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Search results - "towers"
Hera_1_.jpg
11 viewsAE 3, 16mm/2.95gm, fully silvered, struck c. 318 AD

Obv/ DN VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C; laur. and dr. bust r., holding in globe and sceptre in l. hand and mappa in r. hand.
Rev/ PROVIDENTIAE CAESS; Campgate, three towers, lamda in r. field.; SMH gamma in exergue.
Ref/ RIC VOL VII, 49
Mayadigger
commodus_aug_tria_b.jpg
(0177) COMMODUS--AUGUSTA TRAIANA37 views177 - 192 AD
struck 191-192 AD
AE 29.5 mm; 15.36 g
Magistrate: L. Aemilius Iustus (Legatus Augusti pro praetore provinciae Thraciae)
O: AV KAI [M] AV KOMOΔOC (or similar) Laureate bust right
R: ΗΓΕ Λ ΑΙΜ ΙΟVСΤ ΑVΓΟVСΤΗС ΤΡΑΙΑΝΗС City gate with 3 towers
Thrace, Augusta Traiana
cf RPC online 10823, citing a Freeman & Sear sale of 2005, without picture.
Note: (from C. Clay, 3.21.2015) "Governor Aem. Justus is rare at this mint, yours may be just the second specimen recorded. Not known to Varbanov, or to Stein in his 1926 monograph on Thracian officials. Apparently not in Schoenert-Geiss's Augusta Traiana corpus, or Varbanov would have known it from there."
d.s.
laney
gordian_hadrianop_gate_b.jpg
(0238) GORDIAN III25 views238 - 244 AD
AE 27 mm; 11.30 g
O: AΥT K M ANT ΓOΡΔIANOC AΓ, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind;
R: AΔΡIANOΠOΛEITΩN, city gate with two towers, conical roofs, no doors
Thrace, Hadrianopolis mint; cf Varbanov 3757/3759, Moushmov 2701
d.s.
laney
Andras_II_,_(1205-1235_AD),_AR-Denar,_H-228,_C1-191,_U-140,_Q-001,_9h,_16mm,_0,42g-s.jpg
021. H-228 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-228, CNH I.-191, U-140, AR-Denarius, #0159 views021. H-228 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-228, CNH I.-191, U-140, AR-Denarius, #01
avers: Patriarchal cross on the arch, between two towers, two rosettes above, three circles below; border of dots.
reverse: Balcony over three arches, six-pointed star between two circles above, circle below; line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 16,0 mm, weight: 0,42 g, axis: 9h,
mint: Esztergom , date: A.D., ref: Huszár-228, CNH I.-191, Unger-140,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
András_II_,_(1205-1235_A_D_),_H-223,_CNH_I_-187,_U-199,_AR-Obulus,_Q-001,_0h,_13mm,_0,27g-s.jpg
021. H-248 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-223, CNH I.-187, U-199, AR-Obulus, Very Rare! #0188 views021. H-248 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-223, CNH I.-187, U-199, AR-Obulus, Very Rare! #01
avers: Crowned bust facing between two columns on wedges with circles on the top, rosette/star between two crescents above, the border of dots.
reverse: Castle with three towers, on a triangle, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 13,0 mm, weight: 0,27 g, axis: 0h,
mint: Esztergom , date: A.D., ref: Huszár-223, CNH I.-187, Unger-199, Very Rare!
Q-001
quadrans
Andras-II_U-185_CP-044_H-259_Q-001_0h_11,5mm_0,28g-s.jpg
021. H-259 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-259, CNH CP.-044, U-185, AR-Obulus, Rare! #0183 views021. H-259 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-259, CNH CP.-044, U-185, AR-Obulus, Rare! #01
avers: Three towers on an arch, cross on the middle one, crowned bust facing between two stars below, a double circle of dots.
reverse: Cross with rosettes in the angles, border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 11,5 mm, weight: 0,28g, axis: 0h,
mint: Esztergom , date: A.D., ref: Huszár-259, CNH CP.-044, Unger-185,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Andras-II_U-186_C1-220_H-260_Q-003_12,1mm_0,46gz-s.jpg
021. H-260 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-248, CNH I.-220, U-186, AR-Obulus, #0183 views021. H-260 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-248, CNH I.-220, U-186, AR-Obulus, #01
avers: Crowned head facing, in the pointed arch between two towers, border of dots.
reverse: Cross with stars in the angles, border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 12,1 mm, weight: 0,46g, axis: -h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-260, CNH I.-220, Unger-186,
Q-001
quadrans
Andras_II__(1205-1235_AD),_H-275,_C1-305,_U-144,_Q-001,_7h,_14-14,5mm,_0,49g-s.jpg
021. H-276 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-275, CNH I.-305, U-144, AR-Denarius, #0165 views021. H-276 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-275, CNH I.-305, U-144, AR-Denarius, #01
avers: Crowned bust facing, between two towers, star within crescent above, line border.
reverse: Bastion between two towers on an arch of dots, branch between two circles above, leaf below, the border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 14,0-14,5 mm, weight: 0,49 g, axis: 7h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-275, CNH I.-305, Unger-144,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Andras-II_(1205-1235_AD)_U-145_C1-306_H-276_Q-001_4h_12-12,5mm_0,28ga-s.jpg
021. H-276 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-276, CNH I.-306, U-145, AR-Obulus, #0169 views021. H-276 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-276, CNH I.-306, U-145, AR-Obulus, #01
avers: Crowned bust facing, between two towers, star within crescent above, border of dots.
reverse: Bastion between two towers on an arch of dots, branch between two circles above, leaf below, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 12-12,5 mm, weight: 0,28 g, axis: 4h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-276, CNH I.-306, Unger-145,
Q-001
quadrans
Bela-IV_(1235-1270_AD)_U-246_C1-344_H-336_Q-001_9h_11mm_0,34g-s.jpg
022. H-336 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-336, CNH I.-344, U-246, AR-Denarius, #01146 views022. H-336 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-336, CNH I.-344, U-246, AR-Denarius, #01
avers: The Patriarchal cross between two towers; crowned head facing above, line border.
reverse: Crowned, winged lion standing left, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 11mm, weight: 0,34g, axis: 9h,
mint: , date: 1235-1270 A.D., ref: Huszár-336, CNH I.-344, Unger-246, ,
Q-001
quadrans
Bela-IV_(1235-1270_AD)_U-247_C1-345_H-337_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
022. H-337 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-337, CNH I.-345, U-247, AR-Obulus, #0182 views022. H-337 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-337, CNH I.-345, U-247, AR-Obulus, #01
avers: The Patriarchal cross between two towers; crowned head facing above, line border.
reverse: Crowned, winged lion standing left, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: , date: 1235-1270 A.D., ref: Huszár-337, CNH I.-345, Unger-247,
Q-001
quadrans
H-382_László_IV_,_(Ladislaus_IV_),_King_of_Hungary,_(1272-1290_A_D_),_H-382,_CNH_I_-328,_U-290,_AR-Denarius,_Q-001,_10h,_12mm,_0,42g-s.jpg
025. H-382 László IV., (Ladislaus IV.), King of Hungary, (1272-1290 A.D.), H-382, CNH I.-328, U-290, AR-Denarius, Castle with two towers, B-C, #01165 views025. H-382 László IV., (Ladislaus IV.), King of Hungary, (1272-1290 A.D.), H-382, CNH I.-328, U-290, AR-Denarius, Castle with two towers, B-C, #01
avers: Emperor facing holding cross and scepter, B in the left field, line border.
reverse: Castle with two towers cross between towers, circles above and below, B and C on both sides, line border.
exergue: B/C//--, diameter: 12,0mm, weight: 0,42g, axis: 10h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-382, CNH I.-328, Unger-290,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
IV_Laszlo_U-291_C1-330_H-384_Q-001_12mm_0,35ga-s.jpg
025. H-384 László IV., (Ladislaus IV.), King of Hungary, (1272-1290 A.D.), H-384, CNH I.-330, U-291, AR-Denarius, #0188 views025. H-384 László IV., (Ladislaus IV.), King of Hungary, (1272-1290 A.D.), H-384, CNH I.-330, U-291, AR-Denarius, #01
avers: City wall with gate, bastion between two towers, cross between two birds above, border of dots.
reverse: Eagle with spread wings, advancing left, a border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 12,0mm, weight: 0,35g, axis: -h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-384, CNH I.-330, Unger-291,
Q-001
quadrans
780_P_Hadrian_RPC728.jpg
0728 THRACE, Bizya, Hadrian 117-19 AD City gate 32 viewsReference.
RPC III, 728; Jurukova Bizye, pl. 1, 3; 6 (same dies) 1A; Price-Trell p. 247, 83; Varbanov 1421 var.

Magistrate Maec- Nep- (presbeutčs and antistrategos)

Obv. ΑΥΤΟ ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟС ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС ΚΑΙСΑΡ СΕΒ ΓΕΡ
Laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., with paludamentum

Rev. ΕΠΙ ΜΑΙ ΝΕΠ ΠΡΕСΒ ΚΑΙ ΑΝΤ ΒΙΖΥΗΝΩΝ
City gate, flanked by two towers, surmounted by a figure in quadriga, r.

18.00 gr
31 mm
6h

Note.
The portrait of Hadrian is based on the features of Trajan, as were the earliest coins of Hadrian in Rome.

ex Numismatik Lanz auction 160, lot 414
ex FORVM
okidoki
Henry_III_short_cross_penny.JPG
1216 – 1272, Henry III, AR Penny, Struck 1217 - 1242 at London, England (Short cross type)2 viewsObverse: HENRICVS REX around central circle enclosing a crowned, draped and bearded facing bust of Henry III holding a sceptre tipped with a cross pommee in his right hand.
Reverse: + GIFFREI ON LVND. Voided short cross dividing legend into quarters, crosslets in each quarter of inner circle. Cross pattée in legend. Moneyer: Giffrei, cognate with the modern English name of Geoffrey.
Issue type 7c, distinguished by the degraded portrait and large lettering.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.1gms | Die Axis: 4
SPINK: 1356C

Henry III was the eldest son of King John and came to the throne at the age of nine. He was king of England from 1216 until his death in 1272, ruling longer than any other English monarch until the reign of George III.
Henry expressed a lifelong interest in architecture and much of what constitutes the Tower of London today is a result of Henry’s work, he added several towers and a curtain wall to expand the White Tower beginning in 1238. Westminster Abbey however, is considered to be Henry's greatest building work. The project began in 1245, when Henry sent his architect Henry de Reynes to visit the French cities of Rheims, Chartres, Bourges and Amiens and Paris’s royal chapel Sainte-Chapelle to learn the Gothic technique that he much admired.
The Westminster Abbey that stood previously on the site had been erected by Edward the Confessor in 1042. Edward the Confessor was a hero of Henry’s, and he probably named his son (the future Edward I) after him. The foundations and crypt are still those of Edward the Confessor’s Abbey, but everything above ground today is the building begun by Henry III. The tomb of Edward the Confessor was moved to a new position of honour in 1269 at the very centre of the new abbey, and when Henry III died in 1272 he was buried beside Edward’s shrine in the exact position the bones of his hero had lain for 200 years.
*Alex
s53~0.JPG
202. Caracalla; Anchialus, Thrace27 viewsCaracalla AE28 of Anchialus, Thrace. AVT M AVR ANTWNEINOC, laureate cuirassed bust right / OVLPIANWN AGCIA-LEWN, city gate, no door, with two crenulated towers. Moushmov 2853. No.2591. ecoli
1213_P_Hadrian_RPC3805.jpg
3805 SYRIA Laodicea ad Mare. Hadrian Tetradrachm 123-24 AD Tyche 42 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3805/6; Prieur 1109; Adra 1562-5; Paris 1157

Issue Year 170 (OP)

Obv. ΑΥΤΟΚΡ ΚΑΙСΑΡ ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟС ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒΑСΤ
Laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian right, with gorgoneion on breastplate

Rev. ΙΟΥΛΙΕωΝ ΤωΝ ΚΑΙ ΛΑΟΔΙΚΕωΝ
Turreted and draped bust of Tyche, right; in field, right, ΟΡ soldiers arming the battlements/towers on Tyche's head

13 gr
25 mm
12h

Note.
From the Michel Prieur Collection. Ex Robert O. Ebert Collection (Part I, Stack’s Bowers & Ponterio 174, 11 January 2013), lot 5142; Numismatica Ars Classica 1 (39 March 1989), lot 862; Münzen und Medaillen AG FPL 279 (August 1967), no. 40.
7 commentsokidoki
1087.jpg
abilaspijk0246 viewsElagabalus
Abila

Obv: Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
Rev: In exergue, CεABIΛ. Left downward, IεACV. Right upward, NWNKC. Above, BΠ C. Hexastyle temple with central arch and pediment on top of which figure is standing; flaming altar within temple; on either side square towers with doors below and three windows on upper floors; steps in front.
24 mm, 10.70 gms

Spijkerman 24
Charles M
alfon.jpg
Alfonso XI, (1312 - 1350 A.D.)30 viewsSpain, Leon
Billon Cornado
O: +ALFON S REX, crowned bust left
R: CASTELE LEGION•, castle with three towers; L and star flanking tower, L below.
León mint.
19mm
.81g
ME 1182; Burgos 289.
1 commentsMat
AMNG_II_461a_Colonnade_cg_(2).jpg
Anchialos Septimius Severus St. Barbarus54 viewsAE 25 12.5gr

Anchialos

Septimius Severus

T. Statilius Barbarus (196-98 AD)

Ob: AY K Λ CEΠ | CEYHPOC ΠE
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right

Rev: HΓM CTA BAPBAPOV AΓXI AΛEΩN (inscribed circularly)
City gate with colonnade on top flanked by two towers

AMNG II 461a; Varbanov (E) II 186 (depicted); Mionnet -; BMC-; SNG Cop.-

Attractive dark mahogany patina.
rennrad12020
Com_Anchialos_cae_serv_city_gate_amng_442.jpg
Anchialus Commodus Caecilius Servilianus City gate35 viewsCommodus

Governor Caecilius Servilianus (perhaps 186 AD; Stein)

AE29 13.45g

AV ∙ KAI Λ ∙ AVP | KOMOΔOC
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right

HΓ ∙ KAI | CEPOVIΛI | ANOV
Ex: AΓXIAΛEΩN

City gate with 2 towers and a gallery of 6 arches

AMNG II 442 (not depicted); cf. Varbanov (E) II 125 (depicted); Mionnet -; BMC –; RPC online-

2 countermarks on obverse. Howgego 183 (Athena helmed right) and 534 (ΔX)

rennrad12020
Architectural_AE26_of_Elagabalus_(218-222_AD)_from_Nikopolis,_Moesia_Inferior.jpg
Architectural AE26 of Elagabalus (218-222 AD) from Nikopolis, Moesia Inferior41 viewsArchitectural AE26 of Elagabalus (218-222 AD) from Nikopolis, Moesia Inferior
Notes: Elagabalus facing right on obverse, Castle with two tourettes on reverse. Rare! Excellent quality for these. These large provincial bronzes are usually very worn, and not often seen in such a nice condition as this one. 26 mm, 13.1grams. Elagabalus AE24 of Nikopolis ad Istrum. Laureate head right / UP NOBIOU ROUFOU NIKOPOLITWN PROC ICTPON, city gate with two wide towers and a arched door. _5000
Antonio Protti
BLT_Free_Riga_Dav_304_1570.JPG
Baltic States. Free City of Riga18 viewsDavenport 304, Saurma 5839/3015, Federov 603

Billon Schilling (.094 fineness), dated 1570, .92 g., 17.07 mm. max, 0°

Obv: + CIVITATIS : RIGENSIS, large coat of arms (stone portal with 2 flagged towers, 2 crossed keys above with small cross on top, head of lion in the gates)

Rev: • MONETA • NO • ARGEN, 7-0 divided by Bishop's arms (crossed keys with small cross above)
Stkp
1058.jpg
bmc4097 viewsElagabalus
Tyre, Phoenicia

Obv: Laureate cuirassed bust right.
Rev: Dido building Carthage, she stands front looking left, holding a ruler in right hand and scepter in left, before the arched gate of the city; above the gate a mason at work on one of the towers, below a man digging with a pick, murex shell and palms tree in upper fields.
27 mm, 12.07 gms

BMC 409
Charles M
const_21_milvian.jpg
BRIDGE, Commemorative struck under Constantine I380 viewsCommemorative RIC VIII, Constantinopolis 21
Constantine I AD 306 - 337
AE - AE 4
Constantinopolis 4th officina AD 330
obv. POP ROMANVS
draped, laureate head of a young Roman l., cornucopiae over r. shoulder
rev. (no legend)
Bridge with two towers and pylons below, over river
CONS/Epsilon above
RIC VIII, Constaninopolis 21; C.1; LRBC.1066
about VF/EF

Belongs to the special issue for the dedication of Constantinopolis AD 330 under Constantine I. The bridge may be the famous Milvian bridge, where Maxentius was defeated by Constantine I AD 312. For more information look at www.beastcoins.com/Architecture/Bridges/Bridges.htm
2 commentsJochen
Venta Silurum Wall with defensive towers.jpg
Britain, Caerwent, Venta Silurum, 04, Outer wall46 viewsVenta Silurum (modern village of Caerwent, Wales, UK) was a Roman city founded sometime after A.D. 75.
The site is open to the public to walk round.

Outer wall with defensive towers
maridvnvm
Venta Silurum Wall with defensive towers2.jpg
Britain, Caerwent, Venta Silurum, 05, Outer wall44 viewsVenta Silurum (modern village of Caerwent, Wales, UK) was a Roman city founded sometime after A.D. 75.
The site is open to the public to walk round.

Outer wall with defensive towers
maridvnvm
Venta Silurum Wall with defensive towers3.jpg
Britain, Caerwent, Venta Silurum, 06, Outer wall + view33 viewsVenta Silurum (modern village of Caerwent, Wales, UK) was a Roman city founded sometime after A.D. 75.
The site is open to the public to walk round.

