Classical Numismatics Discussion Members' Gallery
  Welcome Guest. Please login or register.

Members' Gallery Home | Member Collections | Last Added | Last Comments | Most Viewed | Top Rated | My Favorities | Search Galleries
Search results - "priest"
00005x00.jpg
24 viewsROME
PB Tessera (19mm, 3.15 g, 12 h)
Togate priest standing left, holding patera
Modius with three grain ears, A C flanking
Rostowzew 1571 var. (size, no modius)

AC may stand for “Antoninus Caesar”, thereby making the togate figure the emperor in the guise of Pontifex Maximus. The presence of a modius also suggests a relation to the annona, implying a reading of “Annona Caesaris.”
Ardatirion
973330.jpg
32 viewsBRITISH TOKENS, Tudor. temp. Mary–Edward VI.1553-1558.
PB Token (27mm, 5.29 g). St. Nicholas (‘Boy Bishop’) type. Cast in East Anglia (Bury St. Edmund’s?)
Mitre, croizer to right; all within border
Long cross pattée with trefoils in angles; scrollwork border
Rigold, Tokens class X.B, 1; Mitchiner & Skinner group Ra, 1

Ex Classical Numismatic Review XXXIX.1 (Spring 2014), no. 973330

Britain in the late middle ages played host to a popular regional variant of the ‘Feast of Fools’ festival. Every year on the feast of St. Nicholas, a boy was elected from among the local choristers to serve as ‘bishop.’ Dressed in mitre and bearing the croizer of his office, the young boy paraded through the city accompanied by his equally youthful ‘priest’ attendants. The ‘bishop’ performed all the ceremonies and offices of the real bishop, save for the actual conducting of mass. Though this practice was extinguished with the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1539, it was briefly revived under Queen Mary, who took particular interest in the festival, when the lucky boy was referred to as ‘Queen Mary’s Child.’ The celebration of the boy bishop died out completely early in the reign of Elizabeth.

Evidence of this custom is particularly prevalent in East Anglia, specifically at Bury St. Edmunds. Beginning in the late 15th century, the region produced numerous lead tokens bearing the likeness of a bishop, often bearing legends relating to the festival of St. Nicholas. Issued in sizes roughly corresponding to groats, half groats, and pennies, these pieces were undoubtedly distributed by the boy bishop himself, and were likely redeemable at the local abbey or guild for treats and sweetmeats. Considering the endemic paucity of small change in Britain at the time, it is likely that, at least in parts of East Anglia, these tokens entered circulation along with the other private lead issues that were becoming common.
Ardatirion
Vespasian.jpg
*SOLD*33 viewsVespasian AR Denarius

Attribution: RIC II 43, RSC II 43, BMCRE II 50
Date: AD 71
Obverse: IMP CAES VESP AVG P M, laureate head r.
Reverse: AVGVR (above), TRI POT (below), four priestly implements:
simpulum, aspergillum, jug & lituus
Size: 19.8 mm
1 commentsNoah
AugI439.jpg
- 27 BC - 14 AD - Augustus - RIC I 439 - As with "S C" Reverse108 viewsEmperor: Augustus (r. 27 BC - 14 AD)
Date: 6 BC
Condition: Fair
Denomination: As

Obverse: CAESAR AVGVST PONT MAX TRIBVNIC POT
Caesar Augustus Chief Priest Tribune
Bare head right

Reverse: SEX NONIVS QVINCTILIAN IIIVIR AAAFF around S C.
Sex. Nonius Quinctilianus of The Three Men for Striking and Casting Gold, Silver and Bronze by Senatorial Decree.

Rome mint
RIC I Augustus 439
10.07g; 26.5mm; 270°
1 commentsPep
015.jpg
0 - Severus Alexander as Caesar - AR Denarius40 viewsSeverus Alexander as Caesar. Rome Mint.

obv: " M AUR ALEXANDER CAES "
Bare head right, draped.

rev: " PIETAS AUG " - Priestly Implements.
3 commentsrexesq
Caesar_AR-Den-plated_CAESAR-elephant-right__Syd-1014_Crawf_443-1_C-49_Gaul-mint_49-48-BC_Q-002_5h_17x20mm_2,26g-s~0.jpg
001 Caesar (100-44 B.C.), AR-denarius, Crawf 443-1, Plated (Fouree), Military mint travelling with Caesar (Gaul), #266 views001 Caesar (100-44 B.C.), AR-denarius, Crawf 443-1, Plated (Fouree), Military mint travelling with Caesar (Gaul), #2
avers:-CAESAR in exergue, elephant right, trampling on serpent.
revers:- Simpulum, sprinkler, axe (surmounted by a wolf's head) and priest's hat.
exerg:-/-//CAESAR, diameter: 17-20mm, weight: 2,66g, axes: 5h,
mint: Military mint travelling with Caesar (Gaul), date: 49-48 B.C., ref: Crawford-443/1, Sydneham-1006, RSC-49, BMCRR (Gaul) 27
Q-002
"This is the first coin struck in the name of Julius Caesar. The symbolism on the obverse apparently alludes to the conquest of good over evil, Caesar's victory over the Gauls, while the reverse refers to Caesar's possession of the office of Pontifex Maximus."
1 commentsquadrans
Caesar_AR-Den_CAESAR-elephant-right__Syd-1006_Crawf_443-1_C-49_Gaul-mint_49-48-BC_Q-001_axis-7h_xxmm_x,xxxg-s.jpg
001 Caesar (100-44 B.C.), Crawf 443-1, Military mint travelling with Caesar (Gaul), AR-denarius, #1185 views001 Caesar (100-44 B.C.), Crawf 443-1, Military mint travelling with Caesar (Gaul), AR-denarius, #1
avers:-CAESAR in exergue, elephant right, trampling on serpent.
revers:- Simpulum, sprinkler, axe (surmounted by a wolf's head) and priest's hat.
exerg:-/-//CAESAR, diameter: 19mm, weight: 3,65g, axes: 10h,
mint: Military mint travelling with Caesar (Gaul), date: 49-48 B.C., ref: Crawford-443/1, Sydneham-1006, RSC-49, BMCRR (Gaul) 27
Q-001
"This is the first coin struck in the name of Julius Caesar. The symbolism on the obverse apparently alludes to the conquest of good over evil, Caesar's victory over the Gauls, while the reverse refers to Caesar's possession of the office of Pontifex Maximus."
quadrans
Caesar_AR-Den-plated_CAESAR-elephant-right__Syd-1014_Crawf_443-1_C-49_Gaul-mint_49-48-BC_Q-002_5h_17x20mm_2,26g-s.jpg
001 Caesar (100-44 B.C.), Crawf 443-1, Military mint travelling with Caesar (Gaul), AR-denarius, Plated (Fouree), #2118 views001 Caesar (100-44 B.C.), Crawf 443-1, Military mint travelling with Caesar (Gaul), AR-denarius, Plated (Fouree), #2
avers:-CAESAR in exergue, elephant right, trampling on serpent.
revers:- Simpulum, sprinkler, axe (surmounted by a wolf's head) and priest's hat.
exerg:-/-//CAESAR, diameter: 17-20mm, weight: 2,66g, axes: 5h,
mint: Military mint travelling with Caesar (Gaul), date: 49-48 B.C., ref: Crawford-443/1, Sydneham-1006, RSC-49, BMCRR (Gaul) 27
Q-002
"This is the first coin struck in the name of Julius Caesar. The symbolism on the obverse apparently alludes to the conquest of good over evil, Caesar's victory over the Gauls, while the reverse refers to Caesar's possession of the office of Pontifex Maximus."
quadrans
145234.jpg
001. Julius Caesar124 viewsJulius Caesar. 49-48 BC. AR Denarius (18mm, 3.60 g). Military mint traveling with Caesar. Elephant walking right, trampling on serpent / Simpulum, sprinkler, axe (surmounted by a wolf’s head), and priest’s hat. Crawford 443/1; CRI 9; Sydenham 1006; RSC 49. VF, toned
Ex-Cng
4 commentsecoli
SPAIN__Caesaraugusta__Augustus_(27_BC-14_AD)__AE-(26)As__Mn__Kaninius_Iter_and_L__Titius,_duoviri__RPC_I_322,_SNG_Cop_544,_Q-001,_6h,_26-27,mm,_10,85g-s.jpg
002p Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), Spain, Caesaraugusta, RPC 0322, AE-26, Mn. Kaninius Iter and L. Titius, duoviri, CAESAR AVG MN KANINIO ITER L TITIO / II VIR, Priest plowing right with yoke of two oxen, #170 views002p Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), Spain, Caesaraugusta, RPC 0322, AE-26, Mn. Kaninius Iter and L. Titius, duoviri, CAESAR AVG MN KANINIO ITER L TITIO / II VIR, Priest plowing right with yoke of two oxen, #1
avers: AVGVSTVS DIVI F, Laureate head right; simpulum to left, lituus to right.
reverse: CAESAR AVG MN KANINIO ITER L TITIO / II VIR, Priest plowing right with yoke of two oxen.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 26,0-27,0 mm, weight: 10,85g, axis:6h,
mint: Spain, Caesaraugusta, date: B.C.,
ref: RPC 0322, SNG Cop 544,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
0201.jpg
0201 - As Augustus 7-8 AC36 viewsObv/ AVGVSTVS DIVI F, laureate head of A. r.
Rev/ (M POSTV)M ALBIN L PORC CAPIT II VIR Q, priest standing facing front, holding simpulum and branch.

AE, 28.0 mm, 10.98 g
Mint: Carthago Nova.
APRH/170 [7-20 dies] – RPC I/170
ex-Soler y Llach, auction 84, lot 32
dafnis
0204_RPCI_169.jpg
0204 - Semis Augustus 20 BC-23 AC15 viewsObv/Lotus flower, around IVBA REX IVBAE F II VIR QV.
Rev/Priesthood accessories, around CN ATELIVS PONTI II V Q.

Ag, 22.9mm, 5.02g
Moneyer: anonymous.
Mint: Carthago Nova.
RPC I/169 [7-20c.]
ex-Herrero, auction may 2015, lot 2043.
dafnis
augustus RIC344-RRR.jpg
027 BC-14 AD - AUGUSTUS AR denarius - struck by P. Licinius Stolo, moneyer (17 BC)83 viewsobv: AVGVSTVS TR POT (Augustus, laureate, wearing cloak and short tunic, on horseback riding right, holding patera in right hand - banker's mark)
rev: P STOLO III VIR (Salii or priest of Mars's cap (same than apex flaminis) between two studded oval shields (ancilia)).
ref: RIC I 344 (R3); BMCRE 76; RSC 439 (80frcs)
mint: Rome
3.53gms,18-19mm
Extremely rare

History: The Ludi Saeculares were spread over a period of three days (from May 31 to June 3), and Augustus celebrated them to inaugurate the beginning of a new age. On the reverse of this coin the ancilias (sacred shields) symbolised the music at festivals. The "jumping priests" or Salii marched to the Regia, where was the shrine of Mars, in which the ancilia (the sacred shield, and its 11 copies) of Mars were stored. The Salii wearing apex, taking the bronze Ancilia, and danced through the streets carrying poles with the shields mounted on them in their left hands. With their other hand, they banged the shields with a drumstick.
3 commentsberserker
CalI38.jpg
037-041 AD - Caligula - RIC I 38 - Vesta Reverse47 viewsEmperor: Caligula (r. 37-41 AD)
Date: 37-38 AD
Condition: Fair
Denomination: As

Obverse: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT
Consul Caesar Augustus Germanicus Chief Priest Tribune
Bare head left

Reverse: VESTA (above)
The Emperor looks after the state.
S - C to left and right
Vesta, veiled and draped, seated left on ornamental throne, right holding patera, left long transverse sceptre.

Rome mint
RIC I Caligula 38; VM 9
5.61g; 26.0mm; 180°
Pep
Sept-Severus_Ar-Den_SEVERVS-PIVS-AVG_FVNDAT-OR-PACIS_RIC-IV-265_RSC-205_BMC-330_Rome-200-201-AD_Q-001_axis-6h_17,5-19mm_2,91g-s.jpg
049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 265, Rome, AR-Denarius, FVNDATOR PACIS, Severus veiled as a priest standing left,81 views049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 265, Rome, AR-Denarius, FVNDATOR PACIS, Severus veiled as a priest standing left,
avers:- SEVERVS-PIVS-AVG, Laurate bust right.
revers:- FVNDAT-OR-PACIS, Severus veiled as a priest standing left, holding olive branch.
exe: , diameter: 17,5-19mm, weight: 2,91g, axis:6h,
mint: Rome, date: 195 A.D.,ref: RIC-IV-I-265, p-, RSC-205, BMC-330,
Q-001
quadrans
RI 064d img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 30828 viewsObv:– SEVERVS PIVS AVG, Laureate bust facing right
Rev:– VOTA SVSCEPTA XX, Emperor, veiled as a priest, standing left, sacrificing over a tripod
Minted in Rome, A.D. 207
References:– VM 179, RIC 308, RCV02 6394, RSC 791
maridvnvm
09-Alex-Alexandria.jpg
09. Alexandria: Tetradrachm in the name of Alexander the Great.117 viewsTetradrachm, ca 310 - 305 BC, Alexandria (Egypt) mint.
Obverse: Head of Alexander with Horn of Ammon, wearing elephant skin headdress.
Reverse: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ / Athena carrying shield and hurling spear. Also small eagle sitting on thunderbolt at right. Two monograms: one at left, one at right.
15.10 gm., 26 mm.
S. #7749; BMC 6.6, 46.

You may have noticed that I refer to the obverse portraits on the Alexander the Great coins as "Head of Alexander as Herakles." Much has been written about these portraits as to whether or not they really portray Alexander's likeness. There can be no doubt, however, that the portrait on this coin was intended to be that of Alexander. Ptolemy issued this coin in the name of Alexander while he was Satrap of Egypt. The elephant skin headdress was probably inspired by the lion's skin headdress on Alexander's own coins. It likely refers to Alexander's conquests in India where he defeated an Indian army with 200 elephants. Beneath the elephant skin headdress, right above his ear, Alexander wears the Horn of Zeus Ammon. The priests of Zeus Ammon recognized Alexander as divine when he visited Egypt in 331 BC.
4 commentsCallimachus
96c.jpg
096c Aurelian. bill antoninianus14 viewsobv: IMP AVRELIANVS AVG rad. cuir. bust r.
rev: PIETAS AVG emp. and priest sacrificing at alter
ex: S
hill132
Jul_Caes_Elephant.jpg
1) Julius Caesar Elephant19 viewsJULIUS CAESAR.
AR Denarius.
49-48 BC.
Military Mint traveling with Caesar in Gaul

CAESAR in exergue, elephant right, trampling on serpent / Simpulum, sprinkler, axe and priest's hat.

Cr443/1; Syd 1006; BMCRR (Gaul) 27, RSC 49, Sear5 #1399

Good Fine, multiple bankers' marks
RM0031
Sosius
f1_1_b.jpg
1.10 Judah Aristobulus I AE Prutah53 viewsAE Prutah of Judah Aristobulus I
104 - 103 BCE
Hendin 465
"Yehudah the High Priest and the Council of the Jews"
Zam
IMG_0133.JPG
1.3 John Hyrcanus II (Yonatan) Prutah98 views67 and 63-40 BCE
"Yonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews"
either a coin of Hyrcanus II, or a coin of Alexander Jannaeus in his later years. He may have changed his name to the deminunitive form in order to break up the YEHO- which is also God's name as a concession to the Pharisees.
Hendin 478
2 commentsZam
1485_-_1509_Henry_VII_AR_Penny.JPG
1485 - 1509, HENRY VII, AR Penny, Struck 1485 - 1500 under Archbishop Rotherham at York, England24 viewsObverse: HENRIC DI GRA REX AN. Crowned and robed figure of Henry VII holding a lis topped sceptre in his right hand and a globus cruciger in his left, seated facing on throne, the one visible pillar of which is topped with a lis, all except the king's crown within a circle of pellets.
Reverse: CIVITAS EBORACI. Shield bearing coat-of-arms of England and France on cross fourchée, two keys below shield.
Diameter: 17mm | Weight: 0.6gms | Die Axis: 3
SPINK: 2237

Thomas Rotherham, also known as Thomas (Scot) de Rotherham, was an English cleric and statesman. He served as bishop of several dioceses, most notably as Archbishop of York and, on two occasions as Lord Chancellor. Rotherham was educated at King's College, Cambridge, he graduated as a Bachelor of Divinity and became a Fellow of his college where he lectured on Grammar, Theology, and Philosophy. After his ordination as a priest, he became a prebendary of Lincoln in 1462 and then of Salisbury in 1465. He moved on to powerful positions in the Church, being appointed as Bishop of Rochester in 1468, Bishop of Lincoln in 1472, and then Archbishop of York in 1480, a position he held until his death in 1500.
In 1467, King Edward IV appointed Rotherham as Keeper of the Privy Seal. He was sent as ambassador to France in 1468 and as joint ambassador to Burgundy in 1471, and in 1475 was entrusted with the office of Lord Chancellor. When Edward IV died in April 1483, Rotherham was one of the celebrants of the funeral mass on 20th April 1483 and immediately after Edward's death he sided with the dowager queen, Elizabeth Woodville, in her attempt to deprive Richard, Duke of Gloucester of his role as Lord Protector of her son, the new King Edward V. When Elizabeth sought sanctuary after Richard had taken charge of the king, Rotherham released the Great Seal to her (though he later recovered it and handed it over to Thomas Bourchier, the Archbishop of Canterbury).
Rotherham's mishandling of the seal was perceived as indicative of questionable loyalty and led to his dismissal as Lord Chancellor. He was replaced by John Russell, who earlier had also been his successor as Bishop of Lincoln. On 13th June 1483, Rotherham was charged with being involved in a conspiracy between Lord Hastings and the Woodvilles against Richard and imprisoned in the Tower of London, but he was released a few weeks later, around the middle of July, after Richard's coronation as King Richard III. Rotherham was re-instated as Chancellor in 1485, however he was dismissed shortly afterwards by Henry VII and retired from public work.
Rotherham died of the plague in Cawood near York on 29th May 1500. His remains were transferred to a magnificent marble tomb in York Minster in 1506.
2 comments*Alex
JAMES_VI_AE_HARDHEAD.JPG
1567 - 1625, JAMES VI (James I of England), Billon Hardhead (Twopence) struck in 1588 at Edinburgh, Scotland3 viewsObverse: •IACOB•6•D•G•R•SCOTO•. Crown above IR within inner circle of pellets. Quatrefoil mintmark in legend.
Reverse: •VINCIT•VERITAS• Crowned lion rampant facing left, two pellets (mark of value = twopence) behind, all within inner circle of pellets. Quatrefoil mintmark in legend.
Second issue, November 1588.
Diameter: 21mm | Weight: 1.2gms | Die Axis: 3
SPINK: 5518

James VI issued billon and copper coins in much smaller quantities than that of previous monarchs, none at all being struck during the first sixteen years of his reign. After his accession to the English throne, James established a currency of similar weight and fineness in both countries although a 12:1 ratio between the Scottish and English denominations was still maintained.

James VI acceded to the throne of Scotland when only 1 year old on his mother’s abdication in 1567. A council of regency was established and his good education was largely due to George Buchanan. He married Anne of Denmark in 1589. The death of Elizabeth I left James as her nearest heir and he inherited the throne of England in 1603 and ruled both England and Scotland until his death in 1625. Following the gunpowder plot of 1605 James ordered severe sanctions against Roman Catholic priests and it was during his reign that the King James, or ‘authorised’ version of the Bible, still used today, was first published.

*Alex
0023-065.jpg
1608 - Lepidus and Octavian, Denarius148 viewsDenarius minted in Italy, 42 BC
LEPIDVS PONT MAX III V R P C, bare head of Lepidus right (NT and MA in monograms)
C CAESAR IMPIII VIR R P C, bare head of Octavian right (MP in monogram)
3.78 gr
Ref : HCRI # 140, RCV # 1523, Cohen # 2

The following from forum catalog :
"Lepidus was a faithful follower of Julius Caesar, and he served as Praetor and Consul. When Caesar was assassinated, Lepidus was in charge of the cavalry and commanded a legion. This position secured him a place in the Second Triumvirate along Marc Antony and Octavian. His cut was Africa. When Octavian attacked Sextus Pompey's Sicily, Lepidus' ships and troops supported him. In an uninspired move, Lepidus thought he could force Octavian to leave him the island. The two armies separated and isolated skirmishes occurred, but soon the soldiers sick of yet another civil war, acknowledging Octavian's superiority deserted Lepidus en-masse. Lepidus left the island as a simple civilian, retaining only his priesthood, but he was the only defeated Imperator not to suffer a violent death."
2 commentsPotator II
SeptIV176Limes.jpg
193-211 AD - Septimius Severus - RIC IV 176 - Limes Denarius - PART MAX PM TR P VIIII63 viewsEmperor: Septimius Severus (r. 193-211 AD)
Date: 201 AD (later) or after
Condition: aFine
Denomination: Limes Denarius

Obverse: SEVERVS PIVS AVG
Emperor Severus Pius
Head right, laureate

Reverse: PART MAX PM TR P VIIII
Victor over Parthia Chief Priest Tribune Ninth Term.
Trophy and two captives.

Limes Denarius of: RIC IV Septimius Severus 176; VM 95 (Rome mint)
2.89g; 18.3mm; 195°
Pep
CarIV80b.jpg
198-217 AD - Caracalla - RIC IV 080b - Mars Reverse76 viewsEmperor: Caracalla (r. 198-217 AD)
Date: 205 AD
Condition: EF
Denomination: Denarius

Obverse: ANTONINVS - PIVS AVG
Emperor Antoninus Pius (Caracalla)
Bust right; laureate and draped

Reverse: PONTIF TR P VIII COS II
Priest; Tribune Eighth Term; Consul Second Term
Mars, naked but for cloak on left shoulder, standing left, right foot on helmet, holding branch and spear.

Rome mint
RIC IV Caracalla 80b; VM 70/1
3.00g; 19.6mm; 330°
2 commentsPep
1997-161-6_SesGordianRIC_3-Forum.jpg
1997.161.6 Gordian Caesar; Rome, RIC 315 viewsSestertius, 17.72 g

Obverse: M ANT GORDIANVS CAES; Bare head, draped bust right.
Reverse: PIETAS AVGG S C in exergue; Priestly emblems, Jug between lituus, knife, and patera on left, simpulum and sprinkler on right.
Ref: RIC 3; C 183, 20 fr; BMC 64
gordian_guy
JuliusCaesarDenEleph.jpg
1af Julius Caesar Wages Civil War12 viewsJulius Caesar

Denarius
49-48 BC

Elephant right, trampling on serpent [probably], CAESAR in ex
Simpulum, sprinkler, axe and priest's hat

Evidently a military issue, no agreement exists on the meaning of the coin's imagery (see e.g. http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=88757.msg552803#msg552803)

Seaby 49

Given the chance that the coin was minted to pay Caesar's armies in the civil war, here is a description of the beginning, according to Suetonius: He then overtook his advanced guard at the River Rubicon, which formed the boundary between Gaul and Italy. There he paused for a while and, realising the magnitude of the step he was taking, turned to his staff, to remark: ‘We could turn back, even now; but once over that little bridge, and it will all come down to a fight.’ . . . As he stood there, undecided, he received a sign. A being of marvellous stature and beauty appeared suddenly, seated nearby, and playing on a reed pipe. A knot of shepherds gathered to listen, but when a crowd of his soldiers, including some of the trumpeters, broke ranks to join them, the apparition snatched a trumpet from one of them, ran to the river, and sounding the call to arms blew a thunderous blast, and crossed to the far side. At this, Caesar exclaimed: ‘Let us follow the summons, of the gods’ sign and our enemy’s injustice. The die is cast.’ And crossing with the army, he welcomed the tribunes of the people, who had fled to him from Rome. Then, in tears, he addressed the troops and, ripping open the breast of his tunic, asked for their loyalty.
Blindado
TiberiusAsSC.jpg
1al Tiberius26 views14-37

As
Laureate head, left, TI CAESAR AVGVST F IMPERAT V
PONTIF MAXIM TRIBVN POTEST XXIII SC

This is one of a series of 12 Caesars pieces that were local finds in Serbia. There are better coins out there, but I'll hang onto these because they really got me into the hobby.

RIC 469

Per Suetonius: Within three years, however, both Lucius Caesar and Gaius Caesar were dead [in AD2 and 4 respectively], and Augustus now adopted both their brother Agrippa Postumus, and Tiberius, who was first required to adopt his nephew Germanicus [in 4 AD]. . . .

From that moment onwards, Augustus did all he could to enhance Tiberius’ prestige, especially after the disowning and banishment of Postumus [ca 6 AD] made it obvious that Tiberius was the sole heir to the succession. . . .

Tiberius acted like a traditional citizen, more modestly almost than the average individual. He accepted only a few of the least distinguished honours offered him; it was only with great reluctance that he consented to his birthday being recognised, falling as it did on the day of the Plebeian Games in the Circus, by the addition of a two-horse chariot to the proceedings; and he refused to have temples, and priests dedicated to him, or even the erection of statues and busts, without his permission; which he only gave if they were part of the temple adornments and not among the divine images. . . .

Moreover, in the face of abuse, libels or slanders against himself and his family, he remained unperturbed and tolerant, often maintaining that a free country required free thought and speech. . . . He even introduced a species of liberty, by maintaining the traditional dignities and powers of the Senate and magistrates. He laid all public and private matters, small or great, before the Senate consulting them over State revenues, monopolies, and the construction and maintenance of public buildings, over the levying and disbanding of troops, the assignment of legions and auxiliaries, the scope of military appointments, and the allocation of campaigns, and even the form and content of his replies to letters from foreign powers. . . .

Returning to Capreae, he abandoned all affairs of state, neither filling vacancies in the Equestrian Order’s jury lists, nor appointing military tribunes, prefects, or even provincial governors. Spain and Syria lacked governors of Consular rank for several years, while he allowed the Parthians to overrun Armenia, Moesia to be ravaged by the Dacians and Sarmatians, and Gaul by the Germans, threatening the Empire’s honour no less than its security. Furthermore, with the freedom afforded by privacy, hidden as it were from public view, he gave free rein to the vices he had concealed for so long. . . .
Blindado
CaligulaAsVesta.jpg
1ao Caligula30 views37-41

As
Bare head, left, C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT
Vesta std, VESTA SC

RIC 38

The son of Germanicus, modern research suggests, was not as bad a ruler as history generally supposes, but the winners write the history, and Caligula had the dubious honor of being the first loser to die in the purple at the hand of assassins.

Suetonius recorded: Gaius Caesar (Caligula) was born on the 31st of August AD12, in the consulship of his father, Germanicus, and Gaius Fonteius Capito. The sources disagree as to his place of birth. Gnaeus Lentulus Gaetulicus claims it was Tibur (Tivoli), Pliny the Elder, says it was among the Treveri in the village of Ambitarvium, above Confluentes (the site of Koblenz) at the junction of the Moselle and Rhine. . . . His surname Caligula (‘Little Boot’) was bestowed on him affectionately by the troops because he was brought up amongst them, dressed in soldier’s gear.

Caligula accompanied his father, Germanicus, to Syria (in AD 19). On his return, he lived with his mother, Agrippina the Elder until she was exiled (in 29 AD), and then with his great-grandmother Livia. When Livia died (in 29 AD), he gave her eulogy from the rostra even though he was not of age. He was then cared for by his grandmother Antonia the Younger, until at the age of eighteen Tiberius summoned him to Capreae (Capri, in AD 31). On that day he assumed his gown of manhood and shaved off his first beard, but without the ceremony that had attended his brothers’ coming of age.

On Capraea, though every trick was tried to lure him, or force him, into making complaints against Tiberius, he ignored all provocation, . . . behaving so obsequiously to his adoptive grandfather, Tiberius, and the entire household, that the quip made regarding him was well borne out, that there was never a better slave or a worse master.

Even in those days, his cruel and vicious character was beyond his control, and he was an eager spectator of torture and executions meted out in punishment. At night, disguised in wig and long robe, he abandoned himself to gluttony and adulterous behaviour. He was passionately devoted it seems to the theatrical arts, to dancing and singing, a taste in him which Tiberius willingly fostered, in the hope of civilizing his savage propensities.

And came near to assuming a royal diadem at once, turning the semblance of a principate into an absolute monarchy. Indeed, advised by this that he outranked princes and kings, he began thereafter to claim divine power, sending to Greece for the most sacred or beautiful statues of the gods, including the Jupiter of Olympia, so that the heads could be exchanged for his own. He then extended the Palace as far as the Forum, making the Temple of Castor and Pollux its vestibule, and would often present himself to the populace there, standing between the statues of the divine brothers, to be worshipped by whoever appeared, some hailing him as ‘Jupiter Latiaris’. He also set up a special shrine to himself as god, with priests, the choicest sacrificial victims, and a life-sized golden statue of himself, which was dressed each day in clothes of identical design to those he chose to wear.

He habitually committed incest with each of his three sisters, seating them in turn below him at large banquets while his wife reclined above. . . . His preferred method of execution was by the infliction of many slight wounds, and his order, issued as a matter of routine, became notorious: ‘Cut him so he knows he is dying.’
Blindado
VitelliusDenVesta.jpg
1av Vitellius42 views69

Denarius
Portrait, right, A VITELLIVS GERMAN IMP TR P
Vesta std., PONT MAX

RIC 107

According to Suetonius: Lucius’s son Aulus, the future emperor, was born on the 24th of September 15AD, or according to some authorities on the 7th, during the consulship of Drusus Caesar and Norbanus Flaccus. . . . His boyhood and early youth were spent on Capreae (Capri) among Tiberius’s creatures, he himself being marked by the nickname of ‘Spintria’ (sex-token) throughout his life, and suspected of having secured his father’s first promotion to office by surrendering his own chastity. As he grew older, though contaminated by every kind of vice, Vitellius gained and kept a prominent place at court, winning Caligula’s friendship by his devotion to chariot-racing and Claudius’s by his love of dice. With Nero he was even closer. . . .

Honoured, as these emperors’ favourite, with high office in the priesthood, as well as political power, he governed Africa (under Nero, in 60/61AD) as proconsul, and was then Curator of Public Works (in 63AD), employing a contrasting approach, and with a contrasting effect on his reputation. In his province he acted with outstanding integrity over two successive years, since he served as deputy also to his brother who succeeded him (61/62AD) yet during his administration of the City he was said to have stolen various temple offerings and ornaments, and substituted brass and tin for the gold and silver in others. . . .

Contrary to all expectations, Galba appointed Vitellius to Lower Germany (in 68AD). Some think it was brought about by Titus Vinius, whose influence was powerful at that time, and whose friendship Vitellius had previously won through their mutual support for the ‘Blues’ in the Circus. But it is clear to everyone that Galba chose him as an act of contempt rather than favour, commenting that gluttons were among those least to be feared, and Vitellius’s endless appetite would now be able to sate itself on a province. . . .

He entered Rome to the sound of trumpets, surrounded by standards and banners, wearing a general’s cape, sword at his side, his officers in their military cloaks also, and the men with naked blades. With increasing disregard for the law, human or divine, he then assumed the office of High Priest on the anniversary of the Allia (18th July), arranged the elections for the next ten years, and made himself consul for life. . . .

Vitellius’s worst vices were cruelty and gluttony. . . . By the eighth month of his reign (November 69AD) the legions in Moesia and Pannonia had repudiated Vitellius, and sworn allegiance to Vespasian despite his absence, following those of Syria and Judaea who had done so in Vespasian’s presence. . . .

The vanguard of Vespasian’s army had now forced its way into the Palace, unopposed, and the soldiers were ransacking the rooms, in their usual manner. They hauled Vitellius, unrecognised, from his hiding place, asked his name and where the Emperor might be. He gave some lying answer, but was soon identified, so he begged for safe custody, even if that meant imprisonment, claiming he had important information for Vespasian regarding his security. However his arms were bound behind him and a noose flung over his head, and he was dragged along the Sacred Way to the Forum, amid a hail of mockery and abuse, half-naked, with his clothes in tatters. His head was held back by the hair, like a common criminal and, with a sword-point under his chin so that he was forced to look up and reveal his face, he was pelted with filth and dung, denounced as arsonist and glutton, and taunted with his bodily defects by the crowd. For, Vitellius was exceptionally tall, and his face was usually flushed from some drinking bout. He had a huge belly, too, and one thigh crippled by a blow from a four-horse chariot which struck him when he was in attendance on Caligula who was driving. At last, after being tormented by a host of cuts from the soldiers’ swords, he was killed on the Gemonian Stairs, and his body dragged with a hook to the Tiber.
1 commentsBlindado
VespDenSalus.jpg
1aw Vespasian44 views69-79

Denarius
Laureate head, right, IMP CAES VESP AVG CEN
Salus seated left with patera, SALVS AVG

RIC 513 (C2)

Suetonius wrote: The Flavians seized power, and the Empire, long troubled and adrift, afflicted by the usurpations and deaths of three emperors, at last achieved stability. True they were an obscure family, with no great names to boast of, yet one our country has no need to be ashamed of. . . . Vespasian was born in the Sabine country, in the little village of Falacrinae just beyond Reate (Rieti), on the 17th of November 9 AD in the consulship of Quintus Sulpicius Camerinus and Gaius Poppaeus Sabinus, five years before the death of Augustus. He was raised by his paternal grandmother Tertulla on her estate at Cosa. . . .

Under Claudius, he was sent to Germany (in 41 AD) to command a legion, thanks to the influence of Narcissus. From there he was posted to Britain (in 43 AD), where partly under the leadership of Aulus Plautius and partly that of Claudius himself, he fought thirty times, subjugating two powerful tribes, more than twenty strongholds, and the offshore island of Vectis (the Isle of Wight). This earned him triumphal regalia, and a little later two priesthoods and the consulship (in 51 AD) which he held for the last two months of the year. . . . He won, by lot, the governorship of Africa (in 63 AD), ruling it soundly and with considerable dignity. . . .

An ancient and well-established belief became widespread in the East that the ruler of the world at this time would arise from Judaea. This prophecy as events proved referred to the future Emperor of Rome, but was taken by the Jews to apply to them. They rebelled, killed their governor, and routed the consular ruler of Syria also, when he arrived to restore order, capturing an Eagle. To crush the rebels needed a considerable force under an enterprising leader, who would nevertheless not abuse power. Vespasian was chosen, as a man of proven vigour, from whom little need be feared, since his name and origins were quite obscure. Two legions with eight divisions of cavalry and ten cohorts of auxiliaries were added to the army in Judaea, and Vespasian took his elder son, Titus, along as one of his lieutenants. . . .

Yet Vespasian made no move, though his follower were ready and eager, until he was roused to action by the fortuitous support of a group of soldiers unknown to him, and based elsewhere. Two thousand men, of the three legions in Moesia reinforcing Otho’s forces, despite hearing on the march that he had been defeated and had committed suicide, had continued on to Aquileia, and there taken advantage of the temporary chaos to plunder at will. Fearing that if they returned they would be held to account and punished, they decided to choose and appoint an emperor of their own, on the basis that they were every bit as worthy of doing so as the Spanish legions who had appointed Galba, or the Praetorian Guard which had elected Otho, or the German army which had chosen Vitellius. They went through the list of serving consular governors, rejecting them for one reason or another, until in the end they unanimously adopted Vespasian, who was recommended strongly by some members of the Third Legion, which had been transferred to Moesia from Syria immediately prior to Nero’s death. . . .

Vespasian, an unheralded and newly-forged emperor, as yet lacked even a modicum of prestige and divine majesty, but this too he acquired. . . . Returning to Rome (in 70 AD) attended by such auspices, having won great renown, and after a triumph awarded for the Jewish War, he added eight consulships (AD 70-72, 74-77, 79) to his former one, and assumed the censorship. He first considered it essential to strengthen the State, which was unstable and well nigh fatally weakened, and then to enhance its role further during his reign. . . .
2 commentsBlindado
FaustinaSestVesta.jpg
1bi Faustina22 viewsWife of Antoninus Pius, died 141

Sestertius

Draped bust, right, DIVA FAVSTINA
Vesta stg, AVGVSTA SC

RIC 1178

The Historia Augusta recounts: On the death of his wife Faustina, in the third year of his reign, the senate deified her, and voted her games and a temple and priestesses and statues of silver and of gold. These the Emperor accepted, and furthermore granted permission that her statue be erected in all the circuses ; and when the senate voted her a golden statue, he undertook to erect it himself.
Blindado
ElagabDenEleg.jpg
1bz Elagabalus_217 views218-222

Denarius

Laureate, horned & draped bust rightt, IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG
Elagabalus standing left, sacrificing from patera over lit tripod altar, holding branch, star in field left, SVMMVS SACERDOS AVG

RIC 146

The Historia Augusta, in the life of Caracalla, notes: Bassianus lived for forty-three years and ruled for six. . . . He left a son, who afterward received, like his father, the name Antoninus Marcus Antoninus Elagabalus; for such a hold had the name of the Antonines that it could not be removed from the thoughts of the people, because it had taken root in the hearts of all, even as had the name of Augustus.

In the life of Macrinus is recorded: Now there was a certain woman of the city of Emesa, called [Julia] Maesa or Varia; she was the sister of Julia, the wife of [Septimius] Severus Pertinax the African, and after the death of Antoninus Bassianus she had been expelled from her home in the palace through the arrogance of Macrinus. . . . This woman had two daughters, [Julia Soaemias] and [Julia] Mamaea, the elder of whom was the mother of Elagabalus; he assumed the names Bassianus and Antoninus, for the Phoenicians give the name Elagabalus to the Sun. Elagabalus, moreover, was notable for his beauty and stature and for the priesthood which he held, and he was well known to all who frequented the temple, and particularly to the soldiers. To these, Maesa, or Varia as she was also called, declared that this Bassianus was the son of Antoninus, and this was gradually made known to all the soldiers. Maesa herself, furthermore, was very rich (whence also Elagabalus was most wasteful of money), and through her promises to the soldiers the legions were persuaded to desert Macrinus. . . .

Finally, when he received the imperial power, he took the name Antoninus and was the last of the Antonines to rule the Roman Empire. . . . He was wholly under the control of his mother [Soaemias], so much so, in fact, that he did no public business without her consent, although she lived like a harlot and practised all manner of lewdness in the palace. For that matter, her amour with Antoninus Caracalla was so notorious that Varius, or rather Elagabalus, was commonly supposed to be his son. . . . In short, when Elagabalus' message was read in the senate, at once good wishes were uttered for Antoninus and curses on Macrinus and his son, and, in accordance with the general wish and the eager belief of all in his paternity, Antoninus was hailed as emperor. . . .

After he had spent the winter in Nicomedia, [218-219] living in a depraved manner and indulging in unnatural vice with men, the soldiers soon began to regret that they had conspired against Macrinus to make this man emperor, and they turned their thoughts toward his cousin Alexander, who on the murder of Macrinus had been hailed by the senate as Caesar. . . . Among the base actions of his life of depravity he gave orders that Alexander, whom he had formally adopted, be removed from his presence, saying that he regretted the adoption. Then he commanded the senate to take away from Alexander the name of Caesar. But when this was announced to the senate, there was a profound silence. For Alexander was an excellent youth, as was afterwards shown by the character of his rule, even though, because he was chaste, he was displeasing to his adoptive father he was also, as some declare, his cousin. Besides, he was loved by the soldiers and acceptable to the senate and the equestrian order. Yet the Emperor's madness went the length of an attempt to carry out the basest design; for he despatched assassins to kill Alexander. . . . The soldiers, however, and particularly the members of the guard, either because they knew what evils were in store for Elagabalus, or because they foresaw his hatred for themselves, formed a conspiracy to set the state free. First they attacked the accomplices in his plan of murdering Alexander. . . . Next they fell upon Elagabalus himself and slew him in a latrine in which he had taken refuge.
Blindado
AurelianusAntPietas.jpg
1dk Aurelian28 views270-275

Radiate, cuirassed bust, right, IMP AVRELIANVS AVG
Aurelian & Severina or priest standing facing each other, each holding short sceptre, sacrificing at altar between them, S in ex, PIETAS AVG

Zosimus recorded: Aurelianus, having regulated the empire, went from Rome to Aquileia, and from thence into Pannonia, which he was informed the Scythians were preparing to invade. For this reason he sent orders to the inhabitants of that country to carry into the towns all their corn and cattle, and every thing that could be of use to the enemy, in order to distress them with famine, with which they were already afflicted. The Barbarians having crossed the river into Pannonia had an engagement, the result of which was nearly equal. But the same night, the Barbarians recrossed the river, and as soon as day appeared, sent ambassadors to treat for peace. |25

The Emperor, hearing that the Alemanni and the neighbouring nations intended to over-run Italy, was with just reason more concerned for Rome and the adjacent places, than for the more remote. Having therefore ordered a sufficient force to remain for the defence of Pannonia, he marched towards Italy, and on his route, on the borders of that country, near the Ister, slew many thousands of the Barbarians in one battle. Several members of the senate being at this time accused of conspiring against the emperor were put to death ; and Rome, which before had no walls, was now surrounded with them. This work was begun in the reign of Aurelianus, and was finished by Probus. At the same time Epitimius, Urbanus, and Domitianus, were likewise suspected as innovators, and were immediately apprehended and punished. During these occurrences in Italy and Pannonia, the emperor prepared to march against the Palmyrenians, who had subdued all Egypt, and the east, as far as Ancyra in Galatia, and would have acquired Bithynia even as far as Chalcedon, if the inhabitants of that country had not learned that Aurelianus was made emperor, and so shook off the Palmyrenian yoke. As soon as the emperor was on his march thither, Ancyra submitted to the Romans, and afterwards Tuana, and all the cities between that and Antioch. There finding Zenobia with a large army ready to engage, as he himself also was, he met and engaged her as honour obliged him [an defeated the enemy. . . .

[Having crushed Palmyra and razed it] He then entered Rome in triumph, where he was most magnificiently received by the senate and people. At this period also be erected that sumptuous temple of the sun, which he ornamented with all the sacred spoils that he brought from Palmyra; placing in it the statues of the sun and Belus. After this he easily reduced Tatricus with his rebellious accomplices, whom he brought to signal punishment. He likewise called in all the counterfeit money, and issued new, to avoid confusion in trade. Besides which he bestowed on the people a gift of bread, as a mark of his favour; and having arranged all affairs set out on a journey from Rome. . . .

During his stay at Perinthus, now called Heraclea, a conspiracy was thus formed against him. There was in the court a man named Eros, whose office was to carry out the answers of the emperor. This man had been for some fault threatened by the emperor, and put in great fear. Dreading therefore lest the emperor should realize his menaces by actions, he went to some of the guard, whom he knew to be the boldest men in the court; be told them a plausible story, and shewed them a letter of his own writing, in the character of the emperor (which he had long before learned to counterfeit), and persuading them first that they themselves were to be put to death, [h]e endeavoured to prevail on them to murder the emperor. The deception answered. Observing Aurelianus to go out of the city with a small retinue, they ran out upon him and murdered him.

RIC 138
Blindado
ConstantinusFollisSol.jpg
1ec_2 Constantine the Great18 views307-337

Follis

Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, IMP CONSTANTINVS PF AVG
Sol standing left, chlamys across left shoulder, raising right hand and holding globe in left hand, captive to left. Mintmark RQ.

RIC VII 52

According to Zonaras: Constans, in the eleventh year of his reign since he had been proclaimed Caesar, having ruled gently and mildly, came to the end of his life while residing in Britain, having, because of his goodness, bequeathed grief for himself among those he ruled, first having appointed successor the elder of his own sons, namely Constantine the Great, whom he begat by his first wife. He also had by his second wife, Herculius’ daughter Theodora, other sons, Constantinus, Hannibalianus, and Constantius. Constantine the Great was preferred over them, since they were judged by their father to be unsuited for sovereignty. . . . Constantine, when he was still a lad, was actually given by his father as a hostage to Gallerius, in order that, serving as a hostage, at the same time he be trained in the exercise of the soldierly art.

Eutropius summarizes: CONSTANTINE, being a man of great energy, bent upon effecting whatever he had settled in his mind, and aspiring to the sovereignty of the whole world, proceeded to make war on Licinius, although he had formed a connexion with him by marriage,5 for his sister Constantia was married to Licinius. And first of all be overthrew him, by a sudden attack, at Cibalae in Pannonia, where he was making vast preparations for war; and after becoming master of Dardania, Maesia, and Macedonia, took possession also of several other provinces.

There were then various contests between them, and peace made and broken. At last Licinius, defeated in a battle at Nicomedia by sea and land, surrendered himself, and, in violation of an oath taken by Constantine, was put to death, after being divested of the purple, at Thessalonica.

At this time the Roman empire fell under the sway of one emperor and three Caesars, a state of things which had never existed before; the sons of Constantine ruling over Gaul, the east, and Italy. But the pride of prosperity caused Constantine greatly to depart from his former agreeable mildness of temper. Falling first upon his own relatives, he put to death his son, an excellent man; his sister's son, a youth of amiable disposition; soon afterwards his wife, and subsequently many of his friends.

He was a man, who, in the beginning of his reign, might have been compared to the best princes; in the latter part of it, only to those of a middling character. Innumerable good qualities of mind and body were apparent in him; he was exceedingly ambitious of military glory, and had great success in his wars; a success, however, not more than proportioned to his exertions. After he had terminated the Civil war, he also overthrew the Goths on various occasions, granting them at last peace, and leaving on the minds of the barbarians a strong remembrance of his kindness. He was attached to the arts of peace and to liberal studies, and was ambitious of honourable popularity, which he, indeed, sought by every kind of liberality and obligingness. Though he was slow, from suspicion, to serve some of his friends,6 yet he was exceedingly generous towards others, neglecting no opportunity to add to their riches and honours.

He enacted many laws, some good and equitable, but most of them superfluous, and some severe. He was the first that endeavoured to raise the city named after him to such a height as to make it a rival to Rome. As he was preparing for war against the Parthians, who were then disturbing Mesopotamia, he died in the Villa Publica, at Nicomedia, in the thirty-first year of his reign, and the sixty-sixth of his age.

Zosimus described Constantine's conversion to Christianity: For he put to death his son Crispus, stiled (as I mentioned) Caesar, on suspicion of debauching his mother-in-law Fausta, without any regard to the ties of nature. And when his own mother Helena expressed much sorrow for this atrocity, lamenting the young man's death with great bitterness, Constantine under pretence of comforting her, applied a remedy worse than the disease. For causing a bath to be heated to an extraordinary degree, he shut up Fausta in it, and a short time after took her out dead. Of which his conscience accusing him, as also of violating his oath, he went to the priests to be purified from his crimes. But they told him, that there was no kind of lustration that was sufficient to clear him of such enormities. A Spaniard, named Aegyptius, very familiar with the court-ladies, being at Rome, happened to fall into converse with Constantine, and assured him, that the Christian doctrine would teach him how to cleanse himself from all his offences, and that they who received it were immediately absolved from all their sins. Constantine had no sooner heard this than he easily believed what was told him, and forsaking the rites of his country, received those which Aegyptius offered him ; and for the first instance of his impiety, suspected the truth of divination.
Blindado
coins127.JPG
201a. Julia Domna11 viewsVesta

Vesta was introduced in Rome by King Numa Pompilius. She was a native Roman deity (some authors suggest received from the Sabine cults), sister of Zeus, Poseidon, Hades, Hera and Demeter, and presumably the daughter of Saturn and Ops (or Rea). However, the similarity with the cult of Greek Hestia is notable. Vesta too protected familial harmony and the res publica. Apollo and Neptune had asked for her in marriage, but she refused both, preferring to preserve her virginity, whose symbol was the perpetually lit fire in her circular fane next to the Forum which the Romans always distinguished from a temple by calling it her "house".

As Goddess of the Hearth she was the symbol of the home, around which a newborn child must be carried before it could be received into the family. Every meal began and ended with an offering to her:

Vesta, in all dwellings of men and immortals
Yours is the highest honor, the sweet wine offered
First and last at the feast, poured out to you duly.
Never without you can gods or mortals hold banquet.

Landscape with Vesta temple in Tivoli, Italy, c. 1600.Each city too had a public hearth sacred to Vesta, where the fire was never allowed to go out. If a colony was to be founded, the colonists carried with them coals from the hearth of the mother-city with which to kindle the fire on the new city's hearth.

The fire was guarded by her priestesses, the Vestales. Every March 1 the fire was renewed. It burned until 391, when the Emperor Theodosius I forbade public pagan worship. One of the Vestales was Rea Silvia, who with Mars conceived Romulus and Remus (see founding of Rome).

3070. Silver denarius, RIC 538, RSC 221, VF, 2.30g, 17.5mm, 0o, Rome mint, 193-196 A.D.; obverse IVLIA DOMNA AVG, draped bust right; reverse VESTA, Vesta seated left, holding palladium and scepter. Ex Forum
ecoli
coin231.JPG
204b. Julia Maesa29 viewsJulia Maesa (about 170- about 226) was daughter of Julius Bassianus, priest of the sun god Heliogabalus, the patron god of Emesa in the Roman province of Syria, and grandmother of the Roman emperor Elagabalus. Like her younger sister Julia Domna, she was among the most important women ever to exercise power behind the throne in the Roman empire.

Julia Maesa was married to Julius Avitus and had two daughters, Julia Mamaea and Julia Soaemias, each one mother of an emperor. Following the accession to the throne of her brother in law Septimius Severus, Julia Maesa moved to Rome to live with her sister. After the murder of her nephew Caracalla, and the suicide of Julia Domna, she was compelled to return to Syria. But the new emperor Macrinus did not proscribe her and allowed her to keep her money. In Syria, Maesa engaged in a plot to overthrow Macrinus and place one of her grandsons, Elagabalus son of Julia Soaemias, in his place. In order to legitimise this pretension, mother and daughter rumoured that the 14-year-old boy was Caracalla's illegitimate son. The Julias were successful, mainly due to the fact that Macrinus was of an obscure origin without the proper political connections, and Elagabalus became emperor.

For her loyalty and support, Elagabalus honored Julia Maesa with the title Augusta avia Augusti (Augusta, grandmother of Augustus). When the teenager proved to be a disaster as emperor (even taking the liberty of marrying a Vestal virgin), Julia Maesa decided to promote Alexander Severus, another of her grandsons. Elagabalus was forced to adopt Alexander as son and was murdered shortly afterwards.

Julia Maesa died in an uncertain date around 226 AD and, like her sister Domna before her, was deified.

Julia Maesa Denarius. PVDICITIA, Pudicitia seated left, raising veil and holding sceptre.

Julia Maesa Denarius. IVLIA MAESA AVG, draped bust right / PVDICITIA, Pudicitia seated left, raising veil and holding sceptre. RIC 268, RSC 36. s2183. No.1502. nVF.
RSC 444, RIC 88
ecoli
Denario_Domitian_RIC_596_1_Fourree.jpg
21-02 - DOMICIANO (81 - 96 D.C.) 47 viewsFALSIFICACIÓN ANCIANA, puede estar acuñado con un anverso anterior, si vemos el espacio entre la terminación de la leyenda visible TR P y el pecho del emperador vemos que no hay espacio para que entre VIII, que sería la leyenda de anverso de las monedas acuñadas en el 88 D.C.
Denario Forrado 18x17 mm 2.7 gr.

Anv: "IMP CAES DOMIT AVG - GERM P M TR P [VIII]" - Cabeza laureada viendo a derecha.
Rev: "COS XIIII LVD SAEC FEC" – Heraldo vistiendo gorro emplumado avanzando a izquierda, portando vara en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y escudo redondo decorado, su centro, con un busto de Minerva.
Para Cohen el Heraldo podría ser un sacerdote Salian (Saltador) de la antigua Roma. Esta moneda es parte de la extensa emisión que se realizó en Roma conmemorando los Juegos Seculares en el otoño del 88 D.C.

Acuñada 3ra. Emisión 88 D.C.
Ceca: No Oficial
Rareza: Rara

Referencias: RIC Vol.II #117 Pag.168 – RIC2 #596 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #2723 Pag.494 - BMCRE Vol.2 #131 - Cohen Vol.1 #76 Pag.476 - DVM #19 Pag.110 - CBN #120 - RSC Vol. II #76/77 Pag.64
mdelvalle
RIC_117_Denario_Forrado_Domiciano.jpg
21-05 - DOMICIANO (81 - 96 D.C.) 19 viewsFALSIFICACIÓN ANCIANA, puede estar acuñado con un anverso anterior, si vemos el espacio entre la terminación de la leyenda visible TR P y el pecho del emperador vemos que no hay espacio para que entre VIII, que sería la leyenda de anverso de las monedas acuñadas en el 88 D.C.
Denario Forrado 18x17 mm 2.7 gr.

Anv: "IMP CAES DOMIT AVG - GERM P M TR P [VIII]" - Cabeza laureada viendo a derecha.
Rev: "COS XIIII LVD SAEC FEC" – Heraldo vistiendo gorro emplumado avanzando a izquierda, portando vara en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y escudo redondo decorado, su centro, con un busto de Minerva.
Para Cohen el Heraldo podría ser un sacerdote Salian (Saltador) de la antigua Roma. Esta moneda es parte de la extensa emisión que se realizó en Roma conmemorando los Juegos Seculares en el otoño del 88 D.C.

Acuñada 3ra. Emisión 88 D.C.
Ceca: No Oficial
Rareza: Rara

Referencias: RIC Vol.II #117 Pag.168 – RIC2 #596 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #2723 Pag.494 - BMCRE Vol.2 #131 - Cohen Vol.1 #76 Pag.476 - DVM #19 Pag.110 - CBN #120 - RSC Vol. II #76/77 Pag.64
mdelvalle
22117.jpg
22117 Elagabalus/Sacrificing13 viewsElagabalus/Emperor Sacrificing
Obv: IMP. ANTONINUS PIUS AUG.
Bust of Elagabalus laureate and draped bust right, horn above forehead.
Rev: SVMMVS SACERDOS AVG
Elagabalus, in Syrian priestly robes, standing left, sacrificing out of patera in right hand over tripod, holding branch downwards in left hand; in field, star
Mint: Rome 18mm 3.02g
RIC IV Elagabalus 146 Sear 7549
Ex: Savoca Auction 16th Blue Auction
Blayne W
Denario_Nerva_RIC_139_2_Fourree.png
23-04 - NERVA (96 - 98 D.C.)42 viewsFALSIFICACIÓN ANCIANA,
Híbrido realizado con cuños pertenecientes a dos emisiones diferentes, pero ambas del mismo Emperador.
Denario Forrado 19x17 mm 2.9 gr.

Anv: "IMP NERVA CAES AVG P M TR P COS II P P - Cabeza laureada viendo a derecha.
Rev: "COS III PATER PATRIAE" – Implementos/emblemas sacerdotales del Augur usados en los sacrificios: "simpulum" (copa pequeña), "aspergillum" (instrumento para espolvorear o rociar), "praefericulum" (jarra o vaso utilizado en los sacrificios) y "lituus" (báculo o cayado usado por los augures).
Acuñada Con posterioridad al 97 D.C.
Ceca: No oficial

Referencias: RIC Vol.II #139 (Hybrid) Pag.233, Cohen Vol. II #49 Pag. 6 - BMCRE Vol.3 Pag.5 Nota.
1 commentsmdelvalle
RIC_139_Denario_Nerva.jpg
23-04 - NERVA (96 - 98 D.C.)18 viewsFALSIFICACIÓN ANCIANA,
Híbrido realizado con cuños pertenecientes a dos emisiones diferentes, pero ambas del mismo Emperador.
Denario Forrado 19x17 mm 2.9 gr.

Anv: "IMP NERVA CAES AVG P M TR P COS II P P - Cabeza laureada viendo a derecha.
Rev: "COS III PATER PATRIAE" – Implementos/emblemas sacerdotales del Augur usados en los sacrificios: "simpulum" (copa pequeña), "aspergillum" (instrumento para espolvorear o rociar), "praefericulum" (jarra o vaso utilizado en los sacrificios) y "lituus" (báculo o cayado usado por los augures).
Acuñada Con posterioridad al 97 D.C.
Ceca: No oficial

Referencias: RIC Vol.II #139 (Hybrid) Pag.233, Cohen Vol. II #49 Pag. 6 - BMCRE Vol.3 Pag.5 Nota.
mdelvalle
rjb_2014_04_01.jpg
235a19 viewsMaximus 235-8 AD
AE Sestertius
Obv: "MAXIMVS CAES GERM"
Draped bust right
Rev: PIETAS AVG SC"
Priestly implements
Rome mint
RIC 11
mauseus
Anto3Rhea_Mars.jpg
3. Mars descends on sleeping Rhea Silvia48 viewsAntoninus Pius. 138-161 AD. As. Rome mint. Struck 140-144 AD. Obv.: [ANTO]NINVS - AVG PIVS P P, laureate head right. Rev.: TR POT COS [III around] S C [in field], Mars holding spear and shield descends on sleeping Rhea Silvia.

This coin was struck just prior to 900th anniversary of Rome which was celebrated in 147 AD. According to Titus Livius (59BC to AD17) account of the legend, Rhea Silva was the daughter of Numitor, king of Alba Longa and descendant of Aeneas. Numitor's younger brother Amulius seized the throne and killed Numitor's son. Amulius forced Rhea Silvia to become a Vestal Virgin, a priestess to the goddess Vesta, so that the line of Numitor would have no heirs; Vestal Virgins were sworn to celibacy for a period of thirty years. Rhea Silvia claimed that the god Mars, however, came upon her and seduced her in the forest, thereby conceiving the twins Romulus and Remus. When Amulius learned of this, he imprisoned Rhea Silvia. (In another version of the story, he ordered her to be thrown into the Tiber, where she fell into the arms of the river god who married her.) Legend continued on "Wolf suckling twins"...
Charles S
ConVIIAquil65or85.jpg
307-337 AD - Constantine I - RIC VII Aquileia 065 or 085 - D N CONSTANTINI MAX AVG26 viewsEmperor: Constantine I (r. 307-337 AD)
Date: 320-321 AD
Condition: Very Fine
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG
Emperor Constantine
Bust right; laureate

Reverse: D N CONSTANTINI MAX AVG
Laurel wreath enclosing VOT / XX.
Our Lord Constantine Chief Priest Emperor offers vows so that he may have a prosperous twenty year reign.
Exergue: AQP or ●AQP● (Aquileia mint, first officina)

RIC VII Aquileia 65 or 85; VM 79
2.58g; 18.9mm; 165°
Pep
ConVIITic163.jpg
307-337 AD - Constantine I - RIC VII Ticinum 163 - D N CONSTANTINI MAX AVG28 viewsEmperor: Constantine I (r. 307-337 AD)
Date: 321-322 AD
Condition: EF
Size: AE3

Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG
Emperor Constantine
Head right; laureate

Reverse: D N CONSTANTINI MAX AVG
Laurel wreath enclosing VOT / XX.
Our Lord Constantine Chief Priest Emperor offers vows so that he may have a prosperous twenty year reign.
"●" in center field
Exergue: ST (Ticinum mint, second officina)

RIC VII Ticinum 163; VM 79
2.52g; 17.9mm; 345°
Pep
706Hadrian_RIC389.jpg
389B Hadrian Denarius Roma 138 AD Eagle standing26 viewsReference.
RIC 389B; RSC 271;

Obv. DIVVS HADRIANVS AVG
Head of Divus Hadrian, bare, right

Rev. CONSECRATIO
Eagle standing front on globe, head turned left, wings spread

3.04 gr
18 mm
6h

Note.
From the estate of Thomas Bentley Cederlind.

Consecratio was the apotheosis of the dead Roman emperors, which however was only bestowed on those who were judged worthy of her by the Senate or by their successors.
However, it is well known, how generous people in Rome with this honor mishandled. Even empresses enjoyed after their death the privilege of consecratio. After their consecratio they got the nickname of Divi or Divae. Several ceremonies at the funeral went to the consecratio advance. In burning the corpse on the pyre rose include becoming an eagle from the flames to heaven. The emperors and empresses thus become the god had their own temples, priests and parties. They were so entirely assimilated to the gods.

The emperors themselves have mocked their deification. In the Historia Augusta is sick of Vespasian told that he says "I feel to be a God." In his famous poem "Animula vagula blandula" Hadrian doubt his deification.
okidoki
423-1_Servilia2.jpg
423/1. Servilia - denarius (57 BC)31 viewsAR Denarius (Rome, 57 BC)
O/ Head of Flora right; lituus behind; FLORAL PRIMVS before.
R/ Two soldiers facing each other and presenting swords; C SERVEIL in exergue; C F upwards on right.
3.87g; 18mm
Crawford 423/1 (99 obverse dies/110 reverse dies)
- ROMA Numismatics, E-Sale 42, lot 484.
- Artemide Aste, 11-12 June 2016, lot 253.

* Gaius Servilius C.f. (Brocchus?):

The gens Servilia was originally patrician, but our moneyer was most likely a plebeian because at this time, the only remaining patrician branch of the gens was the Caepiones. The Servilii Gemini, likewise patricians at first, lost their status during the Second Punic War for an unknown reason and their descendants had erratic cognomina, making it difficult to reconstruct the genealogical tree of the gens. The one given by Crawford for RRC 239 is dubious, although possible.

Crawford also says that our moneyer was perhaps a brother of Marcus Servilius C.f., Tribune of the Plebs in 43 BC. He was possibly the Gaius Servilius Brocchus, son of Gaius, mentioned as Military Tribune by Flavius Josephus (Jewish Antiquities, xiv. 229), who tells that he served under the Consul L. Cornelius Lentulus Crus in Asia. It would match a career started in the 50, during which the Pompeian party was dominating, and continued as Pompey's supporter during the Civil War.

The meaning of his denarius has been debated. According to Crawford, the obverse legend refers to the priesthood of Flora, probably held by the gens, contradicting the view of Mommsen, who thought it was celebrating the establishment of the Ludi Florales in 173. This view has been in turn challenged by Robert Palmer, but without giving an explanation of his own*. It should also be mentioned that Pliny the Elder tells that there were statues of Flora, Triptolemus and Ceres by Praxiteles in the "Servilian gardens" (Natural History, xxxvi. 4), which obviously belonged to the gens, showing that Flora was of special importance for the Servilii.

The reverse reuses a common theme on Servilii's denarii: the duels of Marcus Servilius Pulex Geminus, Consul in 202, who was famous for his 23 victories in single combats (Plutarch, Aemilius Paullus, 31). The scene was depicted with variations on RRC 264 (horseback duel), RRC 327 (duel on foot), and RRC 370 (rider charging). It is also possible that RRC 239 shows another duel on horse, but disguised as the Dioscuri riding apart. The fact that our moneyer used this theme links him to the other direct descendants of Servilius Pulex Geminus, thus supporting Crawford's theory that he was a grandchild of Gaius Servilius, Praetor in 102.

* "Flora and the Sybil", in Ten Years of the Agnes Kirsopp Lake Michels Lectures at Bryn Mawr College, edited by Suzanne B. Faris, Lesley E. Lundeen, Bryn Mawr, 2006, pp. 58-70.
3 commentsJoss
Caesar_DICT_ITER.jpg
46 BC Gaius Julius Caesar 50 viewsDICT ITER COS TERT
Head of Ceres right wreathed with corn

AVGVR PONT MAX
Simpulum, sprinkler, jug and lituus D or M on right

Utica? 46 BC
Sear 1403

SOLD

This extensive issue of denarii would seem to represent another measure on the part of Caesar to ease the burden on the Capitoline mint in the period prior to the distribution of vast sums of money at the quadruple triumph. The inscription on these coins omit the actual name of the dictator. However, the titles clearly refer to Caesar- his dictatorships, consulships and possession of various priestly offices.

Attention is drawn to the extraordinary nature of the issue by the appearance of either a "D" (Donativum) or "M" (munus, gift) in the reverse field. This tells of the intended use of the coins for the payment of Caesar's loyal veterans, both prior to the quadruple triumph and during the celebration itself.
Titus Pullo
Octavian_Denarius_both.jpg
5) Octavian40 viewsOctavian
AR Denarius, Southern or Central Italian mint, summer 37 BC

IMP CAESAR DIVI F III VIR ITER R P C, bare head right / COS ITER ET TER DESIG, priestly implements: simpulum, sprinkler, jug & lituus.

Cr538/1, Syd 1334., Sear 1554
RM0035
1 commentsSosius
coins171.JPG
504. Constantius II Campgate Nicomedia18 viewsNicomedia

Titular see of Bithynia Prima, founded by King Zipoetes. About 264 B.C. his son Nicodemes I dedicated the city anew, gave it his name, made it his capital, and adorned it with magnificent monuments. At his court the vanquished Hannibal sought refuge. When Bithynia became a Roman province Nicomedia remained its capital. Pliny the Younger mentions, in his letters to Trajan, several public edifices of the city — a senate house, an aqueduct which he had built, a forum, the temple of Cybele, etc. He also proposed to join the Black Sea with the Sea of Marmora by a canal which should follow the river Sangarius and empty the waters of the Lake of Sabandja into the Gulf of Astacus. A fire then almost destroyed the town. From Nicomedia perhaps, he wrote to Trajan his famous letter concerning the Christians. Under Marcus Aurelius, Dionysius, Bishop of Corinth, addressed a letter to his community warning them against the Marcionites (Eusebius, "Hist. Eccl.", IV, xxiii). Bishop Evander, who opposed the sect of the Ophites (P.L., LIII, 592), seems to have lived at the same time. Nicomedia was the favorite residence of Diocletian, who built there a palace, a hippodrome, a mint, and an arsenal. In 303 the edict of the tenth persecution caused rivers of blood to flow through the empire, especially in Nicomedia, where the Bishop Anthimus and a great many Christians were martyred. The city was then half Christian, the palace itself being filled with them. In 303, in the vast plain east of Nicomedia, Diocletian renounced the empire in favour of Galerius. In 311 Lucian, a priest of Antioch, delivered a discourse in the presence of the judge before he was executed. Other martyrs of the city are numbered by hundreds. Nicomedia suffered greatly during the fourth century from an invasion of the Goths and from an earthquake (24 Aug., 354), which overthrew all the public and private monuments; fire completed the catastrophe. The city was rebuilt, on a smaller scale. In the reign of Justinian new public buildings were erected, which were destroyed in the following century by the Shah Chosroes. Pope Constantine I visited the city in 711. In 1073 John Comnenus was there proclaimed emperor and shortly afterwards was compelled to abdicate. In 1328 it was captured by the Sultan Orkhan, who restored its ramparts, parts of which are still preserved.

RIC VII Nicomedia 158 R2

ecoli
GalbaAEAs.jpg
707a, Galba, 3 April 68 - 15 January 69 A.D.66 viewsGalba AE As, 68-69 AD; cf. SRC 727, 729ff; 27.85mm, 12g; Rome: Obverse: GALBA IMP CAESAR…, Laureate head right; Reverse: S P Q R OB CIV SER in oak wreath; gF+/F Ex. Ancient Imports.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Galba (68-69 A.D.)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary


Introduction
The evidence for the principate of Galba is unsatisfactory. The sources either concentrate on the personality of the man, thereby failing to offer a balanced account of his policies and a firm chronological base for his actions; or, they focus on the final two weeks of his life at the expense of the earlier part of his reign. As a result, a detailed account of his principate is difficult to write. Even so, Galba is noteworthy because he was neither related to nor adopted by his predecessor Nero. Thus, his accession marked the end of the nearly century-long control of the Principate by the Julio-Claudians. Additionally, Galba's declaration as emperor by his troops abroad set a precedent for the further political upheavals of 68-69. Although these events worked to Galba's favor initially, they soon came back to haunt him, ending his tumultuous rule after only seven months.

Early Life and Rise to Power
Born 24 December 3 BC in Tarracina, a town on the Appian Way, 65 miles south of Rome, Servius Galba was the son of C. Sulpicius Galba and Mummia Achaica. Galba's connection with the noble house of the Servii gave him great prestige and assured his acceptance among the highest levels of Julio-Claudian society. Adopted in his youth by Livia, the mother of the emperor Tiberius, he is said to have owed much of his early advancement to her. Upon her death, Livia made Galba her chief legatee, bequeathing him some 50 million sesterces. Tiberius, Livia's heir, reduced the amount, however, and then never paid it. Galba's marriage proved to be a further source of disappointment, as he outlived both his wife Lepida and their two sons. Nothing else is known of Galba's immediate family, other than that he remained a widower for the rest of his life.

Although the details of Galba's early political career are incomplete, the surviving record is one of an ambitious Roman making his way in the Emperor's service. Suetonius records that as praetor Galba put on a new kind of exhibition for the people - elephants walking on a rope. Later, he served as governor of the province of Aquitania, followed by a six-month term as consul at the beginning of 33. Ironically, as consul he was succeeded by Salvius Otho, whose own son would succeed Galba as emperor. Over the years three more governorships followed - Upper Germany (date unknown), North Africa (45) and Hispania Tarraconensis, the largest of Spain's three provinces (61). He was selected as a proconsul of Africa by the emperor Claudius himself instead of by the usual method of drawing lots. During his two-year tenure in the province he successfully restored internal order and quelled a revolt by the barbarians. As an imperial legate he was a governor in Spain for eight years under Nero, even though he was already in his early sixties when he assumed his duties. The appointment showed that Galba was still considered efficient and loyal. In all of these posts Galba generally displayed an enthusiasm for old-fashioned disciplina, a trait consistent with the traditional characterization of the man as a hard-bitten aristocrat of the old Republican type. Such service did not go unnoticed, as he was honored with triumphal insignia and three priesthoods during his career.

On the basis of his ancestry, family tradition and service to the state Galba was the most distinguished Roman alive (with the exception of the houses of the Julii and Claudii) at the time of Nero's demise in 68. The complex chain of events that would lead him to the Principate later that year began in March with the rebellion of Gaius Iulius Vindex, the governor of Gallia Lugdunensis. Vindex had begun to sound out provincial governors about support for a rebellion perhaps in late 67 or early 68. Galba did not respond but, because of his displeasure with Neronian misgovernment, neither did he inform the emperor of these treasonous solicitations. This, of course, left him dangerously exposed; moreover, he was already aware that Nero, anxious to remove anyone of distinguished birth and noble achievements, had ordered his death. Given these circumstances, Galba likely felt that he had no choice but to rebel.

In April, 68, while still in Spain, Galba "went public," positioning himself as a vir militaris, a military representative of the senate and people of Rome. For the moment, he refused the title of Emperor, but it is clear that the Principate was his goal. To this end, he organized a concilium of advisors in order to make it known that any decisions were not made by him alone but only after consultation with a group. The arrangement was meant to recall the Augustan Age relationship between the emperor and senate in Rome. Even more revealing of his imperial ambitions were legends like LIBERTAS RESTITUTA (Liberty Restored), ROM RENASC (Rome Reborn) and SALUS GENERIS HUMANI (Salvation of Mankind), preserved on his coinage from the period. Such evidence has brought into question the traditional assessment of Galba as nothing more than an ineffectual representative of a bygone antiquus rigor in favor of a more balanced portrait of a traditional constitutionalist eager to publicize the virtues of an Augustan-style Principate.
Events now began to move quickly. In May, 68 Lucius Clodius Macer, legate of the III legio Augusta in Africa, revolted from Nero and cut off the grain supply to Rome. Choosing not to recognize Galba, he called himself propraetor, issued his own coinage, and raised a new legion, the I Macriana liberatrix. Galba later had him executed. At the same time, 68, Lucius Verginius Rufus, legionary commander in Upper Germany, led a combined force of soldiers from Upper and Lower Germany in defeating Vindex at Vesontio in Gallia Lugdunensis. Verginius refused to accept a call to the emperorship by his own troops and by those from the Danube, however, thereby creating at Rome an opportunity for Galba's agents to win over Gaius Nymphidius Sabinus, the corrupt praetorian prefect since 65. Sabinus was able to turn the imperial guard against Nero on the promise that they would be rewarded financially by Galba upon his arrival. That was the end for Nero. Deposed by the senate and abandoned by his supporters, he committed suicide in June. At this point, encouraged to march on Rome by the praetorians and especially by Sabinus, who had his own designs on the throne, Galba hurriedly established broad-based political and financial support and assembled his own legion (subsequently known as the legio VII Gemina). As he departed from Spain, he abandoned the title of governor in favor of "Caesar," apparently in an attempt to lay claim to the entire inheritance of the Julio-Claudian house. Even so, he continued to proceed cautiously, and did not actually adopt the name of Caesar (and with it the emperorship) until sometime after he had left Spain.

The Principate of Galba
Meanwhile, Rome was anything but serene. An unusual force of soldiers, many of whom had been mustered by Nero to crush the attempt of Vindex, remained idle and restless. In addition, there was the matter concerning Nymphidius Sabinus. Intent on being the power behind the throne, Nymphidius had orchestrated a demand from the praetorians that Galba appoint him sole praetorian prefect for life. The senate capitulated to his pretensions and he began to have designs on the throne himself. In an attempt to rattle Galba, Nymphidius then sent messages of alarm to the emperor telling of unrest in both the city and abroad. When Galba ignored these reports, Nymphidius decided to launch a coup by presenting himself to the praetorians. The plan misfired, and the praetorians killed him when he appeared at their camp. Upon learning of the incident, Galba ordered the executions of Nymphidius' followers. To make matters worse, Galba's arrival was preceded by a confrontation with a boisterous band of soldiers who had been formed into a legion by Nero and were now demanding legionary standards and regular quarters. When they persisted, Galba's forces attacked, with the result that many of them were killed.
Thus it was amid carnage and fear that Galba arrived at the capital in October, 68, accompanied by Otho, the governor of Lusitania, who had joined the cause. Once Galba was within Rome, miscalculations and missteps seemed to multiply. First, he relied upon the advice of a corrupt circle of advisors, most notably: Titus Vinius, a general from Spain; Cornelius Laco, praetorian prefect; and his own freedman, Icelus. Second, he zealously attempted to recover some of Nero's more excessive expenditures by seizing the property of many citizens, a measure that seems to have gone too far and to have caused real hardship and resentment. Third, he created further ill-will by disbanding the imperial corps of German bodyguards, effectively abolishing a tradition that originated with Marius and had been endorsed by Augustus. Finally, he seriously alienated the military by refusing cash rewards for both the praetorians and for the soldiers in Upper Germany who had fought against Vindex.

This last act proved to be the beginning of the end for Galba. On 1 January 69 ("The Year of the Four Emperors"), the troops in Upper Germany refused to declare allegiance to him and instead followed the men stationed in Lower Germany in proclaiming their commander, Aulus Vitellius, as the new ruler. In response, Galba adopted Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi Licinianus to show that he was still in charge and that his successor would not be chosen for him. Piso, although an aristocrat, was a man completely without administrative or military experience. The choice meant little to the remote armies, the praetorians or the senate, and it especially angered Otho, who had hoped to succeed Galba. Otho quickly organized a conspiracy among the praetorians with the now-familiar promise of a material reward, and on 15 January 69 they declared him emperor and publicly killed Galba; Piso, dragged from hiding in the temple of Vesta, was also butchered.

Assessment
In sum, Galba had displayed talent and ambition during his lengthy career. He enjoyed distinguished ancestry, moved easily among the Julio-Claudian emperors (with the exception of Nero towards the end of his principate), and had been awarded the highest military and religious honors of ancient Rome. His qualifications for the principate cannot be questioned. Even so, history has been unkind to him. Tacitus characterized Galba as "weak and old," a man "equal to the imperial office, if he had never held it." Modern historians of the Roman world have been no less critical. To be sure, Galba's greatest mistake lay in his general handling of the military. His treatment of the army in Upper Germany was heedless, his policy towards the praetorians short sighted. Given the climate in 68-69, Galba was unrealistic in expecting disciplina without paying the promised rewards. He was also guilty of relying on poor advisors, who shielded him from reality and ultimately allowed Otho's conspiracy to succeed. Additionally, the excessive power of his henchmen brought the regime into disfavor and made Galba himself the principal target of the hatred that his aides had incited. Finally, the appointment of Piso, a young man in no way equal to the challenges placed before him, further underscored the emperor's isolation and lack of judgment. In the end, the instability of the post-Julio-Claudian political landscape offered challenges more formidable than a tired, septuagenarian aristocrat could hope to overcome. Ironically, his regime proved no more successful than the Neronian government he was so eager to replace. Another year of bloodshed would be necessary before the Principate could once again stand firm.

Copyright (C) 1999, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
VitelliusARdenariusVesta.jpg
709a, Vitellius, 2 January - 20 December 69 A.D.42 viewsVITELLIUS AR silver denarius. RSC 72, RCV 2200. 19mm, 3.2 g. Obverse: A VITELLIVS GERM IMP AVG TR P, laureate head right; Reverse - PONT MAXIM, Vesta seated right, holding scepter and patera. Quite decent. Ex. Incitatus Coins. Photo courtesy of Incitatus Coins.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Vitellius (69 A.D.)

John F. Donahue
College of William and Mary


It is often difficult to separate fact from fiction in assessing the life and reign of Vitellius. Maligned in the ancient sources as gluttonous and cruel, he was also a victim of a hostile biographical tradition established in the regime of the Flavians who had overthrown him. Nevertheless, his decision to march against Rome in 69 was pivotal, since his subsequent defeat signalled the end of military anarchy and the beginning of an extended period of political stability under Vespasian and his successors.

Early Life and Career

Aulus Vitellius was born in September, 15 AD, the son of Lucius Vitellius and his wife Sestilia. One of the most successful public figures of the Julio-Claudian period, Lucius Vitellius was a three-time consul and a fellow censor with the emperor Claudius. Aulus seems to have moved with equal ease in aristocratic circles, successively winning the attention of the emperors Gaius, Claudius, and Nero through flattery and political skill.

Among his attested public offices, Vitellius was a curator of public works, a senatorial post concerned with the maintenance and repair of public buildings in Rome, and he was also proconsul of North Africa, where he served as a deputy to his brother, perhaps about 55 A. D. In addition, he held at least two priesthoods, the first as a member of the Arval Brethren, in whose rituals he participated from 57 A.D., and the second, as one of the quindecemviri sacris faciundis, a sacred college famous for its feasts.

With respect to marriage and family, Vitellius first wed a certain Petroniana, the daughter of a consul, sometime in the early to mid thirties A.D. The union produced a son, Petronianus, allegedly blind in one eye and emancipated from his father's control as a result of being named his mother's heir. Tradition records that Vitellius killed the boy shortly after emancipation amid charges of parricide; the marriage soon ended in divorce. A second marriage, to Galeria Fundana, daughter of an ex-praetor, was more stable than the first. It produced another son, who was eventually killed by the Flavians after the overthrow of Vitellius, as well as a daughter. Galeria is praised by Tacitus for her good qualities, and in the end it was she who saw to Vitellius' burial.

Rise to Power and Emperorship

Without doubt, the most fortuitous moment in Vitellius' political career was his appointment as governor of Lower Germany by the emperor Galba late in 68. The decision seemed to have caught everybody by surprise, including Vitellius himself, who, according to Suetonius, was in straitened circumstances at the time. The choice may have been made to reduce the possibility of rebellion by the Rhine armies, disaffected by Galba's refusal to reward them for their part in suppressing the earlier uprising of Julius Vindex. Ironically, it was Vitellius' lack of military achievement and his reputation for gambling and gluttony that may have also figured in his selection. Galba perhaps calculated that a man with little military experience who could now plunder a province to satisfy his own stomach would never become disloyal. If so, it was a critical misjudgement by the emperor.

The rebellion began on January 1, 69 ("The Year of the Four Emperors"), when the legions of Upper Germany refused to renew their oath of allegiance to Galba. On January 2, Vitellius' own men, having heard of the previous day's events, saluted him as emperor at the instigation of the legionary legate Fabius Valens and his colleagues. Soon, in addition to the seven legions that Vitellius now had at his command in both Germanies, the forces in Gaul, Britain, and Raetia also came over to his side. Perhaps aware of his military inexperience, Vitellius did not immediately march on Rome himself. Instead, the advance was led by Valens and another legionary general, Aulus Caecina Alienus, with each man commanding a separate column. Vitellius would remain behind to mobilize a reserve force and follow later.

Caecina was already one hundred fifty miles on his way when news reached him that Galba had been overthrown and Otho had taken his place as emperor. Undeterred, he passed rapidly down the eastern borders of Gaul; Valens followed a more westerly route, quelling a mutiny along the way. By March both armies had successfully crossed the Alps and joined at Cremona, just north of the Po. Here they launced their Batavian auxiliaries against Otho's troops and routed them in the First Battle of Bedriacum. Otho killed himself on April 16, and three days later the soldiers in Rome swore their allegience to Vitellius. The senate too hailed him as emperor.

When Vitellius learned of these developments, he set out to Rome from Gaul. By all accounts the journey was a drunken feast marked by the lack of discipline of both the troops and the imperial entourage. Along the way he stopped at Lugdunum to present his six-year-old son Germanicus to the legions as his eventual successor. Later, at Cremona, Vitellius witnessed the corpse-filled battlefield of Otho's recent defeat with joy, unmoved by so many citizens denied a proper burial.

The emperor entered Rome in late June-early July. Conscious of making a break with the Julio-Claudian past, Vitellius was reluctant to assume the traditional titles of the princes, even though he enthusiastically made offerings to Nero and declared himself consul for life. To his credit, Vitellius did seem to show a measure of moderation in the transition to the principate. He assumed his powers gradually and was generally lenient to Otho's supporters, even pardoning Otho's brother Salvius Titianus, who had played a key role in the earlier regime. In addition, he participated in Senate meetings and continued the practice of providing entertainments for the Roman masses. An important practical change involved the awarding of posts customarily held by freedmen to equites, an indication of the growth of the imperial bureaucracy and its attractiveness to men of ambition.

In other matters, he replaced the existing praetorian guard and urban cohorts with sixteen praetorian cohorts and four urban units, all comprised of soldiers from the German armies. According to Tacitus, the decision prompted a mad scramble, with the men, and not their officers, choosing the branch of service that they preferred. The situation was clearly unsatisfactory but not surprising, given that Vitellius was a creation of his own troops. To secure his position further, he sent back to their old postings the legions that had fought for Otho, or he reassigned them to distant provinces. Yet discontent remained: the troops who had been defeated or betrayed at Bedriacum remained bitter, and detachments of three Moesian legions called upon by Otho were returned to their bases, having agitated against Vitellius at Aquileia.

Flavian Revolt

The Vitellian era at Rome was short-lived. By mid-July news had arrived that the legions of Egypt under Tiberius Julius Alexander had sworn allegiance to a rival emperor, Titus Flavius Vespasianus, the governor of Judaea and a successful and popular general. Vespasian was to hold Egypt while his colleague Mucianus, governor of Syria, was to invade Italy. Before the plan could be enacted, however, the Danube legions, former supporters of Otho, joined Vespasian's cause. Under the leadership of Antonius Primus, commander of the Sixth legion in Pannonia, and Cornelius Fuscus, imperial procurator in Illyricum, the legions made a rapid descent on Italy.

Although his forces were only half of what Vitellius commanded in Italy, Primus struck first before the emperor could muster additional reinforcements from Germany. To make matters worse for the Vitellians, Valens was ill, and Caecina, now consul, had begun collaborating with the Flavians. His troops refused to follow his lead, however, and arrested him at Hostilia near Cremona. They then joined the rest of the Vitellian forces trying to hold the Po River. With Vitellius still in Rome and his forces virtually leaderless, the two sides met in October in the Second Battle of Bedriacum. The emperor's troops were soundly defeated and Cremona was brutally sacked by the victors. In addition, Valens, whose health had recovered, was captured while raising an army for Vitellius in Gaul and Germany; he was eventually executed.

Meanwhile, Primus continued towards Rome. Vitellius made a weak attempt to thwart the advance at the Apennine passes, but his forces switched to the Flavian side without a fight at Narnia in mid-December. At Rome, matters were no better. Vespasian's elder brother, Titus Flavius Sabinus, the city prefect, was successful in an effort to convince Vitellius to abdicate but was frustrated by the mob in Rome and the emperor's soldiers. Forced to flee to the Capitol, Sabinus was set upon by Vitellius' German troops and soon killed, with the venerable Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus set ablaze in the process. Within two days, the Flavian army fought its way into Rome. In a pathetic final move, Vitellius disguised himself in dirty clothing and hid in the imperial doorkeeper's quarters, leaning a couch and a mattress against the door for protection. Dragged from his hiding place by the Flavian forces, he was hauled off half-naked to the Forum, where he was tortured, killed, and tossed into the Tiber. The principate could now pass to Vespasian.

Assessment

Vitellius has not escaped the hostility of his biographers. While he may well have been gluttonous, his depiction as indolent, cruel, and extravagant is based almost entirely on the propaganda of his enemies. On the other hand, whatever moderating tendencies he did show were overshadowed by his clear lack of military expertise, a deficiency that forced him to rely in critical situations on largely inneffective lieutenants. As a result he was no match for his Flavian successors, and his humiliating demise was perfectly in keeping with the overall failure of his reign.

Copyright (C) 1999, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
VespasianPax_RICii10.jpg
710a, Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.135 viewsSilver denarius, RIC II, 10, aVF, 3.5 g, 18mm, Rome mint, 69-71 AD; Obverse: IMP CAESA[R] VESPASIANV[S AV]G - Laureate head right; Reverse: COS ITER [T]R POT - Pax seated left holding branch and caduceus. Ex Imperial Coins.


De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espèrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.





Cleisthenes
a17.jpg
9.10 Elagabalus Denarius39 viewsRome Mint 221-222 AD
obv. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG
rev. INVICTVS SACERDOS AVG Elagabalus in priestly robes sacrificing a bull on the alter, holding cyress branch, star in left field
Sear 7518
Zam
A_Postumius.png
A. Postumius A.f. Sp.n. Albinus17 viewsRoman Republic AR serrate denarius 3.91 g, 20 mm
A. Postumius A.f. Sp.n. Albinus
Rome mint, 81 BC
Draped bust of Diana right, with bow and quiver over shoulder; bucranium above / Priest and bull with lighted altar between them
Rob D
1413_Cilicia2.jpg
Ajax (high priestand toparch) - AE8 viewsOlba
10-15 AD
draped bust of right Ajax high priest wearing pilos (as Hermes); kerykeion over breast
ΑΙΑΝΤΟΣ ΤΕΥΚΡΟΥ
triskeles
AΡΧΙΕΡΕΩΣ / ΤΟΠΑΡΧΟΥ
ET_A
ΚΕΝ_ΝΑΤ / ΛΑΛΑΣΣ
RPC I, 3725; G. M. Staffieri, La monetazione di Olba nella Cilicia Trachea, QT (1978), 12, 7.

ex Aurea
Johny SYSEL
F102.jpg
alexander jannaeus30 viewsYehonatan the high priest and Concil of the Jews
mint : Jerusalem
103-76 BC
Hendin 475
frederic
J09e-Jannaeus H-473.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus "Yehonatan", (Hasmonean King), Æ Prutah, 103-76 BCE99 viewsBronze prutah of Alexander Jannaeus "Yehonatan", Jerusalem mint.

Obverse: Double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns; VF, nicely centered obverse and nice green patina.
Reverse: Hebrew inscription, “Yehonatan the High Priest and the Council [of the Jews]” – יהונתן הכהן הגדול וחבר [היהודים], surrounded by wreath.

Reference: Hendin 473, Mesh. AJC I, Group Ea

Added to Collection: November 4, 2005
1 commentsDaniel Friedman
Alexander Jannaeus TJC K17.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus (103-76BC) Hendin 470, TJC K17108 viewsPrutah, 15mm, 1.26g.

Obverse: ALEXANDROU BASILEWS around anchor.

Reverse: 8-pointed star within diadem, HMLK CHN followed by a symbol, between rays.

Hendin 470

Treasury of Jewish Coins K17

A rare variant known from a single die. The significance of the reverse inscription, 'The King [and] Priest' isn't known.
3 commentsRobert_Brenchley
Alexander Jannaeus H473.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus (103-76BC) Hendin 47352 viewsPrutah, 19mm, 2.11g.

Obverse: Yehonatan the HIgh Priest and the Council of the Jews, in wreath.

Reverse: Double cornucopia with ribbons, pomegranate between them.

Hendin 473.
Robert_Brenchley
Alexander Jannaeus H474.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus (103-76BC) Hendin 47443 viewsPrutah, 14mm, 1.8g

Obverse: YHWN/TN HC G/DWL ChBR/HYW (Yechonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews)

Reverse: crossed cornucopiae, ribbons, pomegranate between them, in wreath.

Hendin 474

TJC Q Group
Robert_Brenchley
hendin_473-4.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103 - 76 B.C. Bronze prutah, Hendin 473-4745 viewsJudean Kingdom, Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103 - 76 B.C. Bronze prutah, Hendin 473 - 474, Fair, Jerusalem mint, 2.260g, 14.1mm, 0o, obverse Hebrew inscription, Yehonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews, within wreath; reverse, double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns. Ex FORVMPodiceps
hendin_474.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103 - 76 B.C. Bronze prutah, Hendin 4744 viewsJudean Kingdom, Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103 - 76 B.C. Bronze prutah, Meshorer TJC Q17, Hendin 474, VF, Jerusalem mint, 1.628g, 14.1mm, 0o, obverse Hebrew inscription, Yehonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews, surrounded by wreath; reverse, double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns. Ex FORVMPodiceps
hendin478.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103 - 76 B.C. Bronze prutah, Hendin 4788 viewsJudean Kingdom, Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103 - 76 B.C. Bronze prutah, Hendin 478, overstruck on an earlier prutot, aF, Jerusalem mint, 1.92g, 14.6mm, 180o, obverse Hebrew inscription, Yonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews, within wreath; reverse, double cornucopia with pomegranate between horns. This type has been reattributed from Hyrcanus II to Alexander Jannaeus by Hendin and Shachar in 'The Identity of YNTN on Hasmonean Overstruck Coins and the Chronology of the Alexander Jannaeus Types,' Israel Numismatic Research 3, 2008: 87-94. It appears this type was overstruck on earlier coins of Alexander Jannaeus that had never been released from the mint. Ex FORVMPodiceps
alex_j_prutah_h478.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103 - 76 B.C. Bronze prutah, Hendin 4784 viewsJudean Kingdom, Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103 - 76 B.C. Bronze prutah, Meshorer TJC T6, Hendin 478, VF, Jerusalem mint, 1.824g, 16.1mm, obverse Hebrew inscription, Yonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews, within wreath; reverse , double cornucopia with pomegranate between horns; nice centering and strike, overstruck on an earlier prutah, partly uncleaned. Ex FORVMPodiceps
Alexander_Jannaeus_1.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus - AE prutah9 viewsJerusalem
103-76 BC
Hebrew inscription: "Yehonatan High Priest Council Jews" within wreath
double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns.
Hendin 1145
Johny SYSEL
Jannaeus_2.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus - AE prutah4 viewsJerusalem
103-76 BC
Hebrew inscription: "Yehonatan High Priest Council Jews" within wreath
double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns.
Hendin 1145
Johny SYSEL
Jannaeus_3.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus - AE prutah4 viewsJerusalem
103-76 BC
Hebrew inscription: "Yehonatan High Priest Council Jews" within wreath
double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns.
Hendin 1145
Johny SYSEL
Jannaeus_4.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus - AE prutah5 viewsJerusalem
103-76 BC
Hebrew inscription: "Yehonatan High Priest Council Jews" within wreath
double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns.
Hendin 1145

From this failed srike it looks like several coins were struck at the same time.
Johny SYSEL
full.JPEG
Alexander Jannaeus Hendin 474183 viewsHendin 474 - Alexander Jannaeus. 103-76 B.C.E. AE Prutah. Hebrew inscription (Yehonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews - YHNTN HCHN HGDL V'chVR YHD[EM]) surrounded by wreath / Double cornucopiae adorned with ribbons; pomegranate between horns. Beautiful desert patina, full script. 5 commentsaarmale
474.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus Hendin 47493 viewsMinted By: Alexander Jannaeus
In the name of: Alexander Jannaeus
Reference: Hendin 474
Obverse description: Within wreath, the Hebrew text “Jonathan the high priest and council of the Jews”
Obverse legend: Yehonatan HaKohen Gadol V'Ḥaver HaYehudim
Reverse description: Double cornucopiae, ribbons around, pomegranate between horns.
Year: Undated, between 103-76 BCE.
Its interesting that Gadol (high [priest], lit. "big") it spelled with a vav (GDOL), and not just GDL, like its commonly writen. Also, the vav in gadol usually occurs on prutot of Aristobulus.


Text is:
NOHY
GHNT
VHVLOD
YHR
3 commentsAarmale
H-473_02.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus Prutah8 viewsOBV: Hebrew inscription (Yehonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews)
surrounded by wreath.
REV: Double cornucopia adorned with ribbons,
pomegranate between horns.
Hendin-473 103 B.C. - 76 B.C.
1.82gm 14-15mm
goldenancients
H-473.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus Prutah7 viewsOBV: Hebrew inscription (Yehonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews)
surrounded by wreath.
REV: Double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns.
Hendin-473 103 B.C. - 76 B.C.
1.63gm 13-14.5mm
goldenancients
judaean-alexander-jannaeus-prutah.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus, Hasmonean AE Prutah24 viewsAncient Greek, Alexander Jannaeus, Hasmonean AE Prutah, (103-76 BC), 2.6g, 15.59mm

Obverse: "Yehonatan the High Priest & the Council of the Jews", Five lines of Hebrew text within wreath.

𐤉𐤄‬𐤅
𐤍𐤕𐤍𐤄‬𐤊‬
𐤄‬𐤍𐤄‬𐤂𐤃‬𐤋
𐤉𐤇‬𐤁‬𐤓𐤄‬
𐤅𐤄‬𐤃‬𐤃‬𐤌

Reverse: Two joined cornucopias, ribbons on each side, pomegranate between, all within dotted circle border.

Reference: Hendin 1145 (473)
Gil-galad
alexander-jannaeus-prutah-red-1.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus, Hasmonean AE Prutah, (103-76 BC)12 viewsAncient Greek, Alexander Jannaeus, Hasmonean AE Prutah, (103-76 BC)

Obverse: "Yehonatan the High Priest of the Jews", Three lines of Paleo-Hebrew text within wreath.

𐤉𐤄‬𐤅
𐤇‬𐤍𐤍𐤄‬𐤊‬
𐤍𐤋𐤉𐤇‬𐤍

Reverse: Two joined cornucopias, ribbons on each side, pomegranate between, all within dotted circle border. Three unknown characters right.

Reference: Hendin 1139 var

Ex: Holyland Ancient Coins Corporation - Musa Ali
Gil-galad
alexander-prutah-2017-2.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus, Hasmonean AE Prutah, (103-76 BC)7 viewsAncient Greek, Alexander Jannaeus, Hasmonean AE Prutah, (103-76 BC)

Obverse: "Yehonatan the High Priest & the Council of the Jews", Five lines of Hebrew text within wreath, top line off flan.

YHW
NTNHK
HNHGDLW
HBRHY
HDDM

𐤉𐤄‬𐤅
𐤍𐤕𐤍𐤄‬𐤊‬
𐤄‬𐤍𐤄‬𐤂𐤃‬𐤋
𐤉𐤇‬𐤁‬𐤓𐤄‬
𐤅𐤄‬𐤃‬𐤃‬𐤌

Reverse: Two joined cornucopias, ribbons on each side, pomegranate between, all within dotted circle border.

Reference: Hendin 1145 (473)

Ex: Tom Mullally
Gil-galad
alexander-prutah-2017-1.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus, Hasmonean AE Prutah, 103-76 BC19 viewsAncient Greek, Alexander Jannaeus, Hasmonean AE Prutah, (103-76 BC)

Obverse: "Yehonatan the High Priest & the Council of the Jews", Five lines of Hebrew text within wreath, top line off flan.

YHW
NTNHK
HNHGDLW
HBRHY
HDDM

𐤉𐤄‬𐤅
𐤍𐤕𐤍𐤄‬𐤊‬
𐤄‬𐤍𐤄‬𐤂𐤃‬𐤋
𐤉𐤇‬𐤁‬𐤓𐤄‬
𐤅𐤄‬𐤃‬𐤃‬𐤌

Reverse: Two joined cornucopias, ribbons on each side, pomegranate between, all within dotted circle border.

Reference: Hendin 1145 (473)

Ex: Tom Mullally
Gil-galad
F103.jpg
Alexander Janneus22 viewsYontan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews
mint: Jerusalem

Hendin 478
frederic
G203.jpg
Alexander Janneus17 viewsYehonatan the high priest and Concil of the Jews
mint : Jerusalem
103-76 BC
Hendin 473
frederic
G406a.jpg
Alexander Janneus35 viewsYehonatan the high priest and Concil of the Jews
mint : Jerusalem
103-76 BC
Hendin 473
frederic
G405a.jpg
Alexander Janneus16 viewsYehonatan the high priest and Concil of the Jews
mint : Jerusalem
103-76 BC
Hendin 473
frederic
janneus.jpg
Alexander Janneus 33 viewsYehonatan the high priest and Concil of the Jews
mint : Jerusalem
103-76 BC
Hendin 474
frederic
janneusII.jpg
Alexander Janneus 17 viewsYehonatan the high priest and Concil of the Jews
mint : Jerusalem
103-76 BC
Hendin 474
frederic
hyrcanus7.jpg
Alexander Janneus17 viewsYontan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews
mint: Jerusalem

Hendin 479
frederic
hyrcanus6.jpg
Alexander Janneus24 viewsYontan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews
mint: Jerusalem

Hendin 479
frederic
H_474-1.jpg
Alexander Janneus10 viewsYehonatan the high priest and Concil of the Jews
mint : Jerusalem
103-76 BC
Hendin 474
frederic
H_474-2.jpg
Alexander Janneus35 viewsYehonatan the high priest and Concil of the Jews
mint : Jerusalem
103-76 BC
Hendin 474
frederic
a4.jpg
Alexander Janneus17 viewsYehonatan the high priest and Concil of the Jews
mint : Jerusalem
103-76 BC
Hendin 474
frederic
a2.jpg
Alexander Janneus15 viewsYonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews
mint: Jerusalem

Hendin 479
frederic
jannaeus3.jpg
Alexander Janneus13 viewsYonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews
mint: Jerusalem
103-76 BC
Hendin 478
frederic
jannaeus4.jpg
Alexander Janneus17 viewsYehonatan the high priest and Concil of the Jews
mint : Jerusalem
103-76 BC
Hendin 474
frederic
jannaeus6.jpg
Alexander Janneus14 viewsYehonatan the high priest and Concil of the Jews
mint : Jerusalem
103-76 BC
Hendin 475
frederic
ANTOAS05-2~0.jpg
Ancilia31 viewsÆ As (9.9g, Ø27mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 143-144.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, bare head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Rev.: IMPERATO(R II) (around edge) S C (in field), Two ancilia: oval shields with rounded projections above and below).
RIC 736a; BMC 1629-31; Cohen 30

The anicilia were twelve shields which were believed to protect Rome. They consisted of an original, which fell from heaven in the time of Numa. Rome would rule the world as long as the shield was preserved. Numa ordered eleven other identical shields to be made to protect it from theft. These Ancilia were preserved in the temple of Mars, and were committed to the care of twelve priests of Salii, instituted for that purpose. Every year in March they were caried in procession around Rome until they were put back in their place on the 30th.
Charles S
ANTOAS05-2.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 736a, As of AD 143-144 (Ancilia) 33 viewsÆ As (9.9g, Ø27mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 143-144.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, bare head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Rev.: IMPERATOR II (around) ANCILIA (in ex.) S C (in field), Two ancilia: oval shields with rounded projections above and below).
RIC 736a; BMC 1629-31; Cohen 30; Strack 925

Coin belonging to a series struck between AD 140 and 144 depicting scenes from ancient Roman legends, struck in preparation of the 900th anniversary of Rome in AD 147. The anicilia were twelve shields which were believed to protect Rome. They consisted of an original, which fell from heaven in the time of Numa. Rome would rule the world as long as the shield was preserved. Numa ordered eleven other identical shields to be made to protect it from theft. These Ancilia were preserved in the temple of Mars, and were committed to the care of twelve priests of Salii, instituted for that purpose. Every year in March they were caried in procession around Rome until they were put back in their place on the 30th.
Charles S
aquilia_ severa_226.JPG
Aquilia Severa RIC V, 226146 viewsAquilia Severa, reg. AD 220, 2. and 4. wife of Elagabal
AR - Denar, 3.23g, 19.4mm
Rome AD 220 -221
obv. IVLIA AQVILIA SEVERA AVG
draped bust, bare head r., hair waved, fixed in plait;
later coiffure without 'visor' (C.Clay)
rev. CONCORDIA
Concordia standing l., holding patera r.and double cornucopiae l.; lightened
altar l. before her
star in r. field
RIC V/2, 226; C.2; BMCR.184
Rare; EF, virtually mintstate

VESTAL VIRGINS. Aquilia Severa was one of the six Vestal Virgins who carried out the maintenance of the sacred fire and other cult ceremonies connected to the goddess Vesta. Therefore her marriage with Elagabal leads to disturbances in the priestership and the people of Rome.
6 commentsJochen
Diana_of_Ephesus_-_Claudius_AR_Tetradrachm.jpg
Artemis, (Diana of Ephesus), in her Temple139 viewsTI. CLAVD CAES AVG. Claudius bare head, facing left. / DIAN-EPHE Cult statue of Diana (Artemis) of Ephesus inside a tetra style temple, set on three tiered base; pediment decorated by figures flanking three windows.
RIC I 118; RPC I 2222; BMCRE 229; RSC 30; Sear Millennium 1839. Ephesus ca. 41-42 AD.
(25 mm, 11.14 g, 6h)

The statue of Artemis (Diana) at Ephesus was one of the Seven Wonders of the ancient world. Depicted on this coin, which was minted shortly after Claudius’ accession to the throne, there remains no trace of the statue, or the temple that housed it, other than some recently stacked column remnants to mark the location. Pliny The Elder described the temple as 115 meters in length, 55 meters in width, made almost entirely of marble; consisting of 127 Ionic style columns 18 meters in height. The original temple, which stood on the site from about 550 BC, was destroyed by arson in 356 BC. It was rebuilt around 330 BC in the form depicted on the coin, only to be destroyed by the Goths in 262 AD. Again rebuilt it was destroyed for the final time by Christians in 401 AD. The columns and marble of the temple were used to construct other buildings. Some of the columns found their way into the church of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople (Istanbul).

The site of the temple was rediscovered in 1869 by an expedition sponsored by the British Museum, but little remains to be seen today. A Christian inscription found at Ephesus reads Destroying the delusive image of the demon Artemis, Demeas has erected this symbol of Truth, the God that drives away idols, and the Cross of priests, deathless and victorious sign of Christ. This Christian zeal explains why so little remains of the site despite its repute in the ancient pre-Christian world.

This coin is rare with a few dozen examples known. In contrast to most examples, which show a four tiered temple base, the reverse of this coin shows a three-tiered temple base. The rectangles on the pediment of the temple are frequently identified as tables, or altars. However, it is more likely that these are windows in the pediment to facilitate lighting of the statue in the interior of the temple. The Ionic style of the columns, as described by Pliny, is clearly visible in the reverse image.
1 commentsLloyd T
R680_Maximinus_I_artemis.jpg
Artemis, Phyrgia, Eucarpia6 viewsPhyrgia, Eucarpia
Rev.: ƐΥΚΑΡΠƐΩΝ, Artemis standing facing, looking l., holding bow and placing hand on quiver; stag left, looking right; priestess right

for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
G_334_Hierocasareia_fac.jpg
Asia Minor, Lydia, Hierakome - Hierocaesarea, Male bust, Artemis17 viewsLydia, Hierakome (Hierokaisareia)
First half of the second century
Obv: Male head right, wearing tiara. (priest ?)
Rev.: ΙΕΡ monogram, Artemis kneeling on stag
AE, 4.94g, 18mm
Ref.: Klein 568; SNG Copenhagen 172.
1 commentsshanxi
G_340_Hierocaesarea_fac.jpg
Asia Minor, Lydia, Hierocaesarea, Artemis, forepart of stag, without monogram5 viewsLydia, Hierokaisareia
Anonymous issue
Time of Nero (54-68), Kapito, high priest.
Obv.: IЄPOKAICAPЄωN, draped bust of Artemis right, bow and quiver over shoulder
Rev.: ЄΠΙ ΚΑΠΙΤωΝOC ΑΡXΙΕΡЄωC, forepart of stag right
AE, 3.86g, 17 mm
Ref.: RPC I 2390
shanxi
R680_Maximinus_I_fac.jpg
Asia Minor, Phyrgia, Eucarpia, Maximinus, Artemis12 viewsMaximinus
Phyrgia, Eucarpia
Obv.: ΑΥΤ Κ Γ ΙΟΥ ΟΥΗΡ ΜΑΞΙΜƐΙΝΟС, laureate and cuirassed bust of Maximinus, r.
Rev.: ƐΥΚΑΡΠƐΩΝ, Artemis standing facing, looking l., holding bow and placing hand on quiver; stag left, looking right; priestess right
AE, 26 mm, 7,22 g
Ref.: SNG Cop. 372, RPC VI, № 5604 (temporary)
1 commentsshanxi
Eleusis_AE.JPG
Athens, Attica134 viewsEleusinian Festival Coinage
340-335 BC
AE 16 (16mm, 3.65g)
O: Triptolemos seated left in winged chariot drawn by two serpents, holding grain ear in right hand.
R: Pig standing right on mystic staff; EΛEYΣI above, bucranium in ex.
SNG Cop 416; Sear 2586v

The Sons of Dysaules
The story of Triptolemus being charged with bringing agriculture to man has been well told. That of his brother Eubouleus perhaps less so.
Eubouleus was a swineherd whose pigs were lost when the Earth gaped open to swallow up Persephone.
Pigs were sacrificed during the Eleusinian Rites in a women’s mystery ritual known as the Thesmophoria. The piglets would be washed in the sea during the Procession and then brought back to the Sanctuary and ritually slaughtered.
It is interesting to note that in ancient Greek religion pigs were thought to be able to absorb miasma from humans, making this an even more appropriate offering.

"It is said, then, that when Demeter came to Argos she was received by Pelasgos into his home, and that Khrysanthis, knowing about the rape of Kore, related the story to her. Afterwards Trokhilos, the priest of the mysteries, fled, they say, from Argos because of the enmity of Agenor, came to Attika and married a woman of Eleusis, by whom he had two children Eubouleos and Triptolemos. That is the account given by the Argives."
~ Pausanias, Description of Greece 1. 14. 3
8 commentsEnodia
Augustus.jpg
Augustus32 viewsRoman Empire
Augustus
(Reign as 1st Emperor of the Roman Empire 27 BC-14 AD)
(b. 63 BC, d. 14 AD)


Obverse: CAESAR PONT MAX, Laureate head of Augustus facing right

Reverse: ROM ET AVG, Altar of the Sanctuary of the Three Gauls, Victory on each pedestal





Bronze As
Minted in Lugdunum 15-10 BC


Translations:

CAESAR PONT MAX=Caesar Augustus, Greatest Priest

ROM ET AVG=To Rome and Augustus

Lugdunum=Lyons, France

The Sanctuary of the Three Gauls was founded by Drusus (stepson of Augustus) to federalize and Romanize this area as an Imperial province under Augustus following the Gallic wars of his predecessor Julius Caesar


References:
RIC I 230
ERIC II 632
1 commentsSphinx357
9eEGYk7pfdF6Q8yFj45BKo32mZ4wbA.jpg
AUGUSTUS AE as. Carthago Nova, Hispania. Duovirs M Postumius Albinus & L Porcius Capito. Priest standing holding branch.19 viewsAUGUSTUS AE as. Struck at Carthago Nova, Hispania, under Duovirs Marcus Postumius Albinus & Lucius Porcius Capito. AVGVSTVS DIVI F, laureate head of Augustus right. Reverse - M POSTVM ALBIN LPORC CAPIT II VIR Q, Priest standing, holding vase & branch. RPC 170. 28mm, 13.2g. Antonivs Protti
Augustus_Philippi.png
Augustus Philippi11 viewsMacedon, Philippi. Augustus, 27 BC-AD. AE (18mm, 5.25g). AVG, bare head right / Two priests plowing with oxen right. RPC 1656; SNG Cop 282. Ajax
aurelian1.jpg
Aurelian AE Antoninianus. Milan mint.31 viewsAurelian AE Antoninianus. Milan mint. IMP AVRELIANVS AVG, radiate, cuirassed bust right / PIETAS AVG, Aurelian & Severina or priest standing facing each other, each holding short sceptre, sacrificing at altar between them, S in ex. Cohen 170, Sear5 11583v. Britanikus
10250.jpg
Basileios, diakonos, chartoularios and protekdikos. Byzantine lead seal 11th century AD273 viewsBasileios, diakonos, chartoularios and protekdikos. Byzantine lead seal 11th century AD
The Virgin Hodegetria, wearing nimbus, chiton and maphorion, pointing with her right hand to Infant Christ, who she is holding on her left arm. Christ is wearing a nimbus cruciger decorated with pearls, chiton and himation. He is holding a scroll in his left hand, his right hand resting in the fold of his mother’s maphorion below the chin. In left and right fields, MP–ΘV; Circular inscription +ΘKE ROHΘEI-[TW CW ΔOVΛW] within two concentric circles
+RACI|ΛEIW ΔIA|KON,XTU|KAI ΠPO|TEKΔI|KW in six lines
35mm, 22.26g; extremely fine but for some areas of striking weakness, and of the finest style.

As protekdikos, Basileios was the presiding cleric of the tribunal of priests of Hagia Sophia, known as the ekdikoi. As chartoularios he was assistant to the patriarch of Constantinopolis.
1 commentsGert
Tiberius.jpg
Bronze coin of Tiberius14 viewsRoman bronze coin of Tiberius, minted in Philippi Macedonia around 37AD. 16 mm, 2.79 g.

Obverse: TI AVG, bare head of Tiberius right

Reverse: Two priests ploughing right with yoke of oxen

Attribution: Like RPC I 1657 but underweight
chuy1530
Bust_left_with_Phrygian_cap,_lead-seal,_Q-001,_22,5x16mm,_6,11gx-s.jpg
Bust left with a Phrygian cap, Lead Seal, #41119 viewsBust left with a Phrygian cap, Lead Seal, #41
avers: Bust left with a Phrygian cap (looks like Attis).
reverse: -
size : 22,5x16mm,
weight: 6,11g,
Q-041
"Attis was the consort of Cybele in Phrygian and Greek mythology. His priests were eunuchs, the Galli, as explained by origin myths pertaining to Attis and castration. Attis was also a Phrygian god of vegetation, and in his self-mutilation, death, and resurrection he represents the fruits of the earth, which die in winter only to rise again in the spring." Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attis
quadrans
Sulpicius~0.jpg
C. Sulpicius C.f. (Galba) - AR denarius serratus11 views³moneyer probably not belonged to the patrician Galba family but to a Plebeian branch
³Sardinia or Massalia region
¹Rome
²103 BC
¹106 BC
2 jugate laureate heads of Dii Penates Publici left
D · P · P
Two soldiers (or Dii Penas Publici) standing facing each other, holding spears and pointing at sow which lies between them
C
C·SV(LP)ICI·C·F
¹Crawford 312/1, RSC I Sulpicia 1, SRCV I 189, Sydenham 572
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
³Mark Passehl
3,96g
ex Aurea numismatika

The Sulpicii came from Lavinium and both sides of coin are related to it.

Di Penates Publici were taken from Troy together with Palladium by Aeneas. When Aeneas fled from Troy Helenus, a son of Priamos, has predicted Aeneas, that he would built a new city where a white sow would cast 30 piglets. Aeneas prepared to sacrifice a pregnant white sow he has brought in his ship for this purpose, but the sow escaped and fled 24 stadiums in the inland, layed down under an oak-tree (or ilex-tree) and casted 30 white piglets. Because of that Aeneas knew that this prophecy too became true and he should built a city here. He sacrificed the 30 piglets and erected a shrine at this place. The new city he called Lavinium referring to Lavinia, daughter of king Latinus. The 30 piglets represented 30 years only after which his successors became the real owners of the new land.

At the same time story of white sow predicts foundation of another town:
River god Tiber speak to Aeneas in a dream:
"....
A sow beneath an oak shall lie along,
All white herself, and white her thirty young.
When thirty rolling years have run their race,
Thy son Ascanius, on this empty space,
Shall build a royal town, of lasting fame,
Which from this omen shall receive the name.
..."
Alba Longa was founded just 30 years after Lavinium and so the prophecy was fulfilled here too. The name Alba Longa is said to be derived from the white sow (meaning the long white). So Lavinium was the mothertown of Alba Longa and finely of Rome itself. On the Forum of Lavinium stood a bronze statue of the sow, its body was conserved by the priests in pickle.
(Jochen's coins of mythological interests)
Johny SYSEL
Caesar_elephant.jpg
Caesar elephant denarius78 viewsCAESAR in exergue, elephant advancing right, trampling horned serpent.

Pontifical implements: simpulum, sprinkler, axe and priest's hat.

49-48 BC. Military mint traveling with Caesar.

3.87g

Crawford 443/1; HCRI 9; Sydenham 1006; RSC 49.

Wonderfully struck but was probably bent and straightened at some point

Ex-RCNA coin show; Ex: Charles Euston

Sold Forum Auction Oct 2018
6 commentsJay GT4
237.jpg
Capricorn left in square punch176 viewsMACEDON. Philippi. Claudius. Æ 16. A.D. 41-54. Obv: (TICLAV-AVG). Bare hear left; countermark on neck. Rev: Two priests/colonists ploughing right. Ref: RPC 1660. Axis: 180°. Weight: 4.43 g. CM: Capricorn left, in square punch, 3 mm. Howgego 303 (16 pcs). Collection Automan.Automan
RIC 4.JPG
Caracalla (Aged. 8)41 viewsSilver denarius, RIC 4, RSC 587, S 6679, VF, 3.00g, 16.9mm, 180o, Rome mint, as Caesar, 196 A.D.; obverse M AVR ANTONINVS CAES, bare headed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SEVERI AVG PII FIL, priestly emblems - littus axe, jug, simpulum, and sprinkler1 commentsowellber
Caracalla_RIC_4.JPG
Caracalla (as Caesar), 195 - 198 AD54 viewsObv: M AVR ANTONINVS CAES, bare headed, draped and cuirassed bust of Caracalla facing right, seen from the front.

Rev: SEVERI AVG PII FIL, Priestly implements; lituus, axe, jug, simpulum and sprinkler.

Silver Denarius, Rome mint, 196 AD

2.7 grams, 18 mm, 180°

RIC IVi 4, RSC 587, S6679

Front facing busts are not listed in RIC for this type and much more scarce than the bust seen from the rear.
SPQR Coins
Caracalla_RIC_4_(2).JPG
Caracalla (as Caesar), 195 - 198 AD39 viewsObv: M AVR ANTONINVS CAES, bare headed, draped and cuirassed bust of Caracalla facing right, seen from the front.

Rev: SEVERI A(VG PII FIL), Priestly implements; lituus, axe, jug, simpulum and sprinkler.

Silver Denarius, Rome mint, 196 AD

3.5 grams, 17.2 mm, 180°

RIC IVi 4, RSC 587, S6679

Front facing busts are not listed in RIC for this type and much more scarce that the bust seen from the rear.
2 commentsSPQR Matt
car5.jpg
Caracalla 198-217 denarius75 viewsOb. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM Head Right
Rev. P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P Pax left holding branch

Ref. RIC 268, RSC 314, BMC 147
Year 215AD

ANTONIUS PIUS AUGUSTUS GERMANICUS - Antonius Pius is your Emperor and Augustus and has conquered the Germans
PONTIFEX MAXIMUS TRIBUNICIA POTESTAS XVIII CONSUL IIII PATER PATRIAE - High priest, Tribune of the People for the eighteenth time, Consul for the fourth time and father of the country

-:Bacchus:-
Bacchus
car4.jpg
Caracalla 198-217 denarius66 viewsOb. ANTONINUS PIVS AVG GERM Head right
Rev. P.M.TR.P.XVII.COS.IIII.P.P. Apollo seated left resting hand on lyre
Ref. Sear 1835
Year 214AD

ANTONIUS PIUS AUGUSTUS GERMANICUS - Antonius Pius is your Emperor and Augustus and has conquered the Germans
PONTIFEX MAXIMUS TRIBUNICIA POTESTAS XVII CONSUL IIII PATER PATRIAE - High priest, Tribune of the People for the seventeenth time, Consul for the fourth time and father of the country

-:Bacchus:-
1 commentsBacchus
car6.jpg
Caracalla 198-217 denarius53 viewsOb. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM Head Right
Rev. P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P Pax left holding branch and scepter
Ref. RIC 268, RSC 314, BMC 147
Year 215AD

ANTONIUS PIUS AUGUSTUS GERMANICUS - Antonius Pius is your Emperor and Augustus and has conquered the Germans
PONTIFEX MAXIMUS TRIBUNICIA POTESTAS XVIII CONSUL IIII PATER PATRIAE - High priest, Tribune of the People for the eighteenth time, Consul for the fourth time and father of the country

-:Bacchus:-
1 commentsBacchus
x5.jpg
Caracalla 198-217 denarius57 viewsOb. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM Head Right
Rev. P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P Fides standing left holding two standards
Ref. Sear 1837, RIC 266, RSC 315, BMC 143
Year 215AD

ANTONIUS PIUS AUGUSTUS GERMANICUS - Antonius Pius is your Emperor and Augustus and has conquered the Germans
PONTIFEX MAXIMUS TRIBUNICIA POTESTAS XVIII CONSUL IIII PATER PATRIAE - High priest, Tribune of the People for the eighteenth time, Consul for the fourth time and father of the country

-:Bacchus:-
Bacchus
x4.jpg
Caracalla 198-217 denarius45 viewsOb. ANTONIVS AVGSTVS Laureate head right
Rev. PONTIF TR P III Caracalla standing naked holding globe and spear
Ref. Sear 1840, RIC 30a, BMC 179

ANTONIVS AVGVSTVS Antonius is your emperor and augustus
PONTIF TRIBUNICIA POTESTAS III Priest of the temple and Tribune of the People for the third time

-:Bacchus:-
Bacchus
x2.jpg
Caracalla 198-217 denarius64 viewsOb. ANTONINUS PIVS AVG GERM Head right
Rev. P M TR P XVII COS IIII P P. Jupiter left, holding thunderbolt and sceptre; at feet, eagle.
Ref. RIC240, BMC94
Rome mint

ANTONIUS PIUS AUGUSTUS GERMANICUS - Antonius Pius is your Emperor and Augustus and has conquered the Germans
PONTIFEX MAXIMUS TRIBUNICIA POTESTAS XVII CONSUL IIII PATER PATRIAE - High priest, Tribune of the People for the seventeenth time, Consul for the fourth time and father of the country

Jupiter was the father of the gods and is normally shown with a scepter and thunderbolt. He may be standing or seated. He can be accompanied with an eagle (as here) or a small Victory.

-:Bacchus:-
Bacchus
x7.jpg
Caracalla 198-217 denarius36 viewsOb. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG laureate & draped bust right
Rev. PONTIF TR P VII COS II Mars, with cloak, foot on helmet, holding branch and spear
Ref. Sear 1841, RIC 80b RSC 420a, BMC 481
Mint Rome
Year 205

ANTONIUS PIUS AUGUSTUS - Antonius Pius is your Emperor and Augustus
PONTIF TRIBUNICIA POTESTAS VII CONSUL II - Priest and Tribune of the People for the seventh time, Consul for the second time

Mars (god of war) is usually depicted naked with a cloak and helmet (as here) or in full armor. He normally has a shield, spear and trophy, though here he has his foot on a helmet, indicating military prowess, and a branch possibly indicating he is willing to extend the olive branch to those he has pacified.


-:Bacchus:-
Bacchus
x9.jpg
Caracalla 198-217 denarius42 viewsOb. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, laureate head right
Rev. P M TR P XVIIII COS IIII P P, Jupiter enthroned left, holding Victory & scepter, eagle at foot left.
Ref. RSC 343, RIC 277c
Rome mint
Year 216

ANTONIUS PIUS AUGUSTUS GERMANICUS - Antonius Pius is your Emperor and Augustus and has conquered the Germans
PONTIFEX MAXIMUS TRIBUNICIA POTESTAS XVIII CONSUL IIII PATER PATRIAE - High priest, Tribune of the People for the eighteenth time, Consul for the fourth time and father of the country

-:Bacchus:-
Bacchus
x6.jpg
Caracalla 198-217 denarius36 viewsOb. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG laureate head right
Rev. PONTIF TR P XI COS III PROF Emperor in military attire, holding spear, on horseback right, enemy kneeling right before, PROF in ex.
Ref. RIC 108, RSC 511, BMC 574
Mint Rome
Year 208

ANTONINVS PIVS AVGVSTVS Antoninus Pius is your Emperor and Augustus
PONTIF TRIBUNICIA POTESTAS XI CONSUL III PROFECTIO High Priest, Tribune of the People for the eleventh time, Consul for the third time. Good luck to the Emperor setting out on his (British) expedition

-:Bacchus:-
Bacchus
x11.jpg
Caracalla 198-217 denarius38 viewsOb. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG BRIT, laureate head right
Rev. PM TR P XV COS III PP, Serapis standing left holding right hand high & transverse scepter.
Ref. RSC 195, RIC 193
Mint Rome

ANTONIUS PIUS AUGUSTUS BRITANNUS - Antonius Pius is your Emperor and Augustus and has conquered the Britains
PONTIFEX MAXIMUS TRIBUNICIA POTESTAS XV CONSUL III PATER PATRIAE - High priest, Tribune of the People for the fiftheenth time, Consul for the third time and father of the country

-:Bacchus:-
Bacchus
cara33.jpg
Caracalla 198-217 denarius40 viewsOb. ANTONINUS PIVS AVG GERM Laureate bust right
Rev. P.M.TR.P.XVIII.COS.IIII.P.P. Aeskulapis standing, Globe on ground
Ref. RIC 253
Year 215AD

ANTONIUS PIUS AUGUSTUS GERMANICUS - Antonius Pius is your Emperor and Augustus and has conquered the Germans
PONTIFEX MAXIMUS TRIBUNICIA POTESTAS XVIII CONSUL IIII PATER PATRIAE - High priest, Tribune of the People for the eighteenth time, Consul for the fourth time and father of the country

-:Bacchus:-
Bacchus
car111.jpg
Caracalla 198-217 denarius33 viewsOb. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate draped bust right
Rev. VICT PART PONT TR P IIII Two captives, seated r. and l., mourning, at foot of trophy.
Ref. RIC 54a

ANTONINVS PIVS AVG Antionus Pius is your Emperor and Augustus
VICTOR PARTHICO PONTIFEX MAXIMUS TRIBUNICIA POTESTAS IIII Victor over the Parthians,High Priest, Tribune of the People for the forth time

-:Bacchus:-
Bacchus
car112.jpg
Caracalla 198-217 denarius57 viewsOb. ANTONINUS PIVS AVG GERM Head right
Rev. P M TR P XVII COS IIII P P. Jupiter left, holding thunderbolt and sceptre; at feet, eagle. Rome mint
Ref. RIC 240

ANTONIUS PIUS AUGUSTUS GERMANICUS - Antonius Pius is your Emperor and Augustus and has conquered the Germans
PONTIFEX MAXIMUS TRIBUNICIA POTESTAS XX CONSUL IIII PATER PATRIAE - High priest, Tribune of the People for the seventeenth time, Consul for the fourth time and father of the country

-:Bacchus:-
Bacchus
ant11.jpg
Caracalla Antoninianus Serapis60 viewsOb. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, radiate, draped bust right
Rev. P M TR P XX COS IIII P P, Serapis standing left, wearing polos & holding wreath of corn ears & transverse scepter

Ref. RIC 289d, RSC 383b
Weight 4.9g

ANTONIUS PIUS AUGUSTUS GERMANICUS - Antonius Pius is your Emperor and Augustus and has conquered the Germans
PONTIFEX MAXIMUS TRIBUNICIA POTESTAS XX CONSUL IIII PATER PATRIAE - High priest, Tribune of the People for the twentieth time, Consul for the fourth time and father of the country

-:Bacchus:-
1 commentsBacchus
Caracalla_Antiochia_Pisidia.jpg
Caracalla Pisidia Antioch17 viewsPisidia, Antioch. Caracalla (198-217)
Obv: IMP CAES M AVR ANTONINVS AVG
Laureate head right
Rev: CAE ANTIOCH COL / S R
Priest plowing right with yoke of oxen
SNG France 1146-7; Krzyźanowska XXXIX/70

16.87g, 32mm
1 commentsklausklage
aphrodisias_gordianIII_SNGaulock2461cf.jpg
Caria, Aphrodisias, Gordian III, MacDonald Type 187 var. 21 viewsGordian III, AD 238-244
AE 30 (2 assaria), 14.09g, 30.48mm, 165°
struck AD 238-341 (see MacDonald below)
obv. AV KM ANT - GORDIANOC (1st N reversed)
Bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. AFROD. - EI[CIE]EWN
Cult statue of Aphrodite Aphrodisias in ependytes and with kalathos, stg. r. on plinthe, head flanked by
crescent and star, both hands outstretched forwards; l. beside her small priestress std. with raised hand
on sella r., r. beside her a fountain with arched cover.
ref. MacDonald Type 187 var., 0234 var., R432 var.; cf. SNGF von Aulock 2461; not in Leypold, Keckmann,
Sammlung Karl, BMC
rare, F+, some deposits of sand-patina

MacDonald: Types 187-189 are an exception to the rule that the portrait of the emperor appears only on the largest denominations of Aphrodisias. The reason is fairly obvious. The portraits of 0234-0236 are distinctly juvenile, and early in the reign of Gordian III there were no other members of the imperial family whose portraits might be put on the coins. When Gordian III married Tranquillina, her portrait appeared on this denomination, Types 190-192
Jochen
aphrodisias_pseudoautonom_MacDonald145.jpg
Caria, Aphrodisias, pseudo-autonomous, MacDonald 14510 viewsCaria, Aphrodisias, pseudo-autonomous, c.AD 225-250
AE 22, 4.90g, 22.39mm, 180°
obv. [IEROC] - DEMOC
Head of Demos,laureate, r.
rev. [A]FROD - E - I - CIEWN
Cult statue of Aphrodite Aphrodisias, in ependytes and with kalathos, stg. r., holding
unknown object in extended hands; l. behind her small priestress std. r., r. before her
fountain with oval cover; in upper l. field star, in upper r. field crescent
ref. MacDonald type 145 (O203/R376); BMC 34; SNG Copenhagen 107
rare, F+, flan break-out at 10h

O203 is the only die where Demos is called "holy". Regarding its style this type is later than
the types 133-144. The increase of the module suggests the time around AD 250 (MacDonald)
Jochen
00528q00.jpg
Carinus5 viewsAE-Antoninianus
M AVR CARINVS NOB CAES; Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust to right.
PIETAS AVGG; Priestly implements: lituus, knife, jug, simpulum, and Sprinkler
Leg:
Ex: ZKA
Rome
RIC 155
Julianus of Pannonia
1380.jpg
charachspijk053 viewsElagabalus
Charachmoba

Obv: AVK MAV ANTWNINO, Laureate head right.
Rev: XAPA[XMWBA], On right, priest seated left before raised platform with steps leading up to it, on which is a tall column between two small baetyls.
20 mm, 6.78 gms

Spijkerman 5
Charles M
Cilicia.JPG
Cilicia13 viewsCilicia Trachea became the haunt of pirates, who were subdued by Pompey in 67 BC following a Battle of Korakesion (modern Alanya), and Tarsus was made the capital of the Roman province of Cilicia. Cilicia Pedias became Roman territory in 103 BC first conquered by Marcus Antonius Orator in his campaign against pirates, with Sulla acting as its first governor, foiling an invasion of Mithridates, and the whole was organized by Pompey, 64 BC, into a province which, for a short time, extended to and included part of Phrygia. It was reorganized by Julius Caesar, 47 BC, and about 27 BC became part of the province Syria-Cilicia Phoenice. At first the western district was left independent under native kings or priest-dynasts, and a small kingdom, under Tarcondimotus, was left in the east; but these were finally united to the province by Vespasian, AD 72. It had been deemed important enough to be governed by a proconsul.

ancientone
olba_SNGparis807.jpg
Cilicia, Olba, quasi-autonomous, SNG Paris 80736 viewsAE 16, 4.52g
struck under Ajas, son of Teukros, archiereus of Olba and toparch of Kennatis and Lalassis, AD 11-12 (year 2)
obv. TOPARX / KENNAT / [L]ALAS / ET B
in dotted circle
rev. Thunderbolt
above ARXIER / AIANTOS
beneath TEVKROV
in dotted circle
SNG BN Paris 807; RPC I, 3729; Staffierie, Olba 15, 14
Very rare, about EF, glossy dark-green patina
Pedigree:
ex auction F.Sternberg AG Zürich XXV, 1991, lot 160
ex. auction M&M XVII, 2005, lot 965

Olba was for a long time a quasi-autonomous priest kingdom. It's main god was Zeus Olbios. Hence the thunderbolt on the rev.
Jochen
maximinI_tarsos_BMC230.jpg
Cilicia, Tarsos, Maximinus I BMC 23066 viewsMaximinus I AD 235-238
AE 37, 21.89g
obv. AYT.K.G.IOY.OYH.MAXIMEINOC C
bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
in field P-P
rev. TARCOY T - HC MHTROPOLEWC
Nike, on globe, advancing l., holding palmbranch and cilicarch crown with four
imperial heads
in left field AM/K
in right field G/B
SNG Levante var. 1092; SNG Paris 1594-5 (both same dies); BMC 230
rare, nice VF
added to www.wildwinds.com

The Cilicarch was the High Priest in Cilicia, the chief priest of the provincial temple or the temples of the imperial cults.
3 commentsJochen
Claudius_II___Virtus.png
Claudius II 268- 270 / Antoninianus 32 viewsAntoninianus, Claudius II right / Virtus walking right, Trophy on left shoulder, spear in right hand.
Nice portrait.

**The Golden Legend of 1260 AD recounts how St. Valentine refused to deny Christ before the "Emperor Claudius" in 270 AD ( in some ref ; 269 AD as he was beheaded in that year 269 AD ,per Sam) and as a result was beheaded. Since then, February 14 marks Valentine's Day, a day set aside by the Christian church in memory of the Roman priest and physician.

2 commentsSam
Claudius II Gothicus DIVO CLAVDIO.jpg
Claudius II Gothicus DIVO CLAVDIO52 viewsClaudius II Gothicus, September 268 - August or September 270 AD

Obverse:
Radiate head right

DIVO CLAVDIO

DIVO, god

CLAVDIO, Cladius

Dot in right field

Reverse:
CONSECRATIO

Showing: eagle standing left, head right

Domination: Antoninianus, Copper, size 17 mm

Mint: ???

The Helvetica tables list this as RIC V (1) 266 this also according to The helvetica is the same reference number for all mints..
It lists 2 dots below on the obverse , but my coin shows the dots to the right if I see them correctly
I'm still not sure on the mint it's either Lyons, Rome or Aquileia .

Comment: Consecratio. In the first and second centuries when a popular emperor or their family member dies, they were consecrated as gods. Their successors built a personality cult around the dead emperor, serving as chief priest, and often dedicating temples to the dead. In the third century this custom faded out as the Cristian era evolved. Some common types of these depict a cult item or temple of the deified emperor. Some include: a cart drawing the cult image of the deified emperor, an emperor throne, a funeral pyre, an eagle, altar or peacock
John S
Claudius_Libertas_2.JPG
Claudius LIBERTAS AVGVSTA S C27 viewsClaudius, 25 January 41 - 13 October 54 A.D.

Obverse:
Bare head left

TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP
TI: Tiberius
CLAVDIVS: Claudius
CAESAR: CAESAR

AVG: Augustus, emperor
P M: PP: Pontifix Maximus, high priest
TR P: Tribunicia Potestate. The tribunician power, the emperor as civil head of the state.
IMP: Imperator, leader of the army

Reverse:

LIBERTAS AVGVSTA S C
LIBERTAS: Libertas
AVGVSTA: AVGVSTA

The title of Augusta denotes a woman with significant imperial power. Minting coins with Libertas on Roman coins was a political statement by many who succeeded tyrants

S C
S C: Senatus Consulto, by Decree of the Senate

LIBERTAS AVGVSTA S C, Libertas standing facing, head right, pileus in right (cap worn by freed slaves), extending left hand

Domination: Copper AS, size 27 mm, die axis 180o

Mint: Rome mint, 50- 54 A.D, RIC 1-113_C47
John S
Claudius_Minerva_1.JPG
Claudius S C Minerva22 viewsClaudius, 25 January 41 - 13 October 54 A.D.

Obverse:
Bare head left

TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP

TI: Tiberius
CLAVDIVS: Claudius
CAESAR: CAESAR
AVG: Augustus, emperor
P M: PP: Pontifix Maximus, high priest
TR P: Tribunicia Potestate. The tribunician power, the emperor as civil head of the state.
IMP: Imperator, leader of the army

Reverse:

S C

S C: Senatus Consulto, by Decree of the Senate


Minerva advancing right brandishing javelin in right, shield in left

Domination: Copper AS, size 25 mm

Mint: Rome mint, 50-54 A.D¸ RIC-I-116_C-84
John S
commse18b.jpg
Commodus, RIC 560, Sestertius of AD 190 (Ploughing)42 viewsÆ Sestertius (16,57g, Ø 30mm, 7h). Rome mint. Struck AD 190.
Ob.: M COMMOD ANT P FE-LIX AVG BRIT P P, laureate head right
Rev.: COL LAN COM PM TR P XV IMP VIII (around) COS VI (in ex.) S C, Commodus, veiled, as priest, ploughing right with two oxen.

RIC 560; BMC 643; Cohen 39(60fr.); Sear (RCV) 5737

This is a very rare type, found occasionally as Æ-As, but extremely rare as a sestertius. It probably refers to the refounding of Lanuvium, the birthplace of Commodus and the place where he displayed his skills as Hercules by killing lions in the arena.

There has been speculation about the meaning of the first part of the reverse legend COLLANCOM. The traditional expansion of this legend is based on Eckhel (1796), reading the legend as COLonia Lucia ANtoniana COMmodiana, in order to try to relate it to the refounding of Rome. This was followed by Cohen and many other references. The British Museum and RIC expand it slightly differently: "The depiction of the ritual ploughing of the furrow marking out a new foundation refers to Commodus' refounding of Rome as COLonia Lucia ANnia COMmodiana."

Curtis Clay in Forum's discussion board, points to a powerful objection of this interpretation: "Since Commodus still calls himself Marcus on the obverse and was not to switch his praenomen back to Lucius until 191, a year later, why, on the reverse, does he name Rome Lucia and not Marcia?

Chantraine in 1971, following a suggestion of Renier in 1872, proposed what seems to be the solution to the problem: the legend is to be expanded COLonia LANuvina COMmodiana and commemorates Commodus' elevation of his birthplace Lanuvium, which had been a municipium, to the rank of colony.

Commodus did refound Rome too, and this deed is commemorated on very rare mediallions, sestertii, and dupondii struck late in 192, just before his assassination on 31 december. These coins have the same rev. type of emperor plowing, but the legend HERCuli ROMano CONDITORI P M TR P XVIII COS VII P P, 'To the Roman Hercules, the Founder'."

ex cgb.fr (2014).
1 commentsCharles S
COMMAS03.jpg
Commodus, RIC 570, As of AD 190 (emperor ploughing)16 viewsÆ As (8,48g, Ø24mm, 6h). Rome, AD 190.
Obv.: M COMM ANT P FELIX AVG [BRIT P P], laureate head right.
Rev.: COL LAN [COM P M TR P XV IMP VIII] around, COS VI / SC in ex., Commodus, veiled and togate, as priest, ploughing right with yoke of two oxen.
RIC 570 (R2); Cohen 40 (20 fr.); RCV 5856
Ex Naville Numismatics Live Auction 16, July 2015

Issued to mark the elevation of Commodus' birthplace Lanuvium from municipium to the rank of colony: COLonia LANuvina COMmodiana.
Charles S
COMMAS02-2.jpg
Commodus, RIC 570, As of AD 190 (refounding Lanuvium)25 viewsÆ As (11,21g, Ø 27mmmm, 6h). Rome, AD 190.
Obv.: M COMM ANT P FELIX AVG BRIT P P, laureate head right.
Rev.: COL LAN COM P M TR P XV IMP VIII around COS VI ex. SC field, Commodus, veiled and togate, as priest, ploughing right with yoke of two oxen..
RIC 570 [R2]; BMCRE 659; Cohen 40 (20 fr.); Sear (Roman Coins and their Values) 5856.
Expanding the reverse legend to COLonia LANuvina COMmodiana, this issue commemorates Commodus' elevation of his birthplace Lanuvium from municipium to the rank of colony.
Ex José A. Herrero, Subasta Num. Mayo 15.
Charles S
Commodus- Victoria.jpg
Commodus- Denarius Victoria51 viewsCommodus, marts eller april 177 - 31 December 192

Obverse:
Commodus with laurete head right

M COMM ANT FEL AVG P BRIT

M: Marcus
COMM: Commodus
ANT: Antoninus, Antoninus
FEL: Happy
AVG: Augustus, emperor
P: Pius, pious
BRIT: Britannicus

Reverse:
SAEC FEL PM TR P XI IMP VII COS V PP

SAEC: Happy age, refers to the secular games
FEL: Felix, happy
PM: Pontifix Maximus, literally ”head priest”, the ruler´s title as supreme head of the roman religion.
TRP: Tribunicia Potestas, The Tribunician power, the emperor as civil head of the state.
XI: 11th time
IMP: Imperator, head of the army
VII: 7 th time
COS: Consul,
V: 5 th time
PP: Pater Patria, father of his country

Victoria standing right, foot on helmet, inscribing VO DE (VOTA DECENNALES, every 10 year) on a shield set on upon a palme.

Domination: Denarius, silver, size 18 mm

Mint: Rome, struck 183-184 A.D. RIC 101, type B.

TRP = This is short for tribunicia potestate - "with the power of the Tribune of the Plebs." The government of Rome was split into the Patricians (who were Senators) and the Plebians. Nine Tribunes of the Plebs were elected by both Plebs and Patricians every year to be in charge of the Plebian assembly. These Tribunes could not be injured because it could be punishable by death. They had veto powers, and they could prevent a law from being passed or an election. An emperor cannot technically rule on the Plebian assembly since he is a Patrician, but by taking the title he could be free from injury. On a coin, if this symbol is followed by a number, it depicts how many times he has been elected Tribune of the Plebs.
John Schou
899CNG411.jpg
Cr 252/1 AR Denarius L. Postumius Albinus3 viewsL. Postumius Albinus 131 BCE
Rome mint
Helmeted head of Roma right; apex to left, mark of value below chin / Mars driving galloping quadriga right, holding trophy, shield, and spear. LPOSTA below, ROMA in ex.
19.5mm 3.91 gm
Postumia 1
One of the types without associated bronze. Interesting use of ligate lettering on rev. The apex on the obv. presumably reflects that an ancestor was Flamens Martialis; an ordinary moneyer is probably a bit young for that priesthood. One would have to have considerable self-confidence to wear such a hat, which can be seen on this iteration to be quite tall and spiky, not always seen quite that way.
PMah
caracalla.jpg
Denarius; SEVERI AVG PII FIL, RIC 49 viewsCaracalla as Caesar. 195-198 AD, Denarius, Rome, 195-6 AD, 2.99g. Obv: M AVR ANTONINVS CAES Bare-headed bust r. Rx: SEVERI AVG PII FIL Priestly implements: lituus, knife, pitcher, ladle, sprinkler. BM-184, C-587 (3 Fr.), RIC-4. The earliest reverse type of Caracalla Caesar. Ex H.J.BerkPodiceps
Diocletian_Tetra~0.jpg
Diocletian, 20 November 284 - 1 May 305 A.D., Roman Provincial Egypt.36 viewsBillon tetradrachm, Geissen 3243; Dattari 5624; Milne 4915; Curtis 1956; SNG Cop 994; BMC Alexandria p. 326, 2530; Kampmann -, VF, crowded flan cuts off right side of obverse legend, Alexandria mint, 7.290 grams, 19.1 mm, die axis 0o, 29 Aug 288 - 28 Aug 289 A.D.; obverse and#913; and#922; and#915; and#927;and#933;and#913;and#923; and#8710;and#921;and#927;and#922;and#923;and#919;and#932;and#921;and#913;and#925;and#927;C Cand#917;and#914;, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse Alexandria standing left, turreted, head of Serapis in right, long scepter vertical in left, L - E (year 5) flanking across field, star right.

Ptolemy Soter integrated Egyptian religion with that of the Hellenic rulers by creating Serapis, a deity that would win the reverence of both groups. This was despite the curses of the Egyptian priests against the gods of previous foreign rulers (i.e Set who was lauded by the Hyksos). Alexander the Great had attempted to use Amun for this purpose, but Amum was more prominent in Upper Egypt, and not as popular in Lower Egypt, where the Greeks had stronger influence. The Greeks had little respect for animal-headed figures, and so an anthropomorphic statue was chosen as the idol, and proclaimed as the equivalent of the highly popular Apis. It was named Aser-hapi (i.e. Osiris-Apis), which became Serapis, and was said to be Osiris in full, rather than just his Ka (life force). Ptolemy`s efforts were successful - in time Serapis was held by the Egyptians in the highest reverence above all other deities, and he was adored in Athens and other Greek cities.


EX; FORVM Ancient Coins.

*With my sincere thank and appreciation , Photo and Description courtesy of FORVM Ancient Coins Staff.
Sam
Domitian.jpg
Domitian31 viewsRoman Empire
Imperator Titus Flavius Caesar Domitianus Augustus Germanicus
(Reign as 11th Emperor: Sept. 14th, 81-Sept. 18th, 96)
(Born: Oct. 24th, 51, Died: Sept. 18th, 96 [age: 44])

Obverse: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM PM TRP XI, Head of Domitian wearing laurel wreath and facing right

Reverse: IMP XXI COS XVI CENS P PP, Minerva standing on a galley's prow (or a rostral column), holding spear and shield, owl at feet

Silver Denarius (18.2mm, 3.63g)
Minted in Rome circa 92


Understanding the inscriptions:

IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM=Imperator Caesar Domitianus Augustus Germanicus
Sphinx357
domitian-quinarius.jpg
Domitian AR Quinarius, Herald12 viewsDomitian AR Quinarius. IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P VII, Laureate bust right / COS XIIII LVD SAEC FEC, Salian priest/herald with feathered cap advancing left holding wand and shield decorated with helmeted bust of Minerva. RIC II 118/599, RSC 78. Ex. K.E.Day CollectionHolding_History
D16.jpg
Domitian RIC 16100 viewsAR Denarius, 3.43g
Rome mint, 81 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG PONT; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: P P COS VII DES VIII; Seat, draped; above, semicircular frame decorated with three crescents
RIC 16 (R2). BMC -. RSC -. BNC 8.
Acquired from Germania Inferior, June 2018.

Domitian seems to have been somewhat in a hurry to strike coins as Augustus after Titus' death in mid September 81 AD, presumably for a legionary donative. This denarius was struck before Domitian had been awarded the power of the tribunate (TR P) and pontifex maximus (PM). Here his only titles are Augustus (AVG), Imperator (IMP), Consul for the 7th time (COS VII), and pater patriae, father of the country (P P). Perhaps it may have taken a few days for the Senate to award the power of the tribunate to Domitian because they had assembled at the small town of Reate where Titus had died and needed to be in Rome in order to vote him the right. The religious ceremonies required for Domitian to assume the title pontifex maximus had not yet finished by this time either, here he is simply PONT, or in other words a member of the College of Pontiffs. Some have argued that PONT is the same as PM, I disagree. Titus as Caesar early on had also used the title PONT on his denarii and he was never pontifex maximus under Vespasian - only the emperor can be Pontifex Maximus or greatest priest. Although this Group 2 denarius is not part of Domitian's first RIC issue, it is very likely to have been struck within the first few days of him assuming the purple. RIC notes the chronology is not precise with these issues from 81 and they are grouped only for 'convenience'. Judging by the rarity of the Group 2 denarii they could not have been struck for any great length of time.

Dark cabinet toning with a stylish early portrait.
5 commentsDavid Atherton
EB0241b_scaled.JPG
EB0241 Legend / Cornucopiae4 viewsJUDAEA, ALEXANDER JANNAEUS, AE Prutah, 103-76 BC.
Obverse: Hebrew inscription (Yehonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews) of the cursive style script, in wreath.
Reverse: Double cornucopiae adorned with ribbons; pomegranate between horns.
References: SG 6089 or 6090; Hendin 475; Meshorer 17.
Diameter: 16.5mm, Weight: 2.211g.
EB
EB0243b_scaled.JPG
EB0243 Legend / Cornucopiae3 viewsJUDAEA, ALEXANDER JANNAEUS, AE 13 Prutah, 103-76 BC.
Obverse: Hebrew inscription (Yehonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews) of the cursive style script, in wreath.
Reverse: Double cornucopiae adorned with ribbons; pomegranate between horns.
References: SG 6089 or 6090.
Diameter: 13.5mm, Weight: 1.075g.
EB
EB0244b_scaled.JPG
EB0244 Legend / Cornucopiae3 viewsJUDAEA, JOHN HYRCANUS 2, AE Prutah, 67-40 BC.
Obverse: Legend in wreath, 'Yehohonan the High Priest and the Community of the Jews'.
Reverse: Two cornucopias, pomegranate between them.
References: SG 6095 or 6096.
Diameter: 13.5mm, Weight: 1.269g.
EB
EB0364_scaled.JPG
EB0364 Mark Antony / Sol28 viewsMark Antony, AR Denarius, Athens mint, 38-37 BC.
Obv: M ANTONIVS M F M N AVGVR IM TER, Antony standing right, dressed as priest, veiled, wearing toga & holding a lituus.
Rev: III VIR R P C COS DESIG ITER ET TERT, radiate head of Sol right.
References: Syd. 1199.
Diameter: 18mm, Weight: 3.543 grams.
Note: Sold.
1 commentsEB
EB0366_scaled.JPG
EB0366 Julius Caesar, AR Denarius, 49-48 BC.24 viewsJulius Caesar, AR Denarius, 49-48 BC.
Obv: CAESAR in exergue, elephant right, trampling on serpent. Unknown symbol (banker's mark) left of center.
Rev: Simpulum, sprinkler, axe and priest's hat
References: BMCRR, Gaul, 27, Syd. 1006.
Diameter: 18.5mm, Weight: 3.892 grams.
Note: No longer in the EB collection.
EB
EB0413_scaled.JPG
EB0413 Nerva / priestly implements8 viewsNerva, AR Denarius, 97 AD
Obv: IMP NERVA CAES AVG P M TR POT, laureate head right.
Rev: COS III PATER PATRAE, ladle, sprinkler, jug and lituus.
References: RIC 24; RSC 48.
Diameter: 18.5mm, Weight: 2.672 grams.
EB
EB0498_scaled.JPG
EB0498 Elagabalus / Sacrificing6 viewsElagabalus, AE AS, 218-222 AD.
Obv: IMP CAES M AVR ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate, draped bust right.
Rev: S-C [P M] TR P IIII COS III P P: Elagabalus, in Syrian priestly robes, standing left, sacrificing out of patera in right hand over lighted altar, holding club in left hand; behind altar, bull crouching; star in left field.
References: RIC IV 329.
Diameter: 24mm, Weight: 8.787 grams.
EB
EB0564_scaled.JPG
EB0564 Maximus Caesar / Kilikarch Crown12 viewsMaximus Caesar, AE 33 of Tarsus, Cilicia, 235-238 AD.
Obv: Γ IOY OYH MAXIMOC KAIC, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: THC MHTRO TARCOV around, EΠA RΞIK ΩN in three lines inside, Kilikarch (or Cilicarch) Crown decorated with 6 imperial heads topped by Nike standing left with wreath.
References: BMC 19 S208,238(1); SNG FRANCE 2 1615(1).
Diameter: 33mm, Weight: 14.816 grams.

"The Cilicarch (note spelling with added C, since it derives from "Cilicia") is the High Priest of Cilicia.
His most important function was as chief priest of the provincial temple or temples of the emperors.
The busts on his crown, which vary considerably from depiction to depiction, are those of the emperors and empresses who were honored in those provincial temples." - Curtis Clay in forumancientcoins.com discussion.
EB
Emmett-2529_24.jpg
Egypt, Alexandria: Commodus (177-192 CE) BI Tetradrachm (Köln 2212-3 var; Dattari (Savio) 9553; K&G 41.49; Emmett 2529.24)14 viewsObv: Laureate head right
Rev: Commodus, in priestly attire, standing left before bust of Serapis set on low cippus, sacrificing over lighted altar; K-∆ across field, L in exergue
Quant.Geek
photo.PNG
Egyptian Faience Frog30 views2nd-1st Millenium BC, Egyptian Faience Frog. c. 11mm maximum diameter.

From Forvm's description of a similar piece:

The frog was a symbol of the Egyptian goddess of birth, Heget. Her priestesses were midwives and women often wore frog amulets during childbirth. Heget was said to have breathed life in to the new body of Horus and some of her amulets include the phrase, "I am the resurrection." Curiously, early Christians adopted the frog as a symbol of Christ's resurrection.
1 commentsMolinari
elagabal_131.jpg
Elagabal RIC IV, 131128 viewsElagabal 218 - 222
AR - Denar, 3.04g, 19mm
Rome AD 221
obv. IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG
draped bust, laureate head r., with 'horn' on forehead
rev. SACERD DEI SOLIS ELAGAB
Elagabal, laureate, in Syrian priestly robe, standing r. at lighted altar, holding club l. and
patera r.
star in r. field
RIC IV, 131; C.246
EF, uncirculated
From Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!

STAR in field here always means mint of Rome!
1 commentsJochen
elagabal_146.jpg
Elagabal RIC IV, 14646 viewsElagabal, AD 218-222
AR - denarius, 3.34g, 18.5mm
Rome, AD 220-222
obv. IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG
Bust, draped, laureate, wearing 'horn', r.
rev. SVMMVS SACERDOS AVG
Emperor, in Syrian priest garment, wearing 'horn', stg. l., sacrificing from
patera in r. hand over flaming tripod stg. l., holding branch in l. hand; star in l.
field.
RIC IV/2, 146; C.276; BMC 232
VF, toned

Wether it is a 'horn' on Elagabal's head on the rev. or only a long laurel leaf is discussed.
Jochen
elagabal_146var.jpg
Elagabal RIC IV, 146 var.32 viewsElagabal, AD 218-222
AR - denarius, 19mm, 2.84g
Rome, AD 222
obv. IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG
Bust, draped and laureate, r., without horn!
rev. SVMMVS SACERDOS AVG
Emperor, wearing garment of a Syrian priest, stg. l., sacrificing from patera over burning tripod l., holding in lowered l. hand cypress twig(?)
in upper l. field star
RIC IV/2, 146 var.; C.276 var.; BMCR 230
Cohen and RIC have listed only the type with horn.

This is one of the last issues for Elagabal. The horn has been removed shortly after TRP V 10. Dec. 221. But even this could not avert his terrible fate.
1 commentsJochen
elagabal_88.jpg
Elagabal RIC IV, 8883 viewsElagabal 218 - 228
AR - Denar, 3.51g, 18mm
Rome 220 - 222
obv. IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG
draped bust, laureate head r., with 'horn' on forehead
rev. INVICTVS SACERDOS AVG
Elagabal in Syrian priestly robe standing l., holding with r. hand
patera over lightened altar and club in l. hand; behind altar
resting bull
star in l. field
RIC IV, 88; C.61
about EF

Syrian priestly robe with long sleeves and a big decorative buckle before his stomach (pointed out by Curtis Clay).
BTW The interpretation of the 'horn' as a bull-penis is very doubtful!
Jochen
Elagabalus_3.jpg
Elagabalus100 viewsRIC 88, RSC 61.
Elagabalus, denarius.
19 mm 3,12 g.
Obv. IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate, horned, draped and bearded bust right.
Rev. INVICTVS SACERDOS AVG, Elagabalus standing half left, branch in left, offering from patera in right over altar, recumbent bull behind altar, star left.

Elagabalus (c. 203 – March 11, 222), also known as Heliogabalus or Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, was a Roman Emperor of the Severan dynasty who reigned from 218 to 222. This reverse refers to Elagabalus' role as priest of the Syrian god from whom he took his nickname. His religious fanaticism was a primary cause of his downfall.

This coin immediately became one of my favourites, because of the detailed obverse and reverse (watch the bull!) and the history behind the coin. The coin also has a beautiful dark toning.
3 commentsmars1112
897205.jpg
Elagabalus38 viewsElagabalus. AD 218-222. AR Denarius (18mm, 3.07 g, 7h). Uncertain Eastern mint. Struck AD 219-220. IMP ΛNTO NINVS ΛVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right / SΛNCT DEO S OL I/ELΛGΛBΛL·, four horses advancing right, drawing chariot containing Stone of Emesa, surmounted by eagle and surrounded by four parasols. RIC IV 144 var. (not cuirassed); Thirion 362a; RSC 266 var. (same); Gemini VII, lot 805 (same dies). VF. Very rare type with the eastern mint’s second obverse legend; less than eight specimens known to Curtis Clay.

At the age of fourteen, Varius Avitus Bassianus (Elagabalus) inherited the office of high priest of the sun-god Elagabalus at Emesa in Syria. The cult of his sun god was represented by a sacred stone, and in AD 219 when he moved from Emesa to Rome, he took the stone, probably a meteorite, with him. This coin type commemorates this event. During his reign, Elagabalus devoted his efforts to the promotion of his cult god, building a lavish temple to house the stone.
2 commentsTLP
CollageMaker_20180531_123207829.jpg
Elagabalus8 viewsAR Denarius, Rome Mint, Struck 220-222 AD
Obverse: IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG (no break), Horned, laureate, draped and bearded bust right.
Reverse: INVICTVS SACERDOS AVG, Elagabalus, in Syrian priestly robes, standing half left, sacrificing holding patera in right hand over lighted altar, a club or cypress in his left hand. A recumbent bull sits behind the altar, star in left field.
References: RIC IV 88b, RSC 61, BMCRE 212
Justin L
Elagabalus_(218-222)_denarius_(AR).png
Elagabalus (218-222) denarius (AR)14 viewsObv.: IMP ANTONINVS AVG (Laureate bust of emperor) Rev.: TEMPORVM FELICITAS (Felicitas std. holding caduceus and cornucopia) Diameter: 19,30 mm Weight: 2,12 g RIC 150

Elagabalus is a most fascinating figure. A scion of the Severan line, Elagabalus was the high priest of the cult of Ilāh hag-Gabal (Elagabalus, hence the emperor's nickname), patron deity of Emesa, who was worshipped in the form of a stone. This stone was brought to Rome with great festivities - even coinage was issued to celebrate the event- and was placed in its own temple called the Elagabalium. Elagabalus then proceeded to house the most important religious artifacts of the Romans in this temple, like the flame of Vesta and the Palladium, as if to subordinate them to his deity or in order to create a sort of syncretist religion. He also performed strange dancing rites around the stone in front of the Senate. Whatever the case, he was removed from power by his own grandmother in favour of Severus Alexander. Elagabalus' role as high priest is a recurrent theme on his coinage.
Nick.vdw
ElagStarRightSm.jpg
Elagabalus aka Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus aka Varius Avitus Bassianus164 viewsElagabalus denarius
O: Laureate bust of Elagabalus, draped, horn. "IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG"
R: Elagabalus standing left holding patera over altar. Club in left hand, star in right field."SACRED DEI SOLIS ELAGAB" - RSC 252

ExKunker auction 136, lot 1118; Ex Auktion Auctiones A. G. 23, Basel 1993, Nr. 535.


This is the rare, initial, SACERD DEI SOLIS ELAGABAL type, with the emperor sacrificing left not right, and with the star erroneously behind him rather than before him. The star apparently stood for his sun god, to whom the emperor was depicted sacrificing, and therefore it should have been placed before him, above his patera and the altar.

We know that the star behind the emperor was wrong, because on quite a few dies of all four emperor-sacrificing types the star was eradicated from behind the emperor and re-engraved in front of him. Note that on the obverse Elagabalus is still unbearded, confirming the early date (c. summer 221).

The normal type, emperor sacrificing right, star before him, was represented by 181 specimens in the Reka Devnia hoard, compared to 3 specimens for this early variety. (Thanks to CClay for these details.)

At the age of fourteen, Elagabalus became high priest of the sun-god Elagabalus at Emesa in Syria. The cult was represented by a sacred stone, and in AD 219 when he moved from Emesa to Rome, he took the stone, probably a meteorite, with him. During his reign, Elagabalus devoted his efforts to the promotion of his cult god, building a lavish temple to house the stone. The reverse type and legend promote his position as high priest of the sun-god Elagabalus.
5 commentsNemonater
Elagab.jpg
Elagabalus aka Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus aka Varius Avitus Bassianus211 viewsElagabalus 221-222 AD. (3.23 g 20 mm) Rome mint. O: IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate, draped (Hornless) bust right right. R: SACERD DEI SOLIS ELAGAB, Elagabalus sacrificing right over lighted altar, holding palm, star in right field. RIC 131; RSC246a.

At the age of fourteen, Elagabalus became high priest of the sun-god Elagabalus at Emesa in Syria. The cult was represented by a sacred stone, and in AD 219 when he moved from Emesa to Rome, he took the stone, probably a meteorite, with him. During his reign, Elagabalus devoted his efforts to the promotion of his cult god, building a lavish temple to house the stone. The reverse type and legend on the present coin promote his position as high priest of the sun-god Elagabalus.
4 commentsNemonater
Elagabalus_Invictus_Sacerdos.jpg
Elagabalus Invictus Sacerdos21 viewsElagabalus, Silver denarius, Rome, 220 - 222 AD, 19.2mm, 2.772g, RIC IV 88, RSC III 61, BMCRE V 212
OBV: IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, horned, laureate, draped and bearded bust right
REV: INVICTVS SACERDOS AVG, Elagabalus standing half left, branch in left,
offering from patera in right over altar, recumbent bull behind altar, star left

EX: Forvm Ancient Coins

This reverse refers to Elagabalus' role as priest of the Syrian god from whom he took his nickname.
His religious fanaticism was a primary cause of his downfall.
Romanorvm
Elagabalus_SC_in_Wreath.JPG
Elagabalus SC in Wreath47 viewsElagabalus AE20, Antioch Syria, 218 - 220 AD, Antioch BMC 430
OBV: radiate head of Elagabalus right
REV: S dot C, Delta Epsilon above, eagle below all within laurel wreath
McAlee 788
Elagabalus was a teenaged priest of the sun god Heliogabalus, and was
infamous for his debauchery. He was a member of the powerful Syrian
clan headed by his grandmother, Julia Maesa, who engineered his rise
to power. His followers overthrew and killed his predecessor,
Macrinus, in fighting which culminated in and around Antioch. The
early part of Elagabalus' reign was spent at Antioch, after which he
traveled to Rome and took up residence there
1 commentsRomanorvm
elag271.jpg
Elagabalus Sestertius107 viewsElagabalus --AE Sestertius. R: Elagabalus in priestly robes, standing left, holding patera over lighted altar, with cypress branch in left hand, legend: P M TR P IIII COS III P P, S C. RIC 326, Cohen 2001 commentsfeatherz
Elagabalus_Possibly_Unique.jpg
Elagabalus, 16 May 218 - 11 March 222 A.D. Silver denarius49 viewsPossibly unique! The combination of this reverse legend with a recumbent bull behind the altar is apparently unpublished and this is the only example known to Forum. The bull is present on a similar type with the reverse legend INVICTVS SACERDOS AVG.


Silver denarius, RSC III 213c var. (no bull); BMCRE V 269 var. (same); Hunter III 68 var. (same); RIC IV 52 (S) var. (same, also no horn); SRCV II 7538 var. (same), NGC XF, strike 5/5, surface 3/5 (2412840-011), Rome mint, weight 3.07g, maximum diameter 18.4mm, die axis 0o, Jan 222 A.D.; obverse IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, horned, laureate, draped and bearded bust right, from the front; reverse P M TR P V COS IIII P P, Elagabalus standing slightly left, wearing Syrian priestly dress, sacrificing from patera in right hand over flaming altar at feet on left, club (or branch) cradled in left hand and arm, star in upper left field, recumbent bull behind altar; NGC certified (slabbed); extremely rare.

Coins with a horned portrait and the title TR P V were struck in January 222 A.D. After some days or weeks the horn was removed from Elagabalus' portrait. Elagabalus had shocked the public with bizarre behavior including cross dressing and marrying a vestal virgin. Removing the unusual horn from his portrait was probably part of a last ditch effort to show that he had changed, dropping his peculiar Syrian ways. The effort failed. On 11 March 222, Elagabalus and his mother were murdered, dragged through the streets of Rome and dumped into the Tiber.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection.
Sam
Elagabalus_RIC_146_(h)~0.JPG
Elagabalus, 218 - 222 AD12 viewsObv: IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Elagabalus, bearded, with horn over forehead, facing right, seen from the front.

Rev: SVMMVS SACERDOS AVG, Elagabalus in priestly robes standing left, sacrificing from a patera over a lighted tripod altar, holding a cypress branch in left hand; star in field to left.

Silver Denarius, Rome mint, 222 AD

3.2 grams, 18 mm, 180°

RIC IVii 146 (horned), RSC 276, S7549, VM 63/1
Matt Inglima
Elagabalus_RIC_52.JPG
Elagabalus, 218 - 222 AD20 viewsObv: IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate, draped bust of Elagabalus facing right, seen from front.

Rev: PM TRP V COS IIII PP, Elagabalus standing left, dressed in priestly robes, sacrificing over a lighted altar, holding a patera in his right hand and a club in his left; a star in left field.

Silver Denarius, Rome mint, 222 AD

3 grams, 19 mm, 0°

RIC IVii 52, RSC 213a, S7538, VM 52 (var.)
SPQR Coins
Elagabalus_RIC_146~0.JPG
Elagabalus, 218 - 222 AD12 viewsObv: IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Elagabalus, bearded, facing right, seen from the front.

Rev: SVMMVS SACERDOS AVG, Elagabalus in priestly robes standing left, sacrificing from a patera over a lighted tripod altar, holding a cypress branch in left hand; star in field to left.

Silver Denarius, Rome mint, 222 AD

3.5 grams, 19 mm, 0°

RIC IVii 146 (no horn), RSC 276b, S7549, VM 63/1
Matt Inglima
Elagabalus_RIC_88.JPG
Elagabalus, 218 - 222 AD32 viewsObv: IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate, draped bust of Elagabalus, horned, facing right and seen from the front.

Rev: INVICTVS SACERDOS AVG, Elagabalus, in priestly robes, standing left, sacrificing over a lighted altar, holding a patera in right hand and a club in his left, the carcass of a bull lies on the ground behind the altar; star in field.

Silver Denarius, Rome mint, 221 - 222 AD

3.0 grams, 20.9 mm, 0°

RIC IVii 88, RSC III 61, S7518, VM 36/2
Matt Inglima
Elagabalus_EmpPriest1a.jpg
Elagabalus, AD 218-222 * Silver Denarius - (Scarce)97 views
AR Denarius "May your future be filled with victory and success"

Obv: IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG - Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed * (hornless type)
Rev: PM TR P V COS IIII PP - Elagabalus standing left, holding patera over altar sacrificing and a Cypress branch (or club? / parazonium?) in left hand; single star in left field.

Mint: Rome
Struck: February-March, 222 AD.

Size: 19 mm.
Weight: 2.75 grams
Die Axis: 0 degs.

Beautiful luster

RIC IVii, 52 (s), page 32 * Scarce
Cohen 213
RSC 213a, BMC 268


The scarcity of this coin may owe in some part to the late date of its being struck – January-March 222 AD, in the very brief period just preceding his assassination, along with his mother and the purge of his followers – his ‘creatures’ (to note Gibbons’ term).
So being, that these coins were not held from release & circulation at the mints, to be melted down to strike new coinage for his successor, his cousin Severus Alexander.
1 commentsTiathena
elagse01-2.jpg
Elagabalus, sestertius of AD 22139 viewsÆ Sestertius (27.00g, Ø 31mm, 12h), Rome mint, Struck AD 221
Obv.: IMP CAES M AVG ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laurate, draped, cuirassed and horned bust of Elagabalus facing right.
Rev.: PM TR P IIII COS III P P (around edge) S C (in field), Elagabalus standing left, sacrificing over lighted altar, holding cypress-branch in left hand; star in field.
RIC 323 (R); Cohen 198 (fr.20)
ex G. Henzen

This type refers to the emperor in his role as priest of the sun-god Elagabalus. For this, as well as for many other reasons, he was much detested by the Romans and soon murdered by his own troops. His body was thrown down a sewer after having been dragged through the city. Quoting one of the most remarkable and wonderful sentences from the old Dictionary of Roman Coins (see Elagabalus): "Thus perished, on the 11th of March, one of the most cruel, debauched and shameless wretches, that ever disgraced humanity, or polluted a throne, after a reign of three years and nine months, disfigured with every feature of hideous criminality and extravagant folly, not having attained more than the eighteenth year of his age."
1 commentsCharles S
Elagabalus-RIC-195~0.jpg
Elagabalus.130 viewsDenarius, 218-219 AD, Antioch mint.
Obv: ANTONINVS PIVS FEL AVG / Laureate bust of Elagabalus.
Rev: SANCT DEO SOLI ELAGABAL / Slow quadriga bearing the conical stone of Emesa, on which is an eagle, surrounded by four parasols.
2.41 gm., 17 mm.
RIC #195.

Elagabalus was a high priest of the local ba'al of Emesa, Syria, at the time he was proclaimed emperor. This deity was named El-Gabal, and was worshiped in the form of a large, black, conical-shaped stone, which was probably a meteorite. When Elagabalus moved to Rome, he took this god with him. After a long overland journey from Emesa, Elagabalus and his entourage entered Rome in 219. The black stone was carried on a cart pulled by white horses. It was decorated with an eagle, and shaded by four parasols. Elagabalus, dressed in his priestly robes, walked backwards in front of this cart to show his reverence for his deity.

The entry of their new emperor into the city shocked the people of Rome. They soon realized that he fully intended to continue in his duties as High Priest to El-Gabal, and that his worship was to be imposed on the whole Empire. The the temple of Jupