. Due to his intense hatred of Christianity, the opinion of posterity has not been kind to Julian. The contemporary opinion, however, was overall positive. The evidence shows that Julian was a complex ruler with a definite agenda to use traditional social institutions in order to revive what he saw as a collapsing empire. In the final assessment, he was not so different from any of the other emperors of the fourth century. He was a man grasping desperately to hang on to a Greco-Roman conception of leadership that was undergoing a subtle yet profound change.
Copyright (C) 2002, Walter E. Roberts and Michael DiMaio, Jr. Used by permission.

In reality, Julian worked to promote culture and philosophy in any manifestation. He tried to reduce taxes and the public debts of municipalities; he augmented administrative decentralisation; he promoted a campaign of austerity to reduce public expenditure (setting himself as the example). He reformed the postal service and eliminated the powerful secret police.
by Federico Morando; JULIAN II, The Apostate, http://www.forumancientcoins.com/NumisWiki/view.asp?key=Julian%20II

Flavius Claudius Iulianus was born in 331 or maybe 332 A.D. in Constantinople. He ruled the Western Empire as Caesar from 355 to 360 and was hailed Augustus by his legions in Lutetia (Paris) in 360. Julian was a gifted administrator and military strategist. Famed as the last pagan emperor, his reinstatement of the pagan religion earned him the moniker "the Apostate." As evidenced by his brilliant writing, some of which has survived to the present day, the title "the Philosopher" may have been more appropriate. He died from wounds suffered during the Persian campaign of 363 A.D. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.




2 commentsCleisthenes
RI 160bv img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Trier unlisted (Note to Trier 127)33 viewsFollis
Obv:- IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right (Seen from the front, Bust B4)
Rev:- SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left, holding right hand high in salute and globe
Minted in Trier (T | F / Dot ATR). A.D. 316
Reference:– RIC VII Trier - (RIC notes against Trier 127 that the Catalogue of the Gerin collection had a specimen with the Laur, dr & cuir bust right viewed from the front (bust B4) but not verified eslewhere.)
maridvnvm
1637_-_1638_Charles_I_Twenty_pence.JPG
1625 - 1649, CHARLES I, AR Twenty Pence, Struck 1637 - 1638 at Edinburgh, Scotland22 viewsObverse: CAR•D:G•SCOT•ANG•FR•ET•HIB•R•. Crowned bust of Charles I, which goes to the edge of the coin, facing left, XX with a small lozenge above and below behind bust; small B (for Briot) below.
Reverse: IVSTITIA•THRONVM•FIRMAT• small B (off flan, for Briot) at end of legend. Thistle with Scottish crown above. The reverse legend translates as 'Justice strengthens the Throne'.
This coin was produced using Briot's new coining press during the third coinage period which ran from 1637 to 1642.
Diameter: 17mm | Weight: 0,8gms | Die Axis: 6
SPINK: 5581

Nicholas Briot, a Frenchman previously employed by the French and English mints, was appointed Master of the Scottish mint in August 1634. He was later joined by his son-in-law John Falconer, who succeeded him in 1646.
Briot's work was of the highest calibre, and his introduction of the mill and screw press gave the Scottish series of coins a technical excellence previously unknown.
After Briot's departure from Scotland in 1638 there was a rapid falling off from his high standard of workmanship. Although considerable use was made of Briot's punches for Falconer's third coinage issues, many of the dies were badly executed, and there was even more of a deterioration during the fourth coinage period which resulted in poorly produced coins of no artistic merit.

After his succession, Charles quarrelled with the Parliament of England, which sought to curb his royal prerogative. Charles believed in the divine right of kings and thought he could govern according to his own conscience. Many of his subjects opposed his policies, in particular the levying of taxes without parliamentary consent, and perceived his actions as those of a tyrannical absolute monarch. His religious policies, coupled with his marriage to a Roman Catholic, generated the antipathy and mistrust of Reformed groups such as the English Puritans and the Scottish Covenanters, who thought his views were too Catholic. He supported high church Anglican ecclesiastics and his attempts to force the Church of Scotland to adopt high Anglican practices led to the Bishops' Wars, and helped precipitate his own downfall.
From 1642, Charles fought the Parliamentary army in the English Civil War. After his defeat in 1645, he surrendered to a Scottish force that eventually handed him over to the English Parliament. Charles refused to accept his captors' demands for a constitutional monarchy, and after temporarily escaping captivity in November 1647, he was re-imprisoned on the Isle of Wight. Although Charles had managed to forge an alliance with Scotland, by the end of 1648 Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army had consolidated its control over England and Charles was tried, convicted, and executed for high treason in January 1649. The monarchy was abolished and a republic called the Commonwealth of England was declared. The Parliament of Scotland however, proclaimed Charles I's son as King Charles II on the 5th of February 1649.
The political crisis in England that followed the death of Cromwell in 1658 resulted in the restoration of the monarchy whereby Charles II was invited to return and, on the 29th of May 1660, he was received in London to public acclaim. After 1660 all Charles II's legal documents in Britain were dated from 1649, the year when he had succeeded his father as king in Scotland.
2 comments*Alex
Louis XIV 1672 Prise de douze villes en Hollande.JPG
1672, Prise de douze villes en Hollande781 viewsObv. Draped and cuirassed bust right LVD MAG FRA ET NAV REX PP, CHERON on bust truncation.
Rev. The King in the guise of Sol, radiating light, seated right in a heavenly chariot pulled by three horses, surrounded by clouds. Around are aerlia views of twelve towns and forts captured in Holland SOLIS QVE LABORES on scroll above central design, the names of all twelve towns/forts around.

AE63. Engraved by Charles Jean Francois Cheron. ORIGINAL STRIKE, very rare.

Charles Jean Francois Cheron (1635-1698), one of the most distinguished artists of the school of Jean Warin, was born at Nancy and was trained by his father, Jean-Charles Cheron, engraver to Charles IV, Duke of Lorraine. Cheron went to Rome and became engraver of medals for Clement IX and Innocent X. Cheron's style in his Roman medals is of remarkable boldness, and his medals of Pope Clement IX and of Bernini are grandiloquent and among the finest Italian medals of the period. He returned to France in 1675 and was employed by Louis XIV at the Medal Mint at Paris for about twelve years, where he contributed several medals to the medallic series of the monarch, the Histoire Metallique. His medals are considered to be in an international baroque style.
11 commentsLordBest
CHARLES_II_AR_Farthing_Pattern_1676.JPG
1676 Charles II AR "Pattern Farthing"40 viewsObverse: CAROLVS•A•CAROLO•. Laureate and cuirassed bust of Charles II with long hair facing left, 1676 below.
Reverse: QVATVOR•MARIA VINDICO•. Britannia seated facing left, holding laurel branch and spear; BRITANNIA in exergue. No pellet between MARIA and VINDICO.
Diameter: 26mm | Weight: 5.9gms | Die Axis: 12h
Peck : 492
PATTERN OR MEDALET - RARE

This periwigged portrait of Charles II was designed by Jan (John) Roettier (1631 - 1700).
The legend, "Quatuor Maria Vindico," means "I claim the four seas," which Peck explains was "intended to give prominence to the king's pride and interest in the navy." The reason this legend never appeared on circulating coinage was probably because the legend was thought to be too provocative to the King of France.

It was Montagu who called this a Roettier pattern farthing of Charles II which, until the discovery in 1903 of 89 specimens in the cabinet of the Marquis of Ailsbury, had hitherto been considered the rarest of the “pattern farthings” of this type.
Peck, however, rejected Montagu's idea that these were patterns and wrote that it was much more likely that they were official medalets. In support of this view it should be noted that not only was this issue struck on a broader flan than usual, it was produced some four years after the issue of regular farthings had begun. It is perhaps also significant that this issue is unknown in copper and that it's die orientation is 12h (medallic orientation), against the 6h orientation which is the norm for the regular farthing coinage of the period. Incidentally, the silver value of this "farthing" would have been equivalent to one shilling and sixpence, that is 72 times the face value of a farthing at the time.
3 comments*Alex
1791_Rochdale_Halfpenny.JPG
1791 AE Halfpenny Token. Rochdale, Lancashire.27 viewsObverse: ROCHDALE / 1791. Sheep facing left, being weighed suspended in a sling round it's waist.
Reverse: HALFPENNY. Detailed view from behind of a weaver, sitting half-right, working at a loom.
Edge: PAYABLE AT THE WAREHOUSE OF IOHN KERSHAW • X •.
Diameter 30mm | Die Axis 6
Dalton & Hamer: 140

This token was engraved and manufactured by J.G.Hancock in Birmingham.
It was issued by John Kershaw who appears to have been a mercer and draper with a business in Rochdale, and who is also thought to have been connected with a woollen mill in the town.

Rochdale's recorded history begins with an entry in the Domesday Book of 1086 under Recedham Manor. The ancient parish of Rochdale was a division of the hundred of Salford and one of the largest ecclesiastical parishes in England comprising several townships. By 1251, Rochdale had become important enough to have been granted a Royal charter. Subsequently, the town flourished into a centre of northern England's woollen trade, and by the early 18th century was described as being "remarkable for many wealthy merchants".
During the 19th century, Rochdale rose to prominence as a major mill town and centre for textile manufacture. It was amongst the first ever industrialised towns during the Industrial Revolution and the Rochdale Canal was a highway of commerce during this time, being used for the haulage of cotton, wool and coal.
*Alex
1792_ROCHDALE_HALFPENNY.JPG
1792 AE Halfpenny Token. Rochdale, Lancashire.37 viewsObverse: No legend. View of a male weaver, seated facing right, working in his loom.
Reverse: ROCHDALE HALFPENNY. Coat of Arms of the Clothworker's Company with a Ram Crest above and 1792 below.
Edge: PAYABLE AT THE WAREHOUSE OF IOHN KERSHAW • X •.
Diameter 30mm | Die Axis 6
Dalton & Hamer: 143

This token was manufactured by Peter Kempson in Birmingham and the dies were engraved by Thomas Wyon.
It was issued by John Kershaw who appears to have been a mercer and draper with a business in Rochdale, and who is also thought to have been connected with a woollen factory in the town.

The Clothworkers' arms were granted in 1530 by Thomas Benolt, Clarenceux King of Arms, two years after the foundation of the Company. It consists of a shield with a chevron containing five teasel heads between two habicks above and a teasel plant beneath. The habicks and the teasel represent essential tools for the clothworkers' craft. The habicks were the hooks used to attach the fabric to the forms on which it was stretched for teaselling. The teasels were used to raise the nap of the fabric prior to shearing.
*Alex
1793_Newton_farthing.JPG
1793 AE Farthing, London, Middlesex.88 viewsObverse: Ic • NEWTON. Bare headed bust of Isaac Newton facing left.
Reverse: FARTHING. Britannia, helmeted and draped, facing left seated on globe, shield at her side, holding olive-branch in her extended right hand and spear in her left; in exergue, 1793.
Edge: “Plain".
Diameter : 21mm
Dalton & Hamer : 1160 | Cobwright : I.0010/F.0050 (listed as an evasion piece)

The die engraver for this token was most likely Thomas Wyon but the manufacturer is uncertain.

Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727), was an English physicist and mathematician who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time and as a key figure in the scientific revolution. Newton shares credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the invention of calculus and also made seminal contributions to optics. He built the first practical reflecting telescope and developed a theory of colour based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into the many colours of the visible spectrum.
Newton's “Principia” formulated the laws of motion and universal gravitation, which came to dominate scientists' view of the physical universe for the next three centuries.
Newton was a fellow of Trinity College and a Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge. Unusually for a member of the Cambridge faculty of the day, he refused to take holy orders in the Church of England, perhaps because he privately rejected the doctrine of the Trinity.
In his later life, Newton became president of the Royal Society and became Warden of the Royal Mint in 1696. He became Master of the Royal Mint in 1699 and was very instrumental in developing techniques to try and prevent the counterfeiting of English coinage.
*Alex
ELIZABETH_I_1794.JPG
1794 AE Halfpenny Token. Chichester, Sussex15 viewsObverse: QUEEN ELIZABETH •. Three-quarter facing crowned bust of Queen Elizabeth I right, sceptre resting on her right shoulder.
Reverse: CHICHESTER HALFPENNY •. View of Chichester Cross; in exergue, 1794.
Edge: PAYABLE AT DALLY'S CHICHESTER + + + +.
Diameter 29mm | Die Axis 6
Dalton & Hamer: 15

This token was manufactured by Peter Kempson in Birmingham and the dies were engraved by Thomas Wyon. Little is known about the issuer of the token, seemingly to have been Dally and Son who were drapers in Chichester in the 18th century.

Chichester Cross is an elaborate perpendicular market cross standing at the intersection of the four principal streets in the centre of the city of Chichester, West Sussex. According to the inscription upon it, this cross was built by Edward Story, Bishop of Chichester from 1477 to 1503, but little is known for certain and the style and ornaments of the building suggest that it may date from the reign of Edward IV. It was apparently built so that the poor people should have somewhere to sell their wares, and as a meeting point. An earlier wooden cross had been erected on the same site by Bishop Rede (1369-1385). The stone cross, which underwent repairs during the reign of Charles II and again in 1746, still stands to this day.
3 comments*Alex
Clifford_s_Tower-removebg-preview.png
1795 Yorkshire, York, Halfpenny Conder Token, D&H 631 viewsO:View of a cathedral. Ex : YORK . 1795.
R: View of a castle and drawbridge. CLIFFORD'S TOWER A.D. 1100.
E: YORK BUILT A. M . 1223. CATHEDRAL REBUILT A.D. 1075.
Dalton & Hamer as Yorkshire 63
Extremely Fine (Sheldon AU58).
Ancient Aussie
1812_HULL_LEAD_WORKS_PENNY.JPG
1812 AE Penny Token. Hull, Yorkshire.22 viewsObverse: No legend. View of Hull lead works with smoking chimneys in background; 1812 in exergue.
Reverse: PAYABLE IN BANK OF ENG.D OR HULL NOTES BY I.K.PICARD • around ONE PENNY / HULL / LEAD / WORKS in four lines with ornament below.
Edge: Grained.
Diameter 34mm | Die Axis 7
Davis: 82

The dies for this token were engraved by Thomas Halliday and it was manufactured by Edward Thomason.
The token was issued by John Kirby Picard, who had practised as an attorney-at-law in Trinity House-lane, become a barrister and been chosen as a Deputy-Recorder of Hull before he entered into the lead business of his father. He was a man of considerable wealth and frequently visited London on business and for pleasure. He mixed with the 'high' society of the period but became addicted to gambling. Picard used his tokens for the gambling parties he held in his house and after they gained the attention of the Prince Regent, the later George IV, he was invited to show them at court.
No mention of Picard has been found in any of the London Directories, but the 'London Gazette', on February 13th, 1827, announced that J. K. Pickard (sic), white lead merchant, Russell Street, Covent Garden, had been declared bankrupt. Picard died in reduced circumstances in 1843.

The legend “PAYABLE IN BANK OF ENGLAND NOTES” was placed on this token due to an Act of Parliament which was passed in 1809 requiring issuers of local tokens to meet claims for repayment in Bank of England notes. The government having seen the widespread use of private coinage in the form of tokens realised how much money was not being controlled by it, so by passing this act it effectively made these tokens into defacto currency.
*Alex
1813_FLINT_LEAD_WORKS_PENNY.JPG
1813 AE Penny Token. Flint, Flintshire.22 viewsObverse: FLINT LEAD WORKS. View of the lead works, smoking away in full production; 1813 below in exergue.
Reverse: ONE POUND NOTE FOR 240 TOKENS • around ONE PENNY TOKEN in centre.
Edge: Centre Grained.
Diameter 34mm | Die Axis 6
Withers: 1313 | Davis: 12
SCARCE

The dies for this token were engraved by Thomas Halliday. The manufacturer of the token is unknown but it would in all probability have been struck in Birmingham. It was issued by George Roskell at the Flint Lead Works in Flintshire.

The Flint Lead Smelting Works was the only issuer of tokens in North Wales in the 19th century. The company produced lead from ore obtained from mines on the nearby Halkyn mountain. George Roskell (1777-1847) of Garstang, Lancashire, came to Flintshire as a shareholder in the Milwr Mine, and later became the senior partner in the Flint Smelting Works. In 1805, he married Mary Ann, only child of James Potts of Stokyn, near Holywell. His eldest son, George Potts Roskell succeeded to the Stokyn estate. In 1852 the Flint Lead Works became absorbed in the more extensive Alkali Works of Muspratt Bros. and Huntley, which by 1885 was one of the largest chemical works in Britain.

The town of Flint has its origins in the turbulent times of Edward I in the13th century when he invaded Wales for the complete subjugation of the Welsh princes and the people of Wales. Edward I picked the only suitable spot on the marshy shore, where an outcrop of rock jutted out some fifty yards into the river, on which to build the castle and town of Flint. The castle was built on the rock and joined by a drawbridge to the town. The town was built in the form of a Roman encampment, with a double ditch and earthen banks crowned by timber ramparts and four regular gates.
*Alex
1813_STOCKTON_PENNY_TOKEN_.JPG
1813 AE Penny, Stockton-on-Tees, County Durham.36 viewsObverse: CHRISTOPHER & JENNETT * STOCKTON *, incuse letters on a raised rim. View of the bridge over the Tees being crossed by several small figures including a rider on horse, rowing boat containing two figures in river below; in field above, TEES; in field below, 1813.
Reverse: BRITANNIA * ONE PENNY TOKEN *, incuse letters on a raised rim. Britannia seated facing left on shield, holding olive branch and trident, small ship in left background at her feet.
Edge: Centre-grained.
Diameter 34mm | Weight 19.7gms
Davis:6 | Withers:1109

The die engraver for this token was Peter Wyon. It was issued by Robert Christopher & Thomas Jennett who were booksellers and printers in Stockton, they were also the Stockton agents for the Sun Fire Office.
Jennett was Christopher's apprentice and on the completion of his indentures, he was taken into partnership. Matching the high standards of his companion, Jennett became well known and much respected, growing to be a man of power and influence. He became a magistrate and was mayor of Stockton three times.

The bridge shown on this token was the first bridge to serve the growing town of Stockton, it was a five arch stone bridge which was completed in 1769. Before the existence of the bridge at this location, the only way of crossing the Tees was by the Bishop’s Ferry. The bridge was subject to rent to the Bishop of Durham and the costs of building it had to be repaid, so a system of tolls was charged. These were supposed to be abolished as soon as the debt was cleared, but they remained in place until, in 1819, the local people took the law into their own hands, throwing two of the bridge gates into the river and burning the third gate in the High Street. Although the bridge was good news for Stockton’s business, it had a devastating impact on Yarm. As ships were growing in size at this time, the building of the bridge prevented many ships reaching Yarm because they were unable to navigate further up the river. This only heightened shipping in Stockton and affirmed its place as the main port on the Tees before the 1800s. The bridge also halted Yarm’s shipbuilding industry and, since Stockton was unaffected, yards sprang up east of the bridge towards the sea. By 1876 the old bridge was inadequate and in 1881 work was begun on a new bridge. This new bridge, named the ‘Victoria Bridge’ in recognition of Queen Victoria, was opened in 1887 and the old stone bridge was demolished.
*Alex
Coin_cabinet_medal.JPG
1843 "BENJAMIN NIGHTINGALE" AE Halfpenny Token. London, Middlesex18 viewsObverse: VILIUS EST ARGENTUM AURO, VIRTUTIBUS AURUM. Female, leaning on books behind her, holding a cornucopia from which coins are spilling, seated facing right in front of an open coin cabinet; in exergue, tudor rose on shield between two branches.
Reverse: BENJAMIN NIGHTINGALE LONDON * PRIVATE TOKEN * 1843 surrounding “BN” monogram in script.
Edge: Plain.
Diameter: 30mm | Weight: 14.2gms | Die Axis: 12
Bell (Middlesex) A3
VERY RARE (Only 72 of these bronzed copper halfpenny tokens were struck)

Privately issued in London by Benjamin Nightingale, the die sinker for this token was William Joseph Taylor (whose initials WJT can be seen to the left below the books on the obverse), following a similar design for halfpennies that he had produced for Matthew Young, a British merchant. Taylor was born in Birmingham in 1802 and was apprenticed to Thomas Halliday in 1818 as the first die-sinker to be trained by him. He set up his own business as a die-sinker, medallist and engraver at 5 Porter Street, Soho, London in 1829, later moving to 3 Lichfield Street, Birmingham. In 1843 the business moved to 33 Little Queen Street and finally, in 1869, to 70 Red Lion Street where, in 1885, Taylor died.
The Soho Mint at Birmingham (founded by Matthew Boulton) closed in 1848, and it's plant and equipment was sold via auction in April 1850. Taylor purchased many of the Soho Mint's hubs and dies from this auction and used them to restrike many of the coins & patterns that the Soho Mint had struck between the 1790's and the 1840's, though he nearly always re-polished or re-engraved elements of the original dies before re-using them.

Benjamin Nightingale was a wine and spirit merchant who lived at 17 Upper Stamford Street, Blackfriars Road in London. He was born in 1806 and died on March 9th, 1862. He was a well known Antiquarian and was a member of the Numismatic Society of London.
In 1863, after his death, Benjamin Nightingale's collection, consisting of 359 lots, was sold over a two day period by Sotheby's. This is from the February 13, 1863 edition of the London Daily News (page 8, column 6).

THE VALUABLE CABINET of COINS and MEDALS of the late BENJAMIN NIGHTINGALE, Esq.
MESSRS S. LEIGH SOTHEBY and WILKINSON, auctioneers of literary property and works illustrative of the fine arts, will SELL BY AUCTION, at their house, No. 13 (late 3), Wellington-street, Strand, W.C., on WEDNESDAY, Feb. 25, and following day, at 1 precisely, the valuable CABINET OF COINS and MEDALS of the late Benjamin Nightingale, Esq.; comprising a few Roman coins in gold, silver, and copper, in the highest state of preservation; a most valuable collection of English medals in all metals; rare and curious jetons, including a very perfect set of those struck to illustrate the history of the low countries; a few remarkable foreign medals, a choice library of numismatic books, several well-made cabinets, & c. – May be viewed two days previous, and catalogues had on receipt of two stamps.

According to Manville and Robertson, prior to his death, Benjamin Nightingale had sold off part of his collection at an auction by Sotheby's on 29th Nov. 1855.
"Benjamin NIGHTINGALE" in ANS copy; Greek, Roman, Tavern Tokens, Town Pieces, 17-18c Tokens, English and Foreign Medals, Books; 165 lots. -Curtis Clay.

The inspiration for these tokens might have been Pye's 1797 halfpenny (Warwickshire 223) which is of a similar design.
*Alex
EdwardVIIasPoW1874.JPG
1874. Edward VII, as Prince of Wales. Royal Horticultural Buildings. Taylor 180b105 viewsObv. Head of Edward left ALBERT EDWARD PRINCE OF WALES PRESIDENT, G MORGAN SC, on truncation BOEHM
Rev. The Royal Horticultural Buildings LONDON ANNUAL INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION OF ALL FINE ARTS INDUSTRIES AND INVENTIONS on scroll below central medallion MDCCCLXXIV

AE51. Taylor 180b.

This medal is arguably the most complex architectural medal ever undertaken, and in my opinion the most accomplished. The depth of view is truly astounding, though this does not come accross to well in the picture. The depiction of the buildings is used as the cover art of Taylor's "The Architectural Medal: England in the Nineteenth Century", British Museum Publication, 1978.

LordBest
f6~0.jpg
1921 ALEXIUS Metropolitan TETARTERON S-1921 Doc 34 CLBC 2.4.2 Grierson 1043 27 views
Bust of Christ, bearded with cross behind head, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels in l. hand. UU in fields of cross.

Rev Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r hand jeweled scepter and in l, gl. cr.

Size 18mm

Weight 3.5gm

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues

DOC catalog lists 3 examples with weights ranging from 1.6gm to 3.49gm and size is universal at 18mm

All of the Constantinople coins are uncommon but this one appears very rarely, I would mark its rarity 4/5 This example has a very dark patina in hand, I lightened this pic for a better view of the details. This is one of the most difficult of Alexius coins to obtain.
Simon
rjb_2012_07_09.jpg
19834 viewsCaracalla
Denarius
Obv: ANTONINVS AVGVSTVS
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right viewed from front
Rev: PONTIF TRP III
Sol standing facing, head left, holding globe and spear
Rome mint
RIC - (cf 30)
Note from Curtis L Clay:
Denarii with bust seen from front in this era are very unusual.

With obv. legend ANTONINVS - AVGVSTVS I had previously been aware of only a single bust-front denarius obv. die: with rev. SECVRIT ORBIS in coll. of Forvm member septimus, used as his avatar, and with rev. PONT TR P II, same Securitas seated rev. type, in Oxford (Evans), from the East of England hoard of 1898.

Your coin is a new bust variety to my knowledge, of 200 AD and thus, as was to be expected, from a different obv. die than those two other bust-front denarii of 199.
mauseus
PCrassusDenAmazon~0.jpg
1ab Marcus Licinius Crassus17 viewsFormed First Triumvirate with Caesar and Pompey in 60 BC, killed at Carrhae in Parthia in 53 BC.

Denarius, minted by son, P Licinius Crassus, ca 54 BC.
Bust of Venus, right, SC behind
Amazon with horse, P CRASSVS MF.

Seaby, Licinia 18

These coins were probably minted to pay Crassus' army for the invasion of Parthia, which led to its destruction. My synthesis of reviewing 90 examples of this issue revealed a female warrior wearing a soft felt Scythian cap with ear flaps; a fabric garment with a decorated skirt to the knees; probably trousers; an ornate war belt; a baldric; a cape, animal skin, or shoulder cord on attached to the left shoulder; and decorated calf-high boots. She matches the historically confirmed garb of the real amazons—Scythian horsewomen—and of course holds her steed. The horse’s tack is consistent with archeological discoveries of tack in use by Scythians and Romans.

Adrienne Mayor writes that amazon imagery on Greek vases suddenly appeared in 575-550 BC, initially depicting them in Greek-style armor. By the end of the century, as the Greeks learned more through direct and indirect contact with Scythians, they began to appear wearing archeologically confirmed Scythian-Sarmatian-Thracian patterned attire. (Adrienne Mayor, The Amazons: Lives and Legends of Warrior Women Across the Ancient World, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2014, 199-200). To this, artists added their own creative ideas regarding colors, fabric patterns, and decorations. “They dressed the warrior women in body-hugging ‘unitards’ or tunics, short chitons or belted dresses, sometimes over leggings or trousers. . . . In paintings and sculpture, pointed or soft Scythian caps with earflaps or ties (kidaris) soon replaced the Greek helmets, and the women wear a variety of belts, baldrics (diagonal straps), corselets, shoulder cords or bands, and crisscrossing leather straps attached to belt loops like those worn by the archer huntress Artemis. . . . Amazon footgear included soft leather moccasin-like shoes, calf-high boots (endromides), or taller laced boots (embades) with scallops or flaps and lined with felt or fur.” (Mayor, 202)

The artists apparently had detailed knowledge of gear used by real Scythian horsewomen to equip their imagined Amazons. “Archeological discoveries of well-preserved sets of clothing confirm that real horsewomen of ancient Scythian lands dressed much as did those described in Greek texts and illustrated in Scythian and Greek artwork.” (Mayor, 203)
1 commentsBlindado
PCrassusDenAmazon2.jpg
1ab_2 Marcus Licinius Crassus34 viewsFormed First Triumvirate with Caesar and Pompey in 60 BC, killed at Carrhae in Parthia in 53 BC.

Denarius, minted by son, P Licinius Crassus, ca 54 BC.
Bust of Venus, right, SC behind
Amazon with horse, P CRASSVS MF.

Seaby, Licinia 18

These coins were probably minted to pay Crassus' army for the invasion of Parthia. My synthesis of reviewing 90 examples of this issue revealed a female warrior wearing a soft felt Scythian cap with ear flaps (visible in this example); a fabric garment with a decorated skirt to the knees; probably trousers; an ornate war belt; a baldric; a cape, animal skin, or shoulder cord on attached to the left shoulder; and decorated calf-high boots. She matches the historically confirmed garb of the real amazons—Scythian horsewomen—and of course holds her steed. The horse’s tack is consistent with archeological discoveries of tack in use by Scythians and Romans.

Adrienne Mayor writes that amazon imagery on Greek vases suddenly appeared in 575-550 BC, initially depicting them in Greek-style armor. By the end of the century, as the Greeks learned more through direct and indirect contact with Scythians, they began to appear wearing archeologically confirmed Scythian-Sarmatian-Thracian patterned attire. (Adrienne Mayor, The Amazons: Lives and Legends of Warrior Women Across the Ancient World, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2014, 199-200). To this, artists added their own creative ideas regarding colors, fabric patterns, and decorations. “They dressed the warrior women in body-hugging ‘unitards’ or tunics, short chitons or belted dresses, sometimes over leggings or trousers. . . . In paintings and sculpture, pointed or soft Scythian caps with earflaps or ties (kidaris) soon replaced the Greek helmets, and the women wear a variety of belts, baldrics (diagonal straps), corselets, shoulder cords or bands, and crisscrossing leather straps attached to belt loops like those worn by the archer huntress Artemis. . . . Amazon footgear included soft leather moccasin-like shoes, calf-high boots (endromides), or taller laced boots (embades) with scallops or flaps and lined with felt or fur.” (Mayor, 202)
The artists apparently had detailed knowledge of gear used by real Scythian horsewomen to equip their imagined Amazons. “Archeological discoveries of well-preserved sets of clothing confirm that real horsewomen of ancient Scythian lands dressed much as did those described in Greek texts and illustrated in Scythian and Greek artwork.” (Mayor, 203)

Plutarch wrote of Crassus: People were wont to say that the many virtues of Crassus were darkened by the one vice of avarice, and indeed he seemed to have no other but that; for it being the most predominant, obscured others to which he was inclined. The arguments in proof of his avarice were the vastness of his estate, and the manner of raising it; for whereas at first he was not worth above three hundred talents, yet, though in the course of his political life he dedicated the tenth of all he had to Hercules, and feasted the people, and gave to every citizen corn enough to serve him three months, upon casting up his accounts, before he went upon his Parthian expedition, he found his possessions to amount to seven thousand one hundred talents; most of which, if we may scandal him with a truth, he got by fire and rapine, making his advantages of the public calamities. . . . Crassus, however, was very eager to be hospitable to strangers; he kept open house, and to his friends he would lend money without interest, but called it in precisely at the time; so that his kindness was often thought worse than the paying the interest would have been. His entertainments were, for the most part, plain and citizen-like, the company general and popular; good taste and kindness made them pleasanter than sumptuosity would have done. As for learning he chiefly cared for rhetoric, and what would be serviceable with large numbers; he became one of the best speakers at Rome, and by his pains and industry outdid the best natural orators. . . . Besides, the people were pleased with his courteous and unpretending salutations and greetings, for he never met any citizen however humble and low, but he returned him his salute by name. He was looked upon as a man well-read in history, and pretty well versed in Aristotle's philosophy. . . . Crassus was killed by a Parthian, called Pomaxathres; others say by a different man, and that Pomaxathres only cut off his head and right hand after he had fallen. But this is conjecture rather than certain knowledge, for those that were by had not leisure to observe particulars. . . .
1 commentsBlindado
PCrassusDenAmazon2~1.jpg
1ab_2 Marcus Licinius Crassus35 viewsFormed First Triumvirate with Caesar and Pompey in 60 BC, killed at Carrhae in Parthia in 53 BC.

Denarius, minted by son, P Licinius Crassus, ca 54 BC.
Bust of Venus, right, SC behind
Amazon with horse, P CRASSVS MF.

Seaby, Licinia 18

These coins were probably minted to pay Crassus' army for the invasion of Parthia, which led to its destruction. My synthesis of reviewing 90 examples of this issue revealed a female warrior wearing a soft felt Scythian cap with ear flaps (visible in this example); a fabric garment with a decorated skirt to the knees; probably trousers; an ornate war belt; a baldric; a cape, animal skin, or shoulder cord on attached to the left shoulder; and decorated calf-high boots. She matches the historically confirmed garb of the real amazons—Scythian horsewomen—and of course holds her steed. The horse’s tack is consistent with archeological discoveries of tack in use by Scythians and Romans.

Adrienne Mayor writes that amazon imagery on Greek vases suddenly appeared in 575-550 BC, initially depicting them in Greek-style armor. By the end of the century, as the Greeks learned more through direct and indirect contact with Scythians, they began to appear wearing archeologically confirmed Scythian-Sarmatian-Thracian patterned attire. (Adrienne Mayor, The Amazons: Lives and Legends of Warrior Women Across the Ancient World, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2014, 199-200). To this, artists added their own creative ideas regarding colors, fabric patterns, and decorations. “They dressed the warrior women in body-hugging ‘unitards’ or tunics, short chitons or belted dresses, sometimes over leggings or trousers. . . . In paintings and sculpture, pointed or soft Scythian caps with earflaps or ties (kidaris) soon replaced the Greek helmets, and the women wear a variety of belts, baldrics (diagonal straps), corselets, shoulder cords or bands, and crisscrossing leather straps attached to belt loops like those worn by the archer huntress Artemis. . . . Amazon footgear included soft leather moccasin-like shoes, calf-high boots (endromides), or taller laced boots (embades) with scallops or flaps and lined with felt or fur.” (Mayor, 202)

The artists apparently had detailed knowledge of gear used by real Scythian horsewomen to equip their imagined Amazons. “Archeological discoveries of well-preserved sets of clothing confirm that real horsewomen of ancient Scythian lands dressed much as did those described in Greek texts and illustrated in Scythian and Greek artwork.” (Mayor, 203)
2 commentsBlindado
TiberiusAsSC.jpg
1al Tiberius26 views14-37

As
Laureate head, left, TI CAESAR AVGVST F IMPERAT V
PONTIF MAXIM TRIBVN POTEST XXIII SC

This is one of a series of 12 Caesars pieces that were local finds in Serbia. There are better coins out there, but I'll hang onto these because they really got me into the hobby.

RIC 469

Per Suetonius: Within three years, however, both Lucius Caesar and Gaius Caesar were dead [in AD2 and 4 respectively], and Augustus now adopted both their brother Agrippa Postumus, and Tiberius, who was first required to adopt his nephew Germanicus [in 4 AD]. . . .

From that moment onwards, Augustus did all he could to enhance Tiberius’ prestige, especially after the disowning and banishment of Postumus [ca 6 AD] made it obvious that Tiberius was the sole heir to the succession. . . .

Tiberius acted like a traditional citizen, more modestly almost than the average individual. He accepted only a few of the least distinguished honours offered him; it was only with great reluctance that he consented to his birthday being recognised, falling as it did on the day of the Plebeian Games in the Circus, by the addition of a two-horse chariot to the proceedings; and he refused to have temples, and priests dedicated to him, or even the erection of statues and busts, without his permission; which he only gave if they were part of the temple adornments and not among the divine images. . . .

Moreover, in the face of abuse, libels or slanders against himself and his family, he remained unperturbed and tolerant, often maintaining that a free country required free thought and speech. . . . He even introduced a species of liberty, by maintaining the traditional dignities and powers of the Senate and magistrates. He laid all public and private matters, small or great, before the Senate consulting them over State revenues, monopolies, and the construction and maintenance of public buildings, over the levying and disbanding of troops, the assignment of legions and auxiliaries, the scope of military appointments, and the allocation of campaigns, and even the form and content of his replies to letters from foreign powers. . . .

Returning to Capreae, he abandoned all affairs of state, neither filling vacancies in the Equestrian Order’s jury lists, nor appointing military tribunes, prefects, or even provincial governors. Spain and Syria lacked governors of Consular rank for several years, while he allowed the Parthians to overrun Armenia, Moesia to be ravaged by the Dacians and Sarmatians, and Gaul by the Germans, threatening the Empire’s honour no less than its security. Furthermore, with the freedom afforded by privacy, hidden as it were from public view, he gave free rein to the vices he had concealed for so long. . . .
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GermanicusAsSC.jpg
1an Germanicus36 viewsAdopted by Tiberius in 4 AD, died mysteriously in 19

As, struck by Caligula

Bare head, left, GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N
C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT SC

RIC 57

Germanicus Julius Caesar (c16 BC-AD 19) was was born in Lugdunum, Gaul (modern Lyon). At birth he was named either Nero Claudius Drusus after his father or Tiberius Claudius Nero after his uncle. He received the agnomen Germanicus, in 9 BC, when it was posthumously awarded to his father in honour of his victories in Germania. Germanicus was the grandson-in-law and great-nephew of the Emperor Augustus, nephew and adoptive son of the Emperor Tiberius, father of the Emperor Caligula, brother of the Emperor Claudius, and the maternal grandfather of the Emperor Nero. He married his maternal second cousin Agrippina the Elder, a granddaughter of Augustus, between 5 and 1 BC. The couple had nine children. Two died very young; another, Gaius Julius Caesar, died in early childhood. The remaining six were: Nero Caesar, Drusus Caesar, the Emperor Caligula, the Empress Agrippina the Younger, Julia Drusilla, and Julia Livilla.

According to Suetonius: Germanicus, who was the son of Drusus the Elder and Antonia the Younger, was adopted (in 4AD) by Germanicus’s paternal uncle, Tiberius. He served as quaestor (in7AD) five years before the legal age and became consul (in12AD) without holding the intermediate offices. On the death of Augustus (in AD14) he was appointed to command the army in Germany, where, his filial piety and determination vying for prominence, he held the legions to their oath, though they stubbornly opposed Tiberius’s succession, and wished him to take power for himself.

He followed this with victory in Germany, for which he celebrated a triumph (in 17 AD), and was chosen as consul for a second time (18 AD) though unable to take office as he was despatched to the East to restore order there. He defeated the forces of the King of Armenia, and reduced Cappadocia to provincial status, but then died at Antioch, at the age of only thirty-three (in AD 19), after a lingering illness, though there was also suspicion that he had been poisoned. For as well as the livid stains which covered his body, and the foam on his lips, the heart was found entire among the ashes after his cremation, its total resistance to flame being a characteristic of that organ, they say, when it is filled with poison.

All considered Germanicus exceptional in body and mind, to a quite outstanding degree. Remarkably brave and handsome; a master of Greek and Latin oratory and learning; singularly benevolent; he was possessed of a powerful desire and vast capacity for winning respect and inspiring affection.

His scrawny legs were less in keeping with the rest of his figure, but he gradually fleshed them out by assiduous exercise on horseback after meals. He often killed enemy warriors in hand-to-hand combat; still pleaded cases in the courts even after receiving his triumph; and left various Greek comedies behind amongst other fruits of his studies.

At home and abroad his manners were unassuming, such that he always entered free or allied towns without his lictors.

Whenever he passed the tombs of famous men, he always offered a sacrifice to their shades. And he was the first to initiate a personal search for the scattered remains of Varus’s fallen legionaries, and have them gathered together, so as to inter them in a single burial mound.

As for Germanicus, Tiberius appreciated him so little, that he dismissed his famous deeds as trivial, and his brilliant victories as ruinous to the Empire. He complained to the Senate when Germanicus left for Alexandria (AD19) without consulting him, on the occasion there of a terrible and swift-spreading famine. It was even believed that Tiberius arranged for his poisoning at the hands of Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso, the Governor of Syria, and that Piso would have revealed the written instructions at his trial, had Tiberius not retrieved them during a private interview, before having Piso put to death. As a result, the words: ‘Give us back Germanicus!’ were posted on the walls, and shouted at night, all throughout Rome. The suspicion surrounding Germanicus’ death (19 AD) was deepened by Tiberius’s cruel treatment of Germanicus’s wife, Agrippina the Elder, and their children.
1 commentsBlindado
AeliusAsAnnona.jpg
1bg Aelius29 viewsCaesar, 136-138

As

Bare head, right, AELIVS CAESAR
Pannonia standing and holding a standard, PANNONIA SC

RIC 1071

According to the Historia Augusta (note: scholars view this biography in the text as among those particularly suspect regarding veracity): Aelius Verus was adopted by Hadrian at the time when, as we have previously said, the Emperor's health was beginning to fail and he was forced to take thought for the succession. He was at once made praetor and appointed military and civil governor of the provinces of Pannonia ; afterwards he was created [in AD 136] consul, and then, because he had been chosen to succeed to the imperial power, he was named for a second consulship. . . . [I]n the province to which he had been appointed he was by no means a failure ; for he carried on a campaign with
success, or rather, with good fortune, and achieved the reputation, if not of a pre-eminent, at least of an
average, commander.

Verus had, however, such wretched health that Hadrian immediately regretted the adoption, and since he often considered others as possible successors, he might have removed him altogether from the imperial family had Verus chanced to live longer. . . .

Verus was a man of joyous life and well versed in letters, and he was endeared to Hadrian, as the malicious say, rather by his beauty than by his character. In the palace his stay was but a short one; in his private life, though there was little to be commended, yet there was little to be blamed. Furthermore, he was considerate of his family, well-dressed, elegant in appearance, a man of regal beauty, with a countenance that commanded respect, a speaker of unusual eloquence, deft at writing verse, and, moreover, not altogether a failure in public life.

This sad little flan looks a bit tubercular, like the subject of the portrait.
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AemilianusAE_Dacia.jpg
1cw Aemilian26 views253

AE 26

Laureate, draped & cuirassed bust, right, IMP C M AEMIL AEMILIANVS AVG
PROVIN-CIA DACIA, Dacia standing facing, holding short sceptre in left arm, over which is a wreath, and holding up a bundle of rice in right hand, eagle and lion at feet, VIII in exergue.

Moushmov 20

Zosimus records: Aemilianus advanced with great speed into Italy, and the armies were very near to each other, when the soldiers of Gallus, reflecting that his force was much inferior to the enemy both in number and strength, and likewise that he was a negligent indolent man, put him and his son to death, and going over to the party of Aemilianus, appeared to establish his authority. But Valerianus brought into Italy from beyond the Alps a vast army, with which he deemed himself secure of conquering Aemilianus. The soldiers of Aemilianus, who saw that his conduct was more like that of a private sentinel than of an emperor, now put him to death as a person unfit for so weighty a charge.

Eutropius' curt review: AEMILIANUS was little distinguished by birth, and less distinguished by his reign, in the third month of which he was cut off.
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ValentinianIIAE3UrbsRom.jpg
1et Valentinian II19 views373-392

AE3, Nicomedia

Pearl-diademed, draped & cuirassed bust rightt, D N VALENTINIANVS IVN P F AVG
Roma seated on cuirass, holding spear and Victory on globe, VRBS ROMA

The SMN mintmark indicates that the coin was minted in Nicomedia, but RIC does not list this reverse type for that mint.

Sim to RIC 51

Zosimus reports: Valentinian being dead, the tribunes Merobaudes and Equitius, reflecting on the distance at which Valens and Gratian resided, the former being in the east, and the latter left by his father in the western part of Gaul, were apprehensive lest the Barbarians beyond the Ister should make an effort while the country was without a ruler. They therefore sent for the younger son of Valentinian, who was born of his wife the widow of Magnentius, who was not far from thence with the child. Having clothed him in purple, they brought him into the court, though scarcely five years old. The empire was afterwards divided between Gratian and the younger Valentinian, at the discretion of their guardians, they not being of age to manage their own affairs. The Celtic nations, Spain, and Britain were given to Gratian; and Italy, Illyricum, and Africa to Valentinian. . . .

Affairs being thus situated in the east, in Thrace, and in Illyricum, Maximus, who deemed his appointments inferior to his merits, being only governor of the countries formerly under Gratian, projected how to depose the young Valentinian from the empire, if possible totally, but should he fail in the whole, to secure at least some part. . . . he immediately entered Italy without; resistance, and marched to Aquileia. . . . This so much surprised Valentinian, and rendered his situation so desperate, that his courtiers were alarmed lest he should be taken by Maximus and put to death. He, therefore, immediately embarked,and sailed to Thessalonica with his mother Justina, who, as I before mentioned, had been the wife of Magnentius, but after his decease was taken in marriage by the emperor Valentinian on account of her extraordinary beauty. She carried along with her her daughter Galla. After having passed many seas, and arriving at Thessalonica, they sent messengers to the emperor Theodosius, intreating him now at least to revenge the injuries committed against the family of Valentinian. He was astonished at hearing of this, and began to forget his extravagance, and to lay some restraint on his wild inclination for pleasure. . . . Theodosius then delivered to Valentinian as much of the empire as his father had possessed; in which he only acted as he was enjoined by his duty to those who so merited his kindness. . . .

intelligence was brought that the emperor Valentianian was no more, and that his death happened in this manner: Arbogastes, a Frank, who was appointed by the emperor Gratian lieutenant to Baudo, at the death of Baudo, confiding in his own ability, assumed the command without the emperor's permission. Being thought proper for the station by all the soldiers under him, both for his valour and experience in military affairs, and for his disregard of riches, he attained great influence. He thus became so elevated, that he would speak without reserve to the emperor, and would blame any measure which he thought improper. This gave such umbrage to Valentinian. . . .

Eugenius became the sincere friend of Arbogastes, who had no secret which he did not confide to him. Recollecting Eugenius, therefore, at this juncture, who by his extraordinary learning and the gravity of his conversation seemed well-adapted for the management of an empire, he communicated to him his designs. But finding him not pleased with the proposals, he attempted to prevail on him by all the arts he could use, and entreated him not to reject what fortune so favourably offered. Having at length persuaded him, he deemed it advisable in the first place to remove Valentinian, and thus to deliver the sole authority to Eugenius. With this view he proceeded to Vienna, a town in Gaul, where the emperor resided; and as he was amusing himself near the town in some sports with the soldiers, apprehending no danger, Arbogastes gave him a mortal wound.
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EugeniusSiliquaRoma.jpg
1ex Eugenius26 views392-394

AR siliqua

Bearded, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust rightt, DN EVGENIVS PF AVG
Roma seated left on cuirass, MDPS below, VIRTVS ROMANORVM

RIC 32c

Zosimus reports: Eugenius became the sincere friend of Arbogastes, who had no secret which he did not confide to him. Recollecting Eugenius, therefore, at this juncture, who by his extraordinary learning and the gravity of his conversation seemed well-adapted for the management of an empire, he communicated to him his designs. But finding him not pleased with the proposals, he attempted to prevail on him by all the arts he could use, and entreated him not to reject what fortune so favourably offered. Having at length persuaded him, he deemed it advisable in the first place to remove Valentinian, and thus to deliver the sole authority to Eugenius. With this view he proceeded to Vienna, a town in Gaul, where the emperor resided; and as he was amusing himself near the town in some sports with the soldiers, apprehending no danger, Arbogastes gave him a mortal wound. To this audacious action the soldiers quietly submitted, not only because he was so brave and warlike a person, but because they were attached to him through his contempt of riches. As soon as he had performed this action, he declared Eugenius emperor, and infused into them the most favourable hopes that he would prove an excellent ruler, since he possessed such extraordinary qualifications. . . .

[Theodosius marched against Eugenius.] The emperor (having mourned for [his just deceased wife] a whole day, according to the rule of Homer), proceeded with his army to the war, leaving behind him his son Arcadius, who had some time previously been made emperor. This prince being young, his father, in order to amend the defects of his nonage, left with him Rufinus, who was prefect of the court, and acted as he pleased, even as much as the power of sovereignty enabled the emperor himself to do. Having done this, he took with him his younger son Honorius, quickly passed through the intermediate countries, and having exceded his expectations in crossing the Alps, arrived where the enemy was stationed : Eugenius being astonished at seeing him there whom he so little expected. But as he was arrived there, and consequently was under the necessity of engaging, he judged it most prudent to place the Barbarian troops in front, and to expose them first. He ordered Gaines with the troops under his command to make the first attack, and the other commanders of Barbarian soldiers to follow him, either cavalry, horse archers, or infantry. Eugenius then drew out his forces. When the two armies were engaged, so great an eclipse of the sun happened, that for more than half the time of the action it appeared rather to be night than day. As they fought therefore a kind of nocturnal battle, so great a slaughtor was made, that in the same day the greater part of the allies of Theodosius were slain, with their commander Bacurius, who fought very courageously at their head, while the other commanders escaped very narrowly with the remainder. When night came on and the armies had rallied, Eugenius was so elated with his victory, that he distributed money among those who had behaved with the greatest gallantry in the battle, and gave them time to refresh themselves, as if after such a defeat there was no probability of another engagement As they were thus solacing themselves, the emperor Theodosius about break of day fell suddenly on them with his whole forces, while they were still reclined |129 on the ground, and killed them before they knew of the approach of an enemy. He then proceeded to the tent of Eugenius, where he attacked those who were around him, killing many of them, and taking some of them in their flight, among whom was Eugenius. When they had got him in their power, they cut off his head, and carried it on a long spear around the camp, in order to shew those who still adhered to him, that it was now their interest to be reconciled to the emperor, inasmuch as the usurper was removed.
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DSC05478.JPG
1st- 2nd Century C.E. Bronze Lamp29 viewsView showing the broken handle and intact suspension loops.Fiorenza21
DSC05512.JPG
1st-3rd Century C.E. Harness Ring Junction Loops25 viewsView of the ring junction loops showing the studs used to secure them to the harness straps.Fiorenza21
rjb_2012_08_07.jpg
24416 viewsPhilip I 244-9 AD
AE 30mm
Zeugma
Obv Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right viewed from the rear, weak countermark of eagle standing right in oval applied to obverse
Rev Tetrastyle temple on top of rocky hill, buildings at base and colonnades or steps up the sides, Capricorn right below
Butcher CRS 31a, BMC 29, countermark GIC 340
mauseus
rjb_2012_08_08.jpg
24735 viewsPhilip II 247-9 AD
AE 30mm
Zeugma
Obv Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right viewed from the front
Rev Tetrastyle temple on top of rocky hill, buildings at base and colonnades or steps up the sides, Capricorn right below
Butcher CRS –
Not recorded with this bust type.
The coins of Zeugma would seem to be struck at the same location as those of Antioch, Cyrrhus, Hierapolis, Philippopolis and Samosata. It is likely that an obverse die duplicate may exist among the coinages of those cities
mauseus
4462b.jpg
249-251 AD., Trajan Decius, AR Antoninianus, mint of Rome, RIC 17b var.61 viewsTrajan Decius, AR Antoninianus, 3,10 g., mint of Rome, 249-251 AD.
Obv.: IMP C M Q TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG , Radiate and cuirassed bust right, rear view.
Rev.: GENIVS EXERC ILLYRICIANI , Genius of the army of Illyria standing left, holding patera and cornucopiae, standard and altar at left.
RIC IV, part III, p. 122, #17b var. (not draped) ; C. 56 (var.?).

my ancient coin database
2 commentsArminius
Clipboard~48.jpg
2nd Century Bearded Broad Axe. Found in germany.32 views2nd Century Bearded Broad Axe. Found in Germany.
Sold as a 'Battle’ axe. Possibly used as such.
Pictures from left to right tell a story.

# Left picture - whole axe weighs 465g, Making it quite light for its type.

# 2nd from the left shows clearly where the high grade iron (steel) has been forged to the Low grade Iron that makes up the bulk of the axe. The high grade steel on the cutting edge would stay sharper for longer, but was expensive and time consuming to make.

# 3rd from the left picture shows the axe bends to the left (rear to front view). This tells me the owner was right handed and the axe has bent this way through right handed working.

# The last picture is interesting. the cut marks have been made by something (a sword or another axe, maybe) hitting it from the side. These marks are typical of steel to steel blows.

The axe was found somewhere in southern Germany, but I cannot confirm exact location.
X-ray and radio carbon dating will be conducted on all of my axes as money permits.
lorry66
coins95.JPG
319. Probus22 viewsProbus - RIC 223 - Bust type F (Rome) (R Thunderbolt A) – 58 views
Obv:– PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– VICTORIA GERM, Trophy between two captives
Minted in Rome (R Thunderbolt A in exe) Emission 6 Officina 1. A.D. 281
Reference(s) – RIC 223 Bust type F
ecoli
coin378.JPG
319. Probus22 viewsProbus
6 views
Probus. 276-282 AD. Antoninianus. Cyzicus mint.
IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, radiate bust left, wearing imperial mantle
and holding eagle-tipped sceptre /
SO-LI INVICT-O, Sol, head
left, in spread quadriga facing; CR/XXIT.
ecoli
423-1_Servilia2.jpg
423/1. Servilia - denarius (57 BC)31 viewsAR Denarius (Rome, 57 BC)
O/ Head of Flora right; lituus behind; FLORAL PRIMVS before.
R/ Two soldiers facing each other and presenting swords; C SERVEIL in exergue; C F upwards on right.
3.87g; 18mm
Crawford 423/1 (99 obverse dies/110 reverse dies)
- ROMA Numismatics, E-Sale 42, lot 484.
- Artemide Aste, 11-12 June 2016, lot 253.

* Gaius Servilius C.f. (Brocchus?):

The gens Servilia was originally patrician, but our moneyer was most likely a plebeian because at this time, the only remaining patrician branch of the gens was the Caepiones. The Servilii Gemini, likewise patricians at first, lost their status during the Second Punic War for an unknown reason and their descendants had erratic cognomina, making it difficult to reconstruct the genealogical tree of the gens. The one given by Crawford for RRC 239 is dubious, although possible.

Crawford also says that our moneyer was perhaps a brother of Marcus Servilius C.f., Tribune of the Plebs in 43 BC. He was possibly the Gaius Servilius Brocchus, son of Gaius, mentioned as Military Tribune by Flavius Josephus (Jewish Antiquities, xiv. 229), who tells that he served under the Consul L. Cornelius Lentulus Crus in Asia. It would match a career started in the 50, during which the Pompeian party was dominating, and continued as Pompey's supporter during the Civil War.

The meaning of his denarius has been debated. According to Crawford, the obverse legend refers to the priesthood of Flora, probably held by the gens, contradicting the view of Mommsen, who thought it was celebrating the establishment of the Ludi Florales in 173. This view has been in turn challenged by Robert Palmer, but without giving an explanation of his own*. It should also be mentioned that Pliny the Elder tells that there were statues of Flora, Triptolemus and Ceres by Praxiteles in the "Servilian gardens" (Natural History, xxxvi. 4), which obviously belonged to the gens, showing that Flora was of special importance for the Servilii.

The reverse reuses a common theme on Servilii's denarii: the duels of Marcus Servilius Pulex Geminus, Consul in 202, who was famous for his 23 victories in single combats (Plutarch, Aemilius Paullus, 31). The scene was depicted with variations on RRC 264 (horseback duel), RRC 327 (duel on foot), and RRC 370 (rider charging). It is also possible that RRC 239 shows another duel on horse, but disguised as the Dioscuri riding apart. The fact that our moneyer used this theme links him to the other direct descendants of Servilius Pulex Geminus, thus supporting Crawford's theory that he was a grandchild of Gaius Servilius, Praetor in 102.

* "Flora and the Sybil", in Ten Years of the Agnes Kirsopp Lake Michels Lectures at Bryn Mawr College, edited by Suzanne B. Faris, Lesley E. Lundeen, Bryn Mawr, 2006, pp. 58-70.
3 commentsJoss
coin599.JPG
501. Constantine I Alexandria Posthumous23 viewsAlexandria

The city passed formally under Roman jurisdiction in 80 BC, according to the will of Ptolemy Alexander but after it had been previously under Roman influence for more than a hundred years. Julius Caesar dallied with Cleopatra in Alexandria in 47 BC, saw Alexander's body (quipping 'I came to see a king, not a collection of corpses' when he was offered a view of the other royal burials) and was mobbed by the rabble. His example was followed by Marc Antony, for whose favor the city paid dearly to Octavian, who placed over it a prefect from the imperial household.

From the time of annexation onwards, Alexandria seems to have regained its old prosperity, commanding, as it did, an important granary of Rome. This fact, doubtless, was one of the chief reasons which induced Augustus to place it directly under imperial power. In AD 215 the emperor Caracalla visited the city and for some insulting satires that the inhabitants had directed at him, abruptly commanded his troops to put to death all youths capable of bearing arms. This brutal order seems to have been carried out even beyond the letter, for a general massacre ensued.

Even as its main historical importance had formerly sprung from pagan learning, now Alexandria acquired fresh importance as a centre of Christian theology and church government. There Arianism was formulated and where also Athanasius, the great opponent of both Arianism and pagan reaction, triumphed over both, establishing the Patriarch of Alexandria as a major influence in Christianity for the next two centuries.

As native influences began to reassert themselves in the Nile valley, Alexandria gradually became an alien city, more and more detached from Egypt and losing much of its commerce as the peace of the empire broke up during the 3rd century AD, followed by a fast decline in population and splendour.

In the late 4th century, persecution of pagans by Christians had reached new levels of intensity. Temples and statues were destroyed throughout the Roman empire: pagan rituals became forbidden under punishment of death, and libraries were closed. In 391, Emperor Theodosius I ordered the destruction of all pagan temples, and the Patriarch Theophilus, complied with his request. It is possible that the great Library of Alexandria and the Serapeum was destroyed about this time. The pagan mathematician and philosopher Hypathia was a prominent victim of the persecutions.

The Brucheum and Jewish quarters were desolate in the 5th century, and the central monuments, the Soma and Museum, fell into ruin. On the mainland, life seemed to have centred in the vicinity of the Serapeum and Caesareum, both which became Christian churches. The Pharos and Heptastadium quarters, however, remained populous and left intact.

veiled head only
DV CONSTANTI-NVS PT AVGG
RIC VIII Alexandria 32 C3

From uncleaned lot; one of the nicer finds.
ecoli
coins370.JPG
501. Constantine I Constantinople CONSTANTINIANA DAFNE25 viewsConstantiniana Dafne
35 views
Constantine I (AD 307-337)
AE-3 (AD 328)
Constantiniana Dafne, CONS
OB: Rosette-diademed head, right
CONSTANTINVS MAX.AVG.
REV: Victory seated left, with a captive and trophy before her, A in left field
CONSTANTINIANA DAFNE
CONS in exergue
Constantinople mint

ecoli
coins224.JPG
501. Constantine I GLORIA EXERCITVS Arles21 viewsArles SCONST
15 views
Arles

Over 3000 years of history reside upon this rocky rise just north of the Mediterranean Sea on the Rhône River. Part of ancient Liguria, the site later became a city, Arlate, named by the Celts as the village amidst the marshes. After the Celts came the Greeks who made good use of this easily accessed inland port. The Greeks were displaced by the Romans and with Caesar's defeat of the Phoenicians at Massalia (current-day Marseille) with the help of nearly 20 battle ships built by the Arlesians, Arles became the Roman capitol of Provincia Romana, with the lands formerly under the dominion of Massalia, Glanum and other former Phoenician supporters now hers.

Constantine I AE3. 333-334 AD. CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, rosette-diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right / GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS laurel wreath with dot, SCONST in ex. RIC Vii 375
ecoli
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501. Constantine I IOVI CONSERVATORI Thessalonica12 viewsConstantine I Thessalonica IOVI CONSERVATORI
10 views
RIC VII Thessalonica 19 R1
ecoli
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509. Jovian21 views09. Jovian39 viewsJovian was born at Singidunum in A.D. 330, the son of the commander of Constantius II's imperial bodyguards. He also joined the guards and by A.D. 363 had risen to the post that his father had once held. He accompanied the Roman Emperor Julian on the disastrous Mesopotamian campain of the same year against Shapur II, the Sassanid king. After a small but decisive engagement the Roman army was forced to retreat from the numerically superior Persian force. Julian had been mortally wounded during the retreat and Jovian seized his chance. Some accounts have it that on Julian's death Jovian's soldiers called out "Jovianus!" The cry was mistaken for "Julianus", and the army cheered Jovian, briefly under the illusion that the slain Emperor had recovered from his wound.

Shapur pressed his advantage and Jovian, deep inside Sassanid territory, was forced to sue for peace on very unfavourable terms. In exchange for safety he agreed to withdraw from the provinces east of the Tigris that Diocletian had annexed and allow the Persians to occupy the fortresses of Nisbis, Castra Maurorum and Singara. the King of Armenia, Arsaces, was to stay neutral in future conflicts between the two empires, and was forced to cede some of his kingdom to Shapur. The treaty was seen as a disgrace and Jovian rapidly lost popularity.

After arriving at Antioch Jovian decided to hurry to Constantinople to consolidate his position.

Jovian was a Christian, in contrast to his predecessor Julian the Apostate, who had attempted a revival of paganism. He died on February 17, 364 after a reign of eight months.

Jovian AE3. D N IOVIA NVS P F AVG, diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right / VOT V MVLT X inside wreath
ecoli
698Hadrian_RIC590.jpg
590 Hadrian Sestertius Roma 119-21 AD Lictor standing57 viewsReference.
RIC 590b; Banti 620; Strack 555; C 1210

Obv. IMP CAES TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG P M TR P COS III
Laureate heroic bust right, slight drapery

Rev. RELIQVA VETERA HS NOVIES MILL ABOLITA / S - C
Lictor standing left, holding fasces, setting fire to heap of bonds with torch.

25.59 gr
32 mm
6h

Notes.
https://www.forumancientcoins.com/numiswiki/view.asp?key=RELIQVA%20VETERA%20HS%20NOVIES%20MILL%20ABOLITA

From the estate of Thomas Bentley Cederlind. Ex Classical Numismatic Group 47 (16 September 1998), lot 1611.

In July of AD 118 Hadrian made his first appearance in Rome as emperor to celebrate a Parthian triumph in the name of Trajan. He was quickly called away to Moesia to subdue the Sarmatians and Roxolani. While away, four high ranking senators – Lucius Quietus, Cornelius Palma, L. Publius Celsus and C. Avidius – were executed by the senate for an alleged conspiracy against Hadrian, despite a promise by Hadrian not to execute members of the Senate. To calm a suspicious public, Hadrian held a week long gladiatorial show, granted an extra public largesse, and, as this coin advertises, relinquished the public debt to the state equaling 900 million sestertii. This event culminated in an elaborate ceremony held in the Forum of Trajan where all records of these debts were set on fire.
4 commentsokidoki
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602. Theodosius II30 viewsFlavius Theodosius II (April, 401 - July 28, 450 ). The eldest son of Eudoxia and Arcadius who at the age of 7 became the Roman Emperor of the East.

He was heavily influenced by his eldest sister Pulcheria who pushed him towards Eastern Christianity. Pulcheria was the primary driving power behind the emperor and many of her views became official policy. These included her anti-Semitic view which resulted in the destruction of synagogues.

On the death of his father Arcadius in 408, he became Emperor. In June 421 Theodosius married the poet Aelia Eudocia. They had a daughter, Licinia Eudoxia, whose marriage with the Western Roman Emperor Valentinian III marked the re-unification of the two halves of the Empire, even if for a short time. Theodosius created the University of Constantinople, and died in 450 as the result of a riding accident.

Bronze AE4, S 4297, VG, .96g, 12.3mm, 0o, uncertain mint, 408-450 A.D.; obverse D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse no legend, cross in wreath, obscure mintmark in exergue; ex Forum
ecoli
CLAUD34LG.jpg
705a, Claudius, 25 January 41 - 13 October 54 A.D.62 viewsClaudius. 42-43 AD. AE As.
Claudius. 42-43 AD. AE As (29 mm, 10.87 g). Obverse: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P, bare head right; Reverse: CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI / S - C, Constantiae in military dress standing left, holding spear; RIC I, 111; aVF. Ex Imperial Coins.



De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

CLAUDIUS (41-54 A.D.)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

Ti. Claudius Nero Germanicus (b. 10 BC, d. 54 A.D.; emperor, 41-54 A.D.) was the third emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. His reign represents a turning point in the history of the Principate for a number of reasons, not the least for the manner of his accession and the implications it carried for the nature of the office. During his reign he promoted administrators who did not belong to the senatorial or equestrian classes, and was later vilified by authors who did. He followed Caesar in carrying Roman arms across the English Channel into Britain but, unlike his predecessor, he initiated the full-scale annexation of Britain as a province, which remains today the most closely studied corner of the Roman Empire. His relationships with his wives and children provide detailed insights into the perennial difficulties of the succession problem faced by all Roman Emperors. His final settlement in this regard was not lucky: he adopted his fourth wife's son, L. Domitius Ahenobarbus, who was to reign catastrophically as Nero and bring the dynasty to an end. Claudius's reign, therefore, was a mixture of successes and failures that leads into the last phase of the Julio-Claudian line.

Robert Graves' fictional characterization of Claudius as an essentially benign man with a keen intelligence has tended to dominate the wider public's view of this emperor. Close study of the sources, however, reveals a somewhat different kind of man. In addition to his scholarly and cautious nature, he had a cruel streak, as suggested by his addiction to gladiatorial games and his fondness for watching his defeated opponents executed. He conducted closed-door (in camera ) trials of leading citizens that frequently resulted in their ruin or deaths -- an unprecedented and tyrannical pattern of behavior. He had his wife Messalina executed, and he personally presided over a kangaroo court in the Praetorian Camp in which many of her hangers-on lost their lives. He abandoned his own son Britannicus to his fate and favored the advancement of Nero as his successor. While he cannot be blamed for the disastrous way Nero's rule turned out, he must take some responsibility for putting that most unsuitable youth on the throne. At the same time, his reign was marked by some notable successes: the invasion of Britain, stability and good government in the provinces, and successful management of client kingdoms. Claudius, then, is a more enigmatic figure than the other Julio-Claudian emperors: at once careful, intelligent, aware and respectful of tradition, but given to bouts of rage and cruelty, willing to sacrifice precedent to expediency, and utterly ruthless in his treatment of those who crossed him. Augustus's suspicion that there was more to the timid Claudius than met the eye was more than fully borne out by the events of his unexpected reign.

The possibility has to be entertained that Claudius was a far more active participant in his own elevation than traditional accounts let on. There is just reason to suspect that he may even have been involved in planning the murder of Gaius (Caligula). Merely minutes before the assassination of Gaius, Claudius had departed for lunch; this appears altogether too fortuitous. This possibility, however, must remain pure speculation, since the ancient evidence offers nothing explicit in the way of support. On the other hand, we can hardly expect them to, given the later pattern of events. The whole issue of Claudius's possible involvement in the death of Gaius and his own subsequent acclamation by the Praetorian Guard must, therefore, remain moot . . . yet intriguing

Copyright 1998, Garrett G. Fagan.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
LarryW2337.jpg
7260 Prusias I, 228-185 BC65 viewsBronxe Ć28, 26mm, 11.01g, VF
Laureate head Apollo left / BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΠPOYΣIOY Winged Athena standing left holding shield and crowning King's name, monogram inner left. Mechanically cleaned in fields.
Ex: Lakeview Collection.
Sear 7260; BMC Pontus, pg 209, #4; SNG von Aulock 6881; SNG Cop 625
2 commentsLawrence Woolslayer
RIC_260_Doble_Antoniniano_Aureliano.jpg
96-05 - AURELIANO (270 - 275 D.C.)9 viewsAE Antoniniano 22 mm 2.4 gr.

Anv: "IMP AVRELIANVS AVG" - Busto radiado y con coraza, viendo a derecha. En el pecho del Emperador, sobre su coraza puede verse claramente grabada a SOL (corona radiada, conduciendo la cuadriga con la mano izquierda y levantando la izquierda). Existe 1 ejemplar http://www.ric.mom.fr/en/coinview/2620/-1942304456?q=Aurelianus+antoniniani+IOVI+CONSER+Serdica&page=2&mod=result&x=0&y=0&hpp=50&from=quick&ancre=type-specimen.
Rev: "IOVI CON-SER", Emperador laureado y con vestimenta militar a la izquierda, vuelto a la derecha, portando un cetro en mano derecha extiende la izquierda para recibir un Globo que le presenta Júpiter, desnudo, con su manto cayendo desde su hombro izquierdo y portando un largo cetro vertical en la mano izquierda. "S" en exergo.

Acuńada 4ta. Emision (Finales del 273 al principio del 274 D.C.)
Ceca: Serdica (Off. 2da.)

Referencias: RIC Va #260 (C) P.279, Sear2 Temp.#2620, Sear RCTV III #11542 P.423, Sear RCTV '88 #3260, Cohen VI #105 P.187, DVM #12 P.257, CBN #1005, MIR #243m, BNC Paris p.395, Göbl #243m, La Venera 9867
mdelvalle
Alexandria_Tray_1_obv.jpg
A) Roman Egypt Portrait Gallery 1: Obverses, Claudius through Sev. Alexander43 views+


CLICK ON IMAGE FOR A MUCH LARGER VIEW


+
Sosius
Alexandria_Tray_2_rev.jpg
A) Roman Egypt Portrait Gallery 1: Reverses, Claudius through Sev. Alexander17 views+


CLICK ON IMAGE FOR A MUCH LARGER VIEW


+
Sosius
Alexandria_Tray_2_obv.jpg
A) Roman Egypt Portrait Gallery 2: Obverses, Philip I through Constantius I39 views+


CLICK ON IMAGE FOR A MUCH LARGER VIEW


+
Sosius
Alexandria_Tray_2_rev~0.jpg
A) Roman Egypt Portrait Gallery 2: Reverses, Philip I through Constantius I18 views+


CLICK ON IMAGE FOR A MUCH LARGER VIEW


+
Sosius
AE-Weight_with_Gold-Chi-Rho_AD-Q-051_27x25x4mm_17,83g-s.jpg
AE weight (4 nomismata), marked with Golden color Chi-Rho #51,205 viewsAE weight (4 nomismata), marked with Golden color Chi-Rho #51,
type: AE four-cornered weight, engraved square inside Christogram (Chi-Rho, marked with golden color), both side unredable symbols (hope Α-Ω ). In addition to the ich lines outside the 4 points (mean 4 nomismata ?).
size: 27x25x4mm,
weight: 17,83g, (4 nomismata, exactly 17.84g; 4x4,46 = 17.84g).
date: 6th-8th cent. A.D.,
ref: Not official, may be hommade,
distribution: Byzatine ?,
Q-051
"This is really a beautiful and rare weight. Congratulations!
From my point of view it is a nominal to 4 nomismata, exactly 17.83 g (4x4,46 = 17.84 g). Each side of the weight is separately punched with 4 points which means lettering for 4 nomismata.
Within the Christogram the letters Α-Ω are to be read. These were engraved faulty. No official weight, but a homemade version (see Simon Bendall). The Christogam was marked with golden color no gold inlay!
dated approx. 6th-8th cent. AD
similar weights were found in Bulgaria. by Basil, Thanks "

3 commentsquadrans
Aeqvitas_Cldcf_red.jpg
Aequitas Cldcf96 viewsObverse: IMPCAESMAVRSEVALEXANDERAVG
Bust laureate right, draped and cuirassed, front view
Reverse: AEQVITAS_AVGVSTI, SC left and right, very low in field
Aequitas draped, standing front, head left holding scales in right hand and cornucopiae in left, fold of drapery over left arm
BMC 333-6 (are draped, side view), RIC 547
Weight, 20.92g; die axis, 11h
An unusual portrait variety in a sestertius from year 226 (issue 6) that became the standard portrait for draped and cuirassed portraits from 231 AD (issue 14) on.
1 commentsmix_val
Macedon_Akanthos_SNG-ANS_18_gf2.jpg
Akanthos. 500-470 BC. AR Tetrobol 7 viewsMacedon, Akanthos. 500-470 BC. AR Tetrobol (2.33 gm). Forepart of lioness r., head viewed from above, acanthus above. / Quadripartite incuse square.  Good VF.  Pegasi VI #122. SNG ANS 7 #18-21; AMNG III/2 #12 (plate VI #22); ACNAC Dewing 1000, Rosen 84; HGC 3.1 #386; SNG Ashmolean III #2205-2206; SNG Berry 4-5.Anaximander
ATGmosaic.jpg
Alexander the Great, The Battle of Issus River21 viewsThis mosaic depicts a battle between Alexander the Great and the Persian king Darius, probably the Battle of the Issus River in November of 333 B.C. It is in opus vermiculatum, with over one and a half million tesserae, none larger than 4 mm., in four colors: white, yellow, red, and black. The minuteness of the tesserae enables incredibly fine detail and painterly effects, including remarkable portraits of Alexander and Darius.

The border of this huge mosaic consists of large stones in a dentate pattern . In the corners are rosettes. Within the border along the bottom of the picture is a blank brown stripe, which some consider to be part of the picture, balancing the white expanse of sky at the top, while others argue that it is simply part of the frame.

The composition of the mosaic is dominated by the two protagonists: On the left, Alexander, with his head uncovered, rushes forward on his horse Bucephalus. He holds a spear with which he has skewered a Persian soldier, who has rushed to the defence of Darius. With Alexander appear his helmeted Macedonian soldiers, although little remains of them due to damage of the left side of the mosaic. On the right Darius, wearing a Persian cap, stretches out his hand to his wounded defender, while his charioteer whips the horses to flee toward the right. Around him are his Persian soldiers who mill in confusion in the background, their faces filled with fear and determination. One Persian, however, to the right of the dying defender of Darius, is intent upon Alexander, and holds his sword in his hand, ready to attack.

There are many details which emphasize the terror and confusion of the battle. The horse of the Persian defender of Darius collapses beneath him while he writhes in agony on Alexander's spear. Below Darius in his chariot, a Persian soldier, staring in horror at this scene, attempts to hold a rearing horse. The hindquarters of this horse project into the middle ground of the picture, giving it a sense of depth. To the right, a soldier is being crushed under the wheels of Darius' chariot. His face is reflected in the shield which he holds. Further to the right appear the terrified horses of the chariot team, trampling upon another unfortunate Persian.

The composition of the mosaic is dominated by diagonals. The center is dominated by the intersecting diagonals of the Persian speared by Alexander and the Persian restraining the rearing horse. Two other sets of intersecting diagonals are provided by the figures of Darius and his charioteer and by Alexander and the wounded Persian. The lances in the background of the picture also carry on the diagonal motif.

The setting of the battle is very stylized. In the background appears a tree with bare twisted limbs whose diagonals continue the unifying compositional motif of the mosaic. The tree also serves as a formal vertical counterweight to the Persian king and his charioteer, who rise above the battle fray. In the foreground are discarded weapons and rocks, which serve to define the space between the viewer and the battle scene.

The Alexander mosaic is thought to be based on a painting which Philoxenus of Eretria created for King Cassander of Macedonia. The painting is described by Pliny the Elder as representing "the battle of Alexander with Darius." Certain inconsistencies in the mosaic point to its derivation from another source. In the center of the composition appears a helmeted head to the right of the rearing horse. Two lance shafts come from the left and abruptly stop behind this he‡d. To the right of the same head appears a head of a horse and beneath this are the hindquarters of another horse, neither of which is logically completed. Among the four horses of Darius' chariot there are parts of a white horse which do not fit together anatomically. Above these horses is a Persian soldier who appears to have two right hands, one on his head and the other raised in the air. These details provide evidence that the mosaicist misunderstood details of the original.

Nevertheless, the overall effect of the mosaic is masterful. The expert blending of the colors of the tesserae and the careful control of the overall composition create a scene which comes to life with all the horror and confusion of battle. The Alexander mosaic is a truly great work, unmatched in the history of Roman art.

See: http://www.hackneys.com/alex_web/pages/alxphoto.htm
Cleisthenes
DOC33.jpg
ALEXIUS AE Tetarteron S-1920276 viewsBust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cr. pallium and colobium and holding book of gospels in left. Rev Bust facing wearing crown and loros and holding labarum an gl cr. Brillant obverse, shows how nice these coins can be. The rev is being cleaned of verdige leaving a fine image in view. 17mm DOC 33 EF/TBDSimon
500.jpg
ALFOLDI 041.08015 views21 views
OBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG
REVERSE: PAX AVG
BUST TYPE: H2 (BASTIEN'S CLASSIFICATION)
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/V//XXI
WEIGHT 3.34g / AXIS: 12h / WIDTH 20-21mm
RIC 704
ALFOLDI 041.080
COLLECTION NO. 500
Barnaba6
1321~0.jpg
ALFOLDI 067.002 7 views2 views
OBVERSE: IMP C PROBVS P F AVG
REVERSE: SECVRIT PERP
BUST TYPE: B = Radiate, cuirassed bust right
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//XXIV
WEIGHT 3.70 / AXIS: 12h / DIAMETER: 22-23,5 mm
RIC 757
ALFOLDI 067.002 (2 EX.)
COLLECTION NO. 1321

Extremely rare reverse type for Siscia!

Only 3rd example of this type known to me (the other two are cited by Alfoldi)

Ex Ph. Gysen collection
Barnaba6
IM002342.JPG
Amman - Citadel - Temple of Hercules and View of City11 viewsThe remains of the 2nd century AD Temple of Hercules on the Amman citadel high above the Forum. otlichnik
IM002361.JPG
Amman - Forum - View Towards Orchestra of Theatre12 viewsA view down from the top of the theatre in the Roman Forum in Amman. This beautiful and well preserved theatre was built in the reign of Antoninus Pius in the 2nd century AD. It seats 6000. otlichnik
Angusshire_10.jpg
Angusshire 1020 viewsObv: DUNDEE HALF-PENNY 1795, the ancient tower of Dundee, OLD TOWER FOUNDED 1189, in exergue.

Rev: COMMERCE AUGMENTS DUNDEE, a view of a harbor, with a ship alongside a quay, DEI DONUM arms supporters and motto below, WRIGHT DELIN, at the sides.

Edge: PAYABLE AT THE WAREHOUSE OF ALEXR. MOLISON

Half Penny Conder Token

Dalton & Hamer, Angusshire, Dundee 10
SPQR Coins
PinkFloydAnimalsCompositeMed.jpg
ANIMALS/PINK FLOYD. A themed collection of ancient coins.98 viewsFor an interactive presentation, go to this Prezi:

http://prezi.com/q7mw1k1zur65/?utm_campaign=share&utm_medium=copy&rc=ex0share

Recommend viewing full screen (icon at bottom left). Sound on. Click play; you can use arrow keys or mouse clicks to navigate even while in autoplay mode.

Individual pictures of coins and attributions will be added soon.
9 commentsTIF
Sydenham_519_19mm,_4_40_grams_113_B_C__Cr_79_1.jpg
Anonymous Wheel Cr.79/164 viewsCrawford 79/1 Wheel (209-8BC) Sicily?
Denarius Serratus
Ob: helmeted head of Roma right, behind X
Rev: Dioscuri riding right with lances, below wheel, in exergue ROMA; line border

BMCRR II 308 (217-197BC)

Sydenham 519 (113BC) Narbo

Iridescent highlights, 4.4gr.

Grueber: The wheel maybe a symbol of the moneyer rather than of a mint, although it does occur on aes grave of Campania and central Italy, and the early coins of Luceria and Tartentum. This is the earliest occurrence of the serratus on republican denarii and the only anonymous. Only serratus attributed to a mint other than Rome by Count de Salis.

Sydenham classifies this serratus with Porcia 8 at the colony of Narbo. The serrated edge may have been suggested by the Gaulish custom of using serrated rings or wheels as currency. Tacitus stated that the Gaulish tribes showed a marked preference for coins that were serrati bigatique (Germania 5) Sydenham wrote an article entitled “Origin of the Roman Serrati” NC 1935 209 ff.

Crawford writes that Mattingly’s view that serrati were Marian coins was demolished by Sydenham’s article, but his view that they were struck at non-Italian mints for Trans-alpine circulation does not hold either. Grueber’s view that they are probably merely decorative best remaining theory. Crawford Vol 2 p. 581

Tacitus Germania 5 pecuniam probant veterem et diu notam, serratos bigatosque. They approve the old and long known money, those that are serrated and biga depicting.
3 commentsPetrus Elmsley
ppsectetORweb.jpg
Antioch, Revised Posthumous Philip, RPC 413655 viewsAntioch Mint, revised posthumous Philip, year = 19 (31/30 B.C.) AR, 26mm 14.39g, RPC 4136, Newell, no. 23
O: Diademed head of Philip Philadelphus, r.
R: BAEILEWE FILIPPOY EPIFANOYE FILADELFOY, Zeus, seated l., holding Nike and scepter
EX: THI
* "In the early fifties, the Romans revived the coinage of King Philip Philadelphus to be their coinage of Syria, copying his types (portrait of Philip/Zeus seated l.), though in a debased style. The coinage lasted from then until the reign of Augustus, and was discussed most recently by H.R. Baldus (in CRWLR, pp. 127-30, with earlier references for H. Scying, E. T. Newell, A. R. Bellinger and C. M. Kraay). The first issues were made with the monogram of Gabinius (57-55 BC), Crassus (54/53 BC) and Cassius (52/51 BC). There after the establishment of a Caesarian era at Antioch in 44/48 BC, their monogram was replaced by one standing for Antioch )or ‘autonomous’: see Wr. 21) and the coins were dated in the exergue by the years of this era. Year 3-12 and, then with a new style (see E. T. Newell, NC, 1919, pp. 69ff.; Baldus, p. 150, n. 14) 19-33 are known.
It may seem odd that the Romans chose the Tetradrachm of Philip (92-83 BC) to revive, rather than those of the last king, Antiochus XII; it is true that the last substantial issue of Seleucid tetradrachms was made by Philip, so that his would have comprised a most important proportion of the currency (so Newell, pp 80-4; M. J. Price ap. Baldus, op. cit., p. 127), but it is hard to see that this provides a sufficient reason, and it is possible that some other consideration might be relevant. While Antiochus (c. 69-65 BC) was away campaigning against the Arabs, the people of Antioch revolted and put forward, as king, Philip, the son of Philip Philadelphus. As the claims of Antiochus were rejected by Pompey when he formed the province, the Roman view may have been that Philip was the last legitimate Seleucid king, and, if so, his coins would naturally have been chosen as the prototype of the Roman coinage in Syria.
The Philips were interrupted from year 12 until year 19, and it seems that in this gap the tetradrachms of Cleopatra and Antony were produced. The evidence for their production at Antioch, however, does not seem sufficient, and they have been catalogued elsewhere, under ‘Uncertain of Syria’ (4094-6). It is certain, however, that a unique drachm portraying Antony was produced at Antioch during this period, as it bears the ethnic ANTIOXEWN MHTPOPOLEWS. See also addenda 4131A.
After the defeat of Antony, the coinage of posthumous Philip was revived in 31/30 BC, though it is not clear whether this represents a conscious decision to avoid putting Octavian’s portrait on the coinage, as happened in Asia and Egypt (similarly, the portrait does not appear on city bronzes of Syria before the last decade BC) or whether it is just the simple reinstatement of the previous type, after the new type of Antony and Cleopatra became unacceptable. At any rate the coinage continued until at least year 33 (= 17/16 BC). Current evidence does not permit us to be sure that it continued any later, to the year 36 (= 14/13 BC), as Newell thought, though this is not impossible."

RPC I, pp. 606-607
casata137ec
Antonin denier.jpg
Antoninus Pius - denarius44 viewsANTONINVS AVG. PIVS P.P., laureate bust right
TEMPLVM DIVI AVG. REST. / COS. IIII, front-view of the Temple of Divine Augustus, with 8 columns and 2 statues inside.

The legend should be read as one single sentence, starting from the obverse : Antoninus Augustus Pius, Pater Patriae, templum Divi Augusti restituit consul IIII : Antoninus Augustus Pious, father of the country, 4 times consul, restored the temple of the Divine Augustus.
1 commentsGinolerhino
APiusSestRIC621.JPG
Antoninus Pius, RIC 621, Sestertius of AD 140-144 (Roma)163 viewsĆ Sestertius (28.4g, Ř 33-34mm, 12h) Rome mint. Struck AD 140-144.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PI-VS P P TR P COS III, laurate head right
Rev.: ROMA AETERNA (around), S C (in ex.), Roma seated left on throne, holding palladium and spear; shield at side.
RIC 621; BMCRE 1276; C. 694; Strack 846; Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali II-3) 330 (7 spec.); Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 24b; Sear (Roman Coins and their Values II) 1276
ex CNG Auction #29, lot 62687, May 2001

Issued to celebrate the completion in AD141 of the temple of Venus and Rome, designed and begun by Hadrian. This could also belong to the series of ancient Roman legends issued in this same period, as the Palladium held by Roma is the statue of Pallas Athena, stolen from Troy and brought to Italy by Aeneas. It was regarded by the Romans as guardian of their city.
2 commentsCharles S
AntoSe69~0.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 629, Sestertius of AD 140-144 (Sow) 66 viewsĆ Sestertius (25.9g, Ř32mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 140-144.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right
Rev.: S C (in ex.), Sow standing under holm-oak, suckling seven young, an eighth to right.
RIC 629 (S), Cohen 775, BMC 1298, Strack 870; Banti 385 (11 spec.); Sear (Roman Coins & Their Values II) 4226
ex CNG list sale 74; ex CNG list sale 69; ex Tony Hardy collection.

This is part of a series that was minted to commemorate the 900th anniversary of the founding of Rome (April 21, A.D. 147). A white sow nursing thirty piglets, was a good omen for Aeneas to found a settlement on that site, which became the town of Lanuvium, the precursor to Rome. See also Scrofa
Charles S
AntoSee2.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 629, Sestertius of AD 140-144 (Sow)39 viewsĆ Sestertius (24,30g, Ř 32mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 140-144.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, laureate head right.
Rev.: S C in ex, Sow standing under holm-oak, suckling seven young, an eighth to right.
RIC 629; BMCRE 1298; Cohen 775; Strack 870 (3 coll.); Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali II-3) 385 (11 spec.); Sear (Roman Coins & Their Values II) 4226
Ex Numphil (June 2014)

This is part of a series that was minted to commemorate the 900th anniversary of the founding of Rome (April 21, A.D. 147). According to Vergil, The Trojan exile Aeneas sailed up the Tibur until he came upon a white sow nursing thirty piglets, and was to found a settlement on the site of this good omen, the town of Lanuvium, the precursor to Rome. See also scrofa
1 commentsCharles S
ANTOSEc1-2.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 914, Sestertius of AD 153-154 (Indulgentia) 31 viewsĆ sestertius (26.1g, Ř33mm, 12h), Rome mint, struck AD 153-154.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XVII , laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Rev.: INDVLGENTIA AVG COS IIII (around) (S C in ex.), Indulgentia seated left, holding patera and sceptre.
RIC 914; Cohen 454
ex Forum Ancient Coins

This type celebrates Antoninus Pius' disposition to acts of indulgence and favour. See indvlgentia in Dictionary of Roman Coins.
Charles S
007~0.JPG
Apollonia Pontica92 views450 – 425 B.C.
Silver Drachm
3.14 gm, 15 mm
Rev: Archaic Ionian Gorgon head facing with wild hair and snakes
Obv.: Anchor; A to right, crayfish to left.
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 44
Sear Vol. 1, p. 165, 1655

Topalov Type: "Upright Anchor a crab as an additional symbol and the letter A on the left or right - Full-Face Gorgon's Head" Last Late Issues (450-425 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes and solid stock. An additional symbol of a crab viewed from above left and the letter A right (or visa versa) between the fluke and the stock.
Rev.: Full-face of a noble Gorgon's head with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormaly open mouth, long teeth and tongue. Human hair mixed with snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.
1 commentsJaimelai
AP5_a.jpg
Apollonia Pontica83 views450 - 425 B.C.
Silver Drachm
3.20 gm, 12-14 mm
Obv.: Anchor; crayfish to left, A to right
Rev: Gorgon head facing with hair in tufts

Topalov Type: "Upright Anchor a crab as an additional symbol and the letter A on the left or right - Full-Face Gorgon's Head" Last Late Issues (450-425 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes and solid stock. An additional symbol of a crab viewed from above left and the letter A right (or visa versa) between the fluke and the stock.
Rev.: Full-face of a noble Gorgon's head with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormaly open mouth, long teeth and tongue. Human hair mixed with snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.
Jaimelai
Capture_00016.JPG
Apollonia Pontica56 views450 – 425 B.C.
Silver Drachm
3.28 gm, 14 mm
Rev: Archaic Ionian Gorgon head facing with straight vertical hair with wavy bangs
Obv.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 44
Sear p. 165, 1655

Topalov Type: "Upright Anchor a crab as an additional symbol and the letter A on the left or right - Full-Face Gorgon's Head" Last Late Issues (450-425 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes and solid stock. An additional symbol of a crab viewed from above left and the letter A right (or visa versa) between the fluke and the stock.
Rev.: Full-face of a noble Gorgon's head with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormaly open mouth, long teeth and tongue. Human hair mixed with snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.
1 commentsJaimelai
Capture_00174_white.JPG
Apollonia Pontica99 views450 – 424 B.C.
Silver Drachm
3.26 gm, 14.5 mm
Rev: Archaic Ionian Gorgon head facing with
beaded hair in tuffs, surrounded by thin snakes
Obv.: Anchor; crayfish to left, A to right
Topalov Apollonia p. 586, 42 (corrected)
Sear p. 165, 1655

Topalov Type 1. C. Upright Anchor - Gorgon's Head: Late Issues (450-424 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes and curved stock. An additional symbol of a crab viewed from above left between the fluke and the stock and the letter “A” right.
Rev.: Full-face Gordon's head in the archaic Ionian style with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormaly open mouth, long teeth and toungue. Instead of hair there are snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.

Description from Topalov Apollonia 2007
3 commentsJaimelai
Capture_00003_(2).JPG
Apollonia Pontica139 views450 – 425 B.C.
Silver Drachm
3.32 gm, 13.5 mm
Rev: Archaic Ionian Gorgon head facing with
beaded hair, surrounded by thin snakes
Obv.: Anchor; crayfish to left, A to right
Topalov Apollonia p. 586, 42 (corrected)
Sear p. 165, 1655

Topalov Type: "Upright Anchor, a crab as an additional symbol on the left, A on the right - Gorgon's Head" Late Issues (450-425 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes and curved stock. An additional symbol of a crab viewed from above left between the fluke and the stock and the letter “A” right.
Rev.: Full-face Gordon's head in the archaic Ionian style with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormaly open mouth, long teeth and toungue. Instead of hair there are snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.
4 commentsJaimelai
003~4.JPG
Apollonia Pontica72 views480/478 – 470 B.C.
Silver Drachm
3.24 gm., 14 mm.
Obv: Anchor; blank to left, crayfish to right
Rev.: Gorgon head facing in archaic Ionian style with hair in pellets
Topalov Apollonia p. 584, 38
BMC Mysia p.8, 3, Pl.II, 2

Topalov Type: Upright Anchor - Gorgon's Head: First Early Issues (480/478-470 B.C)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes on a curved stock. Image of a crab viewed from above on the right between the fluke and the stock. Letter “A” missing.
Rev.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the archaic Ionian style with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormaly open mouth, long teeth and toungue. Instead of hair there are snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.

Description from Topalov Apollonia 2007
1 commentsJaimelai
ap_50_2.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 08 - Silver Half-Drachm/Diobol43 views550-540/535 B.C.
2.12 gm, 11.3 mm
Obv: Upright anchor; blank to left, crayfish to left
Rev.: Swastika arms bent left, deeply engraved into flan (as four dolphins?)
Topalov Apollonia p.245, 1-2; p.564, 8;

Topalov Type: Silver half drachmas (?)/diobols (?) (as per the system of Aegina) of the type “upright anchor with thin flukes and a thin shaft - swastika in a deep groove” (550-540/535 B.C.)
Obverse: Upright anchor with thin flukes and a thin stock. Side view of the additional symbol of a crab l. between the fluke and the stock.
Reverse: Schematic view of a swastika with arms bent to the left deeply engraved in the flan.
Jaimelai
2760053.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 09 - Silver Drachm62 views550-540/535 B.C.
4.15 gm, 11.5-15.5 mm
Obv: Upright anchor; blank to left, crayfish to right
Rev.: Swastika arms bent right
Topalov Apollonia p. 564, 9

Topalov Type: “Upright Anchor a crab viewed sideways – Swastika in a deep grove” (550-540/535 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with thin flukes and a thin stock. Side view of the additional symbol of a crab right between the fluke and the stock.
Rev.: Schematic view of a swastika with arms bent to the right deeply engraved in the flan.
1 commentsJaimelai
AP_50.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 10 - Silver Drachm60 views540-535/525 B.C.
3.51 gm., 13.5 mm.
Obv: Anchor; blank to left, crayfish to right
Rev.: Swastika with arms bent left, dolphins with heads pointed outward in-between each arm
Topalov Apollonia p. 566, 12, p.250-3, 1-16
SNG Stancomb 30

Topalov Type: “Upright Anchor – Swastika: First Intermediate Issues” (540-535/525 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with thin flukes and a thin stock. Side view of the additional symbol of a crab (or view from above) right between the fluke and the stock.
Rev.: Schematic view of a swastika in sectors concave with arms bent to the left. A dolphin as an additional symbol in every one of the sectors. Dolphins’ heads point from the center of the swastika outwards.

Jaimelai
AP_50~2.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 12 - Silver Drachm56 views525-519/512 B.C.
3.47 gm, 14 mm
Obv: Upright anchor with thin flukes and thin stock; blank to left, crayfish to right
Rev.: Swastika arms bent left, deeply engraved into flan with dolphin in each sector, head facing to center, raised areas ending in teeth
Topalov Apollonia p. 255-7, 1-5; p. 564, 12;
SNG Bulgaria 2, 60-63; SNG Stancomb 31;
[SNG Copenhagen 451]

Topalov Type: The last intermediate issues of coins of the type “upright anchor - swastika” have a swastika represented like a sketch and consisting of four concave sectors ending with “teeth”. Dolphins’ head points to the center of the swastika.

Drachmas (?)/tetrobols (?) (as per the system of Aegina) of the type “upright anchor with thin flukes and a thin stock - swastika in a deep groove” (525-519/512 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with thin flukes and a thin stock. Side view of the additional symbol of a crab (or viewed from above) r. between the fluke and the stock.
Rev.: Swastika represented like a sketch and consisting of four concave sectors ending with “teeth”. A dolphin as an additional symbol in every one of the sectors. Dolphins’ head points to the center of the swastika.
Jaimelai
Apollonia_50.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 12 - Silver Drachm18 views525-519/512 B.C.
3.51 gm, 13 mm
Obv: Upright anchor with thin flukes and thin stock; blank to left, crayfish to right
Rev.: Swastika arms bent left, deeply engraved into flan with dolphin in each sector, head facing to center, raised areas ending in teeth
Topalov Apollonia p. 255-7, 1-5; p. 564, 12;
SNG Bulgaria 2, 60-63; SNG Stancomb 31;
[SNG Copenhagen 451]

Topalov Type: The last intermediate issues of coins of the type “upright anchor - swastika” have a swastika represented like a sketch and consisting of four concave sectors ending with “teeth”. Dolphins’ head points to the center of the swastika.

Drachmas (?)/tetrobols (?) (as per the system of Aegina) of the type “upright anchor with thin flukes and a thin stock - swastika in a deep groove” (525-519/512 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with thin flukes and a thin stock. Side view of the additional symbol of a crab (or viewed from above) r. between the fluke and the stock.
Rev.: Swastika represented like a sketch and consisting of four concave sectors ending with “teeth”. A dolphin as an additional symbol in every one of the sectors. Dolphins’ head points to the center of the swastika.
Jaimelai
Capture_00049~0.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 38 - Silver Drachm46 views480/478 – 470 B.C.
2.92 gm., 12.5-14 mm.
Obv: Anchor; blank to left, crayfish to right
Rev.: Gorgon head facing in archaic Ionian style with hair in pellets
Topalov Apollonia p. 584, 38
BMC Mysia p.8, 3, Pl.II, 2

Topalov Type: Upright Anchor - Gorgon's Head: First Early Issues (480/478-470 B.C)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes on a curved stock. Image of a crab viewed from above on the right between the fluke and the stock. Letter “A” missing.
Rev.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the archaic Ionian style with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormally open mouth, long teeth and toungue. Instead of hair there are snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.

These "Early-Issue" Medusa coins may have been reminted on the earlier swastika type Apollonia drachmas (from Topalov Apollonia 2007)
Jaimelai
015~1.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 38 - Silver Drachm65 views480 – 470 B.C.
3.25 gm., 13-15.5 mm.
Obv: Anchor; blank to left, crayfish to right
Rev.: Archaic Ionian Gorgon head facing with single row pearl headdress
Topalov Apollonia p.584, 38
BMC Mysia p.8, 3, Pl.II, 2

Topalov Type: Upright Anchor - Gorgon's Head: First Early Issues (480/478-470 B.C)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes on a curved stock. Image of a crab viewed from above on the right between the fluke and the stock. Letter “A” missing.
Rev.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the archaic Ionian style with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormally open mouth, long teeth and tongue. Instead of hair there are snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.
Jaimelai
34.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 38 - Silver Drachm 79 views480/478 – 470 B.C.
3.24 gm., 14 mm.
Obv: Anchor; blank to left, crayfish to right
Rev.: Gorgon head facing in archaic Ionian style with hair in pellets
Topalov Apollonia p. 584, 38
BMC Mysia p.8, 3, Pl.II, 2

Topalov Type: Upright Anchor - Gorgon's Head: First Early Issues (480/478-470 B.C)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes on a curved stock. Image of a crab viewed from above on the right between the fluke and the stock. Letter “A” missing.
Rev.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the archaic Ionian style with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormaly open mouth, long teeth and toungue. Instead of hair there are snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.

Description from Topalov Apollonia 2007
2 commentsJaimelai
AP_comp_(2).jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 38 - Silver Drachm 53 views480/478 – 470 B.C.
3.12 gm., 14 mm.
Obv: Anchor; blank to left, crayfish to right
Rev.: Gorgon head facing in archaic Ionian style with hair in pellets
Topalov Apollonia p. 584, 38
BMC Mysia p.8, 3, Pl.II, 2

Topalov Type: Upright Anchor - Gorgon's Head: First Early Issues (480/478-470 B.C)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes on a curved stock. Image of a crab viewed from above on the right between the fluke and the stock. Letter “A” missing.
Rev.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the archaic Ionian style with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormaly open mouth, long teeth and toungue. Instead of hair there are snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.

Description from Topalov Apollonia 2007

WARNING! Possible Black Cabinet candidate - very similar to Reid Goldsborough Apollonia Pontika New York Hoard Specimen # 40.
Jaimelai
dolphins_50.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 38 - Silver Drachm90 views480/478 – 470 B.C.
Silver Drachm
3.36 gm., 15 mm.
Obv: Anchor; blank to left, crayfish to right
Rev.: Gorgon head facing in archaic Ionian style with hair in pellets
Topalov Apollonia p.584, 38 struck over Topalov Apollonia p. 566, 10
BMC Mysia p.8, 3, Pl.II, 2

Topalov Type 38: “Upright anchor, crab right - full-face Gorgon's head" first early issues” (480/478-470 B.C)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes on a curved stock. Image of a crab viewed from above on the right between the fluke and the stock. Letter “A” missing.
Rev.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the archaic Ionian style with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormally open mouth, long teeth and tongue. Instead of hair there are snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.
-struck over-
Topalov Type 10: “Upright anchor with thin flukes and thin shaft – Swastika ia a concave square with four dolphins as additional symbols" (540-535/525 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with thin flukes and a thin stock. Side view of the additional symbol of a crab (or view from above) right, between the fluke and the stock.
Rev.: Schematic view of a swastika in sectors concave with arms bent to the left. A dolphin as an additional symbol in every one of the sectors. Dolphins’ heads point from the center of the swastika outwards.
2 commentsJaimelai
174.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 42 - Silver Drachm 84 views450 – 424 B.C.
3.26 gm, 14.5 mm
Obv.: Anchor; crayfish to left, A to right
Rev: Archaic Ionian Gorgon head facing with beaded hair in tuffs, surrounded by thin snakes
Topalov Apollonia p. 586, 42 (corrected)
Sear p. 165, 1655

Topalov Type: Upright Anchor - Gorgon's Head: Late Issues (450-424 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes and curved stock. An additional symbol of a crab viewed from above left between the fluke and the stock and the letter “A” right.
Rev.: Full-face Gordon's head in the archaic Ionian style with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormaly open mouth, long teeth and toungue. Instead of hair there are snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.

Description from Topalov Apollonia 2007
1 commentsJaimelai
3.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 42 - Silver Drachm 76 views450 – 425 B.C.
3.32 gm, 13.5 mm
Obv.: Anchor; crayfish to left, A to right
Rev: Archaic Ionian Gorgon head facing with beaded hair, surrounded by thin snakes
Topalov Apollonia p. 586, 42 (corrected)
Sear p. 165, 1655

Topalov Type: "Upright Anchor, a crab as an additional symbol on the left, A on the right - Gorgon's Head" Late Issues (450-425 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes and curved stock. An additional symbol of a crab viewed from above left between the fluke and the stock and the letter “A” right.
Rev.: Full-face Gordon's head in the archaic Ionian style with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormaly open mouth, long teeth and toungue. Instead of hair there are snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.
1 commentsJaimelai
AP42_33.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 42 - Silver Drachm33 views450 – 425 B.C.
3.28 gm, 15 mm
Obv.: Anchor; crayfish to left, A to right
Rev: Archaic Ionian Gorgon head facing with beaded hair, surrounded by snakes
Topalov Apollonia p. 586, 42 (corrected)
Sear p. 165, 1655

Topalov Type: "Upright Anchor, a crab as an additional symbol on the left, A on the right - Gorgon's Head" Late Issues (450-425 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes and curved stock. An additional symbol of a crab viewed from above left between the fluke and the stock and the letter “A” right.
Rev.: Full-face Gordon's head in the archaic Ionian style with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormaly open mouth, long teeth and toungue. Instead of hair there are snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.
Jaimelai
AP_25.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 42 - Silver Drachm 30 views450 – 424 B.C.
3.19 gm, 15.3 mm
Obv.: Anchor; crayfish to left, A to right
Rev: Archaic Ionian Gorgon head facing with beaded hair in tuffs, surrounded by thin snakes
Topalov Apollonia p. 586, 42 (corrected)
Sear p. 165, 1655

Topalov Type: Upright Anchor - Gorgon's Head: Late Issues (450-424 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes and curved stock. An additional symbol of a crab viewed from above left between the fluke and the stock and the letter “A” right.
Rev.: Full-face Gordon's head in the archaic Ionian style with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormaly open mouth, long teeth and toungue. Instead of hair there are snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.

Description from Topalov Apollonia 2007
Jaimelai
AP3_a.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 44 - Silver Drachm103 views450 - 425 B.C.
3.16 gm, 13-14 mm
Obv.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right
Rev: Gorgon head facing in tufts parted in middle

Topalov Type: "Upright Anchor a crab as an additional symbol and the letter A on the left or right - Full-Face Gorgon's Head" Last Late Issues (450-425 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes and solid stock. An additional symbol of a crab viewed from above left and the letter A right (or visa versa) between the fluke and the stock.
Rev.: Full-face of a noble Gorgon's head with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormaly open mouth, long teeth and tongue. Human hair mixed with snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.
Jaimelai
AP2_a.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 44 - Silver Drachm61 views450 - 425 B.C.
3.13 gm, 13-15 mm
Obv.: Anchor; crayfish to left, A to right
Rev: Gorgon head facing, narrow forehead, hair in tufts

Topalov Type: "Upright Anchor a crab as an additional symbol and the letter A on the left or right - Full-Face Gorgon's Head" Last Late Issues (450-425 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes and solid stock. An additional symbol of a crab viewed from above left and the letter A right (or visa versa) between the fluke and the stock.
Rev.: Full-face of a noble Gorgon's head with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormaly open mouth, long teeth and tongue. Human hair mixed with snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.
Jaimelai
a05_626.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 44 - Silver Drachm97 views450 - 425 B.C.
3.15 gm, 13.5 - 15 mm
Rev: Gorgon head facing with hair parted in the middle
Obv.: Anchor; crayfish to left, A to right

Topalov Type: "Upright Anchor a crab as an additional symbol and the letter A on the left or right - Full-Face Gorgon's Head" Last Late Issues (450-425 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes and solid stock. An additional symbol of a crab viewed from above left and the letter A right (or visa versa) between the fluke and the stock.
Rev.: Full-face of a noble Gorgon's head with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormaly open mouth, long teeth and tongue. Human hair mixed with snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.
1 commentsJaimelai
Capture_00003b.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 44 - Silver Drachm59 views450 – 425 B.C.
3.26 gm, 13-14 mm
Rev: Archaic Ionian Gorgon head facing with hair in tufts
Obv.: Anchor; crayfish to left, A to right
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 44
Sear p. 165, 1655

Topalov Type: "Upright Anchor, a crab as an additional symbol and the letter A on the left or on the right - Full-face Gorgon's Head" Last Late Issues (450-425 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes and solid stock. An additional symbol of a crab viewed from above left and the letter A right (or visa versa) between the fluke and the stock.
Rev.: Full-face of a noble Gorgon's head with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormaly open mouth, long teeth and toungue. Human hair mixed with snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.
Jaimelai
ap3_50~0.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 44 - Silver Drachm43 views450 – 424 B.C.
3.31 gm, 13.2 mm
Obv.: Anchor; A to right, crayfish to left.
Rev: Archaic Ionian Gorgon head facing with straight vertical hair with wavy bangs; elaborate design with pronounced face wrinkles and spoked wheel/star pattern ear-rings, on a webbed aegis shield tipped with coiled snakes.
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 44; Sear 1655;
BMC 15, p. 8 5-7& 9; SNG BM Black Sea 156

Certified Authentic by David R. Sear (A.C.C.S. Ref. 501CR/GC/CO/CD)

Topalov Type: "Upright Anchor, a crab as an additional symbol and the letter A on the left or on the right - Full-face Gorgon's Head" Last Late Issues (450-425 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes and solid stock. An additional symbol of a crab viewed from above left and the letter A right (or visa versa) between the fluke and the stock.
Rev.: Full-face of a noble Gorgon's head with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormaly open mouth, long teeth and toungue. Human hair mixed with snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.
2 commentsJaimelai
018b2.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 44 - Silver Drachm44 views450 – 425 B.C.
3.24 gm, 14 mm
Obv.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right
Rev: Noble Attic Gorgon head facing with straight vertical hair with wavy bangs
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 44; Sear 1655 var.

Topalov Type: "Upright Anchor, a crab as an additional symbol and the letter A on the left or on the right - Full-face Gorgon's Head" Last Late Issues (450-425 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes and solid stock. An additional symbol of a crab viewed from above and the letter “A” right (or visa versa) between the fluke and the stock.
Rev.: Full-face of a noble Gorgon's head with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormaly open mouth, long teeth and toungue. Human hair mixed with snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.

Description from Topalov Apollonia 2007
Jaimelai
002_2~1.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 44 - Silver Drachm39 views450 – 425 B.C.
3.16 gm, 14 mm
Obv.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right
Rev: Noble Attic Gorgon head facing with straight vertical hair with wavy bangs
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 44; Sear 1655 var.

Topalov Type: "Upright Anchor, a crab as an additional symbol and the letter A on the left or on the right - Full-face Gorgon's Head" Last Late Issues (450-425 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes and solid stock. An additional symbol of a crab viewed from above and the letter “A” right (or visa versa) between the fluke and the stock.
Rev.: Full-face of a noble Gorgon's head with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormaly open mouth, long teeth and toungue. Human hair mixed with snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.

Description from Topalov Apollonia 2007
Jaimelai
012~0.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 44 - Silver Drachm46 views450 – 425 B.C.
3.21 gm, 14 mm
Obv.: Anchor; crayfish to left, A to right
Rev: Noble Attic Gorgon head facing with straight vertical hair with wavy bangs
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 44; Sear 1655 var.

Topalov Type: "Upright Anchor, a crab as an additional symbol and the letter A on the left or on the right - Full-face Gorgon's Head" Last Late Issues (450-425 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes and solid stock. An additional symbol of a crab viewed from above and the letter “A” right (or visa versa) between the fluke and the stock.
Rev.: Full-face of a noble Gorgon's head with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormaly open mouth, long teeth and toungue. Human hair mixed with snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.

Description from Topalov Apollonia 2007
1 commentsJaimelai
AP11_a~0.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 44 - Silver Drachm34 views450 – 425 B.C.
3.13 gm, 12-14 mm
Obv.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right
Rev: Noble Attic Gorgon head facing with straight vertical hair with wavy bangs
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 44; Sear 1655 var.

Topalov Type: "Upright Anchor, a crab as an additional symbol and the letter A on the left or on the right - Full-face Gorgon's Head" Last Late Issues (450-425 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes and solid stock. An additional symbol of a crab viewed from above and the letter “A” right (or visa versa) between the fluke and the stock.
Rev.: Full-face of a noble Gorgon's head with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormaly open mouth, long teeth and toungue. Human hair mixed with snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.

Description from Topalov Apollonia 2007
Jaimelai
Capture_00016_(2)~0.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 44 - Silver Drachm44 views450 – 425 B.C.
3.28 gm, 14 mm
Obv.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right
Rev: Noble Attic Gorgon head facing with straight vertical hair with straight bangs parted in the middle
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 44; Sear 1655 var.

Topalov Type: "Upright Anchor, a crab as an additional symbol and the letter A on the left or on the right - Full-face Gorgon's Head" Last Late Issues (450-425 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes and solid stock. An additional symbol of a crab viewed from above and the letter “A” right (or visa versa) between the fluke and the stock.
Rev.: Full-face of a noble Gorgon's head with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormaly open mouth, long teeth and toungue. Human hair mixed with snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.

Description from Topalov Apollonia 2007
Jaimelai
AP5_b2.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 44 - Silver Drachm33 views450 - 425 B.C.
3.13 gm, 13 mm
Obv.: Anchor; crayfish to left, A to right
Rev: Gorgon head facing with hair in tufts

Topalov Type: "Upright Anchor a crab as an additional symbol and the letter A on the left or right - Full-Face Gorgon's Head" Last Late Issues (450-425 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes and solid stock. An additional symbol of a crab viewed from above left and the letter A right (or visa versa) between the fluke and the stock.
Rev.: Full-face of a noble Gorgon's head with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormaly open mouth, long teeth and tongue. Human hair mixed with snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.
Jaimelai
7.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 44 - Silver Drachm 56 views450 – 425 B.C.
3.14 gm, 15 mm
Obv.: Anchor; A to right, crayfish to left.
Rev: Archaic Ionian Gorgon head facing with wild hair and snakes
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 44
Sear Vol. 1, p. 165, 1655

Topalov Type: "Upright Anchor a crab as an additional symbol and the letter A on the left or right - Full-Face Gorgon's Head" Last Late Issues (450-425 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes and solid stock. An additional symbol of a crab viewed from above left and
the letter A right (or visa versa) between the fluke and the stock.
Rev.: Full-face of a noble Gorgon's head with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormaly open mouth, long teeth and tongue. Human hair mixed with snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.
Jaimelai
AP5_a~0.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 44 - Silver Drachm 37 views450 - 425 B.C.
3.20 gm, 12-14 mm
Obv.: Anchor; crayfish to left, A to right
Rev: Gorgon head facing with hair in tufts

Topalov Type: "Upright Anchor a crab as an additional symbol and the letter A on the left or right - Full-Face Gorgon's Head" Last Late Issues (450-425 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes and solid stock. An additional symbol of a crab viewed from above left and the letter A right (or visa versa) between the fluke and the stock.
Rev.: Full-face of a noble Gorgon's head with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormaly open mouth, long teeth and tongue. Human hair mixed with snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.
Jaimelai
011~0.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 44 - Silver Drachm 36 views450 – 425 B.C.
3.24 gm, 13 mm
Obv.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right
Rev: Archaic Ionian Gorgon head facing with straight vertical hair with wavy bangs
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 44; Sear 1655 var.

Topalov Type: "Upright Anchor, a crab as an additional symbol and the letter A on the left or on the right - Full-face Gorgon's Head" Last Late Issues (450-425 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes and solid stock. An additional symbol of a crab viewed from above and the letter “A” right (or visa versa) between the fluke and the stock.
Rev.: Full-face of a noble Gorgon's head with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormaly open mouth, long teeth and toungue. Human hair mixed with snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.

Description from Topalov Apollonia 2007
Jaimelai
ap_33~0.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 44 - Silver Drachm27 views450 - 425 B.C.
3.09 gm, 14.3 mm
Obv.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right
Rev: Gorgon head facing in tufts parted in middle

Topalov Type: "Upright Anchor a crab as an additional symbol and the letter A on the left or right - Full-Face Gorgon's Head" Last Late Issues (450-425 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes and solid stock. An additional symbol of a crab viewed from above left and the letter A right (or visa versa) between the fluke and the stock.
Rev.: Full-face of a noble Gorgon's head with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormaly open mouth, long teeth and tongue. Human hair mixed with snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.
Jaimelai
ap_real_50.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 44 - Silver Drachm45 views450 – 424 B.C.
3.27 gm, 13.7 mm
Obv.: Anchor; A to right, crayfish to left.
Rev: Archaic Ionian Gorgon head facing with straight vertical hair with wavy bangs
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 44;
Sear 1655;
BMC 15, p. 8 5-7& 9;
SNG BM Black Sea 153-6 & 158

Certified Authentic by David Sear (A.C.C.S. Ref. 502CR/GC/CO/CD)

Note: From same dies as the source coin of the series of cast fakes (see Fake Coin Reports)

Topalov Type 44: Upright Anchor - Gorgon's Head: Last Late Issues (450-424 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes and solid stock. An additional symbol of a crab viewed from above left between the fluke and the stock and the letter “A” right (or visa versa).
Rev.: Full-face of a noble Gorgon's head with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormally open mouth, long teeth and tongue. Human hair mixed with snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.
2 commentsJaimelai
ap44.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 44 - Silver Drachm24 views450 – 424 B.C.
3.20 gm, 13 mm
Obv.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right
Rev.: Attic Gorgon head facing with straight vertical hair and wavy bangs, snaky ringlets circle face
Topalov Apollonia p.348, 11; p.588, 44

Topalov Type: Upright Anchor - Gorgon's Head: Last Late Issues (450-424 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes and solid stock. An additional symbol of a crab viewed from above left between the fluke and the stock and the letter “A” right (or visa versa).
Rev.: Full-face of a noble Gorgon's head with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormally open mouth, long teeth and tongue. Human hair mixed with snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.
Jaimelai
44_50.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 44 - Silver Drachm20 views450 – 425 B.C.
3.18 gm, 15.98 mm
Obv.: Inverted anchor; crayfish to left, A to right
Rev: Noble Attic Gorgon head facing with wavy hair parted in the middle
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 44; Sear 1655; HGC 3, 1323

Topalov Type: "Upright Anchor, a crab as an additional symbol and the letter A on the left or on the right - Full-face Gorgon's Head" Last Late Issues (450-425 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes and solid stock. An additional symbol of a crab viewed from above and the letter “A” right (or visa versa) between the fluke and the stock.
Rev.: Full-face of a noble Gorgon's head with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormaly open mouth, long teeth and tongue. Human hair mixed with snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.

Description from Topalov Apollonia 2007
Jaimelai
016~4.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 44 - Siver Drachm40 views450 – 425 B.C.
3.17 g., 13-15 mm.
Rev: Archaic Ionian Gorgon head facing with wavy hair parted in middle
Obv.: Anchor; crayfish to left, A to right
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 44
Sear p. 165, 1655

Topalov Type: "Upright Anchor a crab as an additional symbol and the letter A on the left or right - Full-Face Gorgon's Head" Last Late Issues (450-425 B.C.)
Obv.: Upright anchor with large flukes and solid stock. An additional symbol of a crab viewed from above left and the letter A right (or visa versa) between the fluke and the stock.
Rev.: Full-face of a noble Gorgon's head with a low narrow forehead, projecting eyebrows and eyes, a short flat nose, abnormaly open mouth, long teeth and tongue. Human hair mixed with snakes with thin bodies. The image in a concave circle.
Jaimelai
072.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 45 - Silver Drachm61 views450-424 or 410/404 B.C.
2.91 gm, 15 mm
Obv: Gorgon head facing, snaky ringlets circle face.
Rev.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 45; p. 348, 9
Sear 1655var; BMC Mysia p.9, 11

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Gorgon's Head – Upright Anchor, a crab on the right, the letter A on the left or the letter A on the right and a crab on the left" Main Issue (450-424 or 410/404 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the classical Attic style. Gorgon's features are noble in conformity with the Attic manner of portraying her and Gorgon has more human hair in addition to the snakes.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes, the letter A on one side, a crab as an additional symbol viewed from above on the other side. The image in a concave circle.

Forvm purchase - Description from Topalov Apollonia 2007
Jaimelai
AP13_c.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 45 - Silver Drachm60 views450-424 or 410/404 B.C.
2.89 gm, 15 mm
Obv: Gorgon head facing, snaky ringlets circle face.
Rev.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 45; p. 348, 9
Sear 1655var; BMC Mysia p.9, 11

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Gorgon's Head – Upright Anchor, a crab on the right, the letter A on the left or the letter A on the right and a crab on the left" Main Issue (450-424 or 410/404 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the classical Attic style. Gorgon's features are noble in conformity with the Attic manner of portraying her and Gorgon has more human hair in addition to the snakes.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes, the letter A on one side, a crab as an additional symbol viewed from above on the other side. The image in a concave circle.
Jaimelai
AP13_d.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 45 - Silver Drachm65 views450-424 or 410/404 B.C.
2.87 gm, 14 mm
Obv: Gorgon head facing, snaky ringlets circle face.
Rev.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 45; p. 348, 9
Sear 1655var; BMC Mysia p.9, 11

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Gorgon's Head – Upright Anchor, a crab on the right, the letter A on the left or the letter A on the right and a crab on the left" Main Issue (450-424 or 410/404 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the classical Attic style. Gorgon's features are noble in conformity with the Attic manner of portraying her and Gorgon has more human hair in addition to the snakes.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes, the letter A on one side, a crab as an additional symbol viewed from above on the other side. The image in a concave circle.
Jaimelai
AP13_b.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 45 - Silver Drachm69 views450-424 or 410/404 B.C.
2.86 gm, 13-14 mm
Obv: Gorgon head facing, snaky ringlets circle face.
Rev.: Anchor; crayfish to left, A to right
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 45; p.348, 9
Sear 1655var; BMC Mysia p.9, 11

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Gorgon's Head – Upright Anchor, a crab on the right, the letter A on the left or the letter A on the right and a crab on the left" Main Issue (450-424 or 410/404 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the classical Attic style. Gorgon's features are noble in conformity with the Attic manner of portraying her and Gorgon has more human hair in addition to the snakes.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes, the letter A on one side, a crab as an additional symbol viewed from above on the other side. The image in a concave circle.
1 commentsJaimelai
AP13_a.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 45 - Silver Drachm51 views450-424 or 410/404 B.C.
2.85 gm, 12-14 mm
Obv: Gorgon head facing, snaky ringlets circle face.
Rev.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 45; p.348, 9
Sear 1655var; BMC Mysia p.9, 11

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Gorgon's Head – Upright Anchor, a crab on the right, the letter A on the left or the letter A on the right and a crab on the left" Main Issue (450-424 or 410/404 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the classical Attic style. Gorgon's features are noble in conformity with the Attic manner of portraying her and Gorgon has more human hair in addition to the snakes.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes, the letter A on one side, a crab as an additional symbol viewed from above on the other side. The image in a concave circle.
Jaimelai
AP13_e.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 45 - Silver Drachm59 views450-424 or 410/404 B.C.
2.85 gm, 15 mm
Obv: Gorgon head facing, snaky ringlets circle face.
Rev.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 45; p.348, 9
Sear 1655var; BMC Mysia p.9, 11

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Gorgon's Head – Upright Anchor, a crab on the right, the letter A on the left or the letter A on the right and a crab on the left" Main Issue (450-424 or 410/404 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the classical Attic style. Gorgon's features are noble in conformity with the Attic manner of portraying her and Gorgon has more human hair in addition to the snakes.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes, the letter A on one side, a crab as an additional symbol viewed from above on the other side. The image in a concave circle.
Jaimelai
010.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 45 - Silver Drachm51 views450-424 or 410/404 B.C.
2.82 gm, 14 mm
Obv: Gorgon head facing, snaky ringlets circle face.
Rev.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 45; p.348, 9
Sear 1655var; BMC Mysia p.9, 11

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Gorgon's Head – Upright Anchor, a crab on the right, the letter A on the left or the letter A on the right and a crab on the left" Main Issue (450-424 or 410/404 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the classical Attic style. Gorgon's features are noble in conformity with the Attic manner of portraying her and Gorgon has more human hair in addition to the snakes.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes, the letter A on one side, a crab as an additional symbol viewed from above on the other side. The image in a concave circle.

Forvm purchase - Description from Topalov Apollonia 2007
Jaimelai
a1_50.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 45 - Silver Drachm51 views450-424 or 410/404 B.C.
2.85 gm, 15 mm
Obv: Gorgon head facing, snaky ringlets circle face.
Rev.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 45; p.348, 9
Sear 1655var; BMC Mysia p.9, 11

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Gorgon's Head – Upright Anchor, a crab on the right, the letter A on the left or the letter A on the right and a crab on the left" Main Issue (450-424 or 410/404 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the classical Attic style. Gorgon's features are noble in conformity with the Attic manner of portraying her and Gorgon has more human hair in addition to the snakes.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes, the letter A on one side, a crab as an additional symbol viewed from above on the other side. The image in a concave circle.450 – 404 B.C.
Jaimelai
005~4.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 45 - Silver Drachm45 views450-424 or 410/404 B.C.
2.80 gm, 15 mm
Obv: Gorgon head facing, snaky ringlets circle face.
Rev.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 45; p.348, 9
Sear 1655var; BMC Mysia p.9, 11

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Gorgon's Head – Upright Anchor, a crab on the right, the letter A on the left or the letter A on the right and a crab on the left" Main Issue (450-424 or 410/404 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the classical Attic style. Gorgon's features are noble in conformity with the Attic manner of portraying her and Gorgon has more human hair in addition to the snakes.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes, the letter A on one side, a crab as an additional symbol viewed from above on the other side. The image in a concave circle.
Jaimelai
015~2.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 45 - Silver Drachm 28 views450-424 or 410/404 B.C.
2.67 gm, 15 mm
Obv: Gorgon head facing, snaky ringlets circle face.
Rev.: Anchor; crayfish to left, A to right
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 45; p.348, 9
Sear 1655var; BMC Mysia p.9, 11;
SNG Bulgaria II 322-324

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Gorgon's Head – Upright Anchor, a crab on the right, the letter A on the left or the letter A on the right and a crab on the left" Main Issue (450-424 or 410/404 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the classical Attic style. Gorgon's features are noble in conformity with the Attic manner of portraying her and Gorgon has more human hair in addition to the snakes.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes, the letter A on one side, a crab as an additional symbol viewed from above on the other side. The image in a concave circle.
Jaimelai
016~5.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 45 - Silver Drachm64 views450 – 404 B.C.
Silver drachm
2.81 gm, 14 mm
Obv: Attic Gorgon head facing, hair in single row of large beads, head surrounded by long snakes tied in bow at top of head.
Rev.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right with large chelipeds folded back
Topalov Apollonia p.588, 45; p.347, 4
Sear 1655var

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Gorgon's Head – Upright Anchor, a crab on the right, the letter A on the left or the letter A on the right and a crab on the left" Main Issue (450-424 or 410/404 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the classical Attic style. Gorgon's features are noble in conformity with the Attic manner of portraying her and Gorgon has more human hair in addition to the snakes.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes, the letter A on one side, a crab as an additional symbol viewed from above on the other side. The image in a concave circle.
1 commentsJaimelai
005_(2)~0.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 45 - Silver Drachm58 views450 – 404 B.C.
Silver drachm
2.85 gm, 13-15 mm
Obv: Attic Gorgon head facing, snaky ringlets circle face.
Rev.: Anchor; crayfish to left, A to right
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 45; p.348, 9;
Sear 1655var; BMC Mysia p.9, 11

Topalov Type: Gorgon's Head – Upright Anchor: Basic (Main) Issue (450-424 or 410/404 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the classical Attic style. Gorgon's features are noble in conformity with the Attic manner of portraying her and Gorgon has more human hair in addition to the snakes.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes, the letter A on one side, a crab as an additional symbol viewed from above on the other side. The image in a concave circle.

Die match to another of my coins and to CNG 806828
2 commentsJaimelai
Capture_00008_(2).JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 45 - Silver Drachm37 views450 – 404 B.C.
Silver drachm
2.87 gm, 13.5 mm
Obv: Attic Gorgon head facing, snaky ringlets circle face.
Rev.: Anchor; crayfish to left, A to right
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 45; p.348, 9;
Sear 1655var; BMC Mysia p.9, 11

Topalov Type: Gorgon's Head – Upright Anchor: Basic (Main) Issue (450-424 or 410/404 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the classical Attic style. Gorgon's features are noble in conformity with the Attic manner of portraying her and Gorgon has more human hair in addition to the snakes.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes, the letter A on one side, a crab as an additional symbol viewed from above on the other side. The image in a concave circle.

Die match to another of my coins and to CNG 806828
1 commentsJaimelai
45_33.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 45 - Silver Drachm25 views450 – 404 B.C.
Silver drachm
2.81 gm, 15 mm
Obv: Attic Gorgon head facing with human hair surrounded by snakes
Rev.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right with large chelipeds folded back
Topalov Apollonia p.588, 45; p.347, 6;
Sear 1655var

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Gorgon's Head – Upright Anchor, a crab on the right, the letter A on the left or the letter A on the right and a crab on the left" Main Issue (450-424 or 410/404 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the classical Attic style. Gorgon's features are noble in conformity with the Attic manner of portraying her and Gorgon has more human hair in addition to the snakes.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes, the letter A on one side, a crab as an additional symbol viewed from above on the other side. The image in a concave circle.
Jaimelai
45_33~0.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 45 - Silver Drachm36 views450 – 404 B.C.
Silver drachm
2.61 gm, 14 mm
Obv: Attic Gorgon head facing with human hair surrounded by snakes
Rev.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right with large chelipeds folded back
Topalov Apollonia p.588, 45; p.347, 6;
Sear 1655var

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Gorgon's Head – Upright Anchor, a crab on the right, the letter A on the left or the letter A on the right and a crab on the left" Main Issue (450-424 or 410/404 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the classical Attic style. Gorgon's features are noble in conformity with the Attic manner of portraying her and Gorgon has more human hair in addition to the snakes.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes, the letter A on one side, a crab as an additional symbol viewed from above on the other side. The image in a concave circle.
1 commentsJaimelai
ap_50~1.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 45 - Silver Drachm27 views450 – 404 B.C.
Silver drachm
2.82 gm, 14 mm
Obv: Attic Gorgon head facing with human hair surrounded by snakes
Rev.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right with large chelipeds folded back
Topalov Apollonia p.588, 45; p.347, 6;
Sear 1655var

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Gorgon's Head – Upright Anchor, a crab on the right, the letter A on the left or the letter A on the right and a crab on the left" Main Issue (450-424 or 410/404 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the classical Attic style. Gorgon's features are noble in conformity with the Attic manner of portraying her and Gorgon has more human hair in addition to the snakes.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes, the letter A on one side, a crab as an additional symbol viewed from above on the other side. The image in a concave circle.
Jaimelai
AP_50~3.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 45 - Silver Drachm16 views450 – 404 B.C.
Silver drachm
2.71 gm, 14 mm
Obv: Attic Gorgon head facing, hair in single row of large beads, head surrounded by long snakes tied in bow at top of head.
Rev.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right with large chelipeds folded back
Topalov Apollonia p.588, 45; p.347, 4
Sear 1655var

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Gorgon's Head – Upright Anchor, a crab on the right, the letter A on the left or the letter A on the right and a crab on the left" Main Issue (450-424 or 410/404 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the classical Attic style. Gorgon's features are noble in conformity with the Attic manner of portraying her and Gorgon has more human hair in addition to the snakes.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes, the letter A on one side, a crab as an additional symbol viewed from above on the other side. The image in a concave circle.

Similar to another one of my coins though a tab bit more weathered!
Jaimelai
AP33.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 45 - Silver Drachm17 views450-424 or 410/404 B.C.
2.71 gm, 14 mm
Obv: Gorgon head facing, snaky ringlets circle face.
Rev.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 45; p.348, 9
Sear 1655var; BMC Mysia p.9, 11

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Gorgon's Head – Upright Anchor, a crab on the right, the letter A on the left or the letter A on the right and a crab on the left" Main Issue (450-424 or 410/404 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the classical Attic style. Gorgon's features are noble in conformity with the Attic manner of portraying her and Gorgon has more human hair in addition to the snakes.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes, the letter A on one side, a crab as an additional symbol viewed from above on the other side. The image in a concave circle.
Jaimelai
app_15.png
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 45 - Silver Drachm2 views450-424 or 410/404 B.C.
2.89 gm, 15 mm
Obv: Gorgon head facing, snaky ringlets circle face.
Rev.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 45; p. 348, 9
Sear 1655var; BMC Mysia p.9, 11
SNG Bulgaria II 301-309

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Gorgon's Head – Upright Anchor, a crab on the right, the letter A on the left or the letter A on the right and a crab on the left" Main Issue (450-424 or 410/404 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the classical Attic style. Gorgon's features are noble in conformity with the Attic manner of portraying her and Gorgon has more human hair in addition to the snakes.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes, the letter A on one side, a crab as an additional symbol viewed from above on the other side. The image in a concave circle.
Jaimelai
ap_50~0.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 45(i?) - Silver Drachm24 views450 – 424 or 410/404 B.C.
Silver Drachm, Thracian Imitation?
2.39 gm, 14.5 mm
Obv: Attic Gorgon head facing, snaky ringlets
circle face.
Rev.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p.588, 45; p.348, 9
Sear 1655var;
BMC Mysia p.9, 11
SNG BM Black Sea 160/61

Topalov Type 45 – Gorgon's Head – Upright Anchor: Basic (Main) Issue (450-424 or 410/404 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the classical Attic style. Gorgon's features are noble in conformity with the Attic manner of portraying her and Gorgon has more human hair in addition to the snakes.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes, the letter A on one side, a crab as an additional symbol viewed from above on the other side. The image in a concave circle.
Jaimelai
a01_3.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 45i - Silver Drachm61 views450-424 or 410/404 B.C.
2.82 gm, 14 mm
Obv: Gorgon head facing, snaky ringlets circle face.
Rev.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 45; p.348, 9
Sear 1655var; BMC Mysia p.9, 11

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Gorgon's Head – Upright Anchor, a crab on the right, the letter A on the left or the letter A on the right and a crab on the left" Main Issue (450-424 or 410/404 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the classical Attic style. Gorgon's features are noble in conformity with the Attic manner of portraying her and Gorgon has more human hair in addition to the snakes.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes, the letter A on one side, a crab as an additional symbol viewed from above on the other side. The image in a concave circle.

Appears to die match previous coin
Jaimelai
a02.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 45i - Silver Drachm69 views450-424 or 410/404 B.C.
2.77 gm, 14 mm
Obv: Gorgon head facing, snaky ringlets circle face.
Rev.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 45; p.348, 9
Sear 1655var; BMC Mysia p.9, 11

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Gorgon's Head – Upright Anchor, a crab on the right, the letter A on the left or the letter A on the right and a crab on the left" Main Issue (450-424 or 410/404 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the classical Attic style. Gorgon's features are noble in conformity with the Attic manner of portraying her and Gorgon has more human hair in addition to the snakes.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes, the letter A on one side, a crab as an additional symbol viewed from above on the other side. The image in a concave circle.

Appears to die match previous coin though roughed up a bit
Jaimelai
053.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 45i - Silver Drachm64 views450-424 or 410/404 B.C.
2.84 gm, 13.5-15 mm
Obv: Gorgon head facing, snaky ringlets circle face.
Rev.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 45; p.348, 9
Sear 1655var; BMC Mysia p.9, 11

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Gorgon's Head – Upright Anchor, a crab on the right, the letter A on the left or the letter A on the right and a crab on the left" Main Issue (450-424 or 410/404 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the classical Attic style. Gorgon's features are noble in conformity with the Attic manner of portraying her and Gorgon has more human hair in addition to the snakes.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes, the letter A on one side, a crab as an additional symbol viewed from above on the other side. The image in a concave circle.

Forvm purchase - Description from Topalov Apollonia 2007
Jaimelai
014.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 45i - Silver Drachm 31 views450-424 or 410/404 B.C.
2.84 gm, 14.2 mm
Obv: Gorgon head facing, snaky ringlets circle face.
Rev.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 45 var.; p.348, 9
Sear 1655var; BMC Mysia p.9, 11

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Gorgon's Head – Upright Anchor, a crab on the right, the letter A on the left or the letter A on the right and a crab on the left" Main Issue (450-424 or 410/404 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the classical Attic style. Gorgon's features are noble in conformity with the Attic manner of portraying her and Gorgon has more human hair in addition to the snakes.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes, the letter A on one side, a crab as an additional symbol viewed from above on the other side. The image in a concave circle.

Forvm purchase (GS55520) - Dr. Prokopov has identified this as a tribal (Celtic?) imitative. This is my fourth coin with from the same cracked reverse die. There appears to be three different obverse dies though.
Jaimelai
ap_33.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 45i - Silver Drachm19 views450-424 or 410/404 B.C.
2.77 gm, 14.5 mm
Obv: Gorgon head facing, snaky ringlets circle face.
Rev.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 45; p.348, 9
Sear 1655var; BMC Mysia p.9, 11

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Gorgon's Head – Upright Anchor, a crab on the right, the letter A on the left or the letter A on the right and a crab on the left" Main Issue (450-424 or 410/404 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the classical Attic style. Gorgon's features are noble in conformity with the Attic manner of portraying her and Gorgon has more human hair in addition to the snakes.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes, the letter A on one side, a crab as an additional symbol viewed from above on the other side. The image in a concave circle.

My fifth coin of this reverse die - appears to be an earlier strike when compared to the others as the crack is not as severe.
Jaimelai
AP_50~4.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 45i - Silver Drachm14 views450-424 or 410/404 B.C.
2.86 gm, 14.0 mm
Obv: Gorgon head facing, snaky ringlets circle face.
Rev.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 45 var.; p.348, 9
Sear 1655var; BMC Mysia p.9, 11

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Gorgon's Head – Upright Anchor, a crab on the right, the letter A on the left or the letter A on the right and a crab on the left" Main Issue (450-424 or 410/404 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the classical Attic style. Gorgon's features are noble in conformity with the Attic manner of portraying her and Gorgon has more human hair in addition to the snakes.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes, the letter A on one side, a crab as an additional symbol viewed from above on the other side. The image in a concave circle.
Jaimelai
a04.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 47 - Silver Drachm58 viewsEnd of the 5th - beginning of the 4th c. B.C.
2.77 gm, 12.5-13.5 mm
Obv: Gorgoneion head facing with wild hair and snakes
Rev.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right with long chelapeds folded back
Mint magistrate initials (IΩΠ YPO)
Topalov Apollonia p.590, 47; p.354, 9

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Gorgon's Head – Upright Anchor, a crab on one side, the letter A on the other" Last Issue (end of the 5th - beginning of the 4th c. B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the classical Attic style. Gorgon's features are noble in conformity with the Attic manner of portraying her and Gorgon has locks of human hair.
Rev.: Magistrates' names and initials (KEO, KΛEINIO, KΛEAN, IΩΠYPO). Upright anchor with large flukes and a rectangular stock, the letter A in one side, a crab as an additional symbol viewed from above on the other side. The image in a concave circle.

Description from Topalov Apollonia 2007
Jaimelai
AP_obol.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 55 - Silver Obol35 views410/404 – 341/323 B.C.
0.72 gm, 9.0 mm
Obv.: Laureate head of Apollo ľ left with short hair
Rev.: Anchor; crayfish to left, A to right
Topalov Apollonia p.596, 55; p.395, 1-3; p.774

Topalov Apollonia 2007: "Apollo's Head Turned Aside to 3/4 - Upright Anchor" Silver Obol (410/404 – 341/323 B.C.)
Obv.: Laureate Apollo ľ left (rarely right) with short hair.
Rev.: Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock.
Jaimelai
retake_50.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 55 - Silver Obol30 views410/404 – 341/323 B.C.
0.66 gm, 8.07 mm
Obv.: Laureate head of Apollo ľ left with short hair
Rev.: Anchor; crayfish to left, A to right
Topalov Apollonia p.596, 55; p.395, 1-3; p.774

Topalov Apollonia 2007: "Apollo's Head Turned Aside to 3/4 - Upright Anchor" Silver Obol (410/404 – 341/323 B.C.)
Obv.: Laureate Apollo ľ left (rarely right) with short hair.
Rev.: Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock.
Jaimelai
Capture_00010.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 56 - Silver Diobol44 views410/404 – 341/323 B.C.
1.31 gm, 10.6 mm
Obv.: Laureate head of Apollo facing
Rev.: Anchor, A to left, crayfish to right,
ΣΩ (magistrate's initials) to left
Topalov Apollonia p.393, 1-3; p.596, 56;
Sear p. 165, 1657;
B.M.C. 15 (Mysia) p.9, 15

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Apollo's Head - Upright Anchor" silver diobol (410/404 – 341/323 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face laureate Apollo with short hair.
Rev.: Magistrates' initials around the images. Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock.
Jaimelai
AP_half_b.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 56 - Silver Diobol45 views410 - 323 B.C.
1.25 gm, 11 mm
Obv.: Laurate head of Apollo
Rev.: Anchor, A and magistrate initials to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p. 393, 1-3; p.596, 56
Sear p. 165, 1657
B.M.C. 15 (Mysia) p.9, 15

From Topalov Apollonia 2007: "Full-Face Apollo's Head - Upright Anchor" silver diobol (410/404 – 341/323 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face laureate Apollo with short hair.
Rev.: Magistrates' initials around the images. Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock.
Jaimelai
014~2.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 56 - Silver Diobol40 views410/404 - 341/323 B.C.
1.26 gm, 12 mm
Obv.: Laurate head of Apollo
Rev.: Anchor, A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p.596, 56; Sear 1657; B.M.C. 15 (Mysia) p.9, 15

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Apollo's Head - Upright Anchor" Silver diobol (410/404 – 341/323 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face laureate Apollo with short hair.
Rev.: Magistrates' initials around the images. Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock
Jaimelai
AP_half_c.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 56 - Silver Diobol41 views410 - 323 B.C.
0.87 gm, 9.5 mm
Obv.: Laurate head of Apollo
Rev.: Anchor, A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p.596, 56
Sear p. 165, 1657
B.M.C. 15 (Mysia) p.9, 15

From Topalov Apollonia 2007: "Full-Face Apollo's Head - Upright Anchor" silver diobol (410/404 – 341/323 B.C.) Obv.: Full-face laureate Apollo with short hair. Rev.: Magistrates' initials around the images. Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock.
Jaimelai
AP_half_d.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 56 - Silver Diobol80 views410-323 B.C.
1.15 gm, 10.5 mm
Obv.: Laurate head of Apollo
Rev.: Anchor, A and magistrate's initials to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p.596, 56
Sear p. 165, 1657
B.M.C. 15 (Mysia) p.9, 15

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Apollo's Head - Upright Anchor" silver diobol (410/404 – 341/323 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face laureate Apollo with short hair.
Rev.: Magistrates' initials around the images. Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock.
3 commentsJaimelai
Capture_00009.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 56 - Silver Diobol50 views410/404 - 341/323 B.C.
1.26 gm, 11 mm
Obv.: Laureate head of Apollo facing
Rev.: Anchor, A to left, crayfish to right,
A Π (magistrate's initials) to left
Topalov Apollonia p.387, 2, p.596, 56;
Sear p.165, 1657;
B.M.C. 15 (Mysia) p.9, 15

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Apollo's Head - Upright Anchor" Silver diobol (410/404 – 341/323 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face laureate Apollo with short hair.
Rev.: Magistrates' initials around the images. Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock.
Jaimelai
Capture_00009_(2).JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 56 - Silver Diobol56 views410/404 - 341/323 B.C.
0.53 gm, 10 mm
Obv.: Laurate head of Apollo
Rev.: Anchor, A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p.596, 56;
Sear 1657; B.M.C. 15 (Mysia) p.9, 15

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Apollo's Head - Upright Anchor" Silver diobol (410/404 – 341/323 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face laureate Apollo with short hair.
Rev.: Magistrates' initials around the images. Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock

This coin is small enough to be an obol, but in the diobol style. Obols have Apollo facing left or right.
Jaimelai
048.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 56 - Silver Diobol38 views410/404 - 341/323 B.C.
0.84 gm, 11.5 mm
Obv.: Laurate head of Apollo
Rev.: Anchor, A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p.596, 56; Sear 1657; B.M.C. 15 (Mysia) p.9, 15

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Apollo's Head - Upright Anchor" Silver diobol (410/404 – 341/323 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face laureate Apollo with short hair.
Rev.: Magistrates' initials around the images. Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock
Jaimelai
diobol_50.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 56 - Silver Diobol25 views410 - 323 B.C.
1.05 gm, 11 mm
Obv.: Laurate head of Apollo
Rev.: Anchor
A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p.596, 56
Sear 1657,
B.M.C. 15 (Mysia) p.9, 15

From Topalov Apollonia 2007: "Full-Face Apollo's Head - Upright Anchor" silver diobol (410/404 – 341/323 B.C.) Obv.: Full-face laureate Apollo with short hair. Rev.: Magistrates' initials around the images. Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock.
Jaimelai
072~2.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 56 - Silver Diobol 37 views410/404 – 341/323 B.C.
1.31 gm, 10.6 mm
Obv.: Laureate head of Apollo facing
Rev.: Anchor, A to left, crayfish to right, ΣΩ (magistrate's initials) to left
Topalov Apollonia p.393, 1-3; p.596, 56;
Sear p. 165, 1657;
B.M.C. 15 (Mysia) p.9, 15

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Apollo's Head - Upright Anchor" silver diobol (410/404 – 341/323 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face laureate Apollo with short hair.
Rev.: Magistrates' initials around the images. Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock
Jaimelai
006_(2).JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 56 - Silver Diobol 52 views410/404 – 341/323 B.C.
1.34 gm, 11.56 mm
Obv.: Laureate head of Apollo facing
Rev.: Anchor, A to left, crayfish to right, ΣΩ (magistrate's initials) to left
Topalov Apollonia p.393, 1-3; p.596, 56;
Sear p. 165, 1657;
B.M.C. 15 (Mysia) p.9, 15

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Apollo's Head - Upright Anchor" silver diobol (410/404 – 341/323 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face laureate Apollo with short hair.
Rev.: Magistrates' initials around the images. Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock
Jaimelai
ap2_50.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 56 - Silver Diobol26 views410/404 – 341/323 B.C.
1.25 gm, 10 mm
Obv.: Laureate head of Apollo facing
Rev.: Anchor, A to left, crayfish to right, ΣΩ (magistrate's initials) to left
Topalov Apollonia p.393, 1-3; p.596, 56;
Sear p. 165, 1657;
B.M.C. 15 (Mysia) p.9, 15

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Apollo's Head - Upright Anchor" silver diobol (410/404 – 341/323 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face laureate Apollo with short hair.
Rev.: Magistrates' initials around the images. Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock.
Jaimelai
apollo_50.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 56 - Silver Diobol8 views410/404 – 341/323 B.C.
1.25 gm, 11 mm
Obv.: Laureate head of Apollo facing
Rev.: Anchor, A to left, crayfish to right, ΣΩ (magistrate's initials) to left
Topalov Apollonia p.393, 1-3; p.596, 56;
Sear p. 165, 1657; HGC 1315;
B.M.C. 15 (Mysia) p.9, 15;
SNG Black Sea 175

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Apollo's Head - Upright Anchor" silver diobol (410/404 – 341/323 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face laureate Apollo with short hair.
Rev.: Magistrates' initials around the images. Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock
Jaimelai
IMG_2238.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 56 - Silver Diobol - very worn49 views410 - 323 B.C.
0.59 gm, 8.78 mm
Obv.: Head of Apollo (or Medusa)
Rev.: Anchor, A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p.596, 56
Sear p.165, 1657
B.M.C. 15 (Mysia) p.9, 15

From Topalov Apollonia 2007: "Full-Face Apollo's Head - Upright Anchor" silver diobol (410/404 – 341/323 B.C.) Obv.: Full-face laureate Apollo with short hair. Rev.: Magistrates' initials around the images. Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock.
Jaimelai
a02~0.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 56 - Silver Diobol Fouree39 views410/404 - 341/323 B.C.
0.85 gm, 10.5 mm
Obv.: Laurate head of Apollo
Rev.: Anchor, A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p.596, 56
Sear p. 165, 1657, B.M.C. 15 (Mysia) p.9, 15

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Apollo's Head - Upright Anchor" Silver diobol (410/404 – 341/323 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face laureate Apollo with short hair.
Rev.: Magistrates' initials around the images. Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock
Jaimelai
chalk_50.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 61 - Bronze Chalk20 views410/404 – 341/323 B.C.
0.92 gm, 10 mm
Obv.: Laureate head of Apollo left
Rev.: Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. A to left and crayfish to right.
Topalov Apollonia p.598, 61

Topalov Type 61: “Apollo’s Head - Upright Anchor" – bronze chalk(?) (410/404-341/323 B.C.)
Obv.: Laureate Apollo r. or l. with short hair.
Rev.: Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock. No magistrates' names on coins of this type
Jaimelai
obv_a.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 61 - Bronze Chalk11 views410/404 – 341/323 B.C.
1.04 gm, 9-10.5 mm
Obv.: Laureate head of Apollo right
Rev.: Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. A to left and crayfish to right.
Topalov Apollonia p.598, 61

Topalov Type 61: “Apollo’s Head - Upright Anchor" – bronze chalk(?) (410/404-341/323 B.C.)
Obv.: Laureate Apollo r. or l. with short hair.
Rev.: Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock. No magistrates' names on coins of this type
Jaimelai
a16.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 62 - Bronze Tetrachalk329 views410/404 – 341/323 B.C.
4.02 gm, 17 mm.
Obv: Laurate head of Apollo right with short hair
Rev.: Anchor; crayfish to left, A to right.
Topalov Apollonia p. 600, 62

Topalov Type: "Apollo's Head – Upright Anchor" Bronze Tetrachalk (410/404 - 341/323 B.C.)
Obv.: Laureate Apollo's head right hand, rarely left with short hair.
Rev.: Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock. No magistrate's names on coins of this type.
8 commentsJaimelai
a15.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 63 - Bronze Tetrachalk; Topalov 73 - with solar symbol countermark171 views350 B.C.
3.95 gm, 16.5-19 mm.
Obv.: Apollo seated left on omphalos, right hand resting on bow, left on omphalos
Round solar symbol countermark over Apollo's left hand
Rev.: Anchor; A and A[KOYΣY/]ΛEΩΣ (magistrate's name partially flattened by countermark blow on opposite side) to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p.414, 1; p.600, 63
D. Sear, Greek coins and their values, Vol. 1, p. 165, 1658,
BMC Mysia Apollonia ad Rhyndacum, p. 10, 17 var (magistrate)

Topalov Type: "Apollo sitting on the Omphalos – Upright Anchor" Bronze Tetrachalk (about 350 B.C.)
Obv.: Apollo sitting on the omphalos, holding a bow in his right hand, his left hand hanging downwards or resting on the omphalos. Round solar symbol countermark over Apollo's left hand (second half of the 3rd c. B.C.)
Rev.: Magistrates' initials or names on the left or on the right. Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side betwee flukes and the stock.
1 commentsJaimelai
ap94a_50.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 94 - Bronze Dichalk16 viewsBeginning of 2nd century B.C.
2.50 gm, 14 mm.
Obv: Naked Apollo, full-face, standing and holding a laurel tree in his right hand and a bow with arrows in his left hand.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A to left between fluke and the stock.
Topalov Apollonia p. 510, 1; p.620, 94 var., p.804-5;
SNG BM Black Sea 190

Topalov Type 94: Bronze coins of the type “Standing Apollo - Upright Anchor”, dichalk (?)
Obv.: Full-face naked Apollo, standing and holding a laurel tree and two arrows. The image represents the statue of Kalamis erected in the town.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A l. and the additional symbol of a crab r. viewed from above on the other side between flukes and the stock.
Jaimelai
056.JPG
Apollonis, Lydia63 views2nd Century B.C.
Bronze
3.04 gm, 15 mm
Obv.: Head of young Herakles right in lionskin
Rev.: Winged thunderbolt, AΠOΛΛΩ-NIΔEΩN above and below
Sear 4688; BMC Lydia p.19, 3-4; SNG v. Aulock 2899; SNG Cop. 17.

Another view of what my kids call "the ant coin"
1 commentsJaimelai
Arakan_Mitchiner-352.jpg
Arakan: Narapadigyi (1638-1645) AR Tanka (Mitchiner-352; Phayre: plate I, 7)28 viewsSame inscription on both sides of the coin. Phayre's verbatim transliteration / translation follows:

1000 Cheng phyu Sakheng Narabadigyi (BE1000 Lord of the white elephant, Narabadigyi)

Unicode Burmese inscription (will only display correctly if you have working Unicode 5.1 fonts for Burmese like Padauk):

၁၀၀၀ သင်ဖြူ သခင် နာရာဗ တီကြီ
SpongeBob
Arakan_Mitchiner-358.jpg
Arakan: Thado (1645-1652) AR Tanka (Mitchiner-358)31 viewsSame inscription on both sides of the coin. Phayre's verbatim transliteration / translation follows:

1007 Cheng ni Sakheng Cheng phyu Sakheng Sado Meng Tara (BE1007 Lord of the red elephant, lord of the white elephant, Sa-do Meng Tara (Illustrious King of Justice))

Unicode Burmese inscription (will only display if you have Unicode 5.1 fonts for Burmese like Padauk):

၁၀၀၇ ဆင်နီ သခင် ဆင် ဖြူသခင် သတိုစ် မင်တရား
SpongeBob
Argolis,_Epidauros_Hemidrachm.jpg
Argolis, Epidauros ca. 250-240 BC, AR Hemidrachm22 viewsLaureate head of Asklepios left; Θ re-cut over an effaced E behind.
EΠ monogram within wreath.

HGC 5, 729; Requier Monnayage Series 4 [2], 202 (this coin) dies D2/R3, weight recorded as 2.34 g on BCD tag = Requier 2, 202); BCD Peloponnesos 1243-44 (same dies); Dewing 1931 (same dies).

(16 mm, 2.35 g, 7h).

Struck from worn dies as are all examples of this the last civic hemidrachm issue of Epidauros.

CNG Classical Numismatic Review XXXIX, 1, Spring 2014, 976803 from the BCD Collection; ex-1979/80 Epidauros Hoard (CH VII, 69).

This emission was the last civic silver issue struck by Epidauros. It was struck on a reduced weight standard that was adopted throughout most of the Peloponnesos from around 250 BC. It utilized an obverse die from the preceding emission on which the Θ mint control (D2) was re-cut over the earlier E mint control (D1). In 243 BC the last of pro-Macedonian tyrants that had ruled Epidauros for the previous fifty years was forced to step aside by Aretos of Sikyon, the strategos of the Achaean League. This event probably bought to an end the civic silver issues of Epidauros, although bronze civic coinage continued down to ca. 200 BC. After this, a few Epidauran issues in silver and bronze, conforming to Achaean League standards, were made in the period leading up to the defeat of the League by Rome in 146 BC
1 commentsn.igma
Nero_As_Janus.JPG
As, Temple of Janus with closed doors5 viewsNero As, struck 66-68 AD in Rome. 27mm, 10.4g. Obverse: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG GERM; laureate head right. Reverse: PACE P R VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT / S - C; view of one front of the temple of Janus, with latticed window to l. and garland hung across closed double doors to r. Attribution: RIC˛ 347 (C); BMC 230; WCN 294, Romanatic-ID: 1314. ex areich, photo credit areichPodiceps
ASP.jpg
Asper60 viewsByzantine silver, Trebizond Empire, John II, 1280-1297 AD, AR Asper

Obverse: St. Eugenius stanidng holding long cross

Reverse: John standing holding labarum and akakia

Diameter approx 23.5 mm,


EMPIRE of TREBIZOND. John II. 1280-1297. AR Asper (2.75 g, 7h). Imitative issue. St. Eugenius, nimbate, standing facing, holding long cross with cross bar on shaft / John standing facing, holding lily-headed sceptre and globus cruciger. Cf. Retowski 16 (same obverse die); cf. SB 2609. Good VF, typical weak strike. ($200)

Retowski's aspers of his group B, section 1 have several anomalous features that set them apart from the normal series. On this one example, the cross held by St. Eugenius has a lower cross bar, not seen on any other example. Most of the Group B, 1 specimens have the saint's name ending in IOV, rather than the IOC or IO seen on standard varieties. On the reverse the emperor's cloak is shown as a single cross-hatched panel lacking the normal decorated chlamys end tied around his waist. In addition, on this unique example the emperor holds a lily-headed sceptre, rather than one with a labarum as on every other type. The lily sceptre does not appear elsewhere in the Trebizond series, but does occasionally show as an attribute in the Bulgarian royal series. See a bronze of Mitso Asen (1256-1263), Radishev p. 93. This coin, and others in group B, 1 are probably imitative issues copying Trebizond types, and may have been struck anywhere along the north shore of the Black Sea, where the Tartar Khanates ruled, occasionally holding the Bulgarian kings as their vassals.

http://www.coinarchives.com/a/lotviewer.php?LotID=107443&AucID=121&Lot=1136
1 comments Alexios
bosporus_aspurgus.jpg
Aspurgus, c. 14 - 37 A.D., In the Name of Tiberius. Tiberius/ Aspurgus21 viewsKingdom of Bosporus, Aspurgus, c. 14 - 37 A.D., In the Name of Tiberius. Bronze 12 nummi, RPC I 1903 (14 examples), MacDonald 300, F, 7.000g, 22.7mm, 0o, c. 35 - 37 A.D.; obverse “TIBERIOS KAISAROS”, laureate head of Tiberius right; reverse, diademed head of Aspurgus right, IB before, uncertain monogram behind; brown tone. This coin and coins of Caligula (RPC 1904, “Gaius Caesar Germanicus” 14 examples known to RPC) were both struck with this date, with young portraits, about which RPC notes, “the pieces with the portraits of Tiberius and Caligula were probably made at the end of the reign; the Tiberian pieces are so similar to the Caligulan ones that it seems very likely that both were made within a short space of time.” Could the young portrait on the obverse be viewed as that of Tiberius Gemellus? The grandson of Tiberius was named joint-heir with Caligula in the will of the emperor. Ex FORVMPodiceps
FotorCreated~5.jpg
Attica Athens AR Tetradrachm circa 440-430 BC 27mm16.87g 5h18 viewsHead of Atnena to right wearing disc earring,pearl necklace and a creasted helmet adorned with three olive leaves and a spiral palmette.Rev AOE owl standing to right head facing the viewer,to left olive sprig and crescent moon all within incuse square.
With lots of crest showing
Grant H
DSC05515.JPG
ATTICA, ATHENS, AR Trihemiobol, weight 1,02 g, diameter 11 mm, after 449 BC96 viewsATTICA, ATHENS, AR Trihemiobol, weight 1,02 g, diameter 11 mm, after 449. BCSNGCop 50
Obs:Helmeted head of Athena right.
Rev: Owl standing facing, wings spread; olive sprig above.
Beautifuly centered and struck to high relief and good metal. A splendid example of the ancient work of art. The design of this Trihemiobol is ultimately derived from the famous Athenian Dekadrachm. The dekadrachms (and this coin too) stand apart from the Athenian coinage. (the transformation of the revers type from an owl in profile to one facing the viewer)


Antonio Protti
Attica,.JPG
ATTICA, ATHENS, AR Trihemiobol, weight 1,02 g, diameter 11 mm, after 449 BC178 viewsATTICA, ATHENS, AR Trihemiobol, weight 1,02 g, diameter 11 mm, after 449. BCSNGCop 50

Obs:Helmeted head of Athena right.
Rev: Owl standing facing, wings spread; olive sprig above.

The design of this Trihemiobol is ultimately derived from the famous Athenian Dekadrachm. The dekadrachms (and this coin too) stand apart from the Athenian coinage. (the transformation of the revers type from an owl in profile to one facing the viewer)

4 commentsAntonivs Protti
IMG_3970.jpg
Attica. Athens59 viewsAttica. Athens circa 454-404 BC.
Drachm AR

13mm., 4,13g.

Head of Athena with profile eye to right, wearing disc earring, pearl necklace and a crested Attic helmet adorned with three olive leaves and a pi-style palmette /
ΑΘΕ, owl standing to right, head facing the viewer, olive sprig with berry in upper left field, all within incuse square.

very fine

Kroll 10; HGC 4, 1631.
6 commentsRandygeki(h2)
63761q00.jpg
Augustus89 viewsRoman Imperatorial
Octavian Caesar
(Reign as ‘Augustus’ 1st Emperor of the Roman Empire 27 BC-14 AD)
(b. 63 BC, d. 14 AD)


Obverse: Bare head of Octavian facing right

Reverse: IMP CAESAR, Facing head of Octavian on ithyphallic boundary stone of Jupiter Terminus, winged thunderbolt below

Reverse refers to Octavian's reestablishment of boundaries in the east after the battle of Actium and review of the client kingdoms established by Mark Antony (in particular return of Roman territory from Cleopatra and her children)

Silver Denarius
Minted in Italy 30-29 BC




Translations:

Imperatorial=The Imperatorial period extends from the outbreak of civil war between Julius Caesar and Pompey in January 49 BC and ends early 27 BC when Caesar's adopted heir Octavian was given the title "Augustus" by the Senate, effectively making him the sole ruler of the entire Roman territory. 

IMP CAESAR=Imperator(Commander-in-Chief) Caesar(Octavian took Julius Caesar’s name after he was posthumously adopted by him in 44 BC)


Reference
RIC I 269a
2 commentsSphinx357
Augustus_20_side_view.jpg
AUGUSTUS AR Denarius13 viewsOBVERSE: CAESAR AVGVSTVS, head left wearing oak wreath
REVERSE: DIVVS-IVLIVS to left and right of eight rayed comet
with tail upwards
Uncertain Spanish Mint, possibly Caesaraugusta 19-18 BC
3.45g, 21mm
RIC 137b RSC 97
2 commentsLegatus
augustus_120cf_replica.jpg
Augustus, RIC 120 cf., replica49 viewsAugustus, 27 BC- AD 14
AR - denarius, 4.37g, 19.46mm
Colonia Patricia(?), 18 BC
obv. CAESARI AVGVSTO
Head, laureate, l.
rev. Frontal view of tetrastyle temple of Mars, domed roof and decorated with 9 figures and acroterias; within
triumphal chariot with eagle-sceptre and 4 small horses galopping r.
in l. and r. field S.P. - Q.R.
ref. RIC I, 120 cf.; BMCR 386; RSC 282
(for the original only!)

This is a replica struck from new dies. Easily recognized by the odd portrait on the obv. It is made by CopyCoins.com
Jochen
Marie_Theresa_Education_Institute,_1779.JPG
Austria, Austrian Netherlands. Maria Theresia, Palace of the Nation, 1779.87 viewsObv. Draped bust MARIA THERESIA AUG LOTH BRAB LIMB DUX M S I signed T V B
Rev. View of the Palace of the Nation THEMIDI TUTELARI S P Q B EXTRUI CURAVIS MDCCLXXIX
WM32
LordBest
Baktria,_Kings,_Menander_I_Soter_(ca__165-155–130_BC)_AR_Drachm,_Menander_r_,_Athena_l_,_AY_monogram_l_,_Bop_13B,_Q-001,_0h,_16,5-17,0mm,_2,26g-s.jpg
Baktria, Kings, Menander I Soter (cc. 165/155–130 B.C.), AR-Drachm, Bop 13B, AY/-//--, Athena Alkidemos standing left, #156 viewsBaktria, Kings, Menander I Soter (cc. 165/155–130 B.C.), AR-Drachm, Bop 13B, AY/-//--, Athena Alkidemos standing left, #1
avers: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ ΜΕΝΑΝΔΡΟΥ, diademed, draped bust of Menander right.
reverse: Karosthi legend Maharajasa tratarasa Menamdrasa, Athena Alkidemos, viewed from behind, standing left, brandishing thunderbolt in raised right hand & holding shield on extended left arm, AY monogram in left field.
exergue: AY/-//--, diameter: 16,5-17,0mm, weight: 2,26g, axes: 0h,
mint: Baktria, Kings, Menander I Soter, date: cc. 165/155–130 B.C.,
ref: Bop 13B,
Q-001
quadrans
Baktrian_Menander_I_GCV_7602.JPG
Baktrian Kingdom: Menander I Soter, 160 - 145 BC32 viewsObv: BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΣΩTHPOΣ MENANΔPOY, heroic bust of Menander I, viewed from behind, head turned left, wearing diadem and aegis, and thrusting a spear with his right hand.

Rev: Karosthi legend around, Athena Alkidemos advancing left, brandishing a thunderbolt and holding a shield, monogram in field to right.

Silver Drachm, c. 155 - 130 BC

2.43 grams, 18 mm, 0°

GCV 7602, SNG ANS 739-44
SPQR Matt
aurelius_caesarea.png
BCC CM1 (BCC 1)118 viewsRoman Provincial
Caesarea Maritima
Marcus Aurelius 161-180C.E.
(as Caesar) 139-161 C.E.
OBV: ANTON AVG P F AVRELIO CAES
Bare-headed, draped bust right,
viewed from behind.
REV:COL PRIM FL AVG CAESAREA
Bust of Serapis right, viewed from
the front, wearing modius.
AE 24mm approx. 11.5g. Axis: 0
Kadman 38v. (obverse and reverse inscription)
Natural black toning.
1 commentsv-drome
Dioscuri_BCC_g2.jpg
BCC g2x97 viewsRoman Gem Stone
Caesarea Maritima
2nd - 4th Century CE?
Dioscuri standing facing,
crescent moon and stars above.
Translucent Carnelian
12x8mm.
(two views with different lighting)
1 commentsv-drome
BHMthanksgiving.JPG
BHM 0601. Foundation of Christchurch, Birmingham, 1805.55 viewsObv. Draped and cuirassed bust right, by Webb. GEORGIUS III DG BRITTANIARUM REX FD
Rev. View of the church ED XTI LAR PRIM ANG P C GEO III FIDEI COLUMEN PRESIDIUM DECUS BIRM XI CAL AUG MDCCCV

WM40. Taylor 65A.

Commemorates the foundationg of Christchurch, Birmingham.
LordBest
Quietus,_AE-25__Bithynia,_Nicaea__7_43g__City-Walls_of_Nicaea__SNG_Cop_544.jpg
Bithynia, Nicaea. Quietus. AE-Oktassarion. Aerial View of the City Walls of Nicaea31 viewsNicaea. Quietus. AD 260 – 261. AE25. Oktassarion. 7.43g. TIT ΦOVΛI KVHTOC, his radiate, draped and cuirassed bust rt. / NIKAIEΩN, aerial view of the city walls of Nicaea, showing two gates.
Weiser -; SNG Cop 544 (same obv. die); SNG Von Aul. 7098.
Ex Waddell, 1996.
Fausta
1267_P_Caracalla_Unpublished.jpg
BITHYNIA. Caesarea Germanica. Caracalla (198-217). Harbor of Caesarea Germanica20 viewsReference.
RG -; SNG von Aulock -; SNG Copenhagen; apparently unpublished.

Obv: AVT K M AVP ANTΩNINOC AVΓ CЄB.
Laureate and cuirassed bust right.

Rev: KAICAPЄIAC ΓЄPMANIKHC.
Overhead view of the harbor of Caesarea Germanica, containing galley under sail right and with pharos and column at each side; within harbor, distyle temple set upon pediment; below, bull reclining left, head right.

Note.
Extremely rare and interesting

11.97 gr
29 mm
h
1 commentsokidoki
Bramsen 0067.JPG
Bramsen 0067. Column du Department du Rhone, 1800.117 viewsBramsen 0067. Column du Department du Rhone, 1800. – 6 views
Obv. From the trumpet of the winged victory hangs a banner AUX BRAVES DU DEP U RHONE
Rev. Text IN EACH DEPATMENT THERE WILL BE ERECTED A COLUMN TO THE MEMORY OF THE BRAVE MEN OF THE DEPARTMENT WHO DIED IN DEFENSE OF THE FATHERLAND AND OF LIBERTY -- DECREE OF 29 VENTOSE YEAR 8 OF THE REPUBLIC; CONSULS BONAPARTE, CAMBACERES, LEBRUN; MINISTER OF THE INTERIOR LU. BONAPARTE. In French.
33mm

Struck in 1800, rare.
LordBest
Lady Head Side.jpg
Britain, Bath, Aquae Sulis, Head of Lady (View of hair detail)20 viewsDisplayed in the Baths.

This large sculture of the head of a lady was found in Walcot in A.D. 1715. This colossal head (much larger than life) may well have adorned a tomb. The hairstyle belongs to the late 1st Century. Shown from the rear to illustrate the detail of the hair.
maridvnvm
Victory Trophy Caerleon 2.jpg
Britain, Caerleon, Isca Silurum, Artefact - Victory with Trophy (View 1)54 views1st Century A.D. Victory artefact displayed in Museum at Caerleon, the Roman City of Isca Silurum in South Wales. maridvnvm
Victory Trophy Caerleon 1.jpg
Britain, Caerleon, Isca Silurum, Artefact - Victory with Trophy (View 2)60 views1st Century A.D. Victory artefact displayed in Museum at Caerleon, the Roman City of Isca Silurum in South Wales. 2 commentsmaridvnvm
Venta Silurum Wall with defensive towers3.jpg
Britain, Caerwent, Venta Silurum, 06, Outer wall + view33 viewsVenta Silurum (modern village of Caerwent, Wales, UK) was a Roman city founded sometime after A.D. 75.
The site is open to the public to walk round.

Outer wall with defensive towers with an idea of the location of the site
maridvnvm
Venta Silurum defensive tower.jpg
Britain, Caerwent, Venta Silurum, 07, Defensive Tower29 viewsVenta Silurum (modern village of Caerwent, Wales, UK) was a Roman city founded sometime after A.D. 75.
The site is open to the public to walk round.

View of one of the defensive towers
maridvnvm
Venta Silurum Wall construction.jpg
Britain, Caerwent, Venta Silurum, 08, Section of the outer wall.33 viewsVenta Silurum (modern village of Caerwent, Wales, UK) was a Roman city founded sometime after A.D. 75.
The site is open to the public to walk round.

A good view of the construction of the outer wall with inner layers of stone formed in a herringbone fashion providing good internal strength
maridvnvm
Venta Silurum remains - Temple.jpg
Britain, Caerwent, Venta Silurum, 09, The Temple32 viewsVenta Silurum (modern village of Caerwent, Wales, UK) was a Roman city founded sometime after A.D. 75.
The site is open to the public to walk round.

View of The Temple. This was a Romano-Celtic temple built c. A.D. 330 - deity unknown. The temple stood in a sacred courtyard enclosure.
maridvnvm
Chedwort Site 1.jpg
Britain, Chedworth Villa, 01, Site View 32 viewsChedworth Roman Villa, Yanworth, nr Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, Gread Britain

One of the largest Roman villa sites found in the UK. Found and initially excavated by the Victorians. Still being excavated today.
maridvnvm
Chedworth Site 2.jpg
Britain, Chedworth Villa, 02, Site View27 viewsChedworth Roman Villa, Yanworth, nr Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, Gread Britain

One of the largest Roman villa sites found in the UK. Found and initially excavated by the Victorians. Still being excavated today.
maridvnvm
Brutus_Koson.jpg
Brutus Gold Stater 186 viewsRoman Consul Brutus in center accompanied by two lictors
KOΣΩN in ex. BR monogram on left.

Eagle standing left on scepter, wings open raising wreath in left claw.

Eastern mint, Dacia? 43-42 B.C.

8.38g

Choice aUNC

RPC I 1701; BMC Thrace p. 208, 1; BMCRR II 48; Crawford 433/1

Ex-ANE, Ex CNG

Clickable for larger image

For an excellent write up/ theory on these coins including a fascinating metalurgy report:
http://www.calgarycoin.com/reference/articles/koson/koson.htm

And of course the numiswiki article:
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/numiswiki/view.asp?key=Koson
15 commentsJay GT4
image00532.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Justinian I (527-565) Pb Imperial Seal (Zacos–Veglery 3a, BZS.1958.106.563)178 viewsObv: Nimbate, beardless bust of Justinian I, facing forward, wearing both a helmet with diadem, trefoil ornament, and pendilia, and a chlamys. A circular inscription beginning at left. Border of dots.

D N IVSTINI ANVS PP AVG - Dominus noster Iustinianus perpetuus augustus (Our lord Justinian, eternal augustus)

Rev: Winged Victory advancing, wearing a long chiton and holding a victory wreath in each hand. A small cross visible at left and right. No epigraphy. Border of dots.
1 commentsSpongeBob
Sear-1813.jpg
BYZANTINE, Basil II & Constantine VII (976-1025). Ć Anonymous Class A2 Follis, (Sear-1813, Sommer-40.2.7)309 viewsObv: + EMMA NOVHΛ IC - XC.
Bust of Christ facing, holding book of gospels, with nimbus. Cross on book of gospels; cross in each arm of gospel.

Rev: + IhSYS/ XRISTYS/ bASILEY/ bASILE.
Legend in four lines.

Attributed to Basil II & Constantine VII (976-1025).

Classified as Class A2-32 using Ornamentation Classification Table.
1 commentsSpongeBob
Eryx-removebg-preview.png
C. Considius Nonianus, AR Denarius, 57 BC4 viewsC. Considius Nonianus, moneyer. AR Denarius minted at Rome, 57 BC. Laureate, diademed, and draped bust right of Venus Erycina. Reverse: Temple of Venus Erycina atop mountain, ERVC inscribed at base; in foreground, circuit of city walls with gateway at center and two towers. Sear 381; Considia 1a; Cr. 424/1; Syd. 887. Banker's mark on chin of Venus.
Ex Artemide Kunstauktionen GmbH E/auction 10.
1 commentsAncient Aussie
660-3.png
C. Licinius L.F. Macer, AR Denarius9 views84 BC
3.75 - grams
Obv.: Diad. Bust of Apollo l., viewed from behind, brandishing thunderbolt.
Rev.: Minerva in quadriga r., holding spear and shield, C LICIINIVS L F / MECER IN EX.
Sear #274: RRC 354/1, CRR 732
Purchased from a Heritage Auction
NGC Ch AU Strike: 5/5: Surface 5/5
Richard M10
Licinius_Macer_Apollo-Athena.jpg
C. Licinius Macer, Apollo-Vejovis * Minerva, Roman Republic, moneyer, AR Denarius Serratus85 views"Rome is a state on the move, and growing stronger every day."

Obv: Diademed bust of Apollo-Vejovis, left; viewed from behind, brandishing thunderbolt, cloak over left shoulder.
No Legend.
Rev: Minerva driving a quadriga right, holding spear and shield. No Legend.

Exergue: C LICINIVS L[F] MACER

Mint: Rome
Struck: 84 BC.

Size: 21.4 mm.
Weight: 3.89 grams
Die axis: 180 degs.

Condition: Lovely, bright luster; minimal tarnish.

Refs:*
M. Crawford Vol. I, p. 370, 354/1, Vol. II, Pl. XLVI, 17
D. Sear I, p. 123, 274
Licinia 16
Sydenham, 732
RSC 16

Tiathena
Licinia_16.JPG
Caius Licinius Macer48 viewsObv: Diademed bust of Apollo facing left, viewed from behind, brandishing a thunderbolt, a cloak is draped over his left shoulder.

Rev: Minerva in quadriga galloping right, brandishing a spear and holding the reins and a shield; C LICINIVS L. F. / MACER, in exergue.

Notice the double (triple?) strike on the reverse design.

Silver Denarius, Rome mint, 84 BC

4.2 grams, 19 mm, 0°

RSC Licinia 16, S274
2 commentsSPQR Coins
5Rcc6o3M8EiABn7sFjP6W2gNzN4rJ9.jpg
CAIUS “CALIGULA”, AS, ROME MINT16 viewsCAIUS “CALIGULA”, AS, ROME MINT, VESTA, RIC 38
Ancient Coins - CAIUS “CALIGULA”, AS, ROME MINT, VESTA, RIC 38 zoom view
Caius “Caligula”
AE as
Rome mint
Obv: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT
Bare head left
Rev: VESTA SC
Vesta seated left holding patera and transverse sceptre
RIC 38
Probably the WORST Caligula as offered on VCoins BUT the type is clearly identifiable from the remaining obverse legend and can be used as a space filler.
1 commentsAntonivs Protti
Vlasto_543–4.jpg
CALABRIA, Taras. Circa 333-331/0 BC. AR Nomos94 views19.5mm, 7.70 g, 2h
Warror, preparing to throw spear and holding shield and two more spears, on horse rearing right; [|- to left], Λ to right, KAΛ and Δ below / Phalanthos, holding crested Phrygian helmet, astride dolphin right; stars flanking, API below. Fischer-Bossert Group 60, 770–3 var. (V303/R– [unlisted rev. die]); Vlasto 543–4 (same obv. die); HN Italy 896. Good VF, toned, a little off center. From fine style dies.

On this coin we see the rider on horseback exercising his martial prowess, galloping forward and preparing to thrust a javelin into an object which the viewer does not see. On his far side he carries a round shield and two additional spears. The reverse depicts the dolphin rider facing to the right, holding a helmet of Phrygian design with cheek guards and a long, sweeping crest. Two stars in the fields flank the dolphin rider, and should perhaps be interpreted as alluding to the Dioskouroi and thus to Sparta. If so, then the design should be seen in light of the ill-fated expedition of the Spartan king Archidamos III. In 343/2 B.C. at the request of the city’s leading citizens, the Spartan king arrived with a fleet and soldiers in order to help the Tarentines to repel incursions by their Italic neighbors, notably the noisome Lucanians to Tarentum’s north and west. He was subsequently killed during the fighting, and the dolphin rider here may be thought of as mourning the slain Spartan king.
3 commentsLeo
lg_caligula_thrace.jpg
Caligula (Augustus), Thracian Kings29 viewsCaligula (Augustus)
Reign of Rhoemetalkes III, Thracian Kingdom
AE 6.94g / 22.75mm / -
ΓΑΙΩΚΑΙΑΡΙ or ΓΑΙΩΚΑΙΣΑΡ - Bust left
Ρ-Σ; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ - Nike r. with wreath and malm on globe
Mint: (38 - 46 AD)
Ref: RPC 1725; Gorny & Moshc 126, 13-14 Oct 2003 Lot 1659
Further references:
http://www.coinarchives.com/a/lotviewer.php?LotID=59717&AucID=63&Lot=1659
http://www.coinarchives.com/a/lotviewer.php?LotID=94344&AucID=101&Lot=1637
http://www.cervantesvirtual.com/servlet/SirveObras/44602782922868295254468/025000_0004.pdf
Scotvs Capitis
CaligulaCaesonia_CarthagoNova.jpg
Caligula, Caesonia, Carthago Nova46 viewsAE22, 6.5g
cf.
http://www.coinarchives.com/a/lotviewer.php?LotID=51775&AucID=54&Lot=266
areich
neapolis_campania.jpg
Campania. Neapolis AR Nomos75 viewsCirca 275-250 BC. AR Nomos (21mm, 7.21 g, 11h). Sambon–; HN Italy 586; BMC 87; SNG France–; SNG ANS–. Obverse: Diademed head of nymph left, wearing triple-pendant earring and necklace; to right, Artemis standing right, holding torch in both hands. Reverse: Man-headed bull walking right; above, Nike flying right, placing wreath on bull's head; IΣ below; [N]EOΠOΛITΩN in exergue. Good VF, toned. Scarce symbol for issue.

Ex Gorny & Mosch 125 (13 October 2003), lot 21. Ex Classical Numismatic Review XXXIX No. 2 Summer 2014, lot 979726.

The obverse of early Neapolitan coins represent the siren Parthenope who, according to legend, committed suicide after her failed attempt to seduce Odysseus and his shipmates as they passed the Sorrento peninsula. Her body was washed up on the shore of nearby Megaride, a tiny island in the Bay of Naples. The locals interred her in Mount Echia, now the hill of Pizzofalcone. The Sirens were originally the islands found at the mouth of the river Achelöos in Greece which flowed into the Ionian Sea between Akarnania and Aetolia. The man-headed bull on the reverse of the coins was meant to represent Achelöos, the greatest water god of ancient Greece and father of Parthenope. This coin, however, belongs to a later group known as Class VI (Numismatic Circular, vol. 14, 1906). The latest coins with the obverse head always facing left may well be identified as the head of Dia-Hebe. She is associated with Dionysus Hebon and the Neapolitan bull on the reverse was reinterpreted as the bull with which Dionysus Hebon was always depicted.


3 commentsJason T
Caracalla_Dionysus_1a.jpg
Caracalla * Dionysus - Hadrianopolis, Æ23 - 198-217 AD.124 views
Caracalla * Dionysus - Hadrianopolis, Thrace * Provincial bronze.
2 or 3 assaria.

Obv: Laureate, right facing, seen from behind. AVT K M AVP CEV ANTΩNEINOC
Rev: Dionysus standing left holding bunch of grapes in outstretched right, & thyrsus which he grasps near the top in his upraised left. AΔRIANOΠO | ΛEITΩN

Exergue: None

Mint: Hadrianopolis, Thrace
Struck: 211-217 AD.

Size: 23.56 mm.
Weight: 7.12 grm.
Die axis: 0°

Condition: Quite much as shown in image but cleaner and less rough viewed in hand. Quite lovely patina considerably darker than shown here and towards a deep olive-green.

Refs:*
Jurukova, no. 373, pl. XXXV

One of three known specimens.
Two in Bulgaria, Sofia & Sliven respectively.

(Much thanks to Curtis Clay for this reference, & to Whitetd49 for his numerous kind clarifications).
2 commentsTiathena
Caracalla_~1.jpg
Caracalla * Lucius Septimius Bassianus * & Agathedaemon Serpent * 196-217 AD. Æ 28mm230 views
THRACE, Serdica. Caracalla. 198-217 AD. Ć 28mm

Obv: AVT K M AVP CEV ANTWNEINOC, laureate and cuirassed bust right; viewed from behind
Rev: OULPIAC CEPDIKHC, Agathedaemon serpent, coiled and erect.

BMC Thrace pg. 174, 23.
Moushmov 4860
Rate F+

Glossy darkish-brown patina


"The elder of the two sons of the emperor Septimius Severus, Caracalla is best-known for arranging the murder of his brother Geta after the two engaged in a power struggle in the months after their father's death. The murder offended contemporaries and colored the following five years of Caracalla's reign, a reign that ended on a Syrian road with the emperor's own murder."

~ DIR USC, Michael L. Meckler
8 commentsTiathena
Caracalla_Equestrian.jpg
Caracalla - Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Pius Bassianus * Equestrian, AR Denarius * 196-217 AD121 views
Coin issue, celebration of Caracalla's invasion of Britain which would eventually culminate in his acclamation & title of, 'Britanicus.'

Obv: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG - Laureate head right
Rev: PONTIF TR P XI COS III - the Emperor Caracalla in military attire, holding spear on horseback, right-facing, enemy kneeling before & below horse (worn from view), right hand raised as in supplication, also right-facing.

Exergue: PROF

Mint: Rome
Struck: 208 AD.

Size: 19 mm.
Weight: 3.4 grams
Die axis: 180 degs.

Condition: Beautiful bright, clear luster, despite some notable wear to the relief on the reverse.

Refs:*
RIC IVi, p. 228, 108 Scarce
Cohen 510
D. Sear II, 6874, p. 526
BMCRE 574
Hill 983
RSC 510

Tiathena
Caracalla_5.jpg
CARACALLA, AE30 Varbonov1099, City Gate12 viewsOBV: M AΥT AΥΡHΛ - ANTΩNEINOΣ, Laureated head right
REV: AΥΓOΥΣTHΣ - TΡAIANHΣ, Gate camp, flanked by two towers, a third view back to the center
30.02mm, 14.24g

Minted at Augusta Traiana, Thrace, 211-217 AD
Legatus
Caracalla_Traianopolis_CrescentAndStar.jpg
Caracalla, Traianopolis, crescent and star, AE1520 viewsCaracalla, 197 - 217
AE15, 2.85g
obv: laureate head right
rev: TPAIANOΠOΛEITΩN, crescent and star
Schönert - Geiss, AT 179, 110 (?)
http://www.coinarchives.com/a/lotviewer.php?LotID=89885&AucID=96&Lot=200
areich
caria_hekatomnos_lions_hemiobol_AR8_0_42g.jpg
Caria, Hekatomnos, lions, obol67 views391-377 BC
8mm, 0.42g
obv: lion right, looking back over shoulder
rev: lion's scalp facing
Klein 506, (SNG Tübingen 3310)


ex Roland Müller collection, ex Lakeview collection, ex Rutten & Wieland
5 commentsareich
LarryW2303.jpg
Carian Islands, Rhodos c. 88-43 BC168 viewsSilver trihemidrachm, 19mm, 4.15g, Nice EF
Radiate head Helios 3/4 right / Rose as viewed from above, magistrate ΛEΩN, wreath, all within circle of dots.
Ashton, NC 1997, 273 (A90/P265) (this coin)
Sear 5069v; BMC Caria, pg 260, #335v; SNG Cop 869v; SNG Von Aulock 2838v
2 commentsLawrence Woolslayer
9965.jpg
Carrhae in Mesopotamia, Septimius Severus, AE 24, Lindgren 2557122 viewsCarrhae in Mesopotamia, Septimius Severus, AE 24, 193-211 AD
Av.: CEΠTIMIOC [CE]OY.... , naked (laureate?) bust of Septimius Severus right
Rv.: ..Λ]OY KAPPH ΛKA... , front view of a tetrastyle temple, the temple of the moon god Sin, in the middle a sacred stone on tripod, on top of stone: crescent, standards (with crescents on top) on both sides inside the building; another crescent in the pediment.
Lindgren 2557 ; BMC p. 82, #4

The city and the region played an important role in roman history.

Carrhae / Harran, (Akkadian Harrânu, "intersecting roads"; Latin Carrhae), an ancient city of strategic importance, an important town in northern Mesopotamia, famous for its temple of the moon god Sin, is now nothing more than a village in southeastern Turkey with an archeological site.
In the Bible it is mentioned as one of the towns where Abraham stayed on his voyage from Ur to the promised land. Abraham's family settled there when they left Ur of the Chaldeans (Genesis 11:31-32).
Inscriptions indicate that Harran existed as early as 2000 B.C. In its prime, it controlled the point where the road from Damascus joins the highway between Nineveh and Carchemish. This location gave Harran strategic value from an early date. It is frequently mentioned in Assyrian inscriptions about 1100 BC, under the name Harranu, or "Road" (Akkadian harrānu, 'road, path, journey' ).
During the fall of the Assyrian Empire, Harran became the stronghold of its lasts king, Ashur-uballit II, being besiged and conquered by Nabopolassar of Babylon at 609 BC. Harran became part of Median Empire after the fall of Assyria, and subsequently passed to the Persian Achaemenid dynasty.
The city remained Persian untill in 331 BC when the soldiers of the Macedonian king Alexander the Great entered the city.
After the death of Alexander on 11 June 323 BC, the city was claimed by his successors: Perdiccas, Antigonus Monophthalmus and Eumenes. These visited the city, but eventually, it became part of the Asian kingdom of Seleucos I (Nicator), the Seleucid empire, and capital of a province called Osrhoene (the Greek term for the old name Urhai).
The Seleucids settled Macedonian veterans at Harran. For a century-and-a-half, the town flourished, and it became independent when the Parthian dynasty of Persia occupied Babylonia. The Parthian and Seleucid kings both needed the buffer state of Osrhoene which was part of the larger Parthian empire and had nearby Edessa as its capital. The dynasty of the Arabian Abgarides, technically a vassal of the Parthian "king of kings" ruled Osrhoene for centuries.

Carrhae was the scene of a disastrous defeat of the Roman general Crassus by the Parthians. In 53 BC. Crassus, leading an army of 50.000, conducted a campaign against Parthia. After he captured a few cities on the way, he hurried to cross the Euphrates River with hopes of receiving laurels and the title of “Emperor”. But as he drove his forces over Rakkan towards Harran, Parthian cavalry besieged his forces in a pincers movement. In the ensuing battle, the Roman army was defeated and decimated. The battle of Carrhae was the beginning of a series of border wars with Parthia for many centuries. Numismatic evidence for these wars or the corresponding peace are for instance the "Signis Receptis" issues of Augustus and the “Janum Clusit” issues of Nero.
Later Lucius Verus tried to conquer Osrhoene and initially was successful. But an epidemic made an annexation impossible. However, a victory monument was erected in Ephesus, and Carrhae/Harran is shown as one of the subject towns.
Septimius Severus finally added Osrhoene to his realms in 195. The typical conic domed houses of ancient Harran can be seen on the Arch of Septimius Severus on the Forum Romanum.
Harran was the chief home of the moon-god Sin, whose temple was rebuilt by several kings. Sin was one of the great gods of the Assurian-Babylonian pantheon.
Caracalla gave Harran the status of a colonia (214 AD) and visited the city and the temple of the moon god in April 217. Meanwhile the moon god (and sacred stones) had become a part of the Roman pantheon and the temple a place to deify the roman emperors (as the standards on both sides of the temple indicate).

Caracalla was murdered while he was on his way from Temple to the palace. If this had been arranged by Macrinus - the prefect of the Praetorian guard who was to be the new emperor – is not quite clear. On the eighth of April, the emperor and his courtiers made a brief trip to the world famous temple of the moon god. When Caracalla halted to perform natural functions, he was assassinated by one of his bodyguards, Julius Martialis, who had a private grudge against the ruler, because he had not been given the post of centurion.

In 296 AD Roman control was again interrupted when nearby Carrhae the emperor Galerius was defeated by the king Narses / the Sasanid dynasty of Persia. The Roman emperor Julianus Apostata sacrificed to the moon god in 363 AD, at the beginning of his ill-fated campaign against the Sassanid Persians. The region continued to be a battle zone between the Romans and Sassanids. It remained Roman (or Byzantine) until 639, when the city finally was captured by the Muslim armies.

At that time, the cult of Sin still existed. After the arrival of the Islam, the adherents of other religions probably went to live in the marshes of the lower Tigris and Euphrates, and are still known as Mandaeans.
The ancient city walls surrounding Harran, 4 kilometer long and 3 kilometer wide, have been repaired throughout the ages (a.o. by the Byzantine emperor Justinian in the sixth century), and large parts are still standing. The position of no less than 187 towers has been identified. Of the six gates (Aleppo gate, Anatolian, Arslanli, Mosul, Baghdad, and Rakka gate), only the first one has remained.

A citadel was built in the 14th century in place of the Temple of Sin. This lies in the south-west quarter of the ancient town. Its ruin can still be visited.

my ancient coin database
1 commentsArminius
roman_spurs_2.jpg
Cavalry Spur, front view112 viewsFront view of a Roman cavalry hackenspur, circa 1st century AD. The bronze spur had a separate iron prick inserted - remnants of which can still be seen. The hook at the top gave the type its name and was used to help attached it over a boot. Examples in the Romisches Museum Germany are from Dangstetten, Vindonissa and Haltern.otlichnik
roman_spurs_1.jpg
Cavalry Spurs, top views126 viewsTop view of two Roman cavalry spurs, circa 1st century AD. The upper spur has knob terminals, which would have buttoned into slits in leather straps to go over the boots. It also has a hole (not visible in this image) for a separate iron prick. An example in the Romisches Museum Germany is from Sirmium. The lower spur is a hackenspur which also had a separate iron prick inserted - remnants of which can still be seen. The hook at the top and at the ends of the termilas gave the type its name and were used to help attached it to leather boot straps. Examples in the Romisches Museum Germany are from Dangstetten, Vindonissa and Haltern.otlichnik
Sikyonia,_Sikyon,_AR_Triobol.jpg
Chimaera and Dove 253 viewsSikyonia, Sikyon, 330/20-280 BC, AR Triobol
Chimaera standing left; ΣI below. / Dove flying left; Δ above tail feathers. BCD Peloponnesos 298 (this coin); BMC 112 var.; SNG Copenhagen 61 var. (ΔI on reverse) - very rare variant.
(15 mm, 2.99 g, 7h)
CNG; ex- BCD Collection; LHS 96 (8 May 2006) Lot 298.

The Chimaera, featured on the obverse of this coin, was a mythical fire-breathing beast; a composite of a lion, a goat and a snake. In myth, it inhabited Lycia in Asia Minor. It’s sighting was considered to be a portent or omen of storms, shipwrecks and natural disasters. The Chimaera’s representation in the arts is wholly Greek. It evolved to become a decorative motif in the region around Corinth. The pairing of a motif that forebodes disaster on the obverse, with a dove, the symbol of Aphrodite, goddess of love on the reverse is curious. Perhaps this was a metaphor for the ancients’ view of the double-sided nature of life?
2 commentsLloyd T
WangMang2.jpg
China: Han Interregnum, Usurper Wang Mang, 7-22 A.D.89 viewsChina: Han Interregnum, Usurper Wang Mang, 7-22 A.D. AE24 mm, Cash. Obv: Huo Chuan. Schjoth-165.

"As soon as his [Wang Mang's] power was sufficiently consolidated, 3 years after his return to court, lists of his political opponents were drawn up, and hundreds were executed. Shortly after this he established a new penal colony in Tibet in the far West, a sort of ancient gulag. Unfortunately we have no direct account as to the nature of the crimes of those exiled to Tibet. In 6 AD the reins of power were still more firmly in his grasp, and Mang ordered his first reform of the coinage. Fundamentally this was a stratagem to nationalize the gold stocks, and put the empire back on a copper standard. Gold was requisitioned and exchanged against very high value bronze tokens. Two years later the tokens were demonetized. The cash assets of the aristocracy and the wealthy merchants must have been largely wiped out overnight. It is in the first couple of years of Mang's independent reign that the astonishing breadth of his reform proposals appear. His reforms include:

1) the abolition of slavery.
2) the nationalization of land.
3) standard plots of arable land for all adult males who wished to work them.
4) farming families grouped in hamlets of 6 or 8, with a common tax assessment.
5) a national bank offering fair rates of interest to all.
6) government market activity to counteract cornering and monopolization.
7) a new currency system in 15 denominations - circulating by government fiat.
8) defeat of the Huns

His new taxes include

taxes to be paid in cash or kind on cultivated land (one tenth)

triple rates to be paid on uncultivated land (parks and gardens etc.)

c) all self-employed or professional people outside farming shall register for income tax, which will be universally levied at 10% per annum. Those avoiding registration, or submitting false accounts to be sentenced to one years hard labour.

d) the state monopolies on iron, salt, silk, cloth and coinage to be retained

e) a new state monopoly on wine to be introduced.

Discussion of the proposals

1) Events in his private life show Mang's abhorrence of slavery. He vilified the political system of the legalists, established in the Chin dynasty (221-206 BC) specifically by alluding to the manner in which they established market places for male and female slaves, "putting human beings in auction pens as if they were cattle."

Reforms 2, 3, 5 & 6) The nationalization of land and its distribution amongst the peasant farmers themselves is of course one solution to the central economic problem in all pre-modern civilizations, (which presumably finds its roots in the bronze age and persisting right down to the machine age). Peasants must have security of tenure and just returns for their labour, otherwise they will not be encouraged to work effectively - and the state and all within it will thereby be impoverished. However if they are made private landowners then clever, unscrupulous, hard-working individuals within and outwith the peasantry will begin to gain land at the expense of their neighbours. The chief mechanisms of this gradual monopolization of the land by a class of people distinguished by their wealth are:

Preying upon private 'misfortune', (illness, death, and marriage expenses) by loansharking.
Preying upon public misfortunes (bad harvests) by loansharking.
Creating shortages by rigging the markets, exacerbating private and public misfortunes, and then loansharking.

Unfairly biasing tax assessments, creating and exacerbating private and public misfortunes, and then loansharking.

The end result of this tendency is likely to be that the bulk of farmers lack security of tenure and or just returns, and cease to work effectively, to the impoverishment of all. Reforms 2, 3 & 5 bear on this problem in an obvious way.

Reform 6 - the "Five Equalizations" is a little more complicated, so I shall explain it at greater length. Fundamentally it required the installation of government officials at the five important markets of the empire who would "buy things when they were cheap and sell them when they were dear." In more detail: "The superintendent of the market, in the second month of each of the four seasons, shall determine the true price of the articles under their responsibility, and shall establish high, middle and low prices for each type of item. When there are unsold goods on the market, the superintendent shall buy them up at the cost (low?) price. When goods become expensive (ie exceed the high price?) the superintendent shall intervene to sell goods from the official store (and thereby reduce the price)." The regulation thus allows markets to operate, but provides for state intervention to stop speculation . . . Mang's regulations allow for a review and revision of the trading bands four times a year.

4). In resettling the people securely on the land, Mang choose to group them into "chings" of 6 or 8 families - attempting to restore the traditional "well field" system. This provided for the regular exchange of land between the families, to give all a go at the best ground, and for joint responsibility for a common tax demand. The ching system was believed, by the Confucian party in the 1st century BC at least, to have been destroyed by the growth of mercantilist exploitation under the Chin legalists. There are hints that the state went on to use the ching structure in crime prevention measures, by making all members of the ching culpable for the unreported crime of any single member. The installation of a land nationalization scheme under the banner of a return to the ancient Chou system of 'chings' had a great deal of propaganda value amongst the Confucian elite which surrounded Mang. A sentimental view of rural working class life seems to be a common weakness amongst aristocratic and middle class intellectuals of all periods. Mang's own observations of the labouring poor would necessarily have been made at a distance - perhaps he too shared in this sentimental myopia. The evidence suggests that the peasantry did not welcome this aspect of the reforms

7) Food was the first concern of Confucian government, but coinage was the second. Only fair prices could encourage the farmers. Only markets could create fair prices. Only with coins could markets exist. Mang introduced a rational set of 15 denominations of coin, valued from 1 to 1,000 cash and circulated by government fiat. Mang did not invent the idea of fiat or fiduciary currency, a brief attempt had been made to circulate one in China a century earlier. However Mang was the first to systematically think through the matter in a practical context, and to apply it over a protracted period. Future successful ancient and medieval experiments with fiat currency, first in China, then in Japan and Central Asia, and unsuccessful ones in medieval India and Persia all looked back - directly or indirectly - to Mang. The first successful fully fiduciary currencies in Europe are products of the 20th century, more than 700 years after Europeans became aware of Chinese practices. (I am neglecting a great deal of late Roman copper coin here of course. I am by no means knowledgeable on such coins, but my understanding is that in principle, if not in practice, Rome was generally on the silver or the gold standard, and copper was exchangeable on demand.) On my own reading of the text, Mang's main concern is to get gold and silver off the market, so they could not be used to bid his tokens down - his coinage was intended to replace gold coinage, not supplement it."--Robert Tye

For a more complete study of Wang Mang, see Robert Tye's compositon about this enigmatic leader at http://www.anythinganywhere.com/info/tye/Wang%20Mang.htm
Cleisthenes
CiliciaAdanaSarapisSaros1a_(exFrancisJarman).jpg
Cilicia, Adana. Pseudo-autonomous issue, possibly time of Hadrian. SNG Tahberer 65.16 viewsCilicia, Adana. Pseudo-autonomous issue, possibly time of Hadrian (AD 117–138). Ć 16mm, 2.45 g, 6h.
Obverse: Draped bust of Serapis (Sarapis) right, wearing modius.
Reverse: ΑΔΑ – Ν – ЄΩΝ, facing view of the river-god Saros, swimming.
References: SNG Tahberer 65; Lindgren I 1392.
Ex Francis Jarman, 10-2-2014; ex Münz Zentrum Rheinland, Auktion 170 (Sept. 17, 2014), Lot 656 (part).
Mark Fox
SeptSevProvMerge3.jpg
Cilicia, Hieropolis-Castabala. Septimius Severus. Unlisted? 87 viewsĆ30. Cilicia, Hieropolis-Castabala. Septimius Severus (AD 193–211), laureate head, cuirassed bust to r., with back to viewer and short beard. [A]YT KAI ΛOY CEΠ CE[YHPOC…] or “Imperator Caesar Lucius Septimius Severus...” Rev., Nike advancing r., with wreath and trophy. Inscription mostly illegible. [IEPOΠOΛEIT - ONKAC]TABAΛEω[N] Possibly unlisted. Ex Marcus Gruss 8-16-2009.

Same obverse die as Automan's example:
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-9936
2 commentsMark Fox
2390320.jpg
CILICIA, Seleucia ad Calycadnum. Septimius Severus71 viewsCILICIA, Seleucia ad Calycadnum. Septimius Severus. AD 193-211. Ć (28mm, 11.64 g, 12h). Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Athena standing left, holding shield and spear, about to attack serpent-legged Giant to right. SNG France -; SNG Levante 736 var. (view of bust); SNG Levante Suppl. -; SNG Copenhagen -. Near VF, dark green and brown patina, two scratches before bust.

Ex - CNG Esale 239 lot 320

230/100

After Zeus had defeated the Titans in the Titantomachy and apportioned their former relatives to his fellow Olympians, he was compelled to resolve a conflict with the Giants, offspring of Gaia and Cronus. Known as the Gigantomachy, these chthonic half-man, half-serpent creatures attempted to wrestle power from the Olympians by casting them out of Olympus. To accomplish this, the Giants attempted to reach Olympus by heaping up one mountain range on top of the other. From above, Zeus and the other Olympians defended themselves by hurling their weapons. In the end, however, it was the assistance of Hercules, that won the day.
5 commentsecoli
Cilicia,_Tarsos,_Syennesis_III_AR_stater.jpg
Cilicia, Tarsos, Syennesis III, ca. 425-400 BC, AR Stater 18 viewsSyennesis on horseback right, wearing Persian headdress and cloak.
Nude hoplite kneeling left, wearing crested Corinthian helmet, holding spear and shield.

SNG Paris-226, SNG Levante-61.

(20 mm, 8.3 g, 1h).
Harlan J. Berk 181, November 2012, 393.

The depiction of the hoplite in a defensive posture on the reverse of this coin is most evocative of its time, notwithstanding the miserable corroded state of the coin itself, which is a type of some rarity. The initial reaction to the typology of this coin might be one of surprise at the apparently incongruous pairing of the image of a Persian dynast on horseback on the obverse with that of a Greek hoplite on the reverse. The explanation is to be found in the written historical record. The coin dates to the period of Xenophon's anabasis. Xenophon refers to the role of Syennesis (III) and his wife Epyaxa in the revolt of Cyrus the Younger, in whose employ as a mercenary Xenophon found himself. In view of the historical record left by Xenophon, the pairing of the motifs of a Persian dynast, or tributary king, on one side of this coin with a Greek hoplite on the other now seems particularly poignant, rather than incongruous. During the fifth and fourth centuries BC, the Persian dynasts routinely employed Greek hoplite mercenaries in their armies, so that the reverse typology may simply be a reflection of this reality on coinage destined perhaps for mercenary pay.

All the hereditary kings of Cilicia were termed Syennesis, a royal title more than an actual name. As described in Xenophon’s Anabasis, Syennesis (III) under the influence of his wife and queen, Epyaxa, supported the unsuccessful revolt of Cyrus the Younger against his brother Artaxerxes II in 401 BC. As much as anything this action appears to have been motivated by the desire to prevent Cryrus’ army pillaging and looting during its passage through Cilicia. Syennesis’ support included a body of troops commanded by one of his sons. However, he sent another son, accompanied by a report on Cyrus plans and army to Artaxerxes, so that whatever the outcome he might be aligned with the winning side. Syennesis' actions, however, did little to save Cilicia's autonomy. After 400 BC it became an ordinary satrapy of the Persian Empire, rather than an independent tributary or vassal state, and the role of the hereditary king of Cilicia ceased, replaced by a satrap who was appointed by the Persian king, most frequently a relative of the latter.
n.igma
3213213.JPG
CILICIA. Tarsus (?). Ca. late 5th century BC. AR stater (21mm, 10.74 gm, 6h). NGC AU12 viewsCILICIA. Tarsus (?). Ca. late 5th century BC. AR stater (21mm, 10.74 gm, 6h). NGC AU 3/5 - 5/5, die shift. Side-view of fortified city walls with three crenelated towers, soldiers (?) on patrol between towers / Forepart of bull kneeling right, ankh to lower right. BMC -. SNG France 2 -. SNG Levante -. Casabonne -.

The attribution to Tarsus is based on the style and fabric of the flan, as well as the ankh symbol on the reverse. This symbol was clearly important to the people of Tarsus as the Great King is sometimes depicted carrying it upward by the shaft (cf. SNG France 2, 209); or displayed by itself as on the obol issue cf. SNG France 2, 207; or sometime as a device decorating the fields as on the previous lot in this sale. Another connecting theme is seen on satrapal Tarsus staters of the 4th century BC with lion and bull above crenelated city walls.
Mark R1
Cilicia_Satraps_Mazaios_10_86_SNG-Lev-106var.jpg
Cilician Satraps, Mazaios7 viewsMazaios. 361-334 BC. AR Stater (10.86 gm) of Tarsos. Baaltars seated l., head facing; holding grapes, grain ear and eagle in r. hand, lotus head scepter in l.; M under throne. BLTRZ in Aramaic behind. / Lion bringing down bull to l., ydzm (MZDI=Mazaios) in Aramaic above, monogram below. Choice EF.  Triton III #590. Casabonne series 2, group C; SNG Cop 313; SNG Levante 106 var.; SNG France 2 335 var. cf. SNG Copenhagen 312 See Numiswiki article on Baal (plate coin is same type as this): Christian T
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CIRCUS MAXIMUS, Trajan143 viewsĆ Sestertius (24.27g, Ř32.95mm, 5h). Rome mint. Struck AD 103-104.
Obv.: IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P laureate bust of Trajan right with aegis.
Rev.: SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI around, S C in ex., bird's-eys view on the Circus Maximus in Rome, as seen from the Forum Boarium, showing portico in foreground with eleven arched entrances and monumental gate surmounted by quadriga on right, two additional arches, each surmounted by quadriga behind the portico at both ends, the central spina adorned with tall obelisk of Rameses II at center flanked by equestrian statue of Trajan on left and shrine of Cybele on right , the two metae (turning posts) placed at the extremities; at the far side of the Circus, a curved wall incorporating a tetra-style shrine of Sol.
RIC 571 [R] and pl. x, 187 (rev. only); Cohen 546 (Fr.60); Strack 391; BMC 856; Banti 275 (4 spec.); MIR 175c and pl. 28 (citing 20 examples of this variety; same obv. die as plate 175c1; same rev. die as 175a3); RCV 3208 var. (different bust type).

ex G. Henzen (Netherlands, 2000)

The reverse of this sestertius commemorates the completion in AD 103 of a major restoration of the Circus Maximus, following a great fire that had severely damaged the famous arena in the time of the Flavian emperors. The origin of the Circus Maximus, situated in the Murcia valley between the Palatine and Aventine hills, is quite obscure. An enclosure for chariot racing, it had parallel sides and one semicircular end, all fitted with seats for spectators, and an axial rib (spina) marked at each end by turning-posts (metae) dividing the arena into two runs. At the open end were the curved stables (carceres) sufficient to accommodate twelve teams of horses. Traditionally founded by King Tarquinius Priscus, it does not seem to have become a permanent structure until 329 BC (Livy viii. 20.1). In later times, it was much embellished, notably by Augustus who erected on the spina the great Egyptian obelisk of Rameses II from Heliopolis (it now stands in the Piazza del Populo). The vast arena was frequently damaged by the fires that afflicted the imperial capital; on several occasions, there was loss of life when structural failure occurred under the weight of the huge crowds that attended the events. Trajan was himself an ardent fan of the Circus so it is scarcely surprising that he took on the task of restoring the arena. The present specimen is a good example of the rare issue that commemorated the completion of this undertaking. More than a century later (AD 213), the Emperor Caracalla issued a similar type to record his own restoration work on the Circus Maximus. The last recorded games in this celebrated arena took place under the Ostrogothic king Totila in AD 550.
1 commentsCharles S
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Claudius Rome 42 AD8 views
Claudius CERES AVGVSTA/S C 10.14gm Rome 42 AD, Dupondius RIC 110.
Ancient Aussie
messalina.jpg
Claudius, tetradrachm, with Messalina, Britannicus & Octavia18 viewsClaudius, 25 January 41 - 13 October 54 A.D., Roman Provincial Egypt, Messalina, Britannicus & Octavia Reverse. Billon tetradrachm, Geissen 88, BMC 75, Milne 110, RPC I I 5164, toned VF, Alexandria mint, 10.976g, 27.5mm, 0o, 45 - 46 A.D.; obverse “ΤΙ ΚΛΑΥΔΙ ΚΑΙΣ ΣΕΒΑ ΓΕΡΜΑΝΙ ΑΥΤΟΚΡ”, laureate head right, date LS (year 6) before; reverse “ΜΕΣΣΑΛΙΝΑ ΚΑΙΣ” C“ΕΒΑ”C, Messalina as Ceres standing facing, head left, two small figures in right, two stalks of grain in left. RPC I notes, "Messalina, who is shown as Demeter, holds two small figures. These were traditionally identified as the children of Claudius and Messalina, Britannicus and Octavia, but Dattari (RIN 1900, pp. 383-4) rejected this view, since Britannicus was born in 42 and the coin type is first used in 41; but Vogt (pp. 24-5) returned to the traditional description, arguing that the date of Britannicus' birth was not certain, and that these coins, in fact, show that he was born before August 41." ex FORVMPodiceps
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Cnaeus Cornelius Lentulus51 viewsObv: Helmeted bust of Mars facing right, viewed from behind, holding a spear and a parazonium, the strap of which is visible over his right shoulder.

Rev: Victory in biga right, holding the reins and raising a laurel wreath, CN LENTVL in exergue.

Silver Denarius, Rome mint, 88 BC

4.01 grams, 20 mm, 180°

RSC Cornelia 50, S254

Ex: FORVM
2 commentsSPQR Coins
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Commodus Triassarion, Marcianopolis.18 views AΥ•KΛ AΥΠ KOMOΔOC, Bare headed and draped bust right

MAΡKIANOΠOΛEITΩN, The Three Graces standing, the left and right facing, the middle with back to view; the left holding wreath, the right holding kantharos.

AMNG I 540 Varbanov 705.
Will Hooton
commodus.jpg
Commodus, March or April 177 - 31 Dec 192 A.D.37 viewsL Aelius Aurelius Commodus was the son of emperor Marcus Aurelius and empress Faustina II. Caesar in 177 A.D., Commodus succeeded his father as Augustus in 180. His rule of twelve years quickly degenerated into debauchery, paranoia and insanity. He actually believed he was Hercules reincarnated and participated in gladiatorial contests. The empire was directed by his unscrupulous favorites while the emperor amused himself in whatever decadent way he saw fit. His assassination in 192 A.D. was viewed as a blessing by most Romans of the day.

Silver denarius, RIC 160, BMC 227, RSC 966, Fair, 1.720g, 16.6mm, 180o, 187 A.D.; obverse M COMM ANT - P FEL AVG BRIT, laureate head right; reverse VIRTVT AVG PMTR P XII IMP VIII COS V P P, Virtus standing left, Victory in right, resting left hand on shield, spear leaning on left arm;
Dumanyu2
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Constantine 8.04.x17 viewsConstantine
Obv CONSTANTINVS P AVG
(R. laur, Trabeate)
Rev GENIO POP ROM
(Genius stg left, modius on head, right hand holding patera, left cornucopiae)
S | F(P)
MSL
Not in RIC LMCC 8.04.x (RRR)
3.1 g
London
(LMCC plate coin)
CT notes say, "A number of coins have been reported for this mintmark with right, or, more often, left facing trabeate busts. In all of the cases, the F in the right field on the reverse is indistinct. These ... (are) ... presumed to be a P with a "square" rather than "curved" upper part.

My view is that this coin is S P / MSL as CT concludes. An added reason is that GENIO POP ROM coins with S F/MSL reverses do not have trabeate types, whereas S P / MSL coins do. I think this coin belongs to the series of coins in CT 8.07.001 - 8.07.009, but with an unrecorded bust/legend combination.
Noviomagus
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Constantine I Unlisted Officina67 viewsAE 16 mm 2.6 grams
OBV :: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG. rosette-diadem, draped, cuirassed bust right
REV :: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS. 2 soldiers standing with shields and spears on ground, 2 standards between them
EX :: SMANTA ( Antioch )
RIC VII Antioch 85
RIC rated the Beta and Gamma officina's are rated R4 and R5 respectively . this is an unlisted officina rated R5. Coin has been reviewed and confirmed as A officina by Dane from the Helvetica's RIC database, and is not in RIC, Wildwinds, coinarchives or coincatalog

from uncleaned lot 110/2007
Johnny
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Constantine I, Follis, SOLI INVICTO COMITI9 viewsAE Follis/AE3
Constantine I
Caesar: 306 - 307AD
Augustus: 307 - 337AD
Issued: 313 - 314AD
22.5mm
O: CONSTANTINVS PF AVG; Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust, right.
R: SOLI INVI-CTO COMITI; Sol standing left, raising right hand, holding globe in left.
Exergue: S, left field; F, right field; PLG, below line.
Lyons Mint
Aorta: 2632: B78, O23, R186, T204, M10.
RIC VII Lyons 6, rated R4; Sear 16066.
Note: Normal bust view is RIC VII Lyons 6; RIC VII Lyons 5, bust seen from behind, is more common.
AgentJim007 CU Ancient and World Coin Forums
1/25/15 2/18/17
Added to WildWinds, February, 2017.
Nicholas Z
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Constantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.46 viewsSilvered AE 3, RIC VII 92, EF, 3.456g, 18.1mm, 0o, Heraclea mint, 327 - 329 A.D.; Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, diademed head right, eyes to God; Reverse: D N CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, VOT XXX in wreath, •SMHB in exergue.

As leading numismatist Joseph Sermarini notes, "The 'looking upwards' portraits of Constantine are often described as 'gazing to Heaven (or God).' The model of these portraits is of course that of the Deified Alexander the Great
(https://www.forumancientcoins.com/ssl/myforum.asp).

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power, and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement; so, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.

Which brings us to Crispus.
Whenever I am engaged in any discussion concerning Constantine I, Crispus is never far from my mind. As historian Hans Pohlsander from SUNY notes, "Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship." And Pohlsander continues with, "There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children)(Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm).

But there is something terribly illogigical about Constantinian apologetics. In 294 BC, prior to the death of his father, Seleucus I; Antiochus married his step-mother, Stratonice, daughter of Demetrius Poliorcetes. His elderly father reportedly instigated the marriage after discovering that his son was in danger of dying of lovesickness. If this is the way a "Pagan" father is able to express love for his son, then would not a saintly Christian love his son in at least similar measure? This particular Christian father, about whom St. Nectarios writes, "Hellenism spread by Alexander, paved the way for Christianity by the Emperor Constantine the Great," is unique. It is important to our discussion to take note of the fact that in the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Now would be an appropriate time to recall what Joseph Sermarini noted above, "The 'looking upwards' portraits of Constantine are often described as 'gazing to Heaven (or God).' The model of these portraits is of course that of the Deified Alexander the Great(https://www.forumancientcoins.com/ssl/myforum.asp).

Isn’t it all too possible--even probable--that Constantine had been growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? It is completely out of character for Constantine to merely acquiesce to being Philip to Crispus' Alexander. Remember the Constantine who has proven time and again (recall Constantine's disingenuous promise of clemency to Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, and Constantine decides to murder again. Why "must we, "as Pohlsander adamantly suggests, "resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins? A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).

Keep in mind that the obverse device of this coin shows Constantine I "gazing toward God" and was struck within a year or possibly two of Constantine I murdering his first-born son and condemning him to damnatio memoriae.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
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Constantius II Half Centenionalis Fel Temp Reparatio Phoenix on Globe49 viewsAE Half Centenionalis
Constantius II, 337-361 CE
Diameter: 17 mm, Weight: 2.90 grams, Die Axis: 6h

Obverse: D N CONSTANTIVS PF AVG
Diademed and draped bust to right.

Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO
Ornately nimbate phoenix standing right on globe, star in field to right.

Mint: SMNB, star in field: Nicomedia

Notes:
- Nicomedia is a rare mint for the Fel Temp Reparatio phoenix on globe type, and this B emission is not listed in RIC.
- There were likely at least 12 officiniae emissions from Nicomedia in the years 349 and 350 CE, but all seem to have been relatively small outputs. I have only been able to view two other different officiniae (both also star in field), and these too show the distinctive Nicomedia nimbus design. This is in contrast to Antioch, were some emissions possess a spectacular nimbus, while others were engraved with a design similar to other mints. Nicomedia may have followed the same pattern, but there are currently to few published specimens to tell.
- This example has a small vertical cut on the reverse splitting the tail feathers of the Phoenix.


Ex Germania Inferior Numismatics (Netherlands), 2016
2 commentsPharsalos
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Constantius II half centenionalis Phoenix22 viewsAE Half Centenionalis
Constantius II, 337-361 CE
Diameter: 17 mm, Weight: 2.84 grams, Die Axis: 6h

Obverse: D N CONSTANTIVS PF AVG
Diademed and draped bust to right.

Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO
Nimbate phoenix standing right on globe, star in field to right.

Mint: SMKϚ (digamma, sixth officinae) star in field: Cyzicus

Notes:
-Cyzicus is a scarce mint for the Fel Temp Reparatio phoenix on globe type. The other Cyzicus mint examples I have viewed all share the same common feature of a quite detailed phoenix.
-This issue was minted circa 348 to 350 CE.

Ex EBay UK 2017
Pharsalos
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Cr 174/1 Ć As Caecilius0 views c. 169-158 b.c.e. Rome mint likely moneyer: A. Caecilius A.f.
Laureate head of Janus; above, I [value]
[A] CAE above, R[OMA] below, prow of galley right; before, I [value]
33 mm 29.35 gm

Ex RBW Collection, from Christie's (17 October 1984), lot 21 (part)

This issue has not been securely dated, and some view the time frame for these issues to be earlier and longer. For this 10-20 year period, only the bronze coins use a ligated, short-form of about 20 moneyers' names, which do not have associated named denarii.
This coin is no beauty, but it is clear enough and quite weighty, with a fine provenance that shows even great collectors had to grab the right coins when available. In this issue, the As is easy to find but the fractions are not.
PMah
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Cr 299/1b AR Denarius4 viewsAppius Claudius Pulcher, T. Manlius Mancius (?) & Q. Urbinius (??)
Rome mint, 111-110 BCE
Helmeted head of Roma right; quadrangular device behind
Victory driving triga right, T•MA•AP• CL•Q•VR in ex.
3.94 gm, 17 mm
The text above does not do justice to the complexity of the ligature of the legend. This variety of the type leads off with moneyer "MA", presumed, not without contrary views, to be a Manlius or a Mallius; Crawford settles on Maloleius. I retained the seller's interpretation in the header for consistency.
"AP CL", by this time frame, will be a Claudius.
Crawford also cites but disputes an earlier interpretation that "Q. VR" stood for Quaestor Urbinus, rather than an unknown Urbinus. Puzzling that a Claudius would share honors.
No associated bronze types.
This coin nicely colored.

2 commentsPMah
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Cr 345/1 AR Denarius Cn. Lentulus Clodianus6 views88 b.c.e. 3.80 gm; 18.50 mm
o: Helmeted bust of Mars, seen from behind, head right
r: Victory in biga right; in exergue, CN. LENTVL
A very typical presentation of "head and horses".... except that view is slightly over the should of Mars. This view, which I have flagged on other coins, is not common. Question: Why, and why did this view end
PMah
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Cr 350A/2 "Gargilius, Ogulnius & Vergilius"9 views86 BCE
o: Laureate head of Apollo (Vejovis?) right, thunderbolt below
r: Jupiter in quadriga right, hurling thunderbolt and holding reins
Crawford 350A/2. RSC Anonymous 226.
3.84gg. (4h)
My view is this: Although in many respects this coin is boring and cold, it has an interesting virtue of being anepigraphic in an era of relative verbosity. The obverse is sometimes attributed as "Vejovis" and sometimes as "Apollo Vejovis" and sometimes just "Apollo". Vejovis seems to have been one of the most ancient gods, among the group that the Romans themselves often got confused as to origin-story and attributes. The fragmented sources do not make it much better and his odd name implying something like "un-Jupiter" is no help. (The anti-Jupiter implication --- darkest, weakest, least interested in nymphs -- being somewhat also at odds with the frequent association with Apollo.) Given the relative infrequency of Vejovis on coins, this ambiguity seems to extend to moneyers.
On the other hand, there is no equivalent Roman practice of the modern minting practice of issuing coins in a series simply to sell coins as "collect them all", so we can presume the moneyers expected a meaningful message to be conveyed.
This coin is much better in hand than the photo.
PMah
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Cr 437/2a - C. Coelius Caldus 29 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC
C. Coelius Caldus
AR denarius. Rome, 3.82g, 51BC

C COEL CALDVS COS, Bare head of Caius Coelius, standard with HIS behind, boar below chin / CALDVS. III. VIR (ALD ligate) in exergue, figure seated left atop lofty lectisternium inscribed L. CALDVS/VII. VIR. EPVL (sic; VIR and EPVL ligate) between two trophies.

Crawford 437/2a. RSC Coelia 7

gVF, areas of light porosity
Ex Heritage

Re-imaged 4/17/13. This was my second-most viewed coin, but I just really wanted to improve the background!
RR0007
1 commentsSosius
DUCHY ATHENS 1.jpg
CRUSADER - Duchy of Athens view #170 viewsDuchy of Athens, anonymous; made during reign of William I (1280-1287) or Guy II (1287-1308). Billon Denier.
Obv: Castle Tournois, "+DVX ATENES"
Rev.: Cross, "+THBANE CIVIS"
Thebes mint. Similar to Metcalfe 1040-1048, variety A4

This view is with no lighting effects. The condition is not the best!
Thanks (again!) to Manzikert for identification!
dpaul7
DUCHY ATHENS 2.jpg
CRUSADER - Duchy of Athens view #260 viewsDuchy of Athens, anonymous; made during reign of William I (1280-1287) or Guy II (1287-1308). Billon Denier.
Obv: Castle Tournois, "+DVX ATENES"
Rev.: Cross, "+THBANE CIVIS"
Thebes mint. Similar to Metcalfe 1040-1048, variety A4.

This view is with lighting effects to show the coin better. The condition is not the best!
Thanks (again!) to Manzikert for identification!
dpaul7
Diadumenian_Nikopolis_Agrippa_Artemis_AE28.jpg
Diadumenian, Nikopolis ad Istrum, Agrippa, Artemis, AE2836 viewsAE28, 13.6g
obv: K M OΠΠEΛ ANTΩNI ΔIAΔOVMENIANOC, bare head right, seen from behind
rev: VΠ AΓPIΠΠA NIKOΠOΛITΩN ΠPOC ICTΠΩN, Artemis huntress advancing right, holding in right hand bow and arrow, with left raised hand; next to her - a hound

http://www.forumancientcoins.com/auction/APViewItem.asp?ID=12649
1 commentsareich
Emerita35.jpg
Divus Augustus Emerita25 viewsSPAIN, Emerita. Divus Augustus. Died AD 14. Ć Dupondius (35mm, 25.7 g, 2h).DIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER CAE, Radiate head left / City-view seen from aerial perspective: city wall with five T-shaped crenellations fronted by main gate consisting of two arched bays flanked by two multi-story crenellated towers, each with arched window; gate inscribed AVGVSTA/EMERITA and decorated with four T-shaped crenellations. RPC 30b; SNG Copenhagen -; Burgos 1032.1 commentsAncient Aussie
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DN VALENS PF AVG / GLORIA ROMANORVM AE3/4 follis (364-378 A.D.) 19 viewsDN VALEN-S PF AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right / GLORIA RO-MANORVM, Emperor walking right, head left, (probably) holding labarum, dragging captive behind him. V(?) in left field, star (or point) over Δ in right field. Mintmark worn off.

AE3/4, 17mm, 1.96g, die axis 12 (medal alignment), material: bronze/copper-based alloy

DN = Dominus Noster = Our Lord, P F AVG = Pius Felix Augustus = the pius (dutiful) and fortunate (happy) emperor. GLORIA ROMANORVM = Glory of the Romans. The labarum (Greek: λάβαρον) was a vexillum (military standard) that displayed the "Chi-Rho" symbol ☧, a christogram formed from the first two Greek letters of the word "Christ" (Greek: ΧΡΙΣΤΟΣ, or Χριστός) — Chi (χ) and Rho (ρ). It was first used by the Roman emperor Constantine the Great.

GLORIA ROMANORVM with the captive was a very popular reverse design for Valens' coins, minted at many mints all over the empire. But star or dot over Δ in right field is characteristic only of one mint, Thessalonica. Examples include various types of RIC IX Thessalonica 26b (star over Δ) and 31 (dot over Δ). These types are dated 367-375 or 375-378 A.D., with some letter in the left field usually indicating later, 375-378 issue. Mintmark for these types is always TES, sometimes with dot before or after.

Flavius Iulius Valens. Born in 328 in Cibalae (in present-day Croatia) into an Illyrian family. His older brother Valentinian was later to become Valenitinian I the Great, another emperor.

His father Gratian (aka the Elder or Gratianus Funarius or Gratianus Major), a Roman soldier of common birth, rose through the ranks to become "protector domesticus" during the reign of Constantine the Great [A member of an elite guard unit/staff member with various important duties . After serving under the emperor for a certain duration, the Domestici would be able to become leaders themselves and potentially command their own regiment of legionnaires in the military], and later tribune and comes. He was forced to retire due to suspicion of embezzlement, but later recalled back to active duty to serve Constans. Again fell into disrespect and lost all estates when Constantius came to deal with Magnentius, because he was suspected to support him, but never lost influence with the army, which helped to promote careers of his sons.

Brothers grew up in various estates in Africa and Britain. While Valentinian had been distinguished in an active military career, Valens, though already 35 years old, had not participated in either the civil or military affairs of the empire previous to his selection as Augustus by his brother. In February 364, reigning Emperor Jovian, while hastening to Constantinople to secure his claim to the throne, died in his sleep during a stop at Dadastana, 100 miles east of Ankara. Valentinian, a tribunus scutariorum, who owed his advancement to the deceased, was elected by the legions to succeed Jovian. He was proclaimed Augustus on 26 February, 364. It was the general opinion that Valentinian needed help to handle the cumbersome administration, civil and military, of the large and unwieldy empire, and, on 28 March of the same year, at the express demand of the soldiers for a second Augustus, he selected his brother Valens as co-emperor in the palace of Hebdomon. Both emperors were briefly ill, delaying them in Constantinople, but as soon as they recovered, the two Augusti travelled together through Adrianople and Naissus to Mediana, where they divided their territories. Valentinian then went on to the West, where the Alemanic wars required his immediate attention.

Valens obtained the eastern half of the Empire Greece, Egypt, Syria and Anatolia as far east as Persia. He was back in his capital of Constantinople by December 364. Valens was utterly undistinguished and possessed no military ability: he betrayed his consciousness of inferiority by his nervous suspicion of plots and savage punishment of alleged traitors, but he was also a conscientious administrator, careful of the interests of the humble. He was an earnest Christian. Like the brothers Constantius II and Constans, Valens and Valentinian I held divergent theological views. Valens was an Arian and Valentinian I upheld the Nicene Creed. Valens was baptized by the Arian bishop of Constantinople before he set out on his first war against the Goths. Not long after Valens died the cause of Arianism in the Roman East was to come to an end. His death was considered a sign from God. His successor Theodosius I would favor the Nicene Creed, and suppress the Arian heresy. Valens, sometimes known as the Last True Roman (his co-emperor brother was dead in 375), was defeated and killed in the Battle of Adrianople against a confederated Gothic army on 9 August 378, which marked the beginning of the collapse of the decaying Western Roman Empire.
Yurii P
domit.jpg
Domitian Denarius - Rev: Temple81 viewsDOMITIAN, 81-96 Silver Denarius.
Obv: DOMITIANVS AVG GERM, Bare head of Domitian right.
Rev: Frontal view of hexastyle temple on base with four steps; within is a statue of Jupiter, seated, flanked by statues of Juno and Minerva (= the Capitoline triad); on the central part of the pediment is a seated figure holding spear, with two additional figures on either side; on the apex of the roof is a facing quadriga with figures on either side; an eagle stands at each of the upper corners; IMP CAESAR is inscribed on the architrave.
RIC II˛.1 815; RIC II 207; BMC 242.
4 commentsOldMoney
domitian_191~0.jpg
Domitian RIC II, 19183 viewsMinerva-5 views
Domitian 81 - 96
AR - Denar, 3.62g, 18mm
AD 95/96
obv. IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM PM TRP XV
laureate head r.
rev. IMP XXII COS XVII CENS P PP
Minerva standing r. on columna rostrata(!), brandishing
javelin and and holding shield; owl at her feet; below two
figures (Jupiter and worshipping figure, ref. to Curtis Clay)
(Minerva type 2)
RIC II, 191; C.293
EF
Jochen
D281.jpg
Domitian RIC-28183 viewsĆ Sestertius, 26.14g
Rome mint, 85 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIAN AVG GERM COS XI; Bust of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r., with aegis
Rev: S C in exergue; Domitian stg. r., clasping hands over altar with officer stg. l.; behind officer, one soldier with standard and one soldier at r. with spear and shield
RIC 281 (R). BMC 301. BNC 321.
Acquired from Olding, MA Shops, June 2019 = Olding, List 96, March 2019, Sammlung Fritz Reusing, no. 182. From the collection of Fritz Reusing (1874-1956), acquired from the Heynen Collection; inherited and continued by Reusing's nephew Paul Schürer (1890-1976).

In 85 Domitian struck a fairly impressive issue of sestertii, M. Grant hyperbolically called it the most 'ambitious' of any one reign or year. The series is the first major aes issue of Domitian's reign and is dominated by panoramic types commemorating his greatest military victory over the Germanic tribe the Chatti. The Germanic triumph received a certain amount of ridicule from ancient writers who thought the whole thing was a sham (Dio goes so far as to say Domitian raided the palace's furniture stores for his fake spoils!), no doubt the numismatic propaganda for the victory was likely viewed in the same manner by contemporary senatorial elites. This rare sestertius depicts a rather ambiguous scene showing Domitian, the much larger figure on the left, clasping hands with a legate over an altar while two legionaries stand by. What exactly is going on here is a mystery. Mattingly in BMCRE II believed it to be 'the taking of the sacramentum, the military oath'. Others have postulated the scene shows Domitian greeting Agricola upon his return from Britannia. The Agricola connection is highly unlikely. The type is struck for several more years, so it cannot be referring to one single 'event'. It's an intriguing scene in the context of the Germania Capta series, perhaps depicting a post victory ceremony. Whatever the meaning, the reverse strongly underscores Domitian's bond with the military.

This wonderful old cabinet toned piece is from the collection of the German portrait painter Fritz Reusing.

3 commentsDavid Atherton
D397sm.jpg
Domitian RIC-39747 viewsĆ Sestertius, 26.19g
Rome mint, 85 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM XI CENS PER P P; Head of Domitian, laureate, r., with aegis
Rev: GERMANIA CAPTA; S C in exergue; Trophy; to r., German captive stg. r., hands bound, head l.; to l., Germania std. l.; around arms
RIC 397 (R2). BMC 361. BNC -.
Acquired from Incitatus Coins, August 2019.

In 85 Domitian struck a fairly impressive issue of sestertii, M. Grant hyperbolically called it the most 'ambitious' of any one reign or year. The series is the first major aes issue of Domitian's reign and is dominated by panoramic types commemorating his military victory over the Germanic tribe the Chatti. The details of the war are unclear, but the overall impression is that the conflict was a minor affair blown out of proportion by an emperor eager for military glory. Consequently, Domitian's Germanic triumph of 83 received a certain amount of ridicule from ancient writers who thought the whole thing was a sham (Dio goes so far as to say Domitian raided the palace's furniture stores for his fake spoils!), no doubt the numismatic propaganda for the victory was likely viewed in the same manner by contemporary senatorial elites. Germania Capta types were first struck in silver in 84 and in bronze in 85. This iconic Germania Capta sestertius strongly echoes Vespasian's Judaea Capta types - but instead of a palm tree we see a trophy and a bound captive replaces the triumphal emperor. H. Mattingly writes in BMCRE 'the type is closely modelled on the Judaea Capta of Vespasian, but the German element is indicated by the heavy angular cloak worn by the man and by the oblong shields.' Comparing the two triumphs, the Josephian scholar Steve Mason remarked - 'The same people who produced Flavian Triumph I: Judaea were on hand for Flavian Triumph II: Germania, and sequels are rarely as good as the originals.'

The Germania Capta sestertii were produced for only a few short years between 85-88. The present example from the third issue of 85 is a rare variant with an obverse legend struck just after Domitian had become censor for life (CENS PER).
3 commentsDavid Atherton
0561-410np_noir.jpg
Domitius Domitianus, Octadrachm, Emmet plate coin - *177 viewsAlexandria mint, AD 296-297
ΔOMITI-ANOC CEB, Radiate bust of Domitius right
No legend, Serapis going right, LB in field (regnal year 2)
12.79 gr
Ref : Emmett, Alexandrian coins #4241/2, this example illustrated, Dattari # 10830, RCV # 12982 (2000), Sear # 4801 var (It's actually an hexadrachm in Sear)
Domitius Domitianus, stationed in Egypt, rebelled against Diocletianus in july 296 AD and was proclaimed emperor. He was defeated during spring 297 AD. Diocletian decided to close the alexandrian mint, so the coins of Domitianus are the last provincial coins from Alexandria. Also, Domitianus was the only ruler to strike octadrachms (in parallel with didrachms, tetradrachms and hexadrachms)

For more information, see, in english : http://www.forumancientcoins.com/numiswiki/view.asp?key=Domitius%20Domitianus or "en français" http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=54339.0

Also, the following comment, about another specimen sold at CNG (Triton XI, Lot # 539) "For the most part, scholars agree that the larger coins featuring the radiate bust must be a double, and thereby call it an octodrachm. At half the weight, then, the smallest coins with the Nike on the reverse must be tetradrachms, though these coins have erroneously been called heretofore didrachms. The weights of these tetradrachms appear consistent with the final issues of pre-reform tetradrachms of the Tetrarchs. The middle denomination poses the largest challenge to this arrangement. By weight, it should be a hexadrachm. However, no such denomination was known to have been struck in Egypt, though tetradrachms earlier in the third century achieved this weight. The obvious problem here would be the confusion caused in circulating the same denomination in two different weights. As this type is the rarest of the group, it is possible that it was meant for a special occasion, or more remotely, a stalled attempt to reinstitute the pre-reform coinage on an earlier weight standard. Further investigation may shed more light on this subject.
3 commentsPotator II
EB0247b_scaled.JPG
EB0247 Grapes / Helmet5 viewsJUDAEA, HEROD ARCHELAUS, AE 16 (prutah ?), 4-6 AD.
Obverse: HPWDOY, bunch of grapes on vine with small leaf on left.
Reverse: EQNARCOU, tall helmet with crest & cheek straps, viewed from front, caduceus below.
References: Meshorer 61; Hendin 505.
Diameter: 16.5mm, Weight: 2.142g.
EB
Elagabalus_brockage~0.JPG
Elagabalus, 218 - 222 AD19 viewsObv: IMP ANTONINVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Elagabalus facing right.

Rev: Negative image of obverse.

Silver Denarius Brockage Error, Rome mint, 218 - 222 AD

2.3 grams, 18 mm, 0°

RIC -, RSC -, S -, VM -
Matt Inglima
elagse01-2.jpg
Elagabalus, sestertius of AD 22139 viewsĆ Sestertius (27.00g, Ř 31mm, 12h), Rome mint, Struck AD 221
Obv.: IMP CAES M AVG ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laurate, draped, cuirassed and horned bust of Elagabalus facing right.
Rev.: PM TR P IIII COS III P P (around edge) S C (in field), Elagabalus standing left, sacrificing over lighted altar, holding cypress-branch in left hand; star in field.
RIC 323 (R); Cohen 198 (fr.20)
ex G. Henzen

This type refers to the emperor in his role as priest of the sun-god Elagabalus. For this, as well as for many other reasons, he was much detested by the Romans and soon murdered by his own troops. His body was thrown down a sewer after having been dragged through the city. Quoting one of the most remarkable and wonderful sentences from the old Dictionary of Roman Coins (see Elagabalus): "Thus perished, on the 11th of March, one of the most cruel, debauched and shameless wretches, that ever disgraced humanity, or polluted a throne, after a reign of three years and nine months, disfigured with every feature of hideous criminality and extravagant folly, not having attained more than the eighteenth year of his age."
1 commentsCharles S
1886__Numismatik_Naumann,_Auction_82_lot_241.jpg
ephesus006a3 viewsElagabalus
Ephesus, Ionia

Obv: ΑΥΤ Κ Μ ΑΥΡ ΑΝΤΩΝƐΙΝΟϹ ϹƐΒ, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from rear.
Rev: ΔΟΓΜΑΤΙ ϹΥΝ/ΚΛΗΤΟΥ →ƐΦƐϹΙΩΝΟΥ/TOΙ ΝΑΟΙ, frontal view of two distyle temples between two distyle temples seen in perspective, each holding cult-statue; the central ones having Artemis of Ephesus, to left, and the Emperor, to right.
36 mm, 20.82 gms

RPC Online 4867; Karwiese 680

From Numismatik Naumann Auction 82, lot 241.
Charles M
sistertiii_169~0.JPG
Faustina Senior AR Denarius, wife of Antoninus Pius, Rome 135-140 AD 43 viewsRef Faustina Sr AR Denarius, RIC 343, RSC 1, BMC 339
Diva Faustina Sr 3.36 gr. AR Denarius. 150 AD. DIVA FAVSTINA, diademed & draped bust right / AED DIV FAVSTINAE, front view of temple of six columns on five steps, fencing before, statue of Faustina within. RIC 343, RSC 1. sear5 4573

Antonivs Protti
B-faustina_senior_01.jpg
Faustina Senior Sestertius50 viewsObv: DIVA FAVSTINA - Draped bust right.
Rev: AVGVSTA - Ceres standing left, holding a torch in each hand.
Cat #: RIC.1120
Weight: 24.00g
Notes: This coin is somewhat mysterious to me. Above I identify it as RIC.1120 which for reverse states "...torch in each hand". However, if you look at the picture of my coin (or compare it to, say: http://www.coinarchives.com/a/lotviewer.php?LotID=177916&AucID=226&Lot=751), what Ceres seems to be holding in the right hand does not look like a torch. In fact, it looks more so like Victory, but RIC does not seem to list this variant.
oa
Faustina_the_Elder_RIC_A343.JPG
Faustina the Elder, wife of Antoninus Pius (Posthumous issue)30 viewsObv: DIVA FAVSTINA, draped bust of Faustina facing right.

Rev: AED DIV FAVSTINAE, front view of hexastyle temple on four or five steps, fencing before, seated figure of Faustina within.

Silver Denarius, Rome mint, 150 AD

3.2 grams, 18 mm, 0°

RIC III Antoninus Pius 343, RSC 1, S4573
SPQR Coins
Faustina_the_Elder_RIC_A343_(2).JPG
Faustina the Elder, wife of Antoninus Pius (Posthumous issue)33 viewsObv: DIVA FAVSTINA, draped bust of Faustina facing right.

Rev: AED DIV FAVSTINAE, front view of hexastyle temple, fencing before, seated figure of Faustina within.

Silver Denarius, Rome mint, 150 AD

3.3 grams, 18 mm, 180°

RIC III Antoninus Pius 343, RSC II 1, S4573
1 commentsMatt Inglima
Forum.JPG
Forum44 viewsView of the Roman Forum and the Palatine hill in the background.Titus Pullo
FRANKFURT 1839.jpg
FRANKFURT83 viewsFRANKFURT - No date (1839) 1 Kreuzer. Silver. Obv.: City view. Rev.: Spread eagle looking left.
Reference: KM#317.
dpaul7
Severus_Alexander_35.jpg
G164 viewsSeverus Alexander Denarius

Attribution: RIC 212, RSC 556
Date: AD 228-231
Obverse: IMP SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate head r.
Reverse: VICTORIA AVG, Victory stg. l., holding wreath and palm
Size: 19.4 mm
Weight: 3.30 grams
(Bust of Severus Alexander: Louvre, Paris)

After being granted the title of Caesar in AD 221, Severus Alexander was elevated to Augustus a year later upon the murder of Elagabalus. To be sure, however, the true power of Alexander’s reign did not lie in his hands, but rather in the cunning of his mother, Julia Mamaea. So much influence and persuasion did she have over her feeble son, that she arranged his marriage to a patrician girl named Orbiana, and then, fearing her father, had her exiled to North Africa and had her father killed. Although Alexander cared for his wife, he did nothing to oppose his mother. Throughout his entire reign, military unrest was a constant. Nevertheless, Alexander needed the military to face a resurging foe, the Persians. In AD 226, Persian king Ardashir or Artaxerxes, rose up against and defeated the Parthian king Artabanus. The great Persian Empire had returned and placed its attention on the territories recently conquered by the Romans in northern Mesopotamia. Alexander launched a campaign to fend off the invading Persians. The Persian War in AD 232 saw heavy losses on both sides and was not viewed as a great victory. No sooner had Alexander returned to Rome when he was brought news of the Germans breaching the Rhine frontier in numerous places. In AD 234, he mustered his troops to confront this new invasion. Alexander preferred diplomacy tried to bribe the Germans into leaving. His troops saw him as a coward and further despised him for limiting their pay and bonuses. They sought new leadership in a Thracian soldier named Maximinus. One morning in AD 235, Maximinus exited his tent and was adorned with the purple imperial cloak over his shoulders and declared emperor by the army. He pretended to be surprised, but this was a staged performance carefully planned out to shift power. Alexander was encamped nearby at Vicus Britannicus and became enraged at the news. Upon the approach of Maximinus and his troops the next day, Alexander’s troops abandoned him and changed sides. “Trembling and terrified out of his wits, Alexander just managed to get back to his tent. There, the reports say, he waited for his executioner, clinging to his mother and weeping and blaming her for his misfortunes…They burst into the tent and slaughtered the emperor, his mother, and all those thought to be his friends or favorites.” – Herodian VI.9
8 commentsNoah
1376.jpg
gadaraspijk0764 viewsElagabalus
Gadara

Obv: Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from front.
Rev: In exergue, ΓAΔAP…, Zeus seated left on throne within hexastyle temple.
24 mm, 8.03 gms

Spijkerman 76 variant (bust view and pediment blank)
Charles M
1428.jpg
gadaraspijk0777 viewsElagabalus
Gadara

Obv: Bust of emperor, frontal view, laureate head right, wearing cuirass with gorgoneion.
Rev: In pediment, AΠC, Zeus seated left on throne within hexastyle temple, eagle in right hand.
22 mm, 11.54 gms

Spijkerman 77
Charles M
Galen _BiogEncyclSciTech2.jpg
Galen of Pergamum (ca. 130-ca. 200)14 viewsGalen of Pergamum (ca. 130-ca. 200)

Greek physician considered second only to Hippocrates of Cos in his importance to the development of medicine, Galen performed extensive dissections and vivisections on animals. Although human dissections had fallen into disrepute, he also performed and stressed to his students the importance of human dissections. He recommended that students practice dissection as often as possible. He studied the muscles, spinal cord, heart, urinary system, and proved that the arteries are full of blood. He believed that blood originated in the liver, and sloshed back and forth through the body, passing through the heart, where it was mixed with air, by pores in the septum. Galen also introduced the spirit system, consisting of natural spirit or "pneuma" (air he thought was found in the veins), vital spirit (blood mixed with air he believed to found in the arteries), and animal spirit (which he believed to be found in the nervous system). In On the Natural Facilities, Galen minutely described his experimentation on a living dog to investigate the bladder and flow of urine. It was Galen who first introduced the notion of experimentation to medicine.

Galen believed everything in nature has a purpose, and that nature uses a single object for more than one purpose whenever possible. He maintained that "the best doctor is also a philosopher," and so advocated that medical students be well-versed in philosophy, logic, physics, and ethics. Galen and his work On the Natural Faculties remained the authority on medicine until Vesalius in the sixteenth century, even though many of his views about human anatomy were false since he had performed his dissections on pigs, Barbary apes, and dogs. Galen mistakenly maintained, for instance, that humans have a five-lobed liver (which dogs do) and that the heart had only two chambers (it has four).
http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/biography/Galen.html

Photo Credit:
Galen of Pergamum (ca. 130-ca. 200): Asimov, I. Biographical Encyclopedia of Science and Technology; the Lives and Achievements of 1510 Great Scientists from Ancient Times to the Present, Chronologically Arranged, rev. ed. New York: NY: Avon, p. 108f, 1976.
Cleisthenes
Galerius- GENIO AVGVSTI CMH new.jpg
Galerius- Genio49 viewsGalerius, 1 March 305 - 5 May 311 A.D.

Obverse:Laureate head right
IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS PF AVG

IMP: Imperator,
C: Caes,
GAL: Galerius
MAXIMIANVS: Maximianus
PF: Pius Felix
AVG: Agustus

Reverse:
GENIO AVGVSTI CMH

Genio: Genius
AVGVSTI: Agustus
CMH: ??

Showing:Genius standing left holding patera in right and cornucopia in left


Domination: Follis, Bronze, size 25 mm

Mint: SMN (Nicomedia) A (alpha)

CMH:

In his book Roman Bronze Coins From Paganism to Christianity, 294-364 AD., Failmezger proposes the following definition for CMH:

"At the same time, the weight of the bronze coins dropped and 48 coins are now struck to the pound. The mint of Nicomedia issues coins with CMH added as a suffix to the legend on the reverse. This may be interpreted taht this coin has a value of 100 (C- centum) sestertii struck at a new weight of 48 to the pound (Greek letter M for 40, Greek letter H for. This may further support the 25 DC value of the coin theory (see #'s 191, 192, 199, 200, 211, 213). The continued use of CMH at the mint of Cyzicus in the year 311 AD may mean that even thought the weight of the nummus was reduced again from 48 to 72 to the pound, the value remianed constant at 100 sestertii or 25 DC (#192)."

He does say that this is just speculation and that alternative views may be possible.
John Schou
IMG_4864.JPG
German Notgeld: Nürnberg – Fürther Strassenbahn15 viewsCity: Nürnberg – Fürther Strassenbahn
State: Bavaria
Denomination: 20 Pfennig
Obverse: NÜRNBERG – FÜRTHER STRASSENBAHN, 20 PFENNIG within circle in center.
Reverse: WASSER SPEIER, a view of the Triton Fountain in Nuremberg, erected 1689 by Johann Leonhard Bromig.
Date: No Date
Grade: UNC
Catalog #:
Matt Inglima
frankfurt_silver-kreuzer_ND1839_01.JPG
German State - Frankfurt ND 1839 AR 1K - City View57 viewsFrankfurt, ND1839 Silver 1 Kreuzer.

obv: FREIE STADT FRANKFURT - Crowned eagle with wings spread.
rev: 1.K - City view of Frankfurt, Sun above.
*Note the detail on the bridge, and the ships in the water.... hard to tell with such bad pictures.
rexesq
frankfurt_city-view_ND1839_1-silver-kreuzer.JPG
German State - Frankfurt ND 1839 AR 1K - City View - rev.37 viewsFrankfurt, ND1839 Silver 1 Kreuzer.

obv: FREIE STADT FRANKFURT - Crowned eagle with wings spread.
rev: 1.K - City view of Frankfurt, Sun above.

*Note the detail on the bridge, and on the ships in the water.... it's hard to tell with such bad pictures.
rexesq
gord1.jpg
GORDIAN III75 viewsBI tetradrachm. Antioch (Seleucis et Pieria). 240 AD .12.82 gr. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, viewed from the front. ΑΥΤΟΚ Κ Μ ΑΝΤ ΓΟΡΔΙΑΝΟC CΕΒ / Eagle standing facing,open wings, head turned left, wreath in beak. ΔΗΜΑΡΧ ΕΞΟYCΙΑC. S C in exergue. Prieur 279.
CNG. EA 109, Lot: 130.
CNG Photograph.
4 commentsbenito
00gordantioch.jpg
GORDIAN III41 viewsBI tetradrachm. Antioch (Seleucis et Pieria). 240 AD .12.82 gr. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, viewed from the front. ΑΥΤΟΚ Κ Μ ΑΝΤ ΓΟΡΔΙΑΝΟC CΕΒ / Eagle standing facing,open wings, head turned left, wreath in beak. ΔΗΜΑΡΧ ΕΞΟYCΙΑC. S C in exergue. Prieur 279.
benito
Gordian_temple.jpg
GORDIAN III. DEULTUM THRACE5 viewsGORDIAN III. DEULTUM THRACE AE 23 Cult statue of Aphrodite & vase within tetrastyle temple viewed in perspective. Varbanov 2277.Ancient Aussie
GRATIAN-11.jpg
Gratian RIC IX 56a9 viewsObv: D N GRATIANVS P F AVG
pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
Rev: CONCORDIA AVGGG
Constantinople seated facing, head left, holding globe
on viewers left, and spear, right leg bare, O left.
CONSr in ex.
OWL365
Kassope.jpg
Greece, Epirus, Kassope Street in Kassope and view to the south25 viewsGreece, Epirus, Kassope Street in Kassope and view to the south

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Kassope_2016-05-09_13.06.21.jpg
9 May 2016 Rjdeadly

Kassope or Cassope was an ancient Greek city in Epirus. Kassope occupies a magnificent and remote site on a high platform overlooking the sea, the Ambracian Gulf and the fertile lands to the south, and with the slopes of the Zalongo mountain to the north. It is considered one of the best remaining examples of a city built on a rectilinear street grid of a Hippodamian plan in Greece. The first settlements on the site are from the Paleolithic. However the city of Kassope was founded in the middle of the 4th century B.C. as the capital of the Kassopaeans, a sub-tribe of the Thesprotians. It belonged to the Aetolian League. Cassope or Cassopia is mentioned in the war carried on by Cassander against Alcetas II of Epirus, in 312 B.C. The city flourished in the 3rd century BC, when large public buildings were built. Kassope also minted its own coins. It was destroyed by Roman forces in 168-167 B.C. Kassope was abandoned in 31 B.C. when the remaining inhabitants resettled to Nikopolis the region’s new capital. The visible remains include the Cyclopean walls, an agora, a theater, the prytaneion.
Joe Sermarini
Bild2611neu.jpg
Greece, Rhodes164 viewsView on the acropolis of LindosFranz-Josef M
Dyrrachion~0.jpg
GREEK, Illyria, Dyrrachion. AR Stater87 viewsCirca 340-280 BC (21mm, 10.71 g, 4h). Maier 23 var. (lizard on rev.); Meadows, Coin Hoard (forthcoming) 175 (this coin); SNG Copenhagen –; BMC 17 var. (same). Obverse Cow standing right, looking back at suckling calf standing left below; above, wasp right. Reverse Double stellate pattern, divided by line, in double linear square border (single on one side); DYP retrograde, club below; all within linear circle border. Good VF, bright surfaces, some porosity. Well centered. Very rare.

Ex Classical Numismatic Group 93rd Printed Auction, lot 190.

Dyrrhachion was founded as Epidamnos in the ancient region of Illyria in 627 BC by ancient Greek colonists from Corinth and Korkyra. The city's geographical position was highly advantageous, as it was situated around a natural rocky harbor which was surrounded by inland swamps and high cliffs on the seaward side, making the city very difficult to attack from either land or sea. The city, together with Corinth’s conflict with Korkyra was one of the causes in precipitating the Peloponnesian War. Dyrrhachion was noted for being a politically advanced society, prompting Aristotle to praise its political system in controlling trade between the Greek colonists and the locals. The Romans prefer calling the city Dyrrhacium since the last two syllables of the city’s name “–damnos” connotes a different meaning and inauspicious to Roman ears. The designs of the staters of Korkyra as well as its colonies, Apollonia and Dyrrhachion, have been the subject of much numismatic speculation. Eckhel (Doctrina numorum veterum [Vienna, 1792/3], II:155) accepted the view of Laurentius Beger (Observationes Et Conjecturae In Numismata Quaedam Antiqua [Brandenburg, 1691]), who argued that the design represented the garden of Alkinöos, the mythical king of Phaiakia, described in detail by the poet Homer (Od. 7.112-133). Based on the assumption that mythical Phaiakia was the island of ancient Korkyra (mod. Corfu), and knowing that Korkyrans colonized both Apollonia and Dyrrhachion, Beger (and through him, Eckhel) concluded that the central elements were flowers and that the overall design must represent either the layout of the garden, or the doors leading to it. Other numismatists argued that the central elements of the design were more star-like. While Böckh and Müller (in P. Gardner, "Floral patterns on Archaic Greek coins," NC 1881, p. 1) felt this to be the case, they considered the elements to be nothing more than a fortuitous series of random strokes. Friedlander and von Sallet (Das königliche Münzkabinett [Berlin, 1877], coins 72-75) viewed them as symbols of the Dioskouri. Proponents of either interpretation continue to argue their views (see Alfred Maier, "Die Silberprägung von Apollonia und Dyrrhachion," NZ 41 [1908], p. 2 and note 4 [garden]; Traité, Part II, Volume I, column 931 [garden]; Michael E. Marotta, "Dyrrachium: Rome's doorway to Greece," Celator [April 1997], pp. 6-7 [garden]; Gyula Petrányi, “Gardens of Alkinoos: Fact or Fiction?” on the reverse pattern of the silver coins from Corcyra, Apollonia and Dyrrachium," Celator [November 1998], pp. 22-24 [Dioskouroi]). Gardner (op. cit.) was convinced that the reverse design had a religious meaning, but was unconvinced that the symbols were either a garden layout, or stars. Instead, he favored a floral interpretation. He argued that this was indicated not only by their general shape, but in some particular instances by an intentional modification to make them appear more floral. Noting a similarity between the reverse types of Korkyran staters – the model for the staters of Apollonia and Dyrrhachion – and those of other Greek city-states, most notably Miletos and Kyrene, he argued that this was due to a common religious cult between them, since he believed that Greek coin types were primarily religious in origin. Arguing that the most probable deity was Apollo, Gardner concluded that the reference was to Apollo Aristaios or Nomios, a pastoral version of that god who was worshiped (among other places) both at Kyrene and throughout northern Greece and was known to be the protectors of flocks (cf. Pind. Pyth. 9.64-65). Most recently, Nicolet-Pierre revisited the issue of the reverse design in her article on the archaic coinage of Korkyra ("Ŕ props du monnayage archaďque de Corcyre," SNR 88 (2009), pp. 2-3), and offered a novel interpretation. Noting a passage of Thucydides (3.70.4) in which that author cited the existence on the island of a sacred precinct (temenos) and dedicated to Zeus and Alkinöos, she suggested that the reverse design might have been inspired by this, and not Homer's garden of Alkinöos. Since Apollonia and Dyrrhachion, as colonies of Korkyra, employed that island's designs in their own coinage, it is necessary to explain why Korkyra used such symbols on its coinage. The archaic staters of Korkyra were the first issues to employ a cow standing right (or left), suckling its calf on the obverse. (BMC 1-8 [for cow right]; BMC 9-16 [for cow left]). A similar obverse design appears on the coinage of Karystos in Euboia and, according to Plutarch (Quaest. Graec.), Korkyra was settled by Euboians, whose coinage symbol was a bovine. Several dedications in the form of a bronze bull are attested for the Korkyrans and the island's patron god was Apollo. The reverse design of the archaic staters consists of a pair of incuse punches, consisting of stars (BMC 1 and pl. XXI, 1). That the symbol was a star is certain, as fractions of this series and subsequent issues with a star on the obverse make plain. One stater (BMC 10 and pl. XXI, 2), puts the star design in a more abstract arrangement, becoming the precursor of the reverse design type employed in later stater issues (BMC 39 and pl. XXI, 9). The striking lines formed by the incuse punches are retained in the later design as lines of the frame. Thus, the staters of Apollonia, Dyrhachion, and Korkyra demonstrate a meticulous progressive recopying of an archaic coin type that continued under its colonies, and not an allusion to a possible Homeric past.


Jason T
Hadrse47-4.jpg
Hadrian, RIC 614c, Sestertius of AD 119-122 (Virtus)21 viewsĆ sestertius (24.96g, Ř31.5mm, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 119-121.
Obv.: IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG, laureate draped bust right.
Rev.: P M TR P COS III (around) VIRT AVG / S C (field), Virtus standing left holding inverted spear and parazonium, right foot on helmet.
RIC 614c; Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali II-2) missing; Cohen 1466; Strack 571
ex G.Henzen (2009).
Charles S
hadras18-2.jpg
Hadrian, RIC 848, As of AD 134-138 (Cappadocia)10 viewsĆ As (12.97g, Ř 27mm, 12h). Rome, AD 134-138.
Obv.: HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P, laureate head right.
Rev.: CAPPADOCIA around, S | C, Cappadocia standing left, holding miniature of Mt. Argaeus and vexillum.
RIC 848 (S); Cohen 203
Ex CNG eAuction 87, April 2004; ex Lakeview Collection.
Charles S
Portus_Claaudii-2.jpg
HARBOUR, NERO, AE Sestertius (Portus Claudii)140 viewsĆ sestertius (22.54g, maximum Ř34.24mm, 6h), Lugdunum mint, struck AD 66.
Obv.: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P MAX TR P P P, laureate head of Nero right, globe below tip of bust.
Rev.: PORT AVG (below) S C (above), aerial view of the harbour of Ostia, showing pier, breakwaters, lighthouse surmounted by the statue of Neptune, seven ships, and the figure of Tiber reclining left in foreground, holding rudder and dolphin.
Mac Dowall (The western Coinages of Nero, ANS SSN 161) 476; RIC 586 (R2); BMCRE 323 var. (different obv. legend); Cohen 253 var. (emperor's head to left); CBN 74 var. (different obv. legend); Sear (RCV) 1953var.

Rome's original harbour was Ostia, situated at the mouth of the Tiber. It could not easily handle large sea-going vessels such as those of the grain fleet. Therefore, Claudius initiated the construction of a new all-weather harboru at Portus, about 4 km north of Ostia. The project was completed under Nero who renamed the harbour "Portus Augusti".

It was a huge project enclosing an area of 69 hectares, with two long curving moles projecting into the sea, and an artificial island, bearing a lighthouse, in the centre of the space between the moles. The foundation of this lighthouse was provided by filling with concrete and sinking one of the massive ships that Caligula had used to transport an obelisk from Egypt for the Circus Maximus. These giant ships had a length of around 100m and displaced a minimum of 7400 tons. The harbour opened directly to the sea on the northwest and communicated with the Tiber by a channel on the southeast. However, it was very exposed to the weather and under Trajan was superseded by a new land-locked inner basin linked to the Tiber by a canal.
3 commentsCharles S
JCT_Hebrew_Kindergarten_C.JPG
Hebrew Kindergarten & Infants Home (New York , N.Y. & Far Rockaway, Queens County, N.Y.)88 viewsAE token, 32.5 mm., undated.

Obv: HEBREW KINDERGARTEN & INFANTS HOME and 35 & 37 MONTGOMERY ST. N.Y.C./CENTRAL & PLAINVIEW AVES. FAR ROCKAWAY, along toothed rim, bust of boy facing within laureate wreath in center.

Rev: HAVE A HEART/HELP THE/ORPHANS/ -- AND --/GOD WILL/HELP YOU, within laureate wreath, GOOD LUCK COIN along toothed rim, beneath.

Ref: Kaplan, Steven H.. “Great Appeal, Kindergarten Tokens Asked for Support,” The Shekel, XLIV No. 1 (January-February 2011) 49-53, Figure 3 (this token).

Note: The Hebrew Kindergarten and Day Nursery Association was established in 1905 at 29 Montgomery Street as a nursery for the care of children of working mothers. It purchased 35 and 37 Montgomery Street in 1913 for the construction of a three-story building, which was dedicated in May 1914. In November 1918, it opened a ward for children whose mothers had influenza, and also began to care for children whose mothers had died during the epidemic. By then, there had already been a fund drive in August 1918 to raise $50,000 for an orphanage at Far Rockaway, and another fund drive, to raise $100,000 for the completion of its new building. It was then known as the Hebrew Kindergarten, Day and Night Nursery. It formally changed its name to Hebrew Kindergarten & Infants Home, Inc. in August 1925, although it was apparently using that name as early as 1923. Its infant home in Far Rockaway was at the intersection of Plainview Avenue and Central Avenue/Beach 20th Street, and an address of both 310 Central Avenue and 310 Beach 20th Street. It still operates an early childhood program/day care program for ages pre-kindergarten through kindergarten on a nonsectarian basis at that location.

Note: Three different fundraising tokens were issued, all of which contain the address of the day school on Montgomery Street as well as the addresses of the orphanage on Plainview Avenue and Central Avenue, in Far Rockaway. The most common of the three tokens was apparently issued in connection with the August 1923 fund drive for the completion of that building, and this token was apparently issued at a later date in connection with a lesser fund drive.
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JCT_Hebrew_Kindergarten_B.JPG
Hebrew Kindergarten & Infants Home (New York , N.Y. & Far Rockaway, Queens County, N.Y.)111 viewsAE token, 32.5 mm., undated.

Obv: HEBREW KINDERGARTEN & INFANTS HOME and 35 & 37 MONTGOMERY ST. N.Y.C./CENTRAL & PLAINVIEW AVES. FAR ROCKAWAY, along toothed rim, bust of boy facing within laureate wreath in center.

Rev: HAVE A HEART/HELP THE/ORPHANS/ -- AND --/GOD WILL/HELP YOU, within laureate wreath, GOOD LUCK COIN along toothed rim, beneath.

Ref: Kaplan, Steven H.. “Great Appeal, Kindergarten Tokens Asked for Support,” The Shekel, XLIV No. 1 (January-February 2011) 49-53, Figure 2 (this token).

Note: The Hebrew Kindergarten and Day Nursery Association was established in 1905 at 29 Montgomery Street as a nursery for the care of children of working mothers. It purchased 35 and 37 Montgomery Street in 1913 for the construction of a three-story building, which was dedicated in May 1914. In November 1918, it opened a ward for children whose mothers had influenza, and also began to care for children whose mothers had died during the epidemic. By then, there had already been a fund drive in August 1918 to raise $50,000 for an orphanage at Far Rockaway, and another fund drive, to raise $100,000 for the completion of its new building. It was then known as the Hebrew Kindergarten, Day and Night Nursery. It formally changed its name to Hebrew Kindergarten & Infants Home, Inc. in August 1925, although it was apparently using that name as early as 1923. Its infant home in Far Rockaway was at the intersection of Plainview Avenue and Central Avenue/Beach 20th Street, and an address of both 310 Central Avenue and 310 Beach 20th Street. It still operates an early childhood program/day care program for ages pre-kindergarten through kindergarten on a nonsectarian basis at that location.

Note: Three different fundraising tokens were issued, all of which contain the address of the day school on Montgomery Street as well as the addresses of the orphanage on Plainview Avenue and Central Avenue, in Far Rockaway. The most common of the three tokens was apparently issued in connection with the August 1923 fund drive for the completion of that building, and this token was apparently issued at a later date in connection with a lesser fund drive.
Stkp
JCT_Hebrew_Kindergarten_A.JPG
Hebrew Kindergarten & Infants Home (New York , N.Y. & Far Rockaway, Queens County, N.Y.)85 viewsAE token, 32.5 mm., undated (probably ca. 1923).

Obv: HEBREW KINDERGARTEN & INFANTS HOME and 35 & 37 MONTGOMERY ST. N.Y.C./CENTRAL & PLAINVIEW AVES. FAR ROCKAWAY, along toothed rim, girl standing with outstretched arms within solid laureate wreath in center.

Rev: HAVE A HEART/HELP THE/ORPHANS/ -- AND --/GOD WILL/HELP YOU, within solid laureate wreath, GOOD LUCK COIN along toothed rim, beneath.

Ref: Kaplan, Steven H.. “Great Appeal, Kindergarten Tokens Asked for Support,” The Shekel, XLIV No. 1 (January-February 2011) 49-53, Figure 1 (this token); Meshorer, Coins Reveal 144.

Note: The Hebrew Kindergarten and Day Nursery Association was established in 1905 at 29 Montgomery Street as a nursery for the care of children of working mothers. It purchased 35 and 37 Montgomery Street in 1913 for the construction of a three-story building, which was dedicated in May 1914. In November 1918, it opened a ward for children whose mothers had influenza, and also began to care for children whose mothers had died during the epidemic. By then, there had already been a fund drive in August 1918 to raise $50,000 for an orphanage at Far Rockaway, and another fund drive, to raise $100,000 for the completion of its new building. It was then known as the Hebrew Kindergarten, Day and Night Nursery. It formally changed its name to Hebrew Kindergarten & Infants Home, Inc. in August 1925, although it was apparently using that name as early as 1923. Its infant home in Far Rockaway was at the intersection of Plainview Avenue and Central Avenue/Beach 20th Street, and an address of both 310 Central Avenue and 310 Beach 20th Street. It still operates an early childhood program/day care program for ages pre-kindergarten through kindergarten on a nonsectarian basis at that location.
Note: Three different fundraising tokens were issued, all of which contain the address of the day school on Montgomery Street as well as the addresses of the orphanage on Plainview Avenue and Central Avenue, in Far Rockaway. This is the most common of the three tokens, and apparently issued in connection with the August 1923 fund drive for the completion of that building.
Stkp
hendin505.jpg
Herod Archelaus, Ethnarch 4 B.C. - 6 A.D. Bronze prutah, Hendin 5054 viewsJudean Kingdom, Herod Archelaus, Ethnarch 4 B.C. - 6 A.D. Bronze prutah, Hendin 505, SGICV 5539, Meshorer 61, Fair, Jerusalem mint, 3.364g, 14.5mm, obverse “ΗΡωΔΟΥ”(of Herod), bunch of grapes, with leaf on left; reverse “ΕΘΝΟΡΧΟΥ” (Ethnarch), tall helmet with crest and neck straps viewed from the front, small caduceus in lower left field. Ex FORVMPodiceps
Herod_Archelaus.jpg
Herod Archelaus, Ethnarch of Samaria, Judea, and Idumea, 4 B.C. - 6 A.D.31 viewsHerod Archelaus, son of Herod the Great, 4 BC-6 AD, Bronze Prutah of 16.1 mm, 2.48 grams. ( Under the first Roman emperor Augustus { Reign ; January 16, 27 BC – August 19, 14 AD } )
Obverse: HPω∆OY (of Herod) Bunch of grapes.
Reverse: EΘNOPXOY (Ethnarch), tall helmet with crest and neck straps viewed from the front, small caduceus in lower left field.
Reference: Hendin 1196.

“Swear to me, young women of Jerusalem, by the gazelles or by the does of the field, that you won’t awaken or arouse love before its proper time.” Song of Solomon.

Given as a souvenir to a very dear friend and a Bible Teacher Mr. John DelRicci . (10/13/2017)
1 commentsSam
Comb23022017100503.jpg
Herod Archelaus. (4 BCE-6 CE). Bronze prutah19 viewsObv. Bunch of grapes on vine with small leaf and tendril on left, above HPΩΔΟΥ.
Rev. Tall helmet with crest and cheek straps, viewed from front, caduceus below left; below and upside down ΕΘΝΑΡΧΟΥ.
References: Hendin 1196. TJC 73. H 505.
17mm, 2.2 grams.
Canaan
Faustina_sr,_temple.JPG
Hexastyle temple13 viewsFaustina I AR Denarius, Mint: Rome, 141 AD, Obv: DIVA FAVSTINA - Draped bust right., Rev: AED DIV FAVSTINAE - Hexastyle temple: front view of temple of six columns on five steps, fencing before, statue of Faustina within. RIC 343, RSC 1, BMC 339, Sear RCV II: 4573. ex oa, photo credit oakaitsuburi
1813.jpg
hiersnglevante15941 viewsElagabalus
Hierapolis-Castabala, Cilicia

Obv: AVT K M AVP [ANTΩNINOC]. laureate draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
Rev: ΚΑϹΤΑ-ΒΑΛƐⲰΝ. front view of quadriga, horses rearing on hind legs, carrying the black stone of Emesa topped by an eagle.
28 mm, 15.29 gms

SNG Levante 1594, SNG Pfalz 597, RPC VI online 7472
Charles M
786c.jpg
hj6.26.48.29 views5 views
Elagabalus
Marcianopolis

Obv: [AVT K M] AVP ANTΩNEINOC, laureate draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: MAPKIANOΠOΛITΩN, crescent moon with three stars.
15 mm, 2.60 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.26.48.xx This bust type not in HJ.
Charles M
1922.jpg
hj6.28.35.04_20 views9 views
Elagabalus and Julia Maesa
Marcianopolis

Obv: AVT. K. M. AVP ANTΩNEINOC AVΓ IOVΛIA MAIC-A AVΓO, laureate head of Elagabalus on left facing draped bust of Julia Maesa on right .
Rev: VΠ IOVΛ ANT - CEΛEVKOV MAPKIANOΠO →ΛITΩN, Nemesis holding scales and scepter, wheel at her feet. E in right field
29 mm 9.99 gms

Hristova-Jekov 6.28.35.4
Charles M
HUN_Maria_Huszar_566_Pohl_112-1.JPG
Huszár 566, Pohl 112-1, Unger 442a, Réthy II 114, Frynas 26.5, Toma plate I/171 views
Hungary. Mária/Maria (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Zsigmond/Sigismund of Luxembourg)

AR denar; .49 g., 15.02 mm. max., 270°

Obv: + mOnETA mARIE [Gothic-style letters A], Patriarchal cross

Rev: + REGInE VnGARIE [Gothic-style letter A], Crowned M

The type was struck in only in 1383 (per Huszár, Unger and Frynas) or from 1383 through 1385 (per Pohl). It is traditionally viewed as the second of three denarii struck by Mária (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 569). More recently, it has been viewed as Mária 's third type (per Gyöngyössi and Toma), struck in 1386-1387, ending when Zsigmond's coinage began (per Gyöngyössi). This coin, struck without a privy mark in the reverse fields, was probably struck in Buda (per Pohl).

Toma notes twelve legend variations among 456 coins of this type in the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934 (but lists only eleven). They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Toma lists three variations among 302 coins struck in Buda (Pohl 112-1). The legends on this coin are as per Toma 1. Toma notes 260 coins with this combination.

Toma further notes three versions of the patriarchal cross and eight versions of the crowned M. There are fourteen obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 411 coins from the hoard, all of which are listed by Toma as being among 271 Buda issues (Pohl 112-1). The cross on this coin is apparently Toma B (wide cross with split ends), which is linked to Toma's crowned Ms a-d; the crowned M appears to be Toma c. Toma notes 96 coins with the B/c combination.

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 5; Frynas rarity C. The legend combination appearing on this coin is depicted/described in Unger, Réthy and Frynas. The legend combination depicted/described in Huszár and Pohl differs in that there are pellets between words on the obverse and reverse.
Stkp
HUN_Maria_Huszár_566,_Pohl_112-1_2.jpg
Huszár 566, Pohl 112-1, Unger 442a, Réthy II 114, Frynas 26.5, Toma plate I/823 viewsHungary. Mária/Maria (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Zsigmond/Sigismund of Luxembourg)

AR denar; .65 g., 13.98 mm. max., 90°

Obv: + mOnETA mARIE [Gothic-style letters A], Patriarchal cross. pellet below.

Rev: + REGInE VnGARIE [Gothic-style letter A], Crowned M

The type was struck in only in 1383 (per Huszár, Unger and Frynas) or from 1383 through 1385 (per Pohl). It is traditionally viewed as the second of three denarii struck by Mária (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 569). More recently, it has been viewed as Mária 's third type (per Gyöngyössi and Toma), struck in 1386-1387, ending when Zsigmond's coinage began (per Gyöngyössi). This coin, struck without a privy mark in the reverse fields, was probably struck in Buda (per Pohl).

Toma notes twelve legend variations among 456 coins of this type in the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934 (but lists only eleven). They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Toma lists three variations among 302 coins struck in Buda (Pohl 112-1). The legends on this coin are as per Toma 1. Toma notes 260 coins with this combination.

Toma further notes three versions of the patriarchal cross and eight versions of the crowned M. There are fourteen obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 411 coins from the hoard, all of which are listed by Toma as being among 271 Buda issues (Pohl 112-1). The cross on this coin is Toma C (wide cross with split ends and pellet below), which is linked to Toma's crowned Ms c-h; the crowned M appears to be Toma e. Toma notes 14 coins with the C/e combination.

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 5; Frynas rarity C. The legend combination appearing on this coin is depicted/described in Unger, Réthy and Frynas. The legend combination depicted/described in Huszár and Pohl differs in that there are pellets between words on the obverse and reverse.
1 commentsStkp
HUN_Maria_Huszar_566.JPG
Huszár 566, Pohl 112-2, Unger 442f, Réthy II 114, Frynas 26.5176 viewsHungary. Mária/Maria (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Zsigmond/Sigismund of Luxembourg)

AR denar; .41 g., 14.00 mm. max., 0°

Obv: + mOnETA MARIE [Gothic-style letters A], Patriarchal cross.

Rev: + REGInE VnGARIE [Gothic-style letter A], Crowned M, lilies in fields.

The type was struck in only in 1383 (per Huszár, Unger and Frynas) or from 1383 through 1385 (per Pohl). It is traditionally viewed as the second of three denarii struck by Maria (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 569). More recently, it has been viewed as Maria's third type (per Gyöngyössi and Toma), struck in 1386-1387, ending when Sigismund's coinage began (per Gyöngyössi). This coin, with lilies in both reverse fields, was struck in Kassa/Kaschau, now Košice, Slovakia (per Pohl).

Toma notes twelve legend variations among 456 coins of this type in the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934 (but lists only eleven). They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Toma lists eight variations among 93 coins struck in Kassa with two lilies (Pohl 112-2). The legends on this coin are as per Toma 1. Toma notes 36 coins with this combination.

Toma further notes three versions of the patriarchal cross and eight versions of the crowned M. There are fourteen obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 411 coins from the hoard, of which only the B/c combination is listed by Toma as being among 79 Kassa issues with two lilies (Pohl 112-2). This coin appears to bear that B/c combination.

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 5; Frynas rarity C. The legend combination appearing on this coin is depicted/described in Unger, Réthy and Frynas. The legend combination depicted/described in Huszár and Pohl differs in that there are small pellets between words on both the obverse and reverse.
Stkp
HUN_Maria_Huszar_566_Pohl_112-3.JPG
Huszár 566, Pohl 112-3, Unger 442g, Réthy II 114, Frynas 26.5, Toma plate I/1726 views
Hungary. Mária/Maria (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Zsigmond/Sigismund of Luxembourg)

AR denar; .52 g., 15.5 mm. max., 270°

Obv: + mOnETA • mARIE [Gothic-style letters A], Patriarchal cross.

Rev: + REGInE • VnGARIE [Gothic-style letter A], Crowned M, lily in left field.

The type was struck in only in 1383 (per Huszár, Unger and Frynas) or from 1383 through 1385 (per Pohl). It is traditionally viewed as the second of three denarii struck by Maria (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 569). More recently, it has been viewed as Maria's third type (per Gyöngyössi and Toma), struck in 1386-1387, ending when Sigismund's coinage began (per Gyöngyössi). This coin, with a lily in the reverse left field, was struck in Kassa/Kaschau, now Košice, Slovakia (per Pohl).

Toma notes twelve legend variations among 456 coins of this type in the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934 (but lists only eleven). They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Toma lists three variations among just four coins struck in Kassa with a lily in the left field (Pohl 112-3). The legends on this coin are as per Toma 3. Toma notes one coin with this combination.

Toma further notes three versions of the patriarchal cross and eight versions of the crowned M. There are fourteen obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 411 coins from the hoard, of which only the B/c combination is listed by Toma as being among four Kassa issues with a lily in the left field (Pohl 112-3). This coin appears to bear the B/c combination.

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 5; Frynas rarity C. The legend combination appearing on this coin is depicted/described in Huszár and Pohl. The legend combination depicted/described in Unger, Réthy and Frynas differs in that there are no small pellets between words on the obverse and reverse.
Stkp
HUN_Maria_Huszar_566_Pohl_112-7.JPG
Huszár 566, Pohl 112-7, Unger 442c, Réthy II 114, Frynas 26.5, Toma plate II/231 views
Hungary. Mária/Maria (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Zsigmond/Sigismund of Luxembourg)

AR denar; .50 g., 14.52 mm. max., 0°

Obv: + mOnETA • mARIE [Gothic-style letters A], Patriarchal cross

Rev: + REGInE • VnGARIE [Gothic-style letter A], Crowned M, star below

The type was struck in only in 1383 (per Huszár, Unger and Frynas) or from 1383 through 1385 (per Pohl). It is traditionally viewed as the second of three denarii struck by Maria (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 569). More recently, it has been viewed as Maria's third type (per Gyöngyössi and Toma), struck in 1386-1387, ending when Sigismund's coinage began (per Gyöngyössi). This coin, with a star below the M, was struck at an unidentified mint (per Pohl).

Toma notes twelve legend variations among 456 coins of this type in the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934 (but lists only eleven). They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Toma lists one variation, Toma 3, among just nine coins with the star privy mark (Pohl 112-7). The legends on this coin are as per Toma 3.

Toma further notes three versions of the patriarchal cross and eight versions of the crowned M. There are fourteen obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 411 coins from the hoard, of which only the B/c combination is listed by Toma as being among nine coins with the star privy mark (Pohl 112-7). This coin appears to bear the B/c combination.

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 5; Frynas rarity C. The legend combination appearing on this coin is depicted/described in Huszár and Pohl. The legend combination depicted/described in Unger, Réthy and Frynas differs in that there are no pellets between words on the obverse and reverse.
Stkp
HUN_Maria_Huszar566_Pohl_112-__pellet.png
Huszár 566, Pohl 112-_, Unger 442-, Réthy II 114, Frynas 26.516 viewsHungary. Mária/Maria (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Zsigmond/Sigismund of Luxembourg)

AR denar; .72 g., 14.60 mm. max., 180°

Obv: + mOnETA mARIE [Gothic-style letters A], Patriarchal cross

Rev: + REGInE VnGARIE [Gothic-style letter A], Crowned M, pellet below

The type was struck in only in 1383 (per Huszár, Unger and Frynas) or from 1383 through 1385 (per Pohl). It is traditionally viewed as the second of three denarii struck by Maria (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 569). More recently, it has been viewed as Maria's third type (per Gyöngyössi and Toma), struck in 1386-1387, ending when Sigismund's coinage began (per Gyöngyössi). This coin, with a pellet below the M, is not recorded by Huszár, Pohl or Unger and is not represented in Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard.

Toma notes twelve legend variations among 456 coins of this type in the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934 (but lists only eleven). They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. The legends on this coin are as per Toma 1. Toma notes 54 coins with this combination, none with the pellet privy mark.

Toma further notes three versions of the patriarchal cross and eight versions of the crowned M. There are fourteen obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 411 coins from the hoard. This coin appears to bear the B/c combination.

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 5; Frynas rarity C. The legend combination appearing on this coin is depicted/described in Unger, Réthy and Frynas. The legend combination depicted/described in Huszár and Pohl differs in that there are pellets between words on the obverse and reverse. This coin bears an unrecorded mintmark.
1 commentsStkp
HUN_Maria_Huszar_569_Pohl_114-1_v_.jpg
Huszár 569 var., Pohl 114-1 var., Unger 443a var., Réthy II 116 var., Frynas H.26.4 var.13 viewsHungary. Maria/Mária (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg)

AR denar, .51 g., 14.95 mm. max., 270°.

Obv: + mARIE • D • R • VnGARIE [Gothic-style letters A], crown with interior cross hatching.

Rev: + mO ... n ... mARIE • REI [Gothic-style letters A with interior bar], Patriarchal cross with pellets [overstrike].

As both sides carry a titular legend, there is no consensus regarding obverse and reverse. The fullest legend on the side identified by Huszár and Pohl as the obverse (the side with the crown) is + mARIE D G R VnGARIE (although most coins are missing at least the first G). The fullest legend on the side identified by Unger, Réthy, Frynas and Gyöngyössy as the obverse (the side with the patriarchal cross) is + mOnETA mARIE R V. Since the letters R V are so often omitted from the cross side, Toma accepts the crown side as the obverse.

The type was struck in 1384-1395 (per Huszár, with Unger and Frynas agreeing that it incepted in 1384) or in 1385-1395 (per Pohl), and is traditionally viewed as the last of three denarii struck by Maria. More recently, it has been viewed as the second type struck by her (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 566), in 1383-1385 (per Gyöngyössi and Toma).

Toma notes fifteen legend variations among 45 coins of this type within the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934. They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, spelling of the queen's name, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Toma lists seven variations among seventeen coins without a privy mark (Pohl 114-1). The precise legend combination on this coin cannot be discerned due to the reverse over-strike.

Toma further notes four versions of the crown and four versions of the patriarchal cross. There are six obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 41 coins in the hoard, one of which occurs among two identified coins without a privy mark (Pohl 114-1). Neither the crown nor the cross comport with any recorded by Toma.
Huszár/Pohl rarity 5, Frynas rarity C. The legend combination described/depicted in Huszár and Pohl; in Unger and Réthy, and in Frynas, all differ. This coin is an unusual variety both in terms of the cross-hatching on the obverse and the style of crown and cross
1 commentsStkp
HUN_Maria_Huszar_569_Pohl_114-4_Rupp_9.jpg
Huszár 569 var., Pohl 114-4 var., Unger 443d var., Réthy II 116 var., Frynas H.26.4 var., cf. Rupp 43/926 viewsHungary. Maria/Mária (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg)

AR denar, .40 g., 14.08 mm. max, 180°

Obv: + mOnETA • mARIA • [antiqua-style letters A without interior bar], Open crown with CM below

Rev: ...OnETA ... [antiqua-style letters A without interior bar; double-struck], Patriarchal cross

As both sides carry a titular legend, there is no consensus regarding obverse and reverse. The fullest legend on the side identified by Huszár and Pohl as the obverse (the side with the crown) is + mARIE D G R VnGARIE (although most coins are missing at least the first G). The fullest legend on the side identified by Unger, Réthy, Frynas and Gyöngyössy as the obverse (the side with the patriarchal cross) is + mOnETA mARIE R V. Since the letters R V are so often omitted from the cross side, Toma accepts the crown side as the obverse.

The standard Huszár 569 was struck in 1384-1395 (per Huszár, with Unger and Frynas agreeing that it incepted in 1384) or in 1385-1395 (per Pohl), and is traditionally viewed as the last of three denarii struck by Maria. More recently, it has been viewed as the second type struck by her (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 566), in 1383-1385 (per Gyöngyössi and Toma). This coin, with a Cm below the crown, was struck in Körmöcbánya/Kremnitz (now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Johannes Craczer in 1385 (per Pohl).

Toma notes fifteen legend variations among 45 coins of the standard type within the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934. They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, spelling of the queen's name, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Toma lists two variations among five coins with a Cm mark (Pohl 114-4).

Toma further notes four versions of the crown and four versions of the patriarchal cross on the standard type. There are six obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 41 coins in the hoard, only one of which, Toma A/b, appears among four coins with a Cm mark (Pohl 114-4). This coin appears to bear the A/b combination.

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 5. Due to the double-striking of the cross side of this coin, most of the legend is undecipherable. From the few letters that can be discerned, that side, like the crown side, appears to read, + mOnETA mARIA (or a variant). If so, this coin is a variation of the type not described/depicted in Huszár and Pohl, Unger and Réthy, or Frynas, nor by Toma. It is, however, recorded by Rupp.
1 commentsStkp
HUN_Maria_Huszar_569_Pohl_114-4.JPG
Huszár 569 var., Pohl 114-4 var., Unger 443d var., Réthy II 116 var., Frynas H.26.4 var., Rupp 42/4-6 Tab XV/430, Toma Exceptional Version A Plate III/15-17 var. (legends)178 viewsHungary. Maria/Mária (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg)

AR denar, .56 g., 15.24 mm. max, 0°

Obv: + REGInE • VnGARI [Gothic-style letter A], Open crown with CM below

Rev: + mOnETA • mARIE [Gothic-style letters A], Patriarchal cross

As both sides of the standard Huszár 569 carry a titular legend, there is no consensus regarding obverse and reverse. The fullest legend on the side identified by Huszár and Pohl as the obverse (the side with the crown) is + mARIE D G R VnGARIE (although most coins are missing at least the first G). The fullest legend on the side identified by Unger, Réthy, Frynas and Gyöngyössy as the obverse (the side with the patriarchal cross) is + mOnETA mARIE R V. Since the letters R V are so often omitted from the cross side, Toma accepts the crown side as the obverse.

The standard Huszár 569 was struck in 1384-1395 (per Huszár, with Unger and Frynas agreeing that it incepted in 1384) or in 1385-1395 (per Pohl), and is traditionally viewed as the last of three denarii struck by Maria. More recently, it has been viewed as the second type struck by her (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 566), in 1383-1385 (per Gyöngyössi and Toma). This coin, with a Cm below the crown, was struck in Körmöcbánya/Kremnitz (now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Johannes Craczer in 1385 (per Pohl).

Toma notes fifteen legend variations among 45 coins of the standard type within the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934. They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, spelling of the queen's name, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Toma lists two variations among five coins with a Cm mark (Pohl 114-4).

Toma further notes four versions of the crown and four versions of the patriarchal cross on the standard type. There are six obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 41 coins in the hoard, only one of which, Toma A/b, appears among four coins with a Cm (Pohl 114-4). The design combination on this coin appears to be Toma A/b.

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 5. This coin is a variation of the type not described/depicted in Huszár and Pohl, Unger and Réthy, or Frynas. It is also not included in Toma's tabulation of legend variations or design combinations. It was recorded by Rupp with the Cm mark (Pohl 114-4) and viewed by Unger (1974) to be a distinct type, although it is not included in his catalog. Toma notes 16 coins of this variation in the hoard, bearing four privy marks, eleven with this mark but different legend combinations (Toma plate III/15-17). This combination is represented with a different mark from Körmöcbánya/Kremnitz. Toma refers to the side with the patriarchal cross as the obverse, and notes that the design and legend are as per the obverse of Huszár 566. Toma refers to the side with the crown as the reverse, and notes that legend is as per the reverse legend of Huszár 566 but that the design is as per the obverse of Huszár 569. Toma concludes that this variation represents a distinct type, chronologically sandwiched between the earlier Huszár 569 and later Huszár 566.
1 commentsStkp
HUN_Maria_Huszar_569_Pohl_114-5_1.jpg
Huszár 569 var., Pohl 114-5 var., Unger 443e var., Réthy II 116 var., Frynas H.26.4 var., Toma plate III/3 var. Probably a contemporary counterfeit.17 viewsHungary. Maria/Mária (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg)

AR denar, .45 g., 15.88 mm. max., 270°

Obv: +mOnIE...R VnGARIE [unconventional-style letter A and other letters], Open crown with h below

Rev: + mOnETA mARIE [unconventional-style letters A and other letters], Patriarchal cross

As both sides carry a titular legend, there is no consensus regarding obverse and reverse. The fullest legend on the side identified by Huszár and Pohl as the obverse (the side with the crown) is + mARIE D G R VnGARIE (although most coins are missing at least the first G). The fullest legend on the side identified by Unger, Réthy, Frynas and Gyöngyössy as the obverse (the side with the patriarchal cross) is + mOnETA mARIE R V. Since the letters R V are so often omitted from the cross side, Toma accepts the crown side as the obverse.

The type was struck in 1384-1395 (per Huszár, with Unger and Frynas agreeing that it incepted in 1384) or in 1385-1395 (per Pohl), and is traditionally viewed as the last of three denarii struck by Maria. More recently, it has been viewed as the second type struck by her (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 566), in 1383-1385 (per Gyöngyössi and Toma). Coins with a letter h privy mark below the crown were struck in Nagyszeben/Hermannstadt, now Sibiu, Romania, in 1386-1395 (per Pohl).

Toma notes fifteen legend variations among 45 coins of this type within the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934. They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, spelling of the queen's name, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Toma lists one variation among just three coins with this privy mark (Pohl 114-5). This legend variation is not recorded by Toma. Although many letters are indistinct, the style of many letters is unconventional and the legend on the crown side appears to be bungled. This suggests that the coin is a contemporary counterfeit.

Toma further notes four versions of the crown and four versions of the patriarchal cross. There are six obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 41 coins in the hoard, one of which, C/a, occurs aamong coins with this privy mark (Pohl 114-5). The design combination on this coin appears to be Toma C/a (crown C is linked only with cross a).

Huszár/Pohl rarity 5, Frynas rarity C. The legend combination described/depicted in Huszár and Pohl; in Unger and Réthy, and in Frynas, all differ.
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HUN_Maria_Huszar_569_Pohl_114-8.jpg
Huszár 569 var., Pohl 114-8 var., Unger 443h var., Réthy II 116 var., Frynas H.26.4 var., Rupp 42/4-6 var. (legend and privy mark) Plate XV/430, Toma Exceptional Version A 23 viewsHungary. Maria/Mária (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg)

AR denar, .54 g., 14.36 mm. max., 0°

Obv: + REGIn... VnGARIE [Gothic-style letter A], Open crown with K below

Rev: + mOnETA • mARIE [Gothic-style letters A; letter T stylized to resemble a letter m], Patriarchal cross

As both sides of the standard Huszár 569 carry a titular legend, there is no consensus regarding obverse and reverse. The fullest legend on the side identified by Huszár and Pohl as the obverse (the side with the crown) is + mARIE D G R VnGARIE (although most coins are missing at least the first G). The fullest legend on the side identified by Unger, Réthy, Frynas and Gyöngyössy as the obverse (the side with the patriarchal cross) is + mOnETA mARIE R V. Since the letters R V are so often omitted from the cross side, Toma accepts the crown side as the obverse.

The standard Huszár 569 was struck in 1384-1395 (per Huszár, with Unger and Frynas agreeing that it incepted in 1384) or in 1385-1395 (per Pohl), and is traditionally viewed as the last of three denarii struck by Maria. More recently, it has been viewed as the second type struck by her (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 566), in 1383-1385 (per Gyöngyössi and Toma). This coin, with a letter K below the crown, was struck in Körmöcbánya/Kremnitz (now Kremnica, Slovakia) in 1386-1395 (per Pohl).

The letter T on the reverse of this coin is stylized to resemble the letter m. Toma notes that this style of letter T appears on the coins of this type struck at Körmöcbánya, but this apparently occurs only on those bearing the this privy mark (Pohl 114-8) and not on those bearing the Cm mark (Pohl 114-2).

Toma notes fifteen legend variations among 45 coins of the standard type within the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934. They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, spelling of the queen's name, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Toma lists two variations among five coins with a Cm mark (Pohl 114-4).

Toma further notes four versions of the crown and four versions of the patriarchal cross on the standard type. There are six obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 41 coins in the hoard, one of which, Toma A/b, appears on the single coin with this mark (Pohl 114-8). The design combination on this coin appears to be Toma A/b.

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 5. This coin is a variation of the type not described/depicted in Huszár and Pohl, Unger and Réthy, or Frynas. It is also not included in Toma's tabulation of legend variations or design combinations. It was recorded by Rupp with the K mark (Pohl 114-8) and viewed by Unger (1974) to be a distinct type, although it is not included in his catalog. Toma notes 16 coins of this variation in the hoard, bearing four privy marks, three with this mark, one which may bear this legend combinations. Toma refers to the side with the patriarchal cross as the obverse, and notes that the design and legend are as per the obverse of Huszár 566. Toma refers to the side with the crown as the reverse, and notes that legend is as per the reverse legend of Huszár 566 but that the design is as per the obverse of Huszár 569. Toma concludes that this variation represents a distinct type, chronologically sandwiched between the earlier Huszár 569 and later Huszár 566.
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HUN_Maria_Huszar_569_Pohl_114-1.jpg
Huszár 569, Pohl 114-1, Unger 443a, Réthy II 116, Frynas H.26.438 viewsHungary. Maria/Mária (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg)

AR denar, .48 g., 15.23 mm. max., 90°.

Obv: + mARIE : D • R • VnGARIE [antiqua-style letters A without interior bar], crown with pellet above.

Rev: + mOnETA : mARIE : RE : [antiqua-style letters A with interior bar], Patriarchal cross with pellets.

As both sides carry a titular legend, there is no consensus regarding obverse and reverse. The fullest legend on the side identified by Huszár and Pohl as the obverse (the side with the crown) is + mARIE D G R VnGARIE (although most coins are missing at least the first G). The fullest legend on the side identified by Unger, Réthy, Frynas and Gyöngyössy as the obverse (the side with the patriarchal cross) is + mOnETA mARIE R V. Since the letters R V are so often omitted from the cross side, Toma accepts the crown side as the obverse.

The type was struck in 1384-1395 (per Huszár, with Unger and Frynas agreeing that it incepted in 1384) or in 1385-1395 (per Pohl), and is traditionally viewed as the last of three denarii struck by Maria. More recently, it has been viewed as the second type struck by her (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 566), in 1383-1385 (per Gyöngyössi and Toma).

Toma notes fifteen legend variations among 45 coins of this type within the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934. They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, spelling of the queen's name, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Toma lists two variations among two coins without a privy mark (Pohl 114-1). The legend combination on this coin is not represented in the hoard.

Toma further notes four versions of the crown and four versions of the patriarchal cross. There are six obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 41 coins in the hoard, one of which occurs among the two identified coins without a privy mark (Pohl 114-1). The design combination on this coin is Toma A/a (crown A is linked only with crosses a and b; cross a is linked only with crown A).

Huszár/Pohl rarity 5, Frynas rarity C. The legend combination described/depicted in Huszár and Pohl; in Unger and Réthy, and in Frynas, all differ.
2 commentsStkp
HUN_Maria_Huszar_569_Pohl_114-10.JPG
Huszár 569, Pohl 114-10, Unger 443k, Réthy II 116 Frynas H.26.4, Toma Plate III/9-10 var. (legends)54 viewsHungary. Maria/Mária (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg)

AR denar, .48 g., 15.06 mm max. 90°

Obv: + MARIA • ... nGARI [antiqua-style letters A without interior bars], Open crown with letter n below.

Rev: + M...ETA • MARIA, Patriarchal cross.

As both sides carry a titular legend, there is no consensus regarding obverse and reverse. The fullest legend on the side identified by Huszár and Pohl as the obverse (the side with the crown) is + mARIE D G R VnGARIE (although most coins are missing at least the first G). The fullest legend on the side identified by Unger, Réthy, Frynas and Gyöngyössy as the obverse (the side with the patriarchal cross) is + mOnETA mARIE R V. Since the letters R V are so often omitted from the cross side, Toma accepts the crown side as the obverse.

The type was struck in 1384-1395 (per Huszár, with Unger and Frynas agreeing that it incepted in 1384) or in 1385-1395 (per Pohl), and is traditionally viewed as the last of three denarii struck by Maria. More recently, it has been viewed as the second type struck by her (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 566), in 1383-1385 (per Gyöngyössi and Toma). This coin, with the letter n privy mark below the crown, was struck in Nagybánya (now Baia Mare, Romania) in 1386-1395 (per Pohl).

Toma notes fifteen legend variations among 45 coins of this type within the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934. They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, spelling of the queen's name, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Toma lists two variations among just two coins with this privy mark (Pohl 114-10). This legend variation is not recorded by Toma.

Toma further notes four versions of the crown and four versions of the patriarchal cross. There are six obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 41 coins in the hoard, one of which, A/b, occurs among coins with this privy mark (Pohl 114-10). The design combination on this coin appears to be Toma A/b (crown A is linked only with crosses a and b).

Huszár/Pohl rarity 5, Frynas rarity C. The legend combination described/depicted in Huszár and Pohl; in Unger and Réthy, and in Frynas, all differ.
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HUN_Maria_Huszar_569_114-13.JPG
Huszár 569, Pohl 114-13, Unger 443n, Réthy II 116, Frynas H.26.424 viewsHungary. Maria/Mária (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg)

AR denar, .51 g., 13.84 mm. max, 0°

Obv: + mARIA • R • vnGARI [antiqua-style letters A without interior bars], Open crown with letter V below

Rev: + mOnETA • mARIA [antiqua-style letters A without interior bars], Patriarchal cross

As both sides carry a titular legend, there is no consensus regarding obverse and reverse. The fullest legend on the side identified by Huszár and Pohl as the obverse (the side with the crown) is + mARIE D G R VnGARIE (although most coins are missing at least the first G). The fullest legend on the side identified by Unger, Réthy, Frynas and Gyöngyössy as the obverse (the side with the patriarchal cross) is + mOnETA mARIE R V. Since the letters R V are so often omitted from the cross side, Toma accepts the crown side as the obverse.

The type was struck in 1384-1395 (per Huszár, with Unger and Frynas agreeing that it incepted in 1384) or in 1385-1395 (per Pohl), and is traditionally viewed as the last of three denarii struck by Maria. More recently, it has been viewed as the second type struck by her (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 566), in 1383-1385 (per Gyöngyössi and Toma). This coin, with the letter V privy mark below the crown, was struck in Nagyvärad/Värad (now Oradea, Romania) in 1386-1395 (per Pohl).

Toma notes fifteen legend variations among 45 coins of this type within the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934. They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, spelling of the queen's name, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Coins with this privy mark (Pohl 114-13) are not represented in the hoard.

Toma further notes four versions of the crown and four versions of the patriarchal cross. There are six obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 41 coins in the hoard. The design combination on this coin appears to be Toma A/b (crown A is linked only with crosses a and b).

Huszár/Pohl rarity 5, Frynas rarity C. The legend combination described/depicted in Huszár and Pohl; in Unger and Réthy, and in Frynas, all differ.
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HUN_Maria_Huszar_569_Pohl_114-14.JPG
Huszár 569, Pohl 114-14, Unger 443q, Réthy II 116, Frynas H.26.4, Tomar Plate III/13 var. (legends)29 viewsHungary. Maria/Mária (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg)

AR denar, .57 g., 13.33 mm. Max., 0°

Obv: + M...D G R VGARIE [antiqua-style letter A without interior bars], Open crown with lily below.

Rev: + MOnETA • MARIE R V [antiqua-style letters A without interior bars], Patriarchal cross with pellet below.

As both sides carry a titular legend, there is no consensus regarding obverse and reverse. The fullest legend on the side identified by Huszár and Pohl as the obverse (the side with the crown) is + mARIE D G R VnGARIE (although most coins are missing at least the first G). The fullest legend on the side identified by Unger, Réthy, Frynas and Gyöngyössy as the obverse (the side with the patriarchal cross) is + mOnETA mARIE R V. Since the letters R V are so often omitted from the cross side, Toma accepts the crown side as the obverse.

The type was struck in 1384-1395 (per Huszár, with Unger and Frynas agreeing that it incepted in 1384) or in 1385-1395 (per Pohl), and is traditionally viewed as the last of three denarii struck by Maria. More recently, it has been viewed as the second type struck by her (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 566), in 1383-1385 (per Gyöngyössi and Toma). This coin, with the lily privy mark below the crown, was struck in Kassa/Kaschau (now Košice, Slovakia) in 1386-1995 (per Pohl).

Toma notes fifteen legend variations among 45 coins of this type within the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934. They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, spelling of the queen's name, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Toma lists one variation among ten coins with this privy mark (Pohl 114-14), but this coin does not comport with that variation.

Toma further notes four versions of the crown and four versions of the patriarchal cross. There are six obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 41 coins in the hoard, one of which, D/d, occurs among the ten coins with this privy mark (Pohl 114-14). The design combination on this coin appears to be Toma D/d (crown D is linked only with cross d and vive versa), or a variant of cross d with shorter cross arms

Huszár/Pohl rarity 5, Frynas rarity C. The legend combination described/depicted in Huszár and Pohl; in Unger and Réthy, and in Frynas, all differ.
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HUN_Maria_Huszar_569_Pohl_114-16~0.jpg
Huszár 569, Pohl 114-16, Unger 443p, Réthy II 116, Frynas H.26.4, Rupp 42/4-6 var. Tab XV/430 (legends and privy mark), Toma Exceptional Version A Plate III/15-17 var. (legends and privy mark)27 viewsHungary. Maria/Mária (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg)

AR denar, .58 g, 14.6 mm. max, 270°

Obv: + REGIn...V...RIE, Open crown with letter O below

Rev: + MOnE...MARIE [Gothic-style letter A], Patriarchal cross

As both sides carry a titular legend, there is no consensus regarding obverse and reverse. The fullest legend on the side identified by Huszár and Pohl as the obverse (the side with the crown) is + mARIE D G R VnGARIE (although most coins are missing at least the first G). The fullest legend on the side identified by Unger, Réthy, Frynas and Gyöngyössy as the obverse (the side with the patriarchal cross) is + mOnETA mARIE R V. Since the letters R V are so often omitted from the cross side, Toma accepts the crown side as the obverse.

The standard Huszár was struck in 1384-1395 (per Huszár, with Unger and Frynas agreeing that it incepted in 1384) or in 1385-1395 (per Pohl), and is traditionally viewed as the last of three denarii struck by Maria. More recently, it has been viewed as the second type struck by her (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 566), in 1383-1385 (per Gyöngyössi and Toma). This coin, with the letter O privy mark below the crown, was struck at an unidentified mint in 1386-1389 (per Pohl). This appears to be a variation of the privy mark.

Toma notes fifteen legend variations among 45 coins of this type within the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934. They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, spelling of the queen's name, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Coins with this privy mark (Pohl 114-16) are not represented in the hoard.

Toma further notes four versions of the crown and four versions of the patriarchal cross on the standard type. There are six obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 41 coins in the hoard. The design combination on this coin appears to be Toma B/b.

Huszár/Pohl rarity 5, Frynas rarity C. This coin is a variation of the type not described/depicted in Huszár and Pohl, Unger and Réthy, or Frynas. It is also not included in Toma's tabulation of legend variations or design combinations. It was recorded by Rupp with the Cm mark (Pohl 114-4) and viewed by Unger (1974) to be a distinct type, although it is not included in his catalog. Toma notes 16 coins of this variation in the hoard, bearing four privy marks, but not this mark (Toma plate III/15-17). Toma refers to the side with the patriarchal cross as the obverse, and notes that the design and legend are as per the obverse of Huszár 566. Toma refers to the side with the crown as the reverse, and notes that legend is as per the reverse legend of Huszár 566 but that the design is as per the obverse of Huszár 569. Toma concludes that this variation represents a distinct type, chronologically sandwiched between the earlier Huszár 569 and later Huszár 566.
1 commentsStkp
HUN_Maria_Huszar_569_Pohl_114-2_2.jpg
Huszár 569, Pohl 114-2, Unger 443b, Réthy II 116, Frynas H.26.430 viewsHungary. Maria/Mária (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg)

AR denar, .50 g., 14.59 mm. max., 180°.

Obv: [+] mARIA • R • VnGARI [antiqua-style letters A without interior bar], crown with antiqua-style letter A without interior bar, below.

Rev: + mOnET... RIA [antiqua-style letters A], Patriarchal cross.

As both sides carry a titular legend, there is no consensus regarding obverse and reverse. The fullest legend on the side identified by Huszár and Pohl as the obverse (the side with the crown) is + mARIE D G R VnGARIE (although most coins are missing at least the first G). The fullest legend on the side identified by Unger, Réthy, Frynas and Gyöngyössy as the obverse (the side with the patriarchal cross) is + mOnETA mARIE R V. Since the letters R V are so often omitted from the cross side, Toma accepts the crown side as the obverse.

The type was struck in 1384-1395 (per Huszár, with Unger and Frynas agreeing that it incepted in 1384) or in 1385-1395 (per Pohl), and is traditionally viewed as the last of three denarii struck by Maria. More recently, it has been viewed as the second type struck by her (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 566), in 1383-1385 (per Gyöngyössi and Toma). This coin, with an antiqua-style letter A without interior bar privy mark below the crown, was struck in Székesfehérvár/Alba Regia in 1386-1395 (per Pohl).

Toma notes fifteen legend variations among 45 coins of this type within the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934. They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, spelling of the queen's name, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Toma lists seven variations among seventeen coins with this privy mark (Pohl 112-2). The legend combination on this coin appears to be Toma 5.

Toma further notes four versions of the crown and four versions of the patriarchal cross. There are six obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 41 coins in the hoard, three of which occur among fifteen identified coins with this privy mark (Pohl 114-2). The design combination on this coin appears to be Toma B/b (crown B is linked only with crosses b and c; cross b is linked only with crowns A and B).

Huszár/Pohl rarity 5, Frynas rarity C. The legend combination described/depicted in Huszár and Pohl; in Unger and Réthy, and in Frynas, all differ.
1 commentsStkp
HUN_Maria_Huszar_569_Pohl_114-2~0.jpg
Huszár 569, Pohl 114-2, Unger 443b, Réthy II 116, Frynas H.26.423 viewsHungary. Maria/Mária (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg)

AR denar, .53 g., 15.33 mm. max., 270°

Obv: + mARIE D G R VGARI [antiqua-style letters A without interior bar], Open crown with antiqua-style letter A without interior bar, below

Rev: + m ... ARIE R V [antiqua-style letter A], Patriarchal cross, pellet below

As both sides carry a titular legend, there is no consensus regarding obverse and reverse. The fullest legend on the side identified by Huszár and Pohl as the obverse (the side with the crown) is + mARIE D G R VnGARIE (although most coins are missing at least the first G). The fullest legend on the side identified by Unger, Réthy, Frynas and Gyöngyössy as the obverse (the side with the patriarchal cross) is + mOnETA mARIE R V. Since the letters R V are so often omitted from the cross side, Toma accepts the crown side as the obverse.

The type was struck in 1384-1395 (per Huszár, with Unger and Frynas agreeing that it incepted in 1384) or in 1385-1395 (per Pohl), and is traditionally viewed as the last of three denarii struck by Maria. More recently, it has been viewed as the second type struck by her (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 566), in 1383-1385 (per Gyöngyössi and Toma). This coin, with an antiqua-style letter A without interior bar privy mark below the crown, was struck in Székesfehérvár/Alba Regia in 1386-1395 (per Pohl).

Toma notes fifteen legend variations among 45 coins of this type within the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934. They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, spelling of the queen's name, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Toma lists seven variations among seventeen coins with this privy mark (Pohl 114-2). The obverse legend is not recorded by Toma.

Toma further notes four versions of the crown and four versions of the patriarchal cross. There are six obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 41 coins in the hoard, three of which occur among fifteen coins with this privy mark (Pohl 114-2). The design combination on this coin appears to be Toma B/c (crown B is linked only with crosses b and c; cross c is linked only with crown B).

Huszár/Pohl rarity 5, Frynas rarity C. The legend combination described/depicted in Huszár and Pohl; in Unger and Réthy, and in Frynas, all differ.
1 commentsStkp
HUN_Maria_Huszar_569_Pohl_114-3.jpg
Huszár 569, Pohl 114-3, Unger 443c, Réthy II 116, Frynas H.26.417 viewsHungary. Maria/Mária (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg)

AR denar, .49 g., 15.12 mm. max., 0°

Obv: + mARIE • R • VnGARIE [antiqua-style letters A without interior bar], crown with interior cross hatching. A with an interior crossbar below.

Rev: + mOnETA • mARIA [antiqua-style letters A without interior bar], Patriarchal.

As both sides carry a titular legend, there is no consensus regarding obverse and reverse. The fullest legend on the side identified by Huszár and Pohl as the obverse (the side with the crown) is + mARIE D G R VnGARIE (although most coins are missing at least the first G). The fullest legend on the side identified by Unger, Réthy, Frynas and Gyöngyössy as the obverse (the side with the patriarchal cross) is + mOnETA mARIE R V. Since the letters R V are so often omitted from the cross side, Toma accepts the crown side as the obverse.

The type was struck in 1384-1395 (per Huszár, with Unger and Frynas agreeing that it incepted in 1384) or in 1385-1395 (per Pohl), and is traditionally viewed as the last of three denarii struck by Maria. More recently, it has been viewed as the second type struck by her (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 566), in 1383-1385 (per Gyöngyössi and Toma). This coin, with an antiqua-style letter A with interior bar privy mark below the crown, was struck in Székesfehérvár/Alba Regia in 1386-1395 (per Pohl).

Toma notes fifteen legend variations among 45 coins of this type within the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934. They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, spelling of the queen's name, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Toma lists just one coin with the A with interior bar privy mark (Pohl 114-3). The legend combination on this coin is not recorded by Toma.
Toma further notes four versions of the crown and four versions of the patriarchal cross. There are six obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 41 coins in the hoard, one of which occurs among two identified coins without a privy mark (Pohl 114-1). The design combination on this coin appears to be Toma A/b (crown A is linked only with crosses a and b; cross b is linked only with crowns A and B).

Huszár/Pohl rarity 5, Frynas rarity C. The legend combination described/depicted in Huszár and Pohl; in Unger and Réthy, and in Frynas, all differ.
1 commentsStkp
HUN_Maria_Huszar_569_Pohl_114-5_2.jpg
Huszár 569, Pohl 114-5, Unger 443e, Réthy II 116, Frynas H.26.4, Toma plate III/3 var. (legends)21 views
Hungary. Maria/Mária (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg)

AR denar, .55 g., 16.07 mm. max., 90°

Obv: + mARIE • D R VnGARIE [antiqua-style letters A without and with interior bars], Open crown with h below

Rev: + mOnETA • mARIE • R • VI [antiqua-style letters A with interior bar], Patriarchal cross with pellets

As both sides carry a titular legend, there is no consensus regarding obverse and reverse. The fullest legend on the side identified by Huszár and Pohl as the obverse (the side with the crown) is + mARIE D G R VnGARIE (although most coins are missing at least the first G). The fullest legend on the side identified by Unger, Réthy, Frynas and Gyöngyössy as the obverse (the side with the patriarchal cross) is + mOnETA mARIE R V. Since the letters R V are so often omitted from the cross side, Toma accepts the crown side as the obverse.

The type was struck in 1384-1395 (per Huszár, with Unger and Frynas agreeing that it incepted in 1384) or in 1385-1395 (per Pohl), and is traditionally viewed as the last of three denarii struck by Maria. More recently, it has been viewed as the second type struck by her (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 566), in 1383-1385 (per Gyöngyössi and Toma). This coin, with a letter h privy mark below the crown, was struck in Nagyszeben/Hermannstadt, now Sibiu, Romania, in 1386-1395 (per Pohl).

Toma notes fifteen legend variations among 45 coins of this type within the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934. They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, spelling of the queen's name, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Toma lists one variation among just three coins with this privy mark (Pohl 114-5). This legend variation is not recorded by Toma.

Toma further notes four versions of the crown and four versions of the patriarchal cross. There are six obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 41 coins in the hoard, one of which, C/a, occurs aamong coins with this privy mark (Pohl 114-5). The design combination on this coin appears to be Toma C/a (crown C is linked only with cross a).

Huszár/Pohl rarity 5, Frynas rarity C. The legend combination described/depicted in Huszár and Pohl; in Unger and Réthy, and in Frynas, all differ.
Stkp
HUN_Maria_Huszar_569_Pohl_114-6.jpg
Huszár 569, Pohl 114-6, Unger 443f, Réthy II 116, Frynas H.26.4, Toma plate III/4 var. (legends)19 views
Hungary. Maria/Mária (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg)

AR denar, .55 g., 15.05 mm. max., 270°

Obv: + mARIE • D • R VnGARIE • [antiqua-style letters A without interior bars], Open crown with I below

Rev: . . . mOnETA • mAR . . . [antiqua-style letters A without interior bars], Patriarchal cross

As both sides carry a titular legend, there is no consensus regarding obverse and reverse. The fullest legend on the side identified by Huszár and Pohl as the obverse (the side with the crown) is + mARIE D G R VnGARIE (although most coins are missing at least the first G). The fullest legend on the side identified by Unger, Réthy, Frynas and Gyöngyössy as the obverse (the side with the patriarchal cross) is + mOnETA mARIE R V. Since the letters R V are so often omitted from the cross side, Toma accepts the crown side as the obverse.

The type was struck in 1384-1395 (per Huszár, with Unger and Frynas agreeing that it incepted in 1384) or in 1385-1395 (per Pohl), and is traditionally viewed as the last of three denarii struck by Maria. More recently, it has been viewed as the second type struck by her (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 566), in 1383-1385 (per Gyöngyössi and Toma). This coin, with a letter I privy mark below the crown, was struck in an unidentified mint in 1386-1395 (per Pohl).

Toma notes fifteen legend variations among 45 coins of this type within the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934. They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, spelling of the queen's name, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Toma lists two variations among just three coins with this privy mark (Pohl 114-6). This legend variation is not recorded by Toma.

Toma further notes four versions of the crown and four versions of the patriarchal cross. There are six obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 41 coins in the hoard, two of which occur among coins with this privy mark (Pohl 114-6). The design combination on this coin appears to be Toma A/a (crown A is linked only with crosses a and b).

Huszár/Pohl rarity 5, Frynas rarity C. The legend combination described/depicted in Huszár and Pohl; in Unger and Réthy, and in Frynas, all differ.
Stkp
HUN_Maria_Huszar_569_Pohl_114-7.jpg
Huszár 569, Pohl 114-7, Unger 443g, Réthy II 116, Frynas H.26.415 viewsHungary. Maria/Mária (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg)

AR denar, .51 g., 15.52 mm. max., 180°

Obv: + mARIE • D • R VnGARIE [antiqua-style letters A with interior bars], Open crown with iS [retrograde letter s] below.

Rev: . . . OnETA • mARI... [antiqua-style letters A with interior bars], Patriarchal cross

As both sides carry a titular legend, there is no consensus regarding obverse and reverse. The fullest legend on the side identified by Huszár and Pohl as the obverse (the side with the crown) is + mARIE D G R VnGARIE (although most coins are missing at least the first G). The fullest legend on the side identified by Unger, Réthy, Frynas and Gyöngyössy as the obverse (the side with the patriarchal cross) is + mOnETA mARIE R V. Since the letters R V are so often omitted from the cross side, Toma accepts the crown side as the obverse.

The type was struck in 1384-1395 (per Huszár, with Unger and Frynas agreeing that it incepted in 1384) or in 1385-1395 (per Pohl), and is traditionally viewed as the last of three denarii struck by Maria. More recently, it has been viewed as the second type struck by her (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 566), in 1383-1385 (per Gyöngyössi and Toma). This coin, with letters Is privy mark below the crown, was tentatively struck in Pozsony/Istropolis/Pressburg, now Bratislava, Slovakia, in 1386-1395 (per Pohl). A retrograde letter s within the mark is not recorded by Huszár, Pohl and Unger.

Toma notes fifteen legend variations among 45 coins of this type within the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934. They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, spelling of the queen's name, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Coins with this privy mark (Pohl 114-6) are not represented in the hoard. They are also not represented in Gyöngyössy. This legend variation is not recorded by Toma.

Toma further notes four versions of the crown and four versions of the patriarchal cross. There are six obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 41 coins in the hoard. The design combination on this coin appears to be Toma C/a (crown C is linked only with cross a).

Huszár/Pohl rarity 5, Frynas rarity C. The legend combination described/depicted in Huszár and Pohl; in Unger and Réthy, and in Frynas, all differ.
Stkp
HUN_Maria_Huszar_569_Pohl_114-7_2.jpg
Huszár 569, Pohl 114-7, Unger 443g, Réthy II 116, Frynas H.26.417 views
Hungary. Maria/Mária (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg)

AR denar, .53 g., 15.46 mm. max., 0°

Obv: + mARIE • D • R VnGARIE [antiqua-style letters A with interior bars], Open crown with iS below

Rev: + mOnETA mARIE • R • V [antiqua-style letters A with interior bars], Patriarchal cross

As both sides carry a titular legend, there is no consensus regarding obverse and reverse. The fullest legend on the side identified by Huszár and Pohl as the obverse (the side with the crown) is + mARIE D G R VnGARIE (although most coins are missing at least the first G). The fullest legend on the side identified by Unger, Réthy, Frynas and Gyöngyössy as the obverse (the side with the patriarchal cross) is + mOnETA mARIE R V. Since the letters R V are so often omitted from the cross side, Toma accepts the crown side as the obverse.

The type was struck in 1384-1395 (per Huszár, with Unger and Frynas agreeing that it incepted in 1384) or in 1385-1395 (per Pohl), and is traditionally viewed as the last of three denarii struck by Maria. More recently, it has been viewed as the second type struck by her (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 566), in 1383-1385 (per Gyöngyössi and Toma). This coin, with letters Is privy mark below the crown, was tentatively struck in Pozsony/Istropolis/Pressburg, now Bratislava, Slovakia, in 1386-1395 (per Pohl).

Toma notes fifteen legend variations among 45 coins of this type within the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934. They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, spelling of the queen's name, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Coins with this privy mark (Pohl 114-6) are not represented in the hoard. They are also not represented in Gyöngyössy. This legend variation is not recorded by Toma.

Toma further notes four versions of the crown and four versions of the patriarchal cross. There are six obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 41 coins in the hoard. The design combination on this coin appears to be Toma C/a (crown C is linked only with cross a).

Huszár/Pohl rarity 5, Frynas rarity C. The legend combination described/depicted in Huszár and Pohl; in Unger and Réthy, and in Frynas, all differ.
Stkp
HUN_Maria_Huszar_569.JPG
Huszár 569, Pohl 114-9, Unger 443j, Réthy II 116, Frynas H.26.4164 viewsHungary. Maria/Mária (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg)

AR denar, .43 g., 14.8 mm. max, 0°

Obv: + MARIE • R • VnGARI [Gothic-style letter A], Open crown with m below.

Rev: + MOnETA • MARIE [Gothic-style letter A; letter T stylized to resemble an m], Patriarchal cross.

As both sides carry a titular legend, there is no consensus regarding obverse and reverse. The fullest legend on the side identified by Huszár and Pohl as the obverse (the side with the crown) is + mARIE D G R VnGARIE (although most coins are missing at least the first G). The fullest legend on the side identified by Unger, Réthy, Frynas and Gyöngyössy as the obverse (the side with the patriarchal cross) is + mOnETA mARIE R V. Since the letters R V are so often omitted from the cross side, Toma accepts the crown side as the obverse.

The type was struck in 1384-1395 (per Huszár, with Unger and Frynas agreeing that it incepted in 1384) or in 1385-1395 (per Pohl), and is traditionally viewed as the last of three denarii struck by Maria. More recently, it has been viewed as the second type struck by her (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 566), in 1383-1385 (per Gyöngyössi and Toma). This coin, with a letter m below the crown, was struck at an unidentified mint ca. 1386-1395 (per Pohl).

The letter T on the reverse of this coin is stylized to resemble the letter m. Toma notes that this style of letter T appears on the Huszár 566 struck at Kassa/Kaschau (now Košice, Slovakia) (Pohl 112-2) and on those of this type struck at Körmöcbánya/Kremnitz (now Kremnica, Slovakia), but this apparently occurs only on those bearing the letter K privy mark (Pohl 114-8) and not on those bearing the Cm mark (Pohl 114-2).

Toma notes fifteen legend variations among 45 coins of this type within the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934. They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, spelling of the queen's name, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Toma lists no coins with this privy mark (Pohl 112-9).

Toma further notes four versions of the crown and four versions of the patriarchal cross on the standard type. There are six obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 41 coins in the hoard, one of which. The design combination on this coin appears to be Toma C/a.

Huszár/Pohl rarity 5, Frynas rarity C. The legend combination described/depicted in Huszár and Pohl; in Unger and Réthy, and in Frynas, all differ.
Stkp
lg2_quart_sm.jpg
IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG / P M S COL VIM / Ӕ30 (239-240 AD)18 viewsIMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG, laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right / P M S CO - L VIM, personification of Moesia standing facing, head left, arms outstretched over a lion (right) and a bull (left). AN • I • in exergue.

Ӕ, 29-30+mm, 16.75g, die axis 1h (slightly turned medal alignment), material: looks like red copper.

IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG = Imperator Caesar Marcus Antonius Gordianus Augustus, P M S COL VIM = Provinciae Moesiae Superioris Colonia Viminacium = Colony of Viminacium, in the province of Upper Moesia, AN•I• = the first year. 238 AD was the infamous "year of the 6 emperors", so 239-240 was the first sole ruling year of Gordian III. The bull is the symbol of Legio VII Claudia, based in the capital of Moesia Superior, Viminacium itself, and the lion is the symbol of Legio IV Flavia Felix based in another city of Moesia Superior, Singidunum (modern Belgrade). Due to size this is most probably a sestertius, but large dupondius is another possibility, since it is clearly made of red copper and sestertii were typically made of expensive "gold-like" orichalcum, a kind of brass (but in this time of civil strife they could have used a cheaper replacement). Literature fails to clearly identify the denomination of this type.

A straightforward ID due to size and clear legends, this is AMNG 71; Martin 1.01.1 minted in Viminacium, Moesia Superior (Kostolac, Serbia).

Gordian III was Roman Emperor from 238 AD to 244 AD. At the age of 13, he became the youngest sole legal Roman emperor throughout the existence of the united Roman Empire. Gordian was the son of Antonia Gordiana and an unnamed Roman Senator who died before 238. Antonia Gordiana was the daughter of Emperor Gordian I and younger sister of Emperor Gordian II. Very little is known of his early life before his acclamation. Gordian had assumed the name of his maternal grandfather in 238 AD.

In 235, following the murder of Emperor Alexander Severus, Maximinus Thrax was acclaimed Emperor. In the following years, there was a growing opposition against Maximinus in the Roman senate and amongst the majority of the population of Rome. In 238 (to become infamous as "the year of six emperors") a rebellion broke out in the Africa Province, where Gordian's grandfather and uncle, Gordian I and II, were proclaimed joint emperors. This revolt was suppressed within a month by Cappellianus, governor of Numidia and a loyal supporter of Maximinus Thrax. The elder Gordians died, but public opinion cherished their memory as peace-loving and literate men, victims of Maximinus' oppression.

Meanwhile, Maximinus was on the verge of marching on Rome and the Senate elected Pupienus and Balbinus as joint emperors. These senators were not popular and the population of Rome was still shocked by the elder Gordians' fate, so the Senate decided to take the teenage Gordian, rename him Marcus Antonius Gordianus like his grandfather, and raise him to the rank of Caesar and imperial heir. Pupienus and Balbinus defeated Maximinus, mainly due to the defection of several legions, particularly the II Parthica, who assassinated Maximinus. However, their joint reign was doomed from the start with popular riots, military discontent and an enormous fire that consumed Rome in June 238. On July 29, Pupienus and Balbinus were killed by the Praetorian Guard and Gordian proclaimed sole emperor.

Due to Gordian's age, the imperial government was surrendered to the aristocratic families, who controlled the affairs of Rome through the Senate. In 240, Sabinianus revolted in the African province, but the situation was quickly brought under control. In 241, Gordian was married to Furia Sabinia Tranquillina, daughter of the newly appointed praetorian prefect, Timesitheus. As chief of the Praetorian Guard and father in law of the Emperor, Timesitheus quickly became the de facto ruler of the Roman Empire.

In the 3rd century, the Roman frontiers weakened against the Germanic tribes across the Rhine and Danube, and the Sassanid Empire across the Euphrates increased its own attacks. When the Persians under Shapur I invaded Mesopotamia, the young emperor opened the doors of the Temple of Janus for the last time in Roman history, and sent a large army to the East. The Sassanids were driven back over the Euphrates and defeated in the Battle of Resaena (243). The campaign was a success and Gordian, who had joined the army, was planning an invasion of the enemy's territory, when his father-in-law died in unclear circumstances. Without Timesitheus, the campaign, and the Emperor's security, were at risk.

Gaius Julius Priscus and, later on, his own brother Marcus Julius Philippus, also known as Philip the Arab, stepped in at this moment as the new Praetorian Prefects and the campaign proceeded. Around February 244, the Persians fought back fiercely to halt the Roman advance to Ctesiphon. Persian sources claim that a battle occurred (Battle of Misiche) near modern Fallujah (Iraq) and resulted in a major Roman defeat and the death of Gordian III. Roman sources do not mention this battle and suggest that Gordian died far away from Misiche, at Zaitha (Qalat es Salihiyah) in northern Mesopotamia. Modern scholarship does not unanimously accept this course of the events. One view holds that Gordian died at Zaitha, murdered by his frustrated army, while the role of Philip is unknown. Other scholars have concluded that Gordian died in battle against the Sassanids.
Philip transferred the body of the deceased emperor to Rome and arranged for his deification. Gordian's youth and good nature, along with the deaths of his grandfather and uncle and his own tragic fate at the hands of the enemy, earned him the lasting esteem of the Romans.
Yurii P
Pantheon~0.JPG
Interior of the Pantheon54 viewsInterior view of the Pantheon's dome. An engeneering masterpiece the concrete gets thinner as it rises. The open occular in the center allows light to flood into this massive ancient space. The walls at the bottom are about 12 feet thick. Origianlly dedicated to all the god's it is now a Catholic church. Titus Pullo
Iovi_Conservatori_Cldcf.jpg
Iovi Conservatori Cldcf76 viewsObverse: IMPCAESMAVRSEVALEXANDERAVG
Bust laureate right, front view, draped and cuirassed
Reverse: IOVICONSERVATORI, SC left and right, low in field
Jupiter naked except for cloak hanging behind him over both arms, standing front, head left, holding thurderbolt in right hand and vertical spear (sceptre?) in left
BMC 61*, RIC 559 (but without Severus Alexander, typo?)
weight, 13.06g; die axis, 6h
A scarce specimen with reverse slightly double struck. A rather thinnish flan
2 commentsmix_val
Iovi_propug_Bldc~0.jpg
Iovi Propug Bldcf52 viewsObverse: IMPALEXAN_DERPIUSAVG
Bust laureate right, draped and cuirassed, front view
Reverse: IOVIPRO_PUGNATORI SC left and right in field
Jupiter naked except for cloak over left arm and shoulder, standing front, body turned left, right knee bent, head turned back right, upraised thunderbolt in right hand.
BMC 798 note (Oxford), RIC 630
Weight, 13.20g; die axis, 12h.
1 commentsmix_val
Iovi_propug_eagle.jpg
Iovi Propug eagle Bldcf46 viewsObverse: IMPALEXANDERPIUSAVG
Bust laureate right, draped and cuirassed, front view
Reverse: IOVIPRO_PUGNATORI SC left and right low in field
Jupiter naked except for cloak over right shoulder, standing front, body turned left, right knee bent, head turned back right, upraised thunderbolt in right hand and eagle perched on outstretched left hand.
BMC 828, RIC 633
Weight, 12.61g; die axis, 13h.
1 commentsmix_val
Iovii_propugnatori_red.jpg
Iovi Propugnatori Bldcf dup35 viewsObverse: IMP ALEXAN_DER PIUS AVG
Bust laureate right, draped and cuirassed, front view
Reverse: IOVI PRO_PUGNATORI SC left and right in field
Jupiter naked except for cloak over left arm and shoulder, standing front, body turned left, right knee bent, head turned back right, upraised thunderbolt in right hand.
BMC 794, RIC 628
Weight, 19.837g; die axis, 12h.

Slightly double struck reverse
mix_val
Iovi_propug_Bldc.jpg
Iovi propvgnatori Bldcf62 viewsObverse: IMPALEXAN_DERPIUSAVG
Bust laureate right, draped and cuirassed, front view
Reverse: IOVIPRO_PUGNATORI SC left and right in field
Jupiter naked except for cloak over left arm and shoulder, standing front, body turned left, right knee bent, head turned back right, upraised thunderbolt in right hand.
BMC 794, RIC 628
Weight, 14.97g; die axis, 12h.
1 commentsmix_val
bmc_240.jpg
Iovi Vltori Cld44 viewsObverse: IMPCAESMAVRSEVALEXANDERAVG
Bust laureate right, front view, draped
Reverse: IOVIVLT_ORI, SC exergue
Jupiter naked to waist, seated left on throne, holding victory on extended right hand and sceptre in left
BMC 240, RIC 560
Weight, 20.927g; die axis, 12h.
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Iovi_vltor.jpg
Iovi Vltori Cldc74 viewsObverse: IMPCAESMAVRSEVALEXANDERAVG
Bust laureate right, front view, draped (and cuirassed?)
Reverse: IOVIV_L_TORI, SC exergue
Jupiter naked to waist, seated left on throne, holding victory on extended right hand and sceptre in left
BMC 240, RIC 560
Weight, 21.69g; die axis, 12h.
2 commentsmix_val
Iovis_propugnator_Bldcf.jpg
Iovis Propugnator Bldcf51 viewsObverse: IMPALEXAN_DERPIUSAVG
Bust laureate right, draped and cuirassed, front view
Reverse: IOVIS_PROPUGNATOR SC left and right in field
Jupiter naked except for cloak over left arm and shoulder, standing front, body turned left, right knee bent, head turned back right, upraised thunderbolt in right hand.
BMC 799-800, RIC 634
Weight, 17.13g; die axis, 12h.

Scarce issue
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022_19.jpg
Iran, Bisitun37 viewsCloser view of the main relief showing King Dareios I with his defeated rivals. Unfortunately there were no c