Outer wall with defensive towers with an idea of the location of the site
maridvnvm
Venta Silurum defensive tower.jpg
Britain, Caerwent, Venta Silurum, 07, Defensive Tower29 viewsVenta Silurum (modern village of Caerwent, Wales, UK) was a Roman city founded sometime after A.D. 75.
The site is open to the public to walk round.

View of one of the defensive towers
maridvnvm
Sear-2334.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Andronicus II Palaeologus (1282-1328) Trachy, Constantinople (Sear-2334)52 viewsObv: Bust of the Virgin, arms spread, within the walls of Constantinople with 6 groups of triple towers, sigla in lower fields A - X
Rev: Christ standing on the right, facing three-quarters lefty, holding Book of Gospels, placing right hand on the head of Andronikos prostrate in proskynesis, Greek legend in fields IC - XC (right) and ANDRONIKOS EN HO DESPOTIS O PALLO (left)
SpongeBob
Sear-2396v.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Andronicus II Palaeologus, with Michael IX (1282-1328) AV Hyperpyron, Thessalonica (Sear-2396v; Bendall 207.2)23 viewsObv: Bust of the Virgin, orans, within city walls with six groups of towers; Ʞ - K
Rev: Christ standing facing, crowning Andronicus and Michael kneeling to either side
Quant.Geek
AndyMikeS2396.JPG
BYZANTINE, Andronicus II and Michael IX 1295-1320 Constantinople69 viewsHyperpyron
Obv: Virgin Orans within City, Four Towers
Rev: Christ Crowning Emperors
Weight: 3.4 grams
Sear 2396
Laetvs
Eryx-removebg-preview.png
C. Considius Nonianus, AR Denarius, 57 BC4 viewsC. Considius Nonianus, moneyer. AR Denarius minted at Rome, 57 BC. Laureate, diademed, and draped bust right of Venus Erycina. Reverse: Temple of Venus Erycina atop mountain, ERVC inscribed at base; in foreground, circuit of city walls with gateway at center and two towers. Sear 381; Considia 1a; Cr. 424/1; Syd. 887. Banker's mark on chin of Venus.
Ex Artemide Kunstauktionen GmbH E/auction 10.
1 commentsAncient Aussie
Caracalla_5.jpg
CARACALLA, AE30 Varbonov1099, City Gate12 viewsOBV: M AΥT AΥΡHΛ - ANTΩNEINOΣ, Laureated head right
REV: AΥΓOΥΣTHΣ - TΡAIANHΣ, Gate camp, flanked by two towers, a third view back to the center
30.02mm, 14.24g

Minted at Augusta Traiana, Thrace, 211-217 AD
Legatus
9965.jpg
Carrhae in Mesopotamia, Septimius Severus, AE 24, Lindgren 2557122 viewsCarrhae in Mesopotamia, Septimius Severus, AE 24, 193-211 AD
Av.: CEΠTIMIOC [CE]OY.... , naked (laureate?) bust of Septimius Severus right
Rv.: ..Λ]OY KAPPH ΛKA... , front view of a tetrastyle temple, the temple of the moon god Sin, in the middle a sacred stone on tripod, on top of stone: crescent, standards (with crescents on top) on both sides inside the building; another crescent in the pediment.
Lindgren 2557 ; BMC p. 82, #4

The city and the region played an important role in roman history.

Carrhae / Harran, (Akkadian Harrânu, "intersecting roads"; Latin Carrhae), an ancient city of strategic importance, an important town in northern Mesopotamia, famous for its temple of the moon god Sin, is now nothing more than a village in southeastern Turkey with an archeological site.
In the Bible it is mentioned as one of the towns where Abraham stayed on his voyage from Ur to the promised land. Abraham's family settled there when they left Ur of the Chaldeans (Genesis 11:31-32).
Inscriptions indicate that Harran existed as early as 2000 B.C. In its prime, it controlled the point where the road from Damascus joins the highway between Nineveh and Carchemish. This location gave Harran strategic value from an early date. It is frequently mentioned in Assyrian inscriptions about 1100 BC, under the name Harranu, or "Road" (Akkadian harrānu, 'road, path, journey' ).
During the fall of the Assyrian Empire, Harran became the stronghold of its lasts king, Ashur-uballit II, being besiged and conquered by Nabopolassar of Babylon at 609 BC. Harran became part of Median Empire after the fall of Assyria, and subsequently passed to the Persian Achaemenid dynasty.
The city remained Persian untill in 331 BC when the soldiers of the Macedonian king Alexander the Great entered the city.
After the death of Alexander on 11 June 323 BC, the city was claimed by his successors: Perdiccas, Antigonus Monophthalmus and Eumenes. These visited the city, but eventually, it became part of the Asian kingdom of Seleucos I (Nicator), the Seleucid empire, and capital of a province called Osrhoene (the Greek term for the old name Urhai).
The Seleucids settled Macedonian veterans at Harran. For a century-and-a-half, the town flourished, and it became independent when the Parthian dynasty of Persia occupied Babylonia. The Parthian and Seleucid kings both needed the buffer state of Osrhoene which was part of the larger Parthian empire and had nearby Edessa as its capital. The dynasty of the Arabian Abgarides, technically a vassal of the Parthian "king of kings" ruled Osrhoene for centuries.

Carrhae was the scene of a disastrous defeat of the Roman general Crassus by the Parthians. In 53 BC. Crassus, leading an army of 50.000, conducted a campaign against Parthia. After he captured a few cities on the way, he hurried to cross the Euphrates River with hopes of receiving laurels and the title of “Emperor”. But as he drove his forces over Rakkan towards Harran, Parthian cavalry besieged his forces in a pincers movement. In the ensuing battle, the Roman army was defeated and decimated. The battle of Carrhae was the beginning of a series of border wars with Parthia for many centuries. Numismatic evidence for these wars or the corresponding peace are for instance the "Signis Receptis" issues of Augustus and the “Janum Clusit” issues of Nero.
Later Lucius Verus tried to conquer Osrhoene and initially was successful. But an epidemic made an annexation impossible. However, a victory monument was erected in Ephesus, and Carrhae/Harran is shown as one of the subject towns.
Septimius Severus finally added Osrhoene to his realms in 195. The typical conic domed houses of ancient Harran can be seen on the Arch of Septimius Severus on the Forum Romanum.
Harran was the chief home of the moon-god Sin, whose temple was rebuilt by several kings. Sin was one of the great gods of the Assurian-Babylonian pantheon.
Caracalla gave Harran the status of a colonia (214 AD) and visited the city and the temple of the moon god in April 217. Meanwhile the moon god (and sacred stones) had become a part of the Roman pantheon and the temple a place to deify the roman emperors (as the standards on both sides of the temple indicate).

Caracalla was murdered while he was on his way from Temple to the palace. If this had been arranged by Macrinus - the prefect of the Praetorian guard who was to be the new emperor – is not quite clear. On the eighth of April, the emperor and his courtiers made a brief trip to the world famous temple of the moon god. When Caracalla halted to perform natural functions, he was assassinated by one of his bodyguards, Julius Martialis, who had a private grudge against the ruler, because he had not been given the post of centurion.

In 296 AD Roman control was again interrupted when nearby Carrhae the emperor Galerius was defeated by the king Narses / the Sasanid dynasty of Persia. The Roman emperor Julianus Apostata sacrificed to the moon god in 363 AD, at the beginning of his ill-fated campaign against the Sassanid Persians. The region continued to be a battle zone between the Romans and Sassanids. It remained Roman (or Byzantine) until 639, when the city finally was captured by the Muslim armies.

At that time, the cult of Sin still existed. After the arrival of the Islam, the adherents of other religions probably went to live in the marshes of the lower Tigris and Euphrates, and are still known as Mandaeans.
The ancient city walls surrounding Harran, 4 kilometer long and 3 kilometer wide, have been repaired throughout the ages (a.o. by the Byzantine emperor Justinian in the sixth century), and large parts are still standing. The position of no less than 187 towers has been identified. Of the six gates (Aleppo gate, Anatolian, Arslanli, Mosul, Baghdad, and Rakka gate), only the first one has remained.

A citadel was built in the 14th century in place of the Temple of Sin. This lies in the south-west quarter of the ancient town. Its ruin can still be visited.

my ancient coin database
1 commentsArminius
3213213.JPG
CILICIA. Tarsus (?). Ca. late 5th century BC. AR stater (21mm, 10.74 gm, 6h). NGC AU12 viewsCILICIA. Tarsus (?). Ca. late 5th century BC. AR stater (21mm, 10.74 gm, 6h). NGC AU 3/5 - 5/5, die shift. Side-view of fortified city walls with three crenelated towers, soldiers (?) on patrol between towers / Forepart of bull kneeling right, ankh to lower right. BMC -. SNG France 2 -. SNG Levante -. Casabonne -.

The attribution to Tarsus is based on the style and fabric of the flan, as well as the ankh symbol on the reverse. This symbol was clearly important to the people of Tarsus as the Great King is sometimes depicted carrying it upward by the shaft (cf. SNG France 2, 209); or displayed by itself as on the obol issue cf. SNG France 2, 207; or sometime as a device decorating the fields as on the previous lot in this sale. Another connecting theme is seen on satrapal Tarsus staters of the 4th century BC with lion and bull above crenelated city walls.
Mark R1
commodus_aug_tria_b~0.jpg
CITY-GATE, COMMODUS -- AUGUSTA TRAIANA75 views177 - 192 AD
struck 191-192 AD
AE 29.5 mm; 15.36 g
Magistrate: L. Aemilius Iustus (Legatus Augusti pro praetore provinciae Thraciae)
O: AV KAI [M] AV KOMOΔOC (or similar) Laureate bust right
R: ΗΓΕ Λ ΑΙΜ ΙΟVСΤ ΑVΓΟVСΤΗС ΤΡΑΙΑΝΗС City gate with 3 towers
Thrace, Augusta Traiana
cf RPC online 10823, citing a Freeman & Sear sale of 2005, without picture.
laney
now!!!_113.JPG
CITY-GATE, Elagabalus, AE26 from Nikopolis ad Istrum, Moesia Inferior (218-222 AD).145 viewsElagabalus III AE26 of Nikopolis ad Istrum. Magistrate Novius Rufus. AVT K M AVP ANTWNEINOC, laureate head right / VP NOBOU ROUFOU NIKOPOLITWN PROCICTRON, city gate with two towers. 26 mm, 13.1grams.
Moushmov 1391
Antonio Protti
Nikopolis_gate~0.jpg
CITY-GATE, Gordian III (238-244 AD), Moesia Inferior, Nicopolis ad Istrum36 viewsRoman Provincial, Moesia Inferior, Nicopolis ad Istrum, Gordian III (238-244 AD) Ć 27 (12.43g) Sabinius Modestus, legatus consularis., City Gate, Obv.: Laureate and draped bust right. Rev.: Arched gate flanked by two roofed towers with arched windows in uppermost story. Varbanov 4182. Rare! NGC XF.1 commentsAncient Aussie
gordian_hadrianop_gate_b~0.jpg
CITY-GATE, GORDIAN III -- HADRIANOPOLIS88 viewsGORDIAN III
238 - 244 AD
AE 27 mm; 11.30 g
O: AΥT K M ANT ΓOΡΔIANOC AΓ, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind;
R: AΔΡIANOΠOΛEITΩN, city gate with two towers, conical roofs, no doors
Thrace, Hadrianopolis mint; cf Varbanov 3757/3759, Moushmov 2701
d.s.
laney
nikopolis_23_macrinus_HrHJ(2013)8_23_46_04corr+.jpg
CITY-GATE, Macrinus, Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 23. HrHJ (2013) 8.23.46.04 corr. (plate coin)111 viewsMacrinus, AD 217-218
AE 27, 14.01g, 27.34mm, 45°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. AV K OPPEL CE - VH MAKRINOC
bust, laureate, r.
rev. VP AGRIPPA NIKOPOLITWN PROC / C ICTRW
city-gate with three towers, all with three pinnacles, closed double-door
ref. a) not in AMNG:
cf. AMNG I/1, 1826 (for Diadumenian)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3383
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2013) No. 8.23.46.4 corr. (plate coin)
writes NIKOPOLEITWN
very rare, VF/EF, dark-brown patina, a wunderful coin!
2 commentsJochen
const_21.jpg
Commemorative RIC VIII, Constantinopolis 2192 viewsConstantine I AD 307 - 337
AE - AE 4, 1.16g, 13.7mm
Constantinopolis 4th officina AD 330
obv. POP ROMANVS
draped, laureate head of a young Roman l., cornucopiae over r. shoulder
rev. (no legend)
Bridge with two towers over river, pylons below
CONS/Epsilon above
RIC VIII, Constaninopolis 21; C.1; LRBC.1066
about VF/EF

Belongs to the special issue for the dedication of Constantinopolis AD 330 under Constantine I. Sometimes the bridge is called the Milvian bridge. But really its meaning is unknown!
1 commentsJochen
Constantine_Campgate.jpg
Constantine I the Great RIC VII Nicomedia 14430 viewsobv.CONSTAN-TINVS AVG
laureate head right
rv. PROVIDENTIA AVGG
campgate with two towers, star above
ex. N/A
mint Nicomedia
Holger G
constantinI_antiochia_84.jpg
Constantine I, RIC VI, Antiochia 8440 viewsConstantine I, the Great, AD 307-337
AE 3, 2.6g, 19mm
Antiochia, 9th officina, ADS 329-330
obv. CONSTANT - INVS MAX AVG
Bust, draped and cuirassed, rosetten-diademed, r.
rev. PROVIDEN - TIAE AVGG
Camp-gate with ten layers of bricks, no door, two towers; star above
in l. and r. field Delta - Epsilon
in ex. SMANT
ref. RIC VI, Antiochia 84
R5!, about VF, sandpatina

After attribution I found that this type was regarded by RIC as R5! Delta+Epsilon in the field means 9. The usual Greek letter for 9, Theta, was taboo because it was the 1st letter of thanatos = death.
1 commentsJochen
00constantinusIIcampgate.jpg
CONSTANTINE II31 viewsAE 3. Arles. 327 AD. 3,00 grs. Laureate draped and cuirassed bust left. CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C / Campgate with four towers,open doors,star above. S F across fields. VIRTVS CAESS. In exergue ARL T.
RIC 315.
benito
00constantinusIIcampgate~0.jpg
CONSTANTINE II15 viewsAE 3. Arles. 327 AD. 3,00 grs. Laureate draped and cuirassed bust left. CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C / Campgate with four towers,open doors,star above. S F across fields. VIRTVS CAESS. In exergue ARL T.
RIC 315.
benito
Constantine_II_17_opt.jpg
Constantine II AE Follis, RIC VII 65, Campgate37 viewsOBV: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C - Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust left
REV: PROVIDENTIAE CAESS - Campgate with two towers, 10 rows and star above. SMANTB in ex.
2.81g, 18mm
Rated R5

Minted at Antioch, 325-35 AD
1 commentsLegatus
popromOR.jpg
Constantinopolis mint, Anonymous Issue, RIC VIII 2124 viewsConstantinopolis mint, Anonymous Issue during the reign of Constantine, 330 A.D. AE, 12mm 0.42g, RIC VIII 21; Vagi 3043
O: POP ROMANVS, Laureate, draped bust of the Genius of the Roman People left, cornucopia on left shoulder
R: Milvian(?) Bridge with towers at each end surmounted by three round objects, CONS / S above, waves and pylons below
1 commentscasata137ec
ccs28.jpg
Crusaders, Kingdom of Cyprus , Henry I 1218-1253. Ć Fractional denier 58 viewsCrusaders, Kingdom of Cyprus , Henry I 1218-1253. Ć Fractional
Uncertain (Nicosia?) mint . 2.6 Gr.
+ hЄNRICVS: large cross pattée .
RЄX above entrance . Gateway with three crenelated towers and arched entrance.
CCS 28
Rare
Vladislav D
diadumenian_k.jpg
Diadumenian, AD 217-2184 viewsAE28, 11.4g, 12h;
Nikopolis ad Istrum, Magistrate Agrippa.
Obv.: K M OΠEΛ ΔIAΔOUMENIANOC AV;
Draped bust right.
Rev.: UΠ AΓPIΠΠA NIKOΠOΛITΩN ΠPOC ICTΠ, city gate with three crenulated towers.
Reference: Moushmov 1314.
John Anthony
Emerita35.jpg
Divus Augustus Emerita25 viewsSPAIN, Emerita. Divus Augustus. Died AD 14. Ć Dupondius (35mm, 25.7 g, 2h).DIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER CAE, Radiate head left / City-view seen from aerial perspective: city wall with five T-shaped crenellations fronted by main gate consisting of two arched bays flanked by two multi-story crenellated towers, each with arched window; gate inscribed AVGVSTA/EMERITA and decorated with four T-shaped crenellations. RPC 30b; SNG Copenhagen -; Burgos 1032.1 commentsAncient Aussie
KARNTEN_ULRICH_III.jpg
Duchy of Koernten - ULRICH III83 viewsDuchy of Koernten - ULRICH III (1181-1201) AR Pfennig. Duke with sword & flag/battlement wall with 3 towers, star above. St. Veit mint. CNA-Cb9.dpaul7
Babylon_in_Egypt.jpg
Egypt, Babylon299 viewsThis elegant red and white banded brickwork is about all that remains on the surface to mark the Roman fortress of ‘Babylon in Egypt’. The Roman structure was started during the reign of Trajan on the site of an earlier Egyptian stronghold which marked the border between Lower and Middle Egypt. The fortress remained an important strategic outpost down through Byzantine times. In the fifth century the Legio XIII Gemina was stationed here. During the Arab conquest of Egypt in 640/1, Babylon endured a seven month siege before its capture.

These days most of the extensive Babylon complex lies buried under the streets of the Christian quarter of Old Cairo. The nearby medieval Coptic Orthodox Church of the Virgin Mary is popularly known as the ‘Hanging Church’ because its nave was built suspended over two towers of the Roman fort.
1 commentsAbu Galyon
Elagabalus_Ae26_Nikopolis_ad_Istrum.JPG
Elagabalus, 218-222 AD. AE24 of Nikopolis ad Istrum.16 viewsAV K M AVPE ANTWNINOC, laureate head right / UP NOBIOU ROUFOU NIKOPOLITWN PROC ICTPON, city gate with two wide towers and a arched door. Varbanov 3015 Antonivs Protti
Sear-2129.jpg
Empire of Nicaea: John III Ducas-Vatazes (1222-1254) BI Trachy, Magnesia (Sear 2129; DOC IV, Type G 9; Lianta 455-56)8 viewsObv: IC XC in field; Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate; left hand Gospel, pellet in each limb of nimbus cross
Rev: Δ/Π to left, IШ center above, Γ/OΛ/Δ/M/T to right; Full-length figure of emperor on left, and of St. Demetrius, beardless and nimbate; between them model of the city with three towers; Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar-piece and jewelled loros of simplified type; right hand holds labarum-headed scepter; Saint wears military tunic, breastplate and sagion; left hand holds sword, point resting on ground
Quant.Geek
Sear-2147.jpg
Empire of Nicaea: Theodore II Ducas-Lascaris (1254-1258) Ć Trachy, Thessalonica (Sear 2147; DOC 1; Lianta 467-68)13 viewsObv: Large cross with floriate ends to limbs; in center, small linear cross, or dot
Rev: ΛKOΛACKAPIC ΘЄOΔШP ΔHMHTPIOC in three columnar groups. Full-length figure of emperor on left, and of St. Demetrius, beardless and nimbate; between them model of the city of Thessalonica with three towers, surmounted by large stars. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar-piece and jeweled loros of simplified type; right hand holds labarum-headed scepter. Saint wears short military tunic, breastplate and sagion; left hand holds spear, resting over shoulder
Quant.Geek
flavius_victor_aquileia_55(b).jpg
Flavius Victor, RIC IX, Aquileia 55(b)24 viewsFlavius Victor, 387-388, son of Magnus Maximus
AE 4, 0.9g, 13mm
Aquileia, 1st officina
obv. DN FL VIC - TOR PF AVG
Bust, draped and cuirassed, pearl-diademd, r.
rev. SPES RO - MA - NORVM
City gate with 2 towers, star between, open door
in wx. SMAQP
ref. RIC IX, Aquileia 55(b); C. 3
Scarce, VF

In spite of his depiction Flavius Victor was 4-5 years old when his coins were struck.
Jochen
La_Turbie_-_Trophy.JPG
France, La Turbie - Trophée des Alpes229 viewsThis Augustan trophy towers over the French Riviera and Monaco. It celebrates Augustus' pacification of the Alps and his victory over 45 tribes. (also mentioned by Pliny, Nat. Hist. III,136-137) Pity about the rainy weather when this photograph was taken.
Syltorian
FREISACH_PF_EBERHARD_II_ANGEL.jpg
FRIESACH - EBERHARD II 53 viewsFRIESACH - EBERHARD II (1200-1246) AR Pfennig.Krems mint. Obv.: EBERHARDVS EPS, standing archbishop facing, book in right hand; object in left unclear. Rev.: Bust of angel with wings high, between 2 towers; half moon and cross above bust. dpaul7
00213-Gordian3.JPG
Gordian III41 viewsGordian III
26 mm 9.95 gm
O: AUT K M AN - T GORDIANOC AUG
Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
R: ADRIANOPOLEITWN
City gate with two towers.
Provincial of Hadrianopolis
1 commentsKoffy
DSCN8001.JPG
Gordian III and Tranquillina, Anchialus, Thrace. 238-244 AD. AE27mm 15 viewsGordian III and Tranquillina, Anchialus, Thrace. 238-244 AD.

Obv. AYT K M ANT GORDIANOC AYG CEB TRANKYLLINA, laureate and draped bust of Gordian right, facing draped bust of Tranquillina left.

Rev. OVLPIANWN AGXIALEWN, City gate with towers, arched doorway with wall and towers, with three arches along the wall and one pinnacle on top of the wall.

Ref. Varbanov 67
Lee S
phoenecia_sidob.png
GREEK, PHOENICIA, Sidon, Time of Baalshallim I-Ba'ana, c.425-402 BC44 viewsPHOENICIA, Sidon, Time of Baalshallim I-Ba'ana, (c.B.C. 425-402), silver eighth shekel (0.75 g),
Obv. galley in front of three city towers, lion below.
Rev. King of Persia standing right, drawing bow, incuse head of Bes to left, incuse head of goat or ibex to right.
S.5933, Elayi & Elayi 362-448, Betlyon 9, BMC 14 [p.142].
CNG Electronic Auction 170, Aug. 8, 2007, (lot 122); Noble Sale 105 Lot 4073
chance v
Comb13092018101137.png
Greek, Silver Obol; Sidon mint. Circa 375-332 BC140 viewsObv: City walls with three towers.
Rev: Prow of galley with eye to right; five pellets above, Lion below.
10mm and 0.9 grams.
Not listed in any known reference!!!
5 commentsCanaan
1261c.jpg
hhj8.26.46.012 viewsElagabalus
Nicopolis

Obv: [AVT M] AVP ANTΩ[NINOC], laureate draped cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
Rev: VΠ NOBIOV POVΦOV NIKOΠOΛITΩN →ΠPOC ICT, in left field, P, in right field, O/N. City gate closed, flanked by two towers, quadriga over central building.
27 mm, 10.70 gms

Hristova-Hoeft-Jekov 8.26.46.1
Charles M
1706c.jpg
hhj8.26.46.037 viewsElagabalus
Nicopolis

Obv: AV K M AVP ANTΩNINOC, radiate cuirassed bust right.
Rev:VΠ NOBIOV POVΦOV NIKOΠOΛITΩN →(ΠP)OC IC, in upper field TPON, City gate with 2 towers, over central building a third tower.
25 mm, 8.20 gms

Hristova-Hoeft-Jekov 8.26.46.3
Charles M
1003.jpg
hhj8.26.46.0410 viewsElagabalus
Nicopolis

Obv: [AVT K M AVP ANTΩNEINOC], laureate head right.
Rev:VΠ NOBIOV POVΦOV NIKOΠOΛITΩN →(ΠP)OC IC, in upper field TPON, City gate with 2 towers, over central building a third tower.
26 mm, 11.40 gms

Hristova-Hoeft-Jekov 8.26.46.4
Charles M
1632.jpg
hhj8.26.46.069 viewsElagabalus
Nicopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVP ANTΩNINOC, laureate head right.
Rev:VΠ NOBIOV POVΦOV NIKOΠOΛITΩN →ΠPOC, in upper field ICTPO/N, City gate with 2 towers.
26 mm, 12.45 gms

Hristova-Hoeft-Jekov 8.26.46.6
Charles M
1887__Numismatik_Naumann,_Auction_82_lot_200.jpg
hhj8.26.46.06_22 viewsElagabalus
Nicopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVP ANTΩNEINOC, laureate head right.
Rev:VΠ NOBIOV POVΦOV NIKOΠOΛITΩN →ΠPOC, in upper field ICTPO/N, City gate with 2 towers.
26 mm, 10.71 gms

Hristova-Hoeft-Jekov 8.26.46.6

From Numismatik Naumann, Auction 82, lot 200
Charles M
29.jpg
hhj8.26.46.0814 viewsElagabalus
Nicopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVP ANTΩNINOC, radiate draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from front.
Rev: NIKOΠOΛITΩN ΠPOC I. →CTPON, city gate open enclosed by two towers.
20 mm, 4.72 gms

Hristova-Hoeft-Jekov 8.26.46.8
Charles M
938c.jpg
hhj8.26.46.08_212 viewsElagabalus
Nicopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVP ANTΩNINOC, radiate draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from front.
Rev: NIKOΠOΛITΩN ΠPOC I. →CTPON, city gate open enclosed by two towers.
21 mm, 4.50 gms

Hristova-Hoeft-Jekov 8.26.46.8
Charles M
1298.jpg
hhj8.26.46.094 viewsElagabalus
Nicopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVPH ANTΩNEINOC, laureate cuirassed bust right, seen from front.
Rev: NIKOΠOΛITΩN ΠPOC I. →CTPON, city gate open enclosed by two towers.
22 mm, 5.52 gms

Hristova-Hoeft-Jekov 8.26.46.9
Charles M
Huszár-336.jpg
Hungary: Béla IV (1235-1270) Denár (Huszár-336)17 viewsObv: Crowned head facing front over patriarchal cross, towers to sides
Rev: Crowned winged lion facing left
SpongeBob
HUN_Andras_II_Huszar_245.JPG
Huszár 245, Unger 178, Réthy I 20848 viewsHungary. Andreas II (András in Hun.) (1205-1235). AR denar, 14 mm.

Obv: Crowned head facing front in archway, star to left, three towers above.

Rev: Deer with cross-staff facing right, star to right.

The coins of Andreas II were struck with a fineness of 0.7500 silver. They can be divide into four weight groups (with average weights of the denars being 0.53, 0.59, 0.86 and 0.79 grams). The heaviest coins were apparently issued between 1222 and 1230 (per Huszár at 11).

Huszár rarity rating 10.
Stkp
HUN_Bela_IV_Huszar_337.jpg
Huszár 337, Unger 247, Réthy I 345-346, Frynas H.18.35, Adamovszky 401-401a17 viewsHungary. Béla IV (1235-1270).

AR obulus, .16 g., 10.22 mm. max. 180°

Obv: Crowned head facing front over patriarchal cross, towers to sides.

Rev: Crowned winged lion [?] facing left.

Struck ca. 1241-1242[?] per Gyöngyössy. On April 11, 1241 the Mongols destroyed the Hungarian army. They occupied and ravaged the country until their sudden withdrawal in March 1242. I question whether any minting took place during the occupation, or how substantial the coinage was in the first months thereafter. The coin appears to be too common to fit within the chronology stated by Gyöngyössy.

Only Réthy and Adamovszky subdivide this type by the size of the obulus. Their parameters are unclear.

Huszár rarity rating 9; Frynas rarity S
Stkp
HUN_Bela_IV_Huszar_336.JPG
Huszár 336, Unger 246, RĂ©thy I 34443 viewsHungary. Béla IV (1235-1270). AR denar, 13 mm.

Obv: Crowned head facing front over patriarchal cross, towers to sides.

Rev: Crowned winged lion [?] facing left.

The coins of Béla IV were initially struck with a fineness of 0.800 silver, and later with a fineness of .900, and with an average weight of .52 g. (per Huszár at 11).

Huszár rarity rating 7.
Stkp
pt_02.JPG
In front of the Petronas Towers 9 viewsIn front of the Towers at night.rexesq
Ioanalexander_michaelasen.jpg
Ioan Alexander with oldest son Michael IV Asen18 viewsObverse: Turnovo towers, T to left, P (bulg. R) to right, NV below
Reverse:
Mint: Turnovo
Date: 1331-35 CE
20mm, 1.17g
wileyc
Forum_Istanbul_Yedikule_Towers.Jpg
Istanbul Yedikule Towers20 viewsWilliamBoyd
Italy- Pompeii- Entrance.jpg
Italy- Pompeii- Entrance PORTA MARINA AND THE CITY WALLS36 viewsPORTA MARINA AND THE CITY WALLS
Similar to a bastion, facing west, together with Porta Ercolano it is the most imposing of the seven gates of Pompeii. It takes its name from the fact that its road led to the sea. It has two barrel arches (round arch opening), later combined into a single, large barrel vault in opus caementicium. The ring of the walls visible today, already present in the 6th cent. BC, is over 3200 m long: it is generally a solid ring of wall, protected on the outside by a moat and inside by an embankment, atop which runs the patrol walkway. Twelve towers to the north, where the flat ground made Pompeii most vulnerable, also ensured its defense. Pompeii's definitive entry into the Roman orbit (with the Sullan colonization: 80 BC) reduced the importance of the walls, which were occasionally reused or destroyed to make room for houses and baths.

THE CITY WALLS
Pompeii rests on a plateau of Vesuvian lava, whose walls represented a solid natural protection, just the wall to the north were more vulnerable.
The ring of walls was 3220 m. long. Seven identified gates opened in the walls, while the existence of an eighth (Porta Capua) one was uncertain.
The materials used for the walls were mostly: Sarno stone and grey Nucerian tufo. At the beginning the walls were made of Vesuvian lava or ‘pappamonte’ blocks, later made of a double parallel row, than filled with stones and ground.
During the Samnite wars were built the fortifications with the ‘ad aggere’ system, with an embankment inner the city.
During the 3rd century B.C. was probably built an inner calcareous and tufo row, with buttresses and round the top of the walls ran a patrol walkway.
The last phase of construction of the fortifications was dated about the age before Sulla’s conquest: on the more vulnerable side of the walls guard towers in opus incertum were built, with regular distance.
John Schou
Italy- Rome- The Mausoleum  of Hadrian.jpg
Italy- Rome- The Mausoleum of Hadrian33 views- Castel St.Angelo
(Hadrian's Mausoleum) -
This building has had a checkered history. Originally a dynastic tomb, it was converted into a fortress, then became a noble dwelling and finally a papal residence; between times it served as a barracks, a prison and a museum.
Hadrian (117-38 AD) built a tomb in Domizia's gardens that was to become the dynastic sepulcher of the Antonines. Work started in 123 but was only completed in 139, after's death. The Pons Aelius (the predecessor of the Ponte Sant'Angelo 239), inaugurated in 134, linked the monument to the Campo Marzio.

The Sepulchral Chamber. The present entrance (which is about 10 feet above the level of the ancient one) leads via a short corridor to a square hall. The semicircular niche hollowed out in the back wall was probably intended to contain a statue of Hadrian. On the right is a spiral ramp leading to the cella (mortuary chamber), the heart of the monument. In this square room, which was originally faced with marble, the funerary urns of Emperor Hadrian and his wife, sabina.

Sant'Angelo was Rome's most important fortified area, anyone who held it had virtually the whole town at his mercy. Consequently, its history reflected the city's turbulent internal conflicts. Between the 10th and 11th centuries it passed into the hands of the most powerful noble families before suffering a massive attack by the Roman people, who made up their minds to demolish it in 1379.

Fortifications and Modifications. Under Nicholas III the castle became papal property. Most of the alterations to the building carried out between the pontificates of Nicholas V (1447-55) and Urban VII (1623-44) had a military purpose. Access to the subterranean galleries was blocked, two towers were built at the entrance and four bastions at the corners, a moat was dug, pentagonal ramparts were erected with five small forts (today no longer standing) and, finally the Corridoio or Passetto, the fortified passageway linking St Peter's to the castle, was strengthened
John Schou
Sear-2216.jpg
Kingdom of Thessalonica: John Comnenus-Ducas (1237-1242) BI Small Module Trachy, Thessalonica (Sear 2216; DOC IV, Type Q B.30; CLBC 14.20.3; Grierson 1226)16 viewsObv: Cross, radiate, decorated with pellets
Rev: IШ to left, ΔC to right; Full-length figure of emperor wearing stemma, chiton, body armor with pteryges, and sagion; holds in right hand sword, resting over shoulder, and in left, castle with three towers
Quant.Geek
Sear-2183.jpg
Kingdom of Thessalonica: Manuel Comnenus-Ducas (1230-1237) Ć Trachy, Thessalonica (Sear 2183; DOC IV Type G, 9; Lianta 364-67)18 viewsObv: X/AP X/M; Full-length figure of St. Michael nimbate, wearing short military tunic, breastplate and sagion; right hand holds sword, which he is in the act of unsheathing; left hand holds sheath held horizontally
Rev: ΜAΝϪΗΛΔЄCΠΟΤI - ΠΟΛICΘ/ЄCCA/ΛΟN/IKH - ΟAΓIOCΔIMITPIOC; Ruler on left, and St. Demetrius, beardless and nimbate, seated upon throne without back; between them the city of Thessalonica represented as a walled town with three towers. Ruler wears stemma, divitision, jeweled loros of traditional type; right hand holds labarum-headed scepter. Saint wears tunic, breastplate and sagion; left hand holds sword resting over shoulder.
Quant.Geek
Sear-2183(1).jpg
Kingdom of Thessalonica: Manuel Comnenus-Ducas (1230-1237) Ć Trachy, Thessalonica (Sear 2183; DOC IV Type G, 9; Lianta 364-67)17 viewsObv: X/AP X/M; Full-length figure of St. Michael nimbate, wearing short military tunic, breastplate and sagion; right hand holds sword, which he is in the act of unsheathing; left hand holds sheath held horizontally
Rev: ΜAΝϪΗΛΔЄCΠΟΤI - ΠΟΛICΘ/ЄCCA/ΛΟN/IKH - ΟAΓIOCΔIMITPIOC; Ruler on left, and St. Demetrius, beardless and nimbate, seated upon throne without back; between them the city of Thessalonica represented as a walled town with three towers. Ruler wears stemma, divitision, jeweled loros of traditional type; right hand holds labarum-headed scepter. Saint wears tunic, breastplate and sagion; left hand holds sword resting over shoulder.
Quant.Geek
Sear-2183(2).jpg
Kingdom of Thessalonica: Manuel Comnenus-Ducas (1230-1237) Ć Trachy, Thessalonica (Sear 2183; DOC IV Type G, 9; Lianta 364-67)15 viewsObv: X/AP X/M; Full-length figure of St. Michael nimbate, wearing short military tunic, breastplate and sagion; right hand holds sword, which he is in the act of unsheathing; left hand holds sheath held horizontally
Rev: ΜAΝϪΗΛΔЄCΠΟΤI - ΠΟΛICΘ/ЄCCA/ΛΟN/IKH - ΟAΓIOCΔIMITPIOC; Ruler on left, and St. Demetrius, beardless and nimbate, seated upon throne without back; between them the city of Thessalonica represented as a walled town with three towers. Ruler wears stemma, divitision, jeweled loros of traditional type; right hand holds labarum-headed scepter. Saint wears tunic, breastplate and sagion; left hand holds sword resting over shoulder.
Dim: 18mm, 1.2g
Quant.Geek
Sear-2165.jpg
Kingdom of Thessalonica: Theodoros Comnenus-Ducas (1224-1230) Ć Trachy, Thessalonica (Sear 2165; DOC IV Type D, 7; Lianta 329-31)3 viewsObv: IC XC in field; Christ, bearded and nimbate, seated upon throne without back; r. hand raised in benediction, holds Gospel in left hand. Pellet normally in each limb of nimbus cross; Star to right above throne
Rev: ΘЄOΔШPOC ΔϪK - X/M; Full-length figure of emperor on left, and of St. Michael nimbate, giving model of the city of Thessalonica with three towers into the hands of the emperor; Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar-piece and jeweled loros of simplified type; right hand hold labarum-headed scepter; Saint wears divitision, collar-piece and panelled loros of simplified type; left hand holds jeweled scepter; Manus Dei in upper center field
Dim: 29mm, 3.10 g
Quant.Geek
Laodicée Antonin.jpg
Laodicea (Lattakieh, Syria) - Antoninus Pius29 viewsIllegible legend mostly out of flan , laureate bust of Antoninus Pius right
IOVΛIEωN TωN KAI ΛAODIKEωN , turreted bust of Tyche right ; to the right ΘE, to the left HΠP : year 188 = 140-141 AD.
24 mm

The crown of the Tyche is a model of the city walls, with the arched gate flanked by two towers.
Ginolerhino
Hera_2_.jpg
Licinius II AE 314 viewsAE3, 18mm/3.5gm, fully silvered, struck c. 318 AD

Obv/ DN VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C; laur. and dr. bust r., holding in globe and sceptre in l. hand and mappa in r. hand.
Rev/ PROVIDENTIAE CAESS; Campgate, three towers, lamda in r. field.; SMH gamma in exergue.
Ref/ RIC VOL VII, 49
1 commentsMayadigger
Hera_5_.jpg
Licinius II AE 34 views Ć3, 17mm/3.1gm, struck c. 318 AD

Con/ VF; near full silvering
Obv/ DN VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C; laur. and dr. bust left., holding in globe and sceptre in r. hand and mappa in l. hand.
Rev/ PROVIDENTIAE CAESS; Campgate, three towers; .SMH gamma in exergue.
Ref/ RIC VOL VII, 45 = Rare 3
Mayadigger
Hera_4_.jpg
Licinius II AE 37 viewsAE3, 17mm/3.1gm, struck c. 318 AD

Con/ near fully silvered with minor encrustations.
Obv/ DN VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C; laur. and dr. bust r., holding in globe and sceptre in l. hand and mappa in r. hand.
Rev/ PROVIDENTIAE CAESS; Campgate, three towers, lamda in r. field.; SMH gamma in exergue.
Ref/ RIC VOL VII, 49
Mayadigger
Hera_12_.jpg
Licinius II AE 3, small bust type10 viewsAE3, 19mm/2.7gm, struck c. 318-20 AD
Silvered
Obv/ DN VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C; laur. and dr. bust left., holding in globe and sceptre in r. hand and mappa in l. hand.
Rev/ PROVIDENTIAE CAESS; Campgate, three towers, no pellet in r. field; SMH Delta in exergue.
Ref/ RIC VOL VII, 45 = Rare 4
Mayadigger
Hera_11_.jpg
Licinius II AE 3, small bust type4 viewsAE3, 19mm/3gm, struck c. 318-20 AD

Obv/ DN VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C; laur. and dr. bust left., holding in globe and sceptre in r. hand and mappa in l. hand.
Rev/ PROVIDENTIAE CAESS; Campgate, three towers, pellet in r. field; SMH Delta in exergue.
Ref/ RIC VOL VII, 31 = Rare 2
Mayadigger
Hera_10_.jpg
Licinius II AE 3, small bust type5 viewsAE3, 19mm/3gm, struck c. 318-20 AD

Obv/ DN VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C; laur. and dr. bust left., holding in globe and sceptre in r. hand and mappa in l. hand.
Rev/ PROVIDENTIAE CAESS; Campgate, three towers, pellet in r. field; SMH Delta in exergue.
Ref/ RIC VOL VII, 31 = Rare 2
Mayadigger
Hera_6_.jpg
Licinius II AE 3, small bust type9 viewsĆ3, 19mm/2.7gm, struck c. 317-20 AD

Obv/ DN VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C; laur. and dr. bust left., holding in globe and sceptre in r. hand and mappa in l. hand.
Rev/ PROVIDENTIAE CAESS; Campgate, three towers, pellet in r. field; MHT Delta in exergue.
Ref/ RIC VOL VII, 256b = Rare 5
Mayadigger
MacNikoCityGate.JPG
Macrinus, AE 2633 viewsAV K OPPEL CE/VH MAKRINOC
Bust laureate, right
VP AGRIPPA NIKOPOLITWN PRO/C ICTRW
City gate with three crennulated towers
Varbanov (Eng.) I, 3344 citing Numismatik Lanz, Auction 92, 890.
This obverse die was initially issued by Pontianus.
1 commentswhitetd49
malaysia_5-rm_rev_01.JPG
Malaysia - RM5 - Five Ringgit Malaysia - Reverse10 viewsMalaysia
Five Ringgit Reverse.
-
Bank Negara Malaysia = National Bank of Malaysia.
---
-
rexesq
Michael_VIII_Palaeologus_hyperpyron.jpg
Michael VIII Palaeologus. 1261-1282. AV hyperpyron34 viewsMichael VIII Palaeologus. 1261-1282. AV hyperpyron (26 mm, 4.20 g, 6 h). Class IIa. Constantinople. Half-length figure of the Virgin facing, orans, within city walls with six towers; sigla: K | M / Michael facing, kneeling slightly right and being presented by Archangel Michael to Christ seated facing to right and holding Gospel book. DOC 15; PCPC 5 (sigla -, but cf. 23 [two pellets on rev.]); SB 2243. Minor hairline die-break in obverse margin, slight double strike on reverse. Good very fine.
Ex CNG E374 (11 May 2016), 633; Malter 81 (29 September 2002), 524. (Although the one online source I saw had a different coin in Malter 81)
Chance Vandal
Michael_VIII_SBCV_2299_DOC_Cl__VIII.JPG
Michael VIII, SBCV 2299, DOC Cl. VIII (Thessalonica)17 viewsLarge cross with stars in the upper corners and fleur-de-lis in the lower corners
[MIXAHΛ ΔECΠ ΔHM]
Michael and St. Demetrius holding castle with two towers, surmounted by fleur-de-lis
Thessalonica
AE aspron trachy, 23mm, 1.27g

Specimen is severely double struck especially noticeable on the reverse
novacystis
Gordianus_III_13.jpg
Moesia Inferior, Markianopolis, Gordianus III, Serapis, City Gate 13 viewsGordianus III
Moesia Inferior, Marcianopolis
Obv.: Μ ΑΝΤ ΓΟΡΔΙΑΝΟC ΑVΓ, Confronted draped busts of Gordian III and Serapis
Rev.: ΥΠ MHNΟΦΙΛΟΥ ΜΑΡΚΙΑΝΟΠΟΛΙΤΩΝ, City gate with two towers, E =denomination mark
AE, 14.29g, 27.3mm
Moushmov 792, Hristova & Jekov 6.37.46.4.
Ex Helios Numismatik
shanxi
PR137.jpg
Moesia Inferior, Nicopolis ad Istrum. Gordian III13 viewsLower Moesia, Nicopolis ad Istrum
Governor Sab. Modestus, AE27
Size: 27mm/11.87g
Obverse: AVT K M ANT ΓOPΔIANOC AVΓ Bust laureate, drapped, cuirassed right.
Reverse: VΠ CAB MOΔE[CTOV NIKO]ΠOΛITΩN ΠP/OC ICTPON Cybele seated l. between two lions, wearing crown of towers, holding patera and resting l. elbow on drum.

AMNG 2070
SkySoldier
nikopolis_makrinos_Moushmov1234.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 23. Macrinus, HrHJ (2018) 8.23.46.06 (plate coin)382 viewsMacrinus, AD 217-218
AE 27, 14.01g, 27.34mm, 45°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. AV K OPPEL CE - VH MAKRINOC
laureate head r.
rev. VP AGRIPPA NIKOPOLITWN PROC / C ICTRW
city-gate with three towers, all with three pinnacles, closed double-door
ref. a) not in AMNG:
cf. AMNG I/1, 1826 (for Diadumenian)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3383
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.23.46.6 (plate coin)
very rare, VF/EF, dark-brown patina, a wunderful coin!
16 commentsJochen
nikopolis_elagabal_AMNG2003.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 26. Elagabal, HrHJ (2018) 8.26.46.01 (plate coin)75 viewsElagabal, AD 218-222
AE 27, 10.84g, 26.74mm, 45°
struck under governor Novius Rufus
obv. [AVT M AVR] - ANTWNINOC
bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. VPA NOBIOV ROVFOV NIKOPLITWN(sic!)
in ex. PROC ICT
in l. and r. field R - O / N
City-gate with two towers, high two-winged door, above emperor in quadriga
facing, on top of each tower a horse, standing outwards
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 2003 (2 ex., Imhoof, unknown coll.)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3987 (R7!)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.26.46.1 (plate coin)
rare, F+/about VF

Perhaps the O in the right field is used for POL and for RON!
2 commentsJochen
nikopolis_elagabal_HrJ8_26_46_2corr.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 26. Elagabal, HrHJ (2018) 8.26.46.0221 viewsElagabal, AD 218-222
AE 26, 11.57g, 26.25mm, 15°
struck under governor Novius Rufus
obv. AVT K M AVRH - [ANTWNEINOC]
laureate head r.
rev. [VP NOBIOV ROVFOV N]IKOPOLITWN.
in ex. in 2 lines PROC ICR(sic!) / ON (PR ligate)
City-gate with two towers and open door
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 2004 corr. pl. XX, 14 (2 ex., Paris, Sofia)
Doesn't mention the ligate PR, which can be seen clearly on the attached pic. One of
Pick's rare errors.
b) not in Varbanov (engl.)
#3988 cites in error AMNG 2004
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.26.46.2
F/F+, weakly struck on r. half

Legend error!
Jochen
nikopolis_elagabal_HrHJ(2015)8_26_46_5(rev).jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 26. Elagabal, HrHJ (2018) 8.26.46.05 (plate coin)4 viewsElagabal, AD 218-22
AE 26, 12.81g, 26.18mm, 195°
struck under governor Novius Rufus
obv. [AVT K M AVRH] - ANTWNEINOC
Bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind, laureate, r.
rev. VP NOBIOV ROVFOV NIKOPOLITWN / .PROC.
in upper field in 2 lines ICTRO / N
City gate with 2 towers
ref. a) not in AMNG:
cf. AMNG I/1, 2004 (for the type only)
b) not in Varbanov (engl.):
cf. #3989 (for the type only)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.26.46.5 (this coin)
F+, dark green patina
Jochen
nikopolis_elagabal_AMNG2004cf.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 26. Elagabal, HrHJ (2018) 8.26.46.0656 viewsElagabal, AD 218-222
AE 26, 11.16g, 27.01mm, 0°
strck under governor Novius Rufus
obv. [AVT K M AVR] - ANTWNINOC
laureate head r.
rev. VP NOBIOV ROVFOV NIKOPOLITWN / PROC.
in upper field in 2 lines ICTRO / N
City gate with open door, closed in by two towers (without decoration)
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 2004 var. (different rev. legend distribution)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3988 var.
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.26.46.6
good F/about VF

With this rev. legend not in AMNG.
Jochen
nikopolis_elagabal_Varbanov3988.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 26. Elagabal, HrHJ (2018) 8.26.46.07 (plate coin)38 viewsElagabal, AD 218-222
AE 26, 14.49g, 26.44mm, 30°
struck under governor Novius Rufus
obv. AVT K M AVRH - ANTWNEINOC
laureate head r.
rev. VP NOBIOV ROVFOV NIKOPOLITWN
in upper field PRC(sic!) ICTRON (RO on top of each other)
City-gate, flanked by two towers, open door under round arch
ref. a) not in AMNG
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3988 (rev, from same die)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.26.46.7 (this coin)
about VF, nice brown-green patina
Jochen
AMNG_I_I_2107_var__238-244_Gordianus_III.jpg
Moesia Inferior_Nikopolis ad Istrum_Gordianus_III_AMNG I/I 2107 var.5 viewsGordianus III.
AE, Moesia Inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum
Struck under Sabinius Modestus: 238-244 / 26,5-27 mm / 11,48 g

Av: ΑΥΤ Κ Μ ΑΝΤW ΓΟΡΔΙΑΝΟC ΑΥΓ
Laureate, cuirassed and draped bust right seen from behind

Rv: ΥΠ CΑΒ ΜΟ[Δ]ΕCΤΟΥ ΝΙΚΟΠΟΛΕΙΤΩΝ ΠΡ/ΟC ΙC ΤΡΟΝ
Open city-gate with 4 pinnacles, flanked by 2 towers with pitched roofs

Reference: AMNG I/I 2107 var.
Andicz
Nikopolis_gate.jpg
Nikopolis ad Istrum, Gordian III9 viewsRoman Provincial, Moesia Inferior, Nicopolis ad Istrum, Gordian III (238-244 AD) Ć 27 (12.43g) Sabinius Modestus, legatus consularis., City Gate, Obv.: Laureate and draped bust right. Rev.: Arched gate flanked by two roofed towers with arched windows in uppermost story. Varbanov 4182.HrHJ (2018) 8.36.46.1. Rare! NGC XF.
Obv: AVT K M ANT ΓO;PΔIANOC .
Rev: VΠ CAB MOΔЄCTOV NIKOΠOΛЄITΩN ΠPO/CICTPON.
Ancient Aussie
Orodes_II_AE_dichalkous,_Ecbatana,_57-38_BC.JPG
Parthian Empire - Orodes II18 viewsParthian Empire - Orodes II (57-28 BC) AE dichalkous – 14mm. Ecbatana mint, 57-38 BC. Obv.: Short-bearded bust left wearing diadem and pellet-ended torque; circular border of pellets. Rev.: Fort with two tall and two short towers; above left; no border. Legend: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΝ ΑΡΣΑΚΟΥ ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ ΔΙΚΑΙΟΥ ΕΠΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΦΙΛΕΛΛΗΝΟΣ Reference: Sellwood 45.40. Ex Ardatirion collection.dpaul7
Orodes_II_AE_dichalkous,_Ecbatana,_57-38_BC.JPG
Parthian Empire - Orodes II AE dichalkous, Ecbatana, 57-38 BC36 viewsOrodes II
Parthian Empire
AE dichalkous – 14mm
Ecbatana, 57-38 BC
short-bearded bust left wearing diadem and pellet-ended torque; circular border of pellets
fort with two tall and two short towers; above left; no border
Sellwood 45.40
Ardatirion
Ardashir.jpg
Persis - Artaxerxes II (Ardaxsir) (1st c. BCE)9 viewsMetal/Size: AR17; Weight: 2.03 grams; Denomination: Hemidrachm; Mint: Persepolis; Date: 1st c. BCE-1st c. BCE; Obverse: Diademed with two ribbons and a mural crown with three towers facing left; beads surround. King wears short beard, hair lays in three rows and he wears a torque with three segments around neck. Symbol to king's right behind head. Reverse: Artaxerxes stands left, holding scepter and sacrificing before lite fire altar to left - blundered Aramaic inscription reads either something like {'r}th{str} MLK' {BRH d'ryw} MLK' or 'rah{str} MLK' BRH {d}'rm{w MLK'} meaning King Ardaxsir son of King Darev (Dareios). References: Alram #571-574; Tyler-Smith #68-9 or 62; Sunrise #599 or 600.museumguy
022.JPG
Petronas Towers8 viewsPetronas Towers, note the skybridge at the 41st floor.
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
rexesq
021.JPG
Petronas Towers3 viewsKuala Lumpurrexesq
020.JPG
Petronas Towers8 viewsKuala Lumpurrexesq
pt_01.JPG
Petronas Towers4 viewsPetronas Towersrexesq
002.JPG
Petronas Towers - Day9 viewsKuala Lumpurrexesq
POP_ROMANVS.jpg
POP ROMANVS (People of Rome) Commemorative, 330 A.D.29 viewsAE4 , Constantinopolis, 330 A.D.,

Obverse : “POP ROMANVS”
Laureate and draped bust of the Genius of the Roman People left, cornucopia on left shoulder.
Reverse: Bridge with tower at each end, river beneath. "CONS / IA" between towers.

a VF , o.93 gr, 14 mm. RIC 21.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection.
Sam
MISC_Ragusa.JPG
Ragusa (now, Dubrovnik, Croatia)65 viewsCNI VI Type 6, Group 2, Mimica Type XVII, Resetar Type 17

AE minca (follaro), 17-18 mm. Struck ca. 1546-1551.

Obv: • MONETA—RACVSII, Laureate female head left, hair bunched in back.

Rev: • CIVITAS • • RACVSII, City walls with three towers and one gate, double line (stylized harbor) below.

Note: This coin does not appear to match any of the specific coins identified in the references, but seems to fall within the types indicated above.
Stkp
MISC_Ragusa_grosso_II_1617-21.jpg
Ragusa (now, Dubrovnik, Croatia)1 viewsDimnik & Dobrinić 10/6.4.2 var.; Viščević ___; Barac __; Dolenec __; Rengjeo __; Mimica 539; Rešetar 1443; CNI VI p. 475 no. 70.

AR dinar (= grosso or groš); Type II struck 1617-1621 (per Dimnik & Dobrinić citing Dolenec) or Type XLVII struck 1617-1621 (per Mimica); Type X struck 1617-1621 (per CNI); .68 g., 17.34 mm. max., 270°

Obv.: Nimbate bust of Christ with cross within halo, raising right hand in benediction and holding globe in left hand, within a pearled mandorla, IC - XC (= Jesus Christ) across field.

Rev.: S • BLASIVS RACVSII • nimbate St. Blase, raising right hand in benediction and holding bishop's crozier and town gate and towers in left hand, large cross on front of his vestments, R (privy mark) in left field.

The dinar was minted following the edict issued by the Great Council in 1337 and continued until 1621. The weight standard (1 dinar = 30 folari) was based on the Venetian standard, and the depiction of Jesus on the obverse is borrowed from the Venetian golden ducat. The depiction of St. Blase on the reverse is patterned on the portrayal by Ancona of its patron saint on its coins. The designation of obverse and reverse is per Dimnik & Dobrinić, who note that most references designate the sides in opposite manner.
Stkp
MISC_Ragusa_grosso_III_1594.jpg
Ragusa (now, Dubrovnik, Croatia)2 viewsDimnik & Dobrinić 10/6.4.2 var.; Viščević ___; Barac __; Dolenec __; Rengjeo __; Mimica 536; Rešetar 1418; CNI VI p. 474 no. 59, Plate XXX, 10.

AR dinar (= grosso or groš); Type III struck 1594 (per Dimnik & Dobrinić citing Dolenec) or Type XLVI struck 1594-1613 (per Mimica); Type VIII struck 1593-1613 (per CNI); .56 g., 17.13 mm. max., 180°

Obv.: Nimbate bust of Christ with cross within halo, raising right hand in benediction and holding Gospel book in left hand, head of St. Blase on chest, within a pearled mandorla, IC - XC (= Jesus Christ) across field.

Rev.: S BLASIV-S RAGVSI-I nimbate St. Blase, raising right hand in benediction and holding bishop's crozier in left hand, town gate and towers on vestments, R (privy mark) in left field.

The dinar was minted following the edict issued by the Great Council in 1337 and continued until 1621. The weight standard (1 dinar = 30 folari) was based on the Venetian standard, and the depiction of Jesus on the obverse is borrowed from the Venetian golden ducat. The depiction of St. Blase on the reverse is patterned on the portrayal by Ancona of its patron saint on its coins. The designation of obverse and reverse is per Dimnik & Dobrinić, who note that most references designate the sides in opposite manner.
Stkp
XIV_173_01.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, CRISPUS, Heraclea - Campgate15 viewsCRISPUS as caesar under Constantine I the Great
AE3- Follis 19,5mm / 3,2g
struck in Heraclea 317 - 326

obv: DN FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CEAS
draped und laureate bust l.,
rev: PROVIDEN - TIAE CEASS
campgate with three towers, in right field two points,
"SMH gamma" in ex.

ref:
RIC035 / Sear 3923
Martinus
sevalex.jpg
Roman Empire, Severus Alexander denarius423 viewsThis one I obtained about 15 years ago at the NYINC, located at the Twin Towers Marriot in those happier days. FDC coins of this emperor are not rare and this is one of those in my view. Appears to be RIC 250, but does not fit the description exactly. Probably a die variant only.
3 commentsjmuona
Severus Augusta Trajana.jpg
Septimius - Augusta Trajana - City Gate82 viewsAE20, 4.08 g, 20 mm, 7 h, 193-211 AD

Obverse: AV K Λ CE CEBHPOC
Laureate head right

Reverse: AVΓOVCTHC TPAIA-NHC
City gate with door flanked by two towers with a third taller tower behind

Augusta Trajana (Thrace Provincial issue)

Moushmov 3005v
3 commentsdrjbca
00sevanchialos.jpg
SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS23 viewsAE 27. Anchialos. 193-211 AD. 12,62 grs. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right. AV K Λ CEΠT CEVHPOC. / OVΛΠIANΩN AΓXIAΛ
around city gate, and two conical towers. EΩN in exergue.
Moushmov 2810 .

benito
00sevanchialos~0.jpg
SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS30 viewsAE 27. Anchialos. 193-211 AD. 12,62 grs. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right. AV K Λ CEΠT CEVHPOC. / OVΛΠIANΩN AΓXIAΛ
around city gate, and two conical towers. EΩN in exergue.
Moushmov 2810
benito
Septimius_Severus15.jpg
SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS AE27, Varbanov 205, City Wall30 viewsOBVERSE: AV K L CEP CEVHPOC, laureate and cuirassed bust right
REVERSE: OVLPIANWN AGXIALEWN, city gate, flanked by two battlemented towers, four arches on wall; N in ex.
15.2g, 27-29mm

Struck at Anchialus, Thrace, 193-211 AD
Legatus
DGz3f9sTKWp62qNSok5GHdN724cJYK_(1).jpg
SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS. THRACE ANCHIALUS.5 views
THRACE. Anchialus. Septimius Severus (193-211). Ae.

Obv: AV K Λ CЄΠT CЄVHPOC.
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: OVΛΠIANΩN AΓXIAΛΕΩN.
Camp gate, with open door, three arches and two towers.
9.73GM, 26MM, AMNG 485, Varbanov 204.

Varbanov 204.
Ancient Aussie
micro 2.jpg
Sidon (Saida, Lebanon) - 1/8 shekel (Vth C. BC)19 viewsObv.: galley sailing left bfore the walls of Sidon, beneath lion (?) left.
Rev.: bearded deity standing right shooting with bow ; countermark
8 mm
Ginolerhino
Spain- Taragona- Entrance to the Roman Circus.jpg
Spain- Taragona- Entrance to the Roman Circus and Provicial Forum29 viewsThe Roman Circus


The circus was the most popular of the buildings used for spectacles during Roman times. This was where chariot races were held (with two or four horse chariots). It was build in the late 1st century AD and was part of a large monumental area organized into three terraces, of which it occupied the lower one. The circus is exceptionally well preserved and sections of the ruins can be seen in some of the business in the Placa de la Font (square) and Trinquet Vell Street, as well as in the interior of the Pizzeria Pulvinar and in the Placa Sedassos.
The circus was constructed on strong cement vaults that served a twin purpose. They were the foundations on which the stands, staircases and upper platforms were built, as well as the interior corridors through which the spectators could move about the whole building. It was in use until the 5th century.
During the Middle Age (12th and 13th centuries) the wall separating the circus and forum was turned into a defensive wall (Mur vell). The area of the circus remained outside the walls. It became known as the “corral” and was used for industrial and mercantile activities. In the time of king Pere III “the Ceremonious” the threat of war caused it to be reincorporated into the walled area when a second defensive line known as La Muralleta was built along the façade of the circus in 1368.
The circus was partially destroyed by Napoleon´s troops in 1813.

Provincial Forum

The Provincial Forum was built in the upper part of the city around the year 73 AD, during the time of the emperor Vespasian, and functed as the political and economic administrative center of the province.
It was laid out on two terraces, taking advantage of the slope of the terrain. The upper terrace was the site of the Imperial worship area, and lower terrace housed the Plaza of Representation, from where the whole province was administered. This is where such important buildings as the tabularium (state archive) and the arca (state treasury) were located.
The Forum was a large square with gardens and was bordered on three sides by colonnades and a series of galleries situated on different levels. To provide access to the different areas there were lateral towers housing stairways. The Praetorian Tower was one of these.
With the restoration of the city after 1129, the tower was converted into a residence, initially for the Norman, Robert Bordet. From 1171, it was the King´s castle and for brief periods members of the royal family lived there. During the time of James I and also of Peter III it underwent major restauration work.
By the end of the 15th century the building was no longer used as a royal residence. It took on a military role until the arrival in the city of Napoleon´s army in 1811. From the middle of the 19th century it was the Provincial Prison, and since 1971 it has been a museum
John Schou
Spain- Taragona- Roman Circus inside Tunnels.jpg
Spain- Taragona- Roman Circus inside Tunnels31 viewsThe Roman Circus


The circus was the most popular of the buildings used for spectacles during Roman times. This was where chariot races were held (with two or four horse chariots). It was build in the late 1st century AD and was part of a large monumental area organized into three terraces, of which it occupied the lower one. The circus is exceptionally well preserved and sections of the ruins can be seen in some of the business in the Placa de la Font (square) and Trinquet Vell Street, as well as in the interior of the Pizzeria Pulvinar and in the Placa Sedassos.
The circus was constructed on strong cement vaults that served a twin purpose. They were the foundations on which the stands, staircases and upper platforms were built, as well as the interior corridors through which the spectators could move about the whole building. It was in use until the 5th century.
During the Middle Age (12th and 13th centuries) the wall separating the circus and forum was turned into a defensive wall (Mur vell). The area of the circus remained outside the walls. It became known as the “corral” and was used for industrial and mercantile activities. In the time of king Pere III “the Ceremonious” the threat of war caused it to be reincorporated into the walled area when a second defensive line known as La Muralleta was built along the façade of the circus in 1368.
The circus was partially destroyed by Napoleon´s troops in 1813.

Provincial Forum

The Provincial Forum was built in the upper part of the city around the year 73 AD, during the time of the emperor Vespasian, and functed as the political and economic administrative center of the province.
It was laid out on two terraces, taking advantage of the slope of the terrain. The upper terrace was the site of the Imperial worship area, and lower terrace housed the Plaza of Representation, from where the whole province was administered. This is where such important buildings as the tabularium (state archive) and the arca (state treasury) were located.
The Forum was a large square with gardens and was bordered on three sides by colonnades and a series of galleries situated on different levels. To provide access to the different areas there were lateral towers housing stairways. The Praetorian Tower was one of these.
With the restoration of the city after 1129, the tower was converted into a residence, initially for the Norman, Robert Bordet. From 1171, it was the King´s castle and for brief periods members of the royal family lived there. During the time of James I and also of Peter III it underwent major restauration work.
By the end of the 15th century the building was no longer used as a royal residence. It took on a military role until the arrival in the city of Napoleon´s army in 1811. From the middle of the 19th century it was the Provincial Prison, and since 1971 it has been a museum
John Schou
Spain- Taragona- Roman Circus inside Tunnels 1.jpg
Spain- Taragona- Roman Circus inside Tunnels 119 viewsThe Roman Circus


The circus was the most popular of the buildings used for spectacles during Roman times. This was where chariot races were held (with two or four horse chariots). It was build in the late 1st century AD and was part of a large monumental area organized into three terraces, of which it occupied the lower one. The circus is exceptionally well preserved and sections of the ruins can be seen in some of the business in the Placa de la Font (square) and Trinquet Vell Street, as well as in the interior of the Pizzeria Pulvinar and in the Placa Sedassos.
The circus was constructed on strong cement vaults that served a twin purpose. They were the foundations on which the stands, staircases and upper platforms were built, as well as the interior corridors through which the spectators could move about the whole building. It was in use until the 5th century.
During the Middle Age (12th and 13th centuries) the wall separating the circus and forum was turned into a defensive wall (Mur vell). The area of the circus remained outside the walls. It became known as the “corral” and was used for industrial and mercantile activities. In the time of king Pere III “the Ceremonious” the threat of war caused it to be reincorporated into the walled area when a second defensive line known as La Muralleta was built along the façade of the circus in 1368.
The circus was partially destroyed by Napoleon´s troops in 1813.

Provincial Forum

The Provincial Forum was built in the upper part of the city around the year 73 AD, during the time of the emperor Vespasian, and functed as the political and economic administrative center of the province.
It was laid out on two terraces, taking advantage of the slope of the terrain. The upper terrace was the site of the Imperial worship area, and lower terrace housed the Plaza of Representation, from where the whole province was administered. This is where such important buildings as the tabularium (state archive) and the arca (state treasury) were located.
The Forum was a large square with gardens and was bordered on three sides by colonnades and a series of galleries situated on different levels. To provide access to the different areas there were lateral towers housing stairways. The Praetorian Tower was one of these.
With the restoration of the city after 1129, the tower was converted into a residence, initially for the Norman, Robert Bordet. From 1171, it was the King´s castle and for brief periods members of the royal family lived there. During the time of James I and also of Peter III it underwent major restauration work.
By the end of the 15th century the building was no longer used as a royal residence. It took on a military role until the arrival in the city of Napoleon´s army in 1811. From the middle of the 19th century it was the Provincial Prison, and since 1971 it has been a museum
John Schou
Spain- Taragona- Roman Circus Model.jpg
Spain- Taragona- Roman Circus Model21 viewsThe Roman Circus


The circus was the most popular of the buildings used for spectacles during Roman times. This was where chariot races were held (with two or four horse chariots). It was build in the late 1st century AD and was part of a large monumental area organized into three terraces, of which it occupied the lower one. The circus is exceptionally well preserved and sections of the ruins can be seen in some of the business in the Placa de la Font (square) and Trinquet Vell Street, as well as in the interior of the Pizzeria Pulvinar and in the Placa Sedassos.
The circus was constructed on strong cement vaults that served a twin purpose. They were the foundations on which the stands, staircases and upper platforms were built, as well as the interior corridors through which the spectators could move about the whole building. It was in use until the 5th century.
During the Middle Age (12th and 13th centuries) the wall separating the circus and forum was turned into a defensive wall (Mur vell). The area of the circus remained outside the walls. It became known as the “corral” and was used for industrial and mercantile activities. In the time of king Pere III “the Ceremonious” the threat of war caused it to be reincorporated into the walled area when a second defensive line known as La Muralleta was built along the façade of the circus in 1368.
The circus was partially destroyed by Napoleon´s troops in 1813.

Provincial Forum

The Provincial Forum was built in the upper part of the city around the year 73 AD, during the time of the emperor Vespasian, and functed as the political and economic administrative center of the province.
It was laid out on two terraces, taking advantage of the slope of the terrain. The upper terrace was the site of the Imperial worship area, and lower terrace housed the Plaza of Representation, from where the whole province was administered. This is where such important buildings as the tabularium (state archive) and the arca (state treasury) were located.
The Forum was a large square with gardens and was bordered on three sides by colonnades and a series of galleries situated on different levels. To provide access to the different areas there were lateral towers housing stairways. The Praetorian Tower was one of these.
With the restoration of the city after 1129, the tower was converted into a residence, initially for the Norman, Robert Bordet. From 1171, it was the King´s castle and for brief periods members of the royal family lived there. During the time of James I and also of Peter III it underwent major restauration work.
By the end of the 15th century the building was no longer used as a royal residence. It took on a military role until the arrival in the city of Napoleon´s army in 1811. From the middle of the 19th century it was the Provincial Prison, and since 1971 it has been a museum
John Schou
Spain- Taragona- Roman Circus Model fracture.jpg
Spain- Taragona- Roman Circus Model fracture37 viewsThe Roman Circus


The circus was the most popular of the buildings used for spectacles during Roman times. This was where chariot races were held (with two or four horse chariots). It was build in the late 1st century AD and was part of a large monumental area organized into three terraces, of which it occupied the lower one. The circus is exceptionally well preserved and sections of the ruins can be seen in some of the business in the Placa de la Font (square) and Trinquet Vell Street, as well as in the interior of the Pizzeria Pulvinar and in the Placa Sedassos.
The circus was constructed on strong cement vaults that served a twin purpose. They were the foundations on which the stands, staircases and upper platforms were built, as well as the interior corridors through which the spectators could move about the whole building. It was in use until the 5th century.
During the Middle Age (12th and 13th centuries) the wall separating the circus and forum was turned into a defensive wall (Mur vell). The area of the circus remained outside the walls. It became known as the “corral” and was used for industrial and mercantile activities. In the time of king Pere III “the Ceremonious” the threat of war caused it to be reincorporated into the walled area when a second defensive line known as La Muralleta was built along the façade of the circus in 1368.
The circus was partially destroyed by Napoleon´s troops in 1813.

Provincial Forum

The Provincial Forum was built in the upper part of the city around the year 73 AD, during the time of the emperor Vespasian, and functed as the political and economic administrative center of the province.
It was laid out on two terraces, taking advantage of the slope of the terrain. The upper terrace was the site of the Imperial worship area, and lower terrace housed the Plaza of Representation, from where the whole province was administered. This is where such important buildings as the tabularium (state archive) and the arca (state treasury) were located.
The Forum was a large square with gardens and was bordered on three sides by colonnades and a series of galleries situated on different levels. To provide access to the different areas there were lateral towers housing stairways. The Praetorian Tower was one of these.
With the restoration of the city after 1129, the tower was converted into a residence, initially for the Norman, Robert Bordet. From 1171, it was the King´s castle and for brief periods members of the royal family lived there. During the time of James I and also of Peter III it underwent major restauration work.
By the end of the 15th century the building was no longer used as a royal residence. It took on a military role until the arrival in the city of Napoleon´s army in 1811. From the middle of the 19th century it was the Provincial Prison, and since 1971 it has been a museum
John Schou
castile2.jpg
Spain. Kingdom of Castile. Alphonso X 1217 - 1252 A.D. AE Noven26 viewsSpain. Kingdom of Castile. Alphonso X 1217 - 1252 A.D. AE Noven. MONETA CASTELLE, central castle with 3 towers / + ET LEGIONES

Leon Mint.
Burgos 267; Lhotka 51v
oneill6217
phillipvsblancas.jpg
Spain. Phillip III 1598 - 1621 billon blanca (1/2 maravedi) Cuenta, Toledo, & Panama ND.35 viewsSpain. Phillip III 1598 - 1621 billon blanca (1/2 maravedi) Cuenta, Toledo, & Panama ND. Crowned PHILLIPVS monogram divides mint (assayer initials) mark / Castle with 3 towers divides mint (assayer initials) mark.

Top row: Cuenta mint
Second from top row: Toledo mint
Bottom two rows: Panama mint (1580 - 1583)
oneill6217
yaya.jpg
Spain. Castile. Henry IV 1454 - 1474 A.D. Billon Blanka de Rombo (1/2 maravedi) ND17 viewsSpain. Castile. Henry IV 1454 - 1474 A.D. Billon Blanka de Rombo (1/2 maravedi) ND. ENRICVS DEI: GRA: REX: CI, castle of Castile with three towers, mint-mark B below / garbled legend, rampant Lion left within rectangle.

Burgos Mint.
oneill6217
idiot.jpg
Spain. Castile. Henry IV 1454 - 1474 A.D. Billon Blanka de Rombo (1/2 maravedi) ND.21 viewsSpain. Castile. Henry IV 1454 - 1474 A.D. Billon Blanka de Rombo (1/2 maravedi) ND. ENRICVS DEI: GRA: REX: CI, castle of Castile with three towers, mint-mark B below / garbled legend, rampant Lion left within rectangle.

Burgos Mint.
oneill6217
cath.jpg
Spain. Castile. Henry IV 1454 - 1474 A.D. Billon Blanka de Rombo (1/2 maravedi) ND. 19 viewsSpain. Castile. Henry IV 1454 - 1474 A.D. Billon Blanka de Rombo (1/2 maravedi) ND. ENRICVS D: G: REX, castle of Castile with three towers, mint-mark B below / garbled legend, rampant Lion left within rectangle.

unknown Mint, short legend variant.
oneill6217
LEON.jpg
Spain. Trastamara Dynasty. Leon. Alfonso X 1252 - 1284 A.D. Blanca ND.15 viewsSpain. Trastamara Dynasty. Leon. Alfonso X 1252 - 1284 A.D. Blanca ND. Castle with three towers / +ET LEGIONIS, central lion.

Bugos 267, Lhotka 51r.
oneill6217
LEON2.jpg
Spain. Trastamara Dynasty. Seville. Enrique III 1390 - 1406 A.D. Vellon blanca ND.23 viewsSpain. trastamara dynasty. Seville. Enrique III 1390 - 1406 A.D. Vellon blanca ND. ENRICVS DEI GRACIA, central castle with three towers / ENRICVS DEI GRACIA, central lion.

Seville mint.
Burgos 607
oneill6217
STEIERMARK_BERTHOLD.jpg
STEIERMARK - Bishop Berthold126 viewsSTEIERMARK - Bishop Berthold von Aquileia (1218-1251) AR pfennig. Obv.: Seated bishop with crozier in each hand, legend around. Rev.: Bishp's bust between 2 church towers topped by crosses; ringlet above. CnA1, Ch11.dpaul7
POP_ROM_BRIDGE_2.JPG
Struck A.D.341 - 346 under Constantius II. POP ROM COMMEMORATIVE AE4 of Constantinople3 viewsObverse: POP ROMANVS. Laureate and draped bust of the Genius of the Roman people facing left, cornucopiae over left shoulder.
Reverse: No legend. Bridge with tower at each end, river beneath; between towers, CONS/I.
RIC VIII : 21
*Alex
coins61.JPG
Syria, Apameia23 viewsApamea is located on the right bank of the Orontes river about 55 km to the north west of Hama. It overlooks the Ghab valley and was built by Seleucus Nicator, the first king of the Seleucids in Syria in 300 BC. He named it after his parisian wife, Afamea.

The city flourished to an extent that its population numbered half a million. As an Eastern crossroads, it received many distinguished visitors: Cleopetra, Septimus Severus and the Emperor Caracalla. In the Christian era, Apamea became a center of philosophy and thought, especially of Monophostism.

Most of the uncovered ruins in it date back to the Roman and Byzantine ages. It is distinguished for its high walls and the main thoroughfare surrounded by columns with twisted fluting. The street is 1850 meters long and 87 meters wide. The ruins of the Roman theater which have been frequently disturbed, are now a great mass of stone.

Its colonnade (The Cardo Maximus) is 145 meters long. Erected in the 2nd century, it was destroyed in the 12th century by two violent earthquakes; some columns are still standing nevertheless.

To the west of the city, stands the Mudiq citadel, which once formed a defense line along the Orontes.

Fierce battles with Crusaders attempting to conquer it took place in the 12th century, and Nour Eddin finally surrendered it in 1149.

The citadel has huge towers, overlooking the Ghab valley. It also has a Khan (Inn) built by Ottomans in the 16th century which was transformed into an archaeological museum housing Apamea's wonderful mosaics, paintings, and 15,000 cuneiform clay tablets.

Apameia, Syria: Athena / Nike

2nd c. BC. 22mm. Helmeted bust of Athena right / Nike walking left, As SG 5868 but variant legend. aVF. Ex-Sayles
ecoli
Vlasto_107v.JPG
Taras, Calabria56 views470-450 BC
AR Didrachm (17mm., 7.82g)
O: Taras riding dolphin right, holding cuttlefish in right hand, left hand extended.
R: Hippocamp right; TAPA beneath, scallop shell below.
Vlasto 107(?); cf McGill II, 3; HN Italy 827; SNG ANS 837; SNG Cop 772-773
Scarce
ex ACR Auctions; ex Praefectus Coins

The hippocamp reverse type was undoubtedly one of the first non-incuse didrachms minted at Taras, occuring at the very beginning of the fifth century. However these small module coins were minted slightly later than the spread-flans, probably 470-450 BC.

"He [Poseidon] towers on high above the peaceful waves, urging his team of Hippokampoi with his three-pronged spear: frontwise they run at furious speed amid showers of foam, behind they swim and blot out their footprints with their tails."
~ Statius, Achilleid 1. 25 ff
1 commentsEnodia
Temenothyrae.jpg
Temenothyrae Flaviopolis; Tyche/ Hermes; AE 2224 viewsPhrygia, Temenothyrae Flaviopolis, 244-7 A.D. AE 22, 5.69g. Obv: FΛABI - OΠOΛIC Draped bust of city-goddess r. wearing crown of towers; below chin circular denominational countermark 5 (6 assaria; Howgego-811iv). Rev: NEIKOMAXOC - APXIE TH around, ME - N - OT VPEVCI Hermes standing l. holding purse and caduceus, at his feet ram stepping l. SNG Aulock 4001 (same dies), BM 15 pl. XLVII.12 (same obv. die). The ram, clear on our specimen, is not mentioned in SNG Aulock and BMC. The same priest Neikomachos who dedicated this coin to the people of Temenothyrae also dedicated coins of Otacilia Severa and Philip II as Caesar, BM 29-32, clarifying the date of issue. Ex H.J.BerkPodiceps
6yMFTS9i8Jkd3a4Mj2XgHn7fxCG53s_(2).jpg
Thrace Anchialus Septimius Severus4 viewsThrace Anchialus Septimius Severus City Gate Size: 27.05 mm Weight: 13.08 grams, Attribution: Varbanov 201.
Date: 193-211 AD
Obv: AV K L CEP CEVHPOC, laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right.
Rev: OVLPIANWN AGXIALEWN, city gate, flanked by two
battlemented towers, two pinnacles on wall.
Size: 27.05 mm
Weight: 13.08 grams
Ex Ray Wilk/Ancient Imports.
Ancient Aussie
VA275-0124LG.jpg
Thrace, Augusta Traiana, Septimius Severus3 viewsThrace, Augusta Traiana, Septimius Severus, AE 29mm, 15.4gm, City Gate flanked by two towers, third raising from centre. Varbanov 961. R5 Varb.
ΑVT K CΠTI CΕΒΕΗΡΟC ΠΕ - Laureate and draped bust right
ΑVΓΟVCΤΗC ΤΡΑΙΑΝΗC - City gate with open door, flanked by two towers, a third tower rising up behind.
Ancient Aussie
anchialos_gordianIII_tranquillina_AMNG681var.jpg
Thracia, Anchialos, Gordian III & Tranquillina, AMNG 681 var.46 viewsGordian III, AD 238-244
AE 26, 13.32g
obv. AVT KM ANT GORDIANOC AVG CABEIN. / TRANKVLLI / NA
confronted busts of Gordian III, darped and cuirassed, laureate,r., and
Tranquillina, draped, l.
rev. OVLPIA - NWN / AGQIAL / EWN (WN ligate)
City-gate with two helmet-towers, open door, above door gallery with three archs
AMNG II, 681 var.
EF, deep black-green patina
1 commentsJochen
augusta_trajana_caracalla_SchönertGeiss329.jpg
Thracia, Augusta Trajana, Caracalla, Schönert-Geiss 32942 viewsCaracalla, AD 198-217
AE 30, 14.79g
obv. AVT M AVRH - ANTWNINOC
Bust, cuirassed with scale-armour, decorated with gorgoneion, seen from
behind, laureate, r.
rev. AVGOVCT - H - C - TRAIANHC
City-wall with three pinnacle armed towers on rocky formation; benath
bearded river-god Sarus, in himation, nude to hips, leaning l., head turned r.,
resting with l. arm on vase from which water flows l., and holding water-plant
in r. hand.
Schönert-Geiss 329; Varbanov (engl.) 1190 var. (has bust draped and cuirassed)
very rare, abut VF, dark green patina
Pedigree:
ex CNG electronic auction #188, lot 176
1 commentsJochen
BMC_43_238-244_Gordianus_III.jpg
Thracia_Hadrianopolis_Gordianus_III_BMC 434 viewsGordianus III.
AE, Thracia, Hadrianopolis
Struck: 238-244 / 28 mm / 12,35 g

Av: AVT K M AN-T ΓOPΔIANOC AVΓ
Laureate, cuirassed and draped bust right seen from behind

Rv: AΔPIANOΠOΛEITΩN
Open city-gate with 4 pinnacles, flanked by 2 towers with pitched roofs

Reference: BMC 43
Andicz
BMC_44_var__238-244_Gordianus_III.jpg
Thracia_Hadrianopolis_Gordianus_III_BMC 44 var.6 viewsGordianus III.
AE, Thracia, Hadrianopolis
Struck: 238-244 / 26-27 mm / 13,64 g

Av: AVT K M AN-T ΓOPΔIANOC AVΓ
Laureate, cuirassed and draped bust right seen from behind

Rv: AΔPIANOΠOΛEITΩ/N
Open city-gate with 4 pinnacles, flanked by 2 towers with pitched roofs

Reference: BMC 44 var.
Andicz
TitusTramplingEnemy.jpg
TITUS, as Caesar133 viewsTITUS, as Caesar. 69-79 AD. Rome Mint AE Sestertius (36mm, 26.62 g). Struck 72 AD. O: Laureate head right, T CAES VESPASIAN IMP PON TR POT COS II R: Titus in military dress, cloak flying behind him, his horse rearing as he attacks prostrate Jew who is armed with sword and shield. SC in exergue. RIC 430, Hendin 1524, Ex Harry N. Sneh Collection Gemini Auction X, ex Goldberg 41, part of lot 2841 (Alan Levin Collection)

It is likely this coin refers to a battle recorded in Josephus Wars Book V Chapter 2, where Titus was ambushed by Jews who “leaped out suddenly at the towers called the "Women's Towers," through that gate which was over against the monuments of queen Helena.”

Cut off from his men, the account goes on, “So he perceived that his preservation must be wholly owing to his own courage, and turned his horse about, and cried out aloud to those that were about him to follow him, and ran with violence into the midst of his enemies, in order to force his way through them to his own men. And hence we may principally learn, that both the success of wars, and the dangers that kings are in, are under the providence of God; for while such a number of darts were thrown at Titus, when he had neither his head-piece on, nor his breastplate, (for, as I told you, he went out not to fight, but to view the city,) none of them touched his body, but went aside without hurting him; as if all of them missed him on purpose, and only made a noise as they passed by him. So he diverted those perpetually with his sword that came on his side, and overturned many of those that directly met him, and made his horse ride over those that were overthrown.
4 commentsNemonater
TrajSe57-2.jpg
Trajan, RIC 569, Sestertius of AD 107-110 (bridge)23 viewsĆ Sestertius (22,96g, Ř33mm, 6h). Rome, AD 107-110.
Obv.: IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO OPTIMO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P, laureate bust 3/4 frontal right, Paludament left shoulder.
Rev.: SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI around, S C below, Single-span bridge with fortified towers with stairs and statues on top at each end; below a boat.
RIC 569 (C); BMC 489 (var.: bust type); Cohen 542 (8 fr.); Strack 385 (var.: bust type)); MIR 314 (unlisted bust type x); Banti 261 (25 spec. (var.: bust type)); RCV 3207; RHC 100/21; Hill (The monuments of Ancient Rome as Coin Types) 201.
Ex cgb, August 2015.
Charles S
Istanbul_Land_Wall.jpg
Turkey, Istanbul (Constantinople) The Land Wall139 viewsThe Land Wall of Theodosius stretches for 6.5 km from the Golden Horn to the Sea of Marmara. The first phase (a single wall with towers) was complete by 413; after a major earthquake in 447 the Wall was rebuilt and strengthened (a second outer screen and a moat were added), just in time to discourage Attila the Hun from attacking the city. The fortifications included 96 guard towers, each 18-20 m in height and spaced roughly 55 m apart. The Land Wall remained a formidable defensive barrier until the advent of artillery in the 15th century. Even in ruins, and with vegetables growing in the moat, it's still an impressive sight today. Abu Galyon
Comb13092018101137~0.png
Unpuplished Silver Obol; Sidon mint. Circa 375-332 BC15 viewsObv: City walls with three towers.
Rev: Prow of galley with eye to right; five pellets above, Lion below.
10mm and 0.9 grams
Canaan
varbanov_serapis_markianopolis_phantasie.jpg
Varbanov & Serapis, Markianopolis, Varbanov 1970 cf., fantasy issue181 viewsAE 26, 9.94g
obv. AVT KM ANT VARBANOV - AVG
Confronting busts of Ivan Varbanov and Serapis
rev. VP MHNOFILOV MARKIANOPOLITWN.
Cityscape of Markianopolis with walls and 13 towers, temple and altar in enclosure.
ref. cf. Varbanov (engl.) 1970 (for the original only!)

This is a fantasy issue of Ivan Varbanov from his friend Slavey Petrov.
2 commentsJochen
Vespasian_RIC_II_1434.jpg
Vespasian RIC II 143474 viewsVespasian 69-79 A.D. AR Denarius. Ephesus Mint. 71 A.D. (3.36g, 17.1m, 7h). Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III TR P P P, laureate head right. Rev: PACI ORB TERR AVG; Turreted and draped female bust, r; EPE in left field. RIC II 1434 (R); BMC 459; RPC 835.

This reverse type is unique to Ephesus, and identity of the female isn’t clear. Mattingly speculates she could be Tyche describing the crown as composed of towers bringing to mind a city, or perhaps Cybele, or Great Mother. The message of peace brought to the world by Vespasian however, is clear. This type with the EPHE to the left of the female, is more scarce that V1433 with EPHE below. Neither Mattingly, nor the authors of RPC distinguish between the types with differing placements of the monogram as Carradice and Buttrey do.

This example is a pleasure in hand. The lettering is sharp on both sides. While the reverse is a bit off center, the details of the figures are well preserved as is the monogram.
5 commentsLucas H
V1434a.jpg
Vespasian-RIC-1434126 viewsAR Denarius, 3.28g
Ephesus Mint, 71 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III TR P P P; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: PACI ORB TERR AVG; Bust of woman, draped, wearing crown of towers, r.; EPHE in l. field
RIC 1434 (R). BMC 459 var. RSC 293 var. RPC 835 (14 spec.) var. BNC 356 var.
Acquired from Künker, June 2016. Ex Nudelman Numismatica Auction 10, 13 June 2011, lot 46.

RIC, alone among the major references, assigns a separate catalogue number to this rare variant with the mint mark behind the reverse bust. It's much more common to find the mint mark below bust. This variant seems to have been struck at a ratio of 1:10 compared with the common variety. A reverse type not struck at Rome.

Fantastic portraits in superb Ephesian style.
8 commentsDavid Atherton
man1pano.jpg
[1663a] Byzantine Empire: Manuel I Comnenus Megas (1143-1180)---NOT TO BE CONFUSED WITH---[1685a] Empire of Trebizond: Manuel I Komnenos Megas (1218-1263 AD)155 viewsManuel I Comnenus Megas (1143-1180). AE billon trachy; Sear 1964; 30mm, 3.91g.; Constantinople mint; aF. Obverse: MP-OV-The Virgin enthroned. Nimbate and wearing pallium and maphorium; Reverse: Maueil standing facing, wearing crown, holding labarum and globe surmounted by Patriachal cross. Ex SPQR.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

MANUEL I COMNENUS (A.D. 1143-1180)

Andrew Stone
University of Western Australia

Introduction: Sources
The reign of the emperor Manuel I Comnenus (5 April 1143- 24 September 1180) could well be regarded as a high-water mark of Byzantine civilization. It was the apogee of the so-called "Comnenian Restoration". Politically, the emperor undertook an ambitious foreign policy which has been seen by some, particularly in the light of many ultimate failures, as "misguided imperialism", recent scholarship has come to question this traditional judgment and suggests instead that the the Comnenian foreign policy was rather an energetic seizing of the different opportunities that presented themselves in the rapidly changing constellations of powers of the time. Such measures were made possible by the internal security of the empire under this, its third, Comnenian incumbent, although there were a few other aspirants to the throne, not least among them the emperor's cousin Andronicus. Manuel and other key members of the "Comnenian system", as it has been called, were patrons of rhetoric and other forms of learning and literature, and Manuel himself became keenly interested in ecclesiastical affairs, even if here his imperialistic agenda was a factor as he tried to bring Constantinopolitan theology in line with that of the west in a bid to unite the Church under his crown.

In terms of volume of contemporary material, Manuel is the most eulogised of all Byzantine emperors, and the panegyric addressed to him supplements the two major Byzantine historians of the reign, the more critical Nicetas Choniates and the laudatory John Cinnamus, as primary sources for the student of the period to study. The Crusader historian William of Tyre met Manuel personally, and such was the scope of Manuel's diplomacy that he is mentioned incidentally in western sources, such as Romuald of Salerno. Among authors of the encomia (panegyrics) we have mentioned are Theodore Prodromus and the so-called "Manganeios" Prodromus, who wrote in verse, and the prose encomiasts Michael the Rhetor, Eustathius of Thessalonica and Euthymius Malaces, to name the most important. Manuel, with his penchant for the Latins and their ways, left a legacy of Byzantine resentment against these outsiders, which was to be ruthlessly exploited by Andronicus in the end.

Manuel as sebastokrator
Manuel was born in the imperial porphyry birthchamber on 28 November 1118. He was the fourth of John II's sons, so it seemed very unlikely that he would succeed. As a youth, Manuel evidently accompanied John on campaign, for in the Anatolian expedition of 1139-41 we find Manuel rashly charging a small group of the Turkish enemy, an action for which he was castigated by his father, even though John, we are told, was inwardly impressed (mention of the incident is made in John's deathbed speech in both John Cinnamus and Nicetas Choniates). John negotiated a marriage contract for Manuel with Conrad III of Germany; he was to marry Bertha of Sulzbach. It seems to have been John's plan to carve out a client principality for Manuel from Cilicia, Cyprus and Coele Syria. In the event, it was Manuel who succeeded him.

The Securing of the Succession 1143
In the article on John II it is related how the dying John chose his youngest son Manuel to succeed him in preference to his other surviving son Isaac. Manuel was acclaimed emperor by the armies on 5 April 1143. Manuel stayed in Cilicia, where the army was stationed, for thirty days, to complete the funeral rites for his father. He sent his father's right-hand man John Axuch, however, to Constantinople to confine Isaac to the Pantokrator Monastery and to effect a donation of two hundredweight of silver coin to the clergy of the Great Church. The surviving encomium of Michael Italicus, Teacher of the Gospel, for the new emperor can be regarded as a return gift for this largesse. In the meantime the Caesar John Roger, husband of Manuel's eldest sister Maria, had been plotting to seize the throne; the plot was, however, given away by his wife before it could take effect. Manuel marched home to enter Constantinople c. July 1143. He secured the good-will of the people by commanding that every household should be granted two gold coins. Isaac the younger (Manuel's brother) and Isaac the elder (Manuel's paternal uncle), were both released from captivity and reconciled with him. Manuel chose Michael Oxeites as the new patriarch and was crowned either in August or November 1143.

Manuel confirmed John Axuch in the office of Grand Domestic, that is, commander of the army, appointed John of Poutze as procurator of public taxes, grand commissioner and inspector of accounts and John Hagiotheodorites as chancellor. John of Poutze proved to be an oppressive tax collector, but was also unsusceptible to bribery. However, this John diverted monies levied for the navy into the treasury, which would, as we shall see, further Byzantine dependence on the maritime Italian city-states of Venice, Genoa and Pisa.

Early Campaigns: 1144-1146
Manuel's first concern was to consolidate the work of his father in securing the eastern frontier. He sent a force under the brothers Andronicus and John Contostephanus against the recalcitrant Crusader prince Raymond of Antioch, which consisted of both an army and a navy, the latter commanded by Demetrius Branas. Raymond's army was routed, and the naval force inflicted no small damage on the coastal regions of the principality. In the meantime the Crusader city of Edessa fell to the Turkish atabeg Zengi. Raymond therefore travelled to Constantinople as a suppliant to Manuel. It was subsequently decided, in the light of Manuel's imperial status, that the terms under which he would marry Bertha of Sulzbach should be improved. Manuel asked for 500 knights, and Conrad happily granted them, being prepared to supply 2000 or 3000 if need be all for the sake of this alliance. Bertha took the Greek name Irene.

The Seljuk sultanate of Rum under Masud had become the ascendant Turkish power in Anatolia. Manuel himself supervised the rebuilding of the fortress of Melangeia on the Sangarius river in Bithynia (1145 or 1146). In the most daring campaign of these early years, after building the new fort of Pithecas in Bithynia, Manuel advanced as far into Turkish territory as Konya (Iconium), the Seljuk capital. He had been wounded in the foot by an arrow at a mighty battle at Philomelium (which had been Masud's headquarters), and the city had been rased; once at Konya, he allowed his troops to despoil the graves outside the city walls, before taking the road home.

Cinnamus relates that the gratutitous heroics which Manuel displayed on this campaign were calculated to impress Manuel's new bride. Manuel and his army were harried by Turks on the journey home. Manuel erected the fort of Pylae before leaving Anatolia.

[For a detailed and interesting discussion of the reign of Manuel I Comnenus please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/mannycom.htm]

Frederick Barbarossa and the "two-emperor problem"
Frederick Barbarossa, who was to become a constant menace to Manuel's designs, had succeeded his uncle Conrad III in 1152, but unlike him proved in the end unprepared to make any territorial concessions in Italy. The origins of this "cold war" between the two empires cannot be dated with any certainty, but there may have been a tendency to date it too early. One school of thought would not date the outbreak of this rivalry to any earlier than 1159-60, the death of Manuel's German wife, Bertha-Irene. About this time there was a scare at Constantinople that Frederick Barbarossa would march on Byzantium, perhaps reflecting a desire on Frederick's part to crusade (which he eventually did, in the reign of Isaac II Angelus). The new Pope, Alexander III, by, as it would seem, offering to grant Manuel the imperial crown, used it as a bargaining chip to play off the emperors of west and east against one another. Manuel may have supported Alexander during the papal schism of 1160-1177 because he was the preferred candidate of Hungary and the Crusader states, both of which he hoped would recognise him as their feudal overlord. By this means he could claim sovereign rights over the crusading movement, and thereby turn it to his advantage. The playing off of Manuel against Frederick continued right up until 1177, the Peace of Venice, whereby Frederick agreed to recognise Pope Alexander, the autonomy of Sicily and of the northern Italian communes. But this result was not a foregone conclusion in the 1160s and early 1170s, and Manuel used Byzantine gold to win supporters in Italy and thereby keep Frederick occupied.

Marriage to Maria of Antioch 1161
Bertha-Irene died in late 1159/early 1160. Manuel sought to strengthen his ties with the Crusader principalities by selecting an eastern Latin princess for his wife. The exceedingly beautiful Maria of Antioch, daughter of Raymond of Antioch, was chosen, and the nuptials celebrated at Christmas, 1161.


Dynastic considerations 1169-1172
Manuel's wife Maria of Antioch gave birth to a baby boy 14 September 1169 in the porphyry marble birthchamber, the cause of great festivities. The infant was crowned emperor in 1171. With the death of Stephen III of Hungary in 1172, Stephen's brother Béla was sent out from Constantinople to assume the throne (though without Sirmium and Dalmatia being surrendered to the Hungarian crown). A husband for Maria Porphyrogenita was therefore required. At first it was proposed that she marry William II of Sicily, who was outraged when she failed to show up at Taranto on the appointed day, the emperor having had second thoughts.


The final months 1180
Manuel took ill in the month of March 1180. During this period of terminal illness the last major religious controversies took place. We are told that Manuel directed that the anathema pronounced against the god of Muhammad be removed from the abjuration against the Islamic faith declared by converts to Christianity. Manuel was opposed by the last patriarch of his reign, Theodosius Boradiotes (1179-1183), as well as, notably, by Eustathius of Thessalonica. Both parties were satisfied in the end upon a reading of the emperor's proposed amendments to the abjuration. This controversy would seem to be a different one from the one alluded to in Eustathius' funeral oration for Manuel, since Manuel is praised by Eustathius for his stance in it, which seems to have revolved around a book written by a convert from Islam that magnified the Father at the expense of the Son (and therefore had Arian overtones). It became apparent that the emperor was dying, and, on the advice of Theodosius, he renounced astrology. As his end approached, he assumed the monastic habit and the name Matthew, demanding that his wife Maria become a nun. Manuel's son Alexius was but eleven, and the minority would prove to be disastrous for Byzantium. Manuel died thirty-seven years and nine months from the beginning of his reign.

General strategies in Manuel's foreign policy
The funeral oration for Manuel by Eustathius of Thessalonica is an interesting document in that it discusses some of the general policies pursued over Manuel's reign. It endorses his policy of dividing his enemies, the Petchenegs, the Sicilian Normans and the Turks, among themselves by using Byzantine gold, a policy of "divide and rule". We have seen how this was applied especially in Italy. Another general policy was to create friendly buffer states on the frontiers of the empire, most notably Hungary (and Serbia) and the Crusader States. Manuel would deliberately underpin the most powerful potentate in each region (the king of Hungary, the king of Jerusalem, the sultan of Konya) and thereby emphasise his own absolute sovereignty. In the funeral oration this granting of autonomy is justified as the reward for good service, as in the parable of the talents. We also see in the panegyric of the 1170s the downplaying of the idea of world rule which was so prevalent in the reign of John. Although Manuel claimed sovereign rights over many of his neighbours, his territorial claims were limited: coastal southern Italy, Dalmatia and Sirmium, coastal Egypt. The Byzantines seem to have come to terms with the reality of nation states and it is in Manuel's reign that they begin to refer to themselves not only as "Romans", but as "Hellenes", in order to demarcate themselves from the barbarians surrounding them.

Manuel's taxation, government and army
Nicetas Choniates roundly criticises Manuel in his history for increasing taxes and lavishing money on his family and retainers, particularly his Latin favourites. We have also seen how money was spent in Manuel's ambitious foreign policy. Mention is made of two towers, one at Damalis, and one next to the monastery of the Mangana, between which a chain could be stretched to block the Bosphorus. Then there was the work done at both the Great Palace and the Palace of the Blachernae, galleries, a pavilion alla Turca and numerous mosaics. He also founded a monastery at Kataskepe at the mouth of the Black Sea, which was endowed from the imperial treasury.

Choniates further criticizes the continuation and spread of the granting of pronoiai, parcels of land, the income from each of which supported a soldier. Many of these were granted to foreigners, for example, Turks captured in the Meander campaigns were settled around Thessalonica. The pronoia would pay not only for a soldier's upkeep, but his expensive equipment, for in Manuel's reign the bow and arrow and circular shield had been replaced by a heavier western-style panoply of armour, large triangular shield and lance. Choniates laments how fashionable a practice it had become in Manuel's reign to forsake the land or one's trade and become enlisted in the army.

Manuel and the "Comnenian system"
Throughout Manuel's reign, as under his father John, the top tier of the aristocracy was formed by the emperor's family, the Comneni, and the families into which they married. The extended family was, however, by now becoming unwieldy, and beginning to lose its cohesion, as the example of Manuel's cousin Andronicus shows. Under Manuel it was degree of kinship to the emperor which determined one's rank, as synodal listings show. So it was that very quickly after Manuel's death the upper tier of the aristocracy splintered into separate groups, each with its own identity and interests.

Literature
The various aristocratic courts, that of the emperor and other key members of the extended family, most notably the sebastokrator Isaac Comnenus the elder and the sebastokratorissa Irene, widow of Manuel's brother Andronicus, attracted literati who would seek to serve under them. Such figures would not only turn their hands to literature, encomia in prose or poetry, expositions on mythology, commentaries on Homer or the philosophers, historical chronicles and even, in this period, romances - the twelfth century is a high point of literary production at Constantinople, so much so that some have even talked of a "Comnenian renaissance" - but they would seek to perform more menial, such as administrative, duties to support themselves. Such men would often come from noble families whose prestige had been eclipsed by the Comnenian upper tier of the aristocracy. Serving under a lord was one way of advancing oneself, entering the Church was another.

The patriarchal church and education
The deacons of the church of St Sophia were a powerful group, the chartophylax being second only to the patriarch. These deacons would either go on to become bishops in the provinces, or possibly first hold one of the professorial chairs associated with the patriarchal church. First there were the "teachers", didaskaloi of the Gospels, Epistles and Psalter. Then there was the maistor ton rhetoron, "master of the rhetors", responsible for delivering speeches in praise of the emperor on January 6 each year and of the patriarch on the Saturday prior to Palm Sunday, as well as for other state occasions. And there was the hypatos ton philosophon, "consul of the philosophers", an office which had lapsed but was revived under Manuel.

Character and Legacy
Was Byzantium of the middle to late twelfth century living on borrowed time? Until recently this was the verdict of many scholars. Yet John II and Manuel had, if there is any kernel of truth in their encomia, at least temporarily reversed the overrunning of Anatolia by the Turks, and Manuel had won Dalmatia and Sirmium from Hungary. But Byzantine collapse was rapid, which is the reason why scholars have searched in the reigns of John and Manuel for the beginnings of the disintegration that occurred under the last Comneni and the Angeli. The history and comments of Nicetas Choniates have been adduced as vindicating this view. The victory of the military aristocracy that the establishment of the Comnenian dynasty represents has been seen as both the reason for the temporary reversal of Byzantine fortunes - government by three very capable autocrats - and of ultimate failure, because of the splintering into factions that oligarchy, such as was present in the Comnenian system, foments. A Marxist interpretation is that the feudalisation of the Byzantine Empire, the depletion of the free peasantry, that began to take place in the middle period was the reason for its ultimate failure. But to the Byzantines at the time Byzantium seemed to be holding its own; the "nations" around were being kept at bay, and even though the panegyric of renovation is less evident than in the reign of John II, the emperor remains despotes, "master" of the oikoumene, "world". Indeed, Manuel would be remembered in France, Genoa and the Crusader States as the most powerful sovereign in the world.

We have mentioned the funeral oration for Manuel by Eustathius of Thessalonica. This contains a series of vignettes of the personal aspects of Manuel. There are commonplaces: the emperor is able to endure hunger, thirst, heat and cold, lack of sleep and so on, and sweats copiously in his endeavours on the empire's part. Although these ideas have been recycled from earlier reigns, notably that of John II, the contemporary historians agree that Manuel was an indefatigable and daring warrior. However, there are more specifically individual touches in the Eustathian oration. Manuel had a manly suntan and was tall in stature. The emperor was capable of clever talk, but could also talk to others on a man-to-man basis. Eustathius makes much of the emperor's book-learning (Cinnamus claims to have discussed Aristotle with the emperor). The restoration of churches was a major concern for Manuel. He also had some expertise in medicine (he had tended Conrad III of Germany and Baldwin III of Jerusalem personally). Manuel showed temperance in eating and drinking, with a certain liking for beer as well as wine, the latter being mixed sour after the manner of ascetics. Likewise, he would not slumber long. He would generally choose walking over riding. The oration closes on the widow and orphan Manuel has left behind. The situation resulting for the Byzantine Empire at this stage, with the vacuum created by Manuel would result in no less than implosion.

Copyright (C) 2003, Andrew Stone.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
ManuelStGeorge.jpg
[1663a] Byzantine Empire: Manuel I Comnenus Megas (1143-1180)---NOT TO BE CONFUSED WITH---[1685a] Empire of Trebizond: Manuel I Komnenos Megas (1218-1263 AD)131 viewsMANUEL I COMNENUS AE tetarteron. 1143-1180 AD. 19mm, 2.8g. Obverse: Bust of St. George facing, beardless, wearing nimbus, tunic, cuirass and sagion, and holding spear. Reverse: MANVHL-DECPOT, bust of Manuel facing, wearing crown and loros, holding labarum & globe-cross. Simply wonderful style, very sharp for the issue. A gorgeous late Byzantine coin! Ex Incitatus.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

MANUEL I COMNENUS (A.D. 1143-1180)

Andrew Stone
University of Western Australia

Introduction: Sources
The reign of the emperor Manuel I Comnenus (5 April 1143- 24 September 1180) could well be regarded as a high-water mark of Byzantine civilization. It was the apogee of the so-called "Comnenian Restoration". Politically, the emperor undertook an ambitious foreign policy which has been seen by some, particularly in the light of many ultimate failures, as "misguided imperialism", recent scholarship has come to question this traditional judgment and suggests instead that the the Comnenian foreign policy was rather an energetic seizing of the different opportunities that presented themselves in the rapidly changing constellations of powers of the time. Such measures were made possible by the internal security of the empire under this, its third, Comnenian incumbent, although there were a few other aspirants to the throne, not least among them the emperor's cousin Andronicus. Manuel and other key members of the "Comnenian system", as it has been called, were patrons of rhetoric and other forms of learning and literature, and Manuel himself became keenly interested in ecclesiastical affairs, even if here his imperialistic agenda was a factor as he tried to bring Constantinopolitan theology in line with that of the west in a bid to unite the Church under his crown.

In terms of volume of contemporary material, Manuel is the most eulogised of all Byzantine emperors, and the panegyric addressed to him supplements the two major Byzantine historians of the reign, the more critical Nicetas Choniates and the laudatory John Cinnamus, as primary sources for the student of the period to study. The Crusader historian William of Tyre met Manuel personally, and such was the scope of Manuel's diplomacy that he is mentioned incidentally in western sources, such as Romuald of Salerno. Among authors of the encomia (panegyrics) we have mentioned are Theodore Prodromus and the so-called "Manganeios" Prodromus, who wrote in verse, and the prose encomiasts Michael the Rhetor, Eustathius of Thessalonica and Euthymius Malaces, to name the most important. Manuel, with his penchant for the Latins and their ways, left a legacy of Byzantine resentment against these outsiders, which was to be ruthlessly exploited by Andronicus in the end.

Manuel as sebastokrator
Manuel was born in the imperial porphyry birthchamber on 28 November 1118. He was the fourth of John II's sons, so it seemed very unlikely that he would succeed. As a youth, Manuel evidently accompanied John on campaign, for in the Anatolian expedition of 1139-41 we find Manuel rashly charging a small group of the Turkish enemy, an action for which he was castigated by his father, even though John, we are told, was inwardly impressed (mention of the incident is made in John's deathbed speech in both John Cinnamus and Nicetas Choniates). John negotiated a marriage contract for Manuel with Conrad III of Germany; he was to marry Bertha of Sulzbach. It seems to have been John's plan to carve out a client principality for Manuel from Cilicia, Cyprus and Coele Syria. In the event, it was Manuel who succeeded him.

The Securing of the Succession 1143
In the article on John II it is related how the dying John chose his youngest son Manuel to succeed him in preference to his other surviving son Isaac. Manuel was acclaimed emperor by the armies on 5 April 1143. Manuel stayed in Cilicia, where the army was stationed, for thirty days, to complete the funeral rites for his father. He sent his father's right-hand man John Axuch, however, to Constantinople to confine Isaac to the Pantokrator Monastery and to effect a donation of two hundredweight of silver coin to the clergy of the Great Church. The surviving encomium of Michael Italicus, Teacher of the Gospel, for the new emperor can be regarded as a return gift for this largesse. In the meantime the Caesar John Roger, husband of Manuel's eldest sister Maria, had been plotting to seize the throne; the plot was, however, given away by his wife before it could take effect. Manuel marched home to enter Constantinople c. July 1143. He secured the good-will of the people by commanding that every household should be granted two gold coins. Isaac the younger (Manuel's brother) and Isaac the elder (Manuel's paternal uncle), were both released from captivity and reconciled with him. Manuel chose Michael Oxeites as the new patriarch and was crowned either in August or November 1143.

Manuel confirmed John Axuch in the office of Grand Domestic, that is, commander of the army, appointed John of Poutze as procurator of public taxes, grand commissioner and inspector of accounts and John Hagiotheodorites as chancellor. John of Poutze proved to be an oppressive tax collector, but was also unsusceptible to bribery. However, this John diverted monies levied for the navy into the treasury, which would, as we shall see, further Byzantine dependence on the maritime Italian city-states of Venice, Genoa and Pisa.

Early Campaigns: 1144-1146
Manuel's first concern was to consolidate the work of his father in securing the eastern frontier. He sent a force under the brothers Andronicus and John Contostephanus against the recalcitrant Crusader prince Raymond of Antioch, which consisted of both an army and a navy, the latter commanded by Demetrius Branas. Raymond's army was routed, and the naval force inflicted no small damage on the coastal regions of the principality. In the meantime the Crusader city of Edessa fell to the Turkish atabeg Zengi. Raymond therefore travelled to Constantinople as a suppliant to Manuel. It was subsequently decided, in the light of Manuel's imperial status, that the terms under which he would marry Bertha of Sulzbach should be improved. Manuel asked for 500 knights, and Conrad happily granted them, being prepared to supply 2000 or 3000 if need be all for the sake of this alliance. Bertha took the Greek name Irene.

The Seljuk sultanate of Rum under Masud had become the ascendant Turkish power in Anatolia. Manuel himself supervised the rebuilding of the fortress of Melangeia on the Sangarius river in Bithynia (1145 or 1146). In the most daring campaign of these early years, after building the new fort of Pithecas in Bithynia, Manuel advanced as far into Turkish territory as Konya (Iconium), the Seljuk capital. He had been wounded in the foot by an arrow at a mighty battle at Philomelium (which had been Masud's headquarters), and the city had been rased; once at Konya, he allowed his troops to despoil the graves outside the city walls, before taking the road home.

Cinnamus relates that the gratutitous heroics which Manuel displayed on this campaign were calculated to impress Manuel's new bride. Manuel and his army were harried by Turks on the journey home. Manuel erected the fort of Pylae before leaving Anatolia.

[For a detailed and interesting discussion of the reign of Manuel I Comnenus please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/mannycom.htm]

Frederick Barbarossa and the "two-emperor problem"
Frederick Barbarossa, who was to become a constant menace to Manuel's designs, had succeeded his uncle Conrad III in 1152, but unlike him proved in the end unprepared to make any territorial concessions in Italy. The origins of this "cold war" between the two empires cannot be dated with any certainty, but there may have been a tendency to date it too early. One school of thought would not date the outbreak of this rivalry to any earlier than 1159-60, the death of Manuel's German wife, Bertha-Irene. About this time there was a scare at Constantinople that Frederick Barbarossa would march on Byzantium, perhaps reflecting a desire on Frederick's part to crusade (which he eventually did, in the reign of Isaac II Angelus). The new Pope, Alexander III, by, as it would seem, offering to grant Manuel the imperial crown, used it as a bargaining chip to play off the emperors of west and east against one another. Manuel may have supported Alexander during the papal schism of 1160-1177 because he was the preferred candidate of Hungary and the Crusader states, both of which he hoped would recognise him as their feudal overlord. By this means he could claim sovereign rights over the crusading movement, and thereby turn it to his advantage. The playing off of Manuel against Frederick continued right up until 1177, the Peace of Venice, whereby Frederick agreed to recognise Pope Alexander, the autonomy of Sicily and of the northern Italian communes. But this result was not a foregone conclusion in the 1160s and early 1170s, and Manuel used Byzantine gold to win supporters in Italy and thereby keep Frederick occupied.

Marriage to Maria of Antioch 1161
Bertha-Irene died in late 1159/early 1160. Manuel sought to strengthen his ties with the Crusader principalities by selecting an eastern Latin princess for his wife. The exceedingly beautiful Maria of Antioch, daughter of Raymond of Antioch, was chosen, and the nuptials celebrated at Christmas, 1161.


Dynastic considerations 1169-1172
Manuel's wife Maria of Antioch gave birth to a baby boy 14 September 1169 in the porphyry marble birthchamber, the cause of great festivities. The infant was crowned emperor in 1171. With the death of Stephen III of Hungary in 1172, Stephen's brother Béla was sent out from Constantinople to assume the throne (though without Sirmium and Dalmatia being surrendered to the Hungarian crown). A husband for Maria Porphyrogenita was therefore required. At first it was proposed that she marry William II of Sicily, who was outraged when she failed to show up at Taranto on the appointed day, the emperor having had second thoughts.


The final months 1180
Manuel took ill in the month of March 1180. During this period of terminal illness the last major religious controversies took place. We are told that Manuel directed that the anathema pronounced against the god of Muhammad be removed from the abjuration against the Islamic faith declared by converts to Christianity. Manuel was opposed by the last patriarch of his reign, Theodosius Boradiotes (1179-1183), as well as, notably, by Eustathius of Thessalonica. Both parties were satisfied in the end upon a reading of the emperor's proposed amendments to the abjuration. This controversy would seem to be a different one from the one alluded to in Eustathius' funeral oration for Manuel, since Manuel is praised by Eustathius for his stance in it, which seems to have revolved around a book written by a convert from Islam that magnified the Father at the expense of the Son (and therefore had Arian overtones). It became apparent that the emperor was dying, and, on the advice of Theodosius, he renounced astrology. As his end approached, he assumed the monastic habit and the name Matthew, demanding that his wife Maria become a nun. Manuel's son Alexius was but eleven, and the minority would prove to be disastrous for Byzantium. Manuel died thirty-seven years and nine months from the beginning of his reign.

General strategies in Manuel's foreign policy
The funeral oration for Manuel by Eustathius of Thessalonica is an interesting document in that it discusses some of the general policies pursued over Manuel's reign. It endorses his policy of dividing his enemies, the Petchenegs, the Sicilian Normans and the Turks, among themselves by using Byzantine gold, a policy of "divide and rule". We have seen how this was applied especially in Italy. Another general policy was to create friendly buffer states on the frontiers of the empire, most notably Hungary (and Serbia) and the Crusader States. Manuel would deliberately underpin the most powerful potentate in each region (the king of Hungary, the king of Jerusalem, the sultan of Konya) and thereby emphasise his own absolute sovereignty. In the funeral oration this granting of autonomy is justified as the reward for good service, as in the parable of the talents. We also see in the panegyric of the 1170s the downplaying of the idea of world rule which was so prevalent in the reign of John. Although Manuel claimed sovereign rights over many of his neighbours, his territorial claims were limited: coastal southern Italy, Dalmatia and Sirmium, coastal Egypt. The Byzantines seem to have come to terms with the reality of nation states and it is in Manuel's reign that they begin to refer to themselves not only as "Romans", but as "Hellenes", in order to demarcate themselves from the barbarians surrounding them.

Manuel's taxation, government and army
Nicetas Choniates roundly criticises Manuel in his history for increasing taxes and lavishing money on his family and retainers, particularly his Latin favourites. We have also seen how money was spent in Manuel's ambitious foreign policy. Mention is made of two towers, one at Damalis, and one next to the monastery of the Mangana, between which a chain could be stretched to block the Bosphorus. Then there was the work done at both the Great Palace and the Palace of the Blachernae, galleries, a pavilion alla Turca and numerous mosaics. He also founded a monastery at Kataskepe at the mouth of the Black Sea, which was endowed from the imperial treasury.

Choniates further criticizes the continuation and spread of the granting of pronoiai, parcels of land, the income from each of which supported a soldier. Many of these were granted to foreigners, for example, Turks captured in the Meander campaigns were settled around Thessalonica. The pronoia would pay not only for a soldier's upkeep, but his expensive equipment, for in Manuel's reign the bow and arrow and circular shield had been replaced by a heavier western-style panoply of armour, large triangular shield and lance. Choniates laments how fashionable a practice it had become in Manuel's reign to forsake the land or one's trade and become enlisted in the army.

Manuel and the "Comnenian system"
Throughout Manuel's reign, as under his father John, the top tier of the aristocracy was formed by the emperor's family, the Comneni, and the families into which they married. The extended family was, however, by now becoming unwieldy, and beginning to lose its cohesion, as the example of Manuel's cousin Andronicus shows. Under Manuel it was degree of kinship to the emperor which determined one's rank, as synodal listings show. So it was that very quickly after Manuel's death the upper tier of the aristocracy splintered into separate groups, each with its own identity and interests.

Literature
The various aristocratic courts, that of the emperor and other key members of the extended family, most notably the sebastokrator Isaac Comnenus the elder and the sebastokratorissa Irene, widow of Manuel's brother Andronicus, attracted literati who would seek to serve under them. Such figures would not only turn their hands to literature, encomia in prose or poetry, expositions on mythology, commentaries on Homer or the philosophers, historical chronicles and even, in this period, romances - the twelfth century is a high point of literary production at Constantinople, so much so that some have even talked of a "Comnenian renaissance" - but they would seek to perform more menial, such as administrative, duties to support themselves. Such men would often come from noble families whose prestige had been eclipsed by the Comnenian upper tier of the aristocracy. Serving under a lord was one way of advancing oneself, entering the Church was another.

The patriarchal church and education
The deacons of the church of St Sophia were a powerful group, the chartophylax being second only to the patriarch. These deacons would either go on to become bishops in the provinces, or possibly first hold one of the professorial chairs associated with the patriarchal church. First there were the "teachers", didaskaloi of the Gospels, Epistles and Psalter. Then there was the maistor ton rhetoron, "master of the rhetors", responsible for delivering speeches in praise of the emperor on January 6 each year and of the patriarch on the Saturday prior to Palm Sunday, as well as for other state occasions. And there was the hypatos ton philosophon, "consul of the philosophers", an office which had lapsed but was revived under Manuel.

Character and Legacy
Was Byzantium of the middle to late twelfth century living on borrowed time? Until recently this was the verdict of many scholars. Yet John II and Manuel had, if there is any kernel of truth in their encomia, at least temporarily reversed the overrunning of Anatolia by the Turks, and Manuel had won Dalmatia and Sirmium from Hungary. But Byzantine collapse was rapid, which is the reason why scholars have searched in the reigns of John and Manuel for the beginnings of the disintegration that occurred under the last Comneni and the Angeli. The history and comments of Nicetas Choniates have been adduced as vindicating this view. The victory of the military aristocracy that the establishment of the Comnenian dynasty represents has been seen as both the reason for the temporary reversal of Byzantine fortunes - government by three very capable autocrats - and of ultimate failure, because of the splintering into factions that oligarchy, such as was present in the Comnenian system, foments. A Marxist interpretation is that the feudalisation of the Byzantine Empire, the depletion of the free peasantry, that began to take place in the middle period was the reason for its ultimate failure. But to the Byzantines at the time Byzantium seemed to be holding its own; the "nations" around were being kept at bay, and even though the panegyric of renovation is less evident than in the reign of John II, the emperor remains despotes, "master" of the oikoumene, "world". Indeed, Manuel would be remembered in France, Genoa and the Crusader States as the most powerful sovereign in the world.

We have mentioned the funeral oration for Manuel by Eustathius of Thessalonica. This contains a series of vignettes of the personal aspects of Manuel. There are commonplaces: the emperor is able to endure hunger, thirst, heat and cold, lack of sleep and so on, and sweats copiously in his endeavours on the empire's part. Although these ideas have been recycled from earlier reigns, notably that of John II, the contemporary historians agree that Manuel was an indefatigable and daring warrior. However, there are more specifically individual touches in the Eustathian oration. Manuel had a manly suntan and was tall in stature. The emperor was capable of clever talk, but could also talk to others on a man-to-man basis. Eustathius makes much of the emperor's book-learning (Cinnamus claims to have discussed Aristotle with the emperor). The restoration of churches was a major concern for Manuel. He also had some expertise in medicine (he had tended Conrad III of Germany and Baldwin III of Jerusalem personally). Manuel showed temperance in eating and drinking, with a certain liking for beer as well as wine, the latter being mixed sour after the manner of ascetics. Likewise, he would not slumber long. He would generally choose walking over riding. The oration closes on the widow and orphan Manuel has left behind. The situation resulting for the Byzantine Empire at this stage, with the vacuum created by Manuel would result in no less than implosion.

Copyright (C) 2003, Andrew Stone.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
PergaAthenaOwl.jpg
[2400a] Pergamon, Mysia: AE14, ca. 300 BC70 viewsMYSIA, PERGAMON, Ć14, ca. 300 BC. BMC 15, SGC 3965. 2.0 gm. VF/aVF; Pergamon mint. Obverse: Head of Athena right, in close fitting crested helmet; Reverse; ATHENAS - NIKHFOPOY either side of owl standing, facing, wings closed; all within olive-wreath. Obverse device a clean strike of a lovely Athena. Ex Inclinatiorama.

The city of ancient Pergamon (or Pergamum, today's Bergama) was created by the newly-founded royal dynasty in the mid-third century BCE. It became one of the classic late-Hellenistic cities, on a dramatically steep site, with imaginatiave solutions to the urban design problems created by the site, wonderfully embellished by the generous attention of its royal (and other) patrons. The site divides into two main sections, the steep upper town and the flat lower town. Though today's Bergama is entirely in the lower areas, a number of important remains have survived even there: the Asklepieion, one of the major healing centres of antiqity, the Red Hall (Serapeum), the stadium, a Roman Bridge and tunnel. But it is the upper town that captures the imagination, with its extensive remains, innovations, and drama.
http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/~prchrdsn/pergamon.htm

The Attalids, the descendants of Attalus, the father of Philetaerus who came to power in 282 BC, were among the most loyal supporters of Rome among the Hellenistic successor states. Under Attalus I, they allied with Rome against Philip V of Macedon, during the first and second Macedonian Wars, and again under Eumenes II, against Perseus of Macedon, during the Third Macedonian War. For support against the Seleucids, the Attalids were rewarded with all the former Seleucid domains in Asia Minor.

The Attalids ruled with intelligence and generosity. Many documents survive showing how the Attalids would support the growth of towns through sending in skilled artisans and by remitting taxes. They allowed the Greek cities in their domains to maintain nominal independence. They sent gifts to Greek cultural sites like Delphi, Delos, and Athens. They defeated the invading Celts. They remodeled the Acropolis of Pergamum after the Acropolis in Athens. When Attalus III died without an heir in 133 BC he bequeathed Pergamon to Rome, in order to prevent a civil war.

The Great Altar of Pergamon is in the Pergamon Museum, Berlin. The base of this altar remains on the upper part of the Acropolis. Other notable structures still in existence on the upper part of the Acropolis include: a Hellenistic theater with a seating capacity of 10,000; the Sanctuary of Trajan (also known as the Trajaneum); the Sancturay of Athena; the Library; royal palaces; the Heroön; the Temple of Dionysus; the Upper Agora; and the Roman baths complex. Pergamon's library on the Acropolis is the second best in the ancient Greek civilisation (the ancient Library of Pergamum), after that of Alexandria. When the Ptolemies stopped exporting papyrus, partly because of competitors and partly because of shortages, the Pergamenes invented a new substance to use in codices, called pergaminus or parchment after the city. This was made of fine calf skin, a predecessor of vellum. The lower part of the Acropolis has the following structures: the Upper Gymnasium, the Middle Gymnasium, the Lower Gymnasium, the Temple of Demeter, the Sanctuary of Hera, the House of Attalus, the Lower Agora and the Gate of Eumenes.

Three km south of the Acropolis was the Sanctuary of Asclepius (also known as the Asclepeion), the god of healing. In this place people with health problems could bath in the water of the sacred spring, and in the patients' dreams Asklepios would appear in a vision to tell them how to cure their illness. Archeology has found lots of gifts and dedications that people would make afterwards, such as small terracotta body parts, no doubt representing what had been healed. Notable extant structures in the Asclepeion include the Roman theater, the North Stoa, the South Stoa, the Temple of Asclepius, a circular treatment center (sometimes known as the Temple of Telesphorus), a healing spring, an underground passageway, a library, the Via Tecta (or the Sacred Way, which is a colonnaded street leading to the sanctuary) and a propylon.

Pergamon's other notable structure is the Serapis Temple (Serapeum) which was later transformed into the Red Basilica complex (or Kızıl Avlu in Turkish), about 1 km south of the Acropolis. It consists of a main building and two round towers. In the first century AD, the Christian Church at Pergamon inside the main building of the Red Basilica was one of the Seven Churches to which the Book of Revelation was addressed (Revelation 1:12, ESV).
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pergamon

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
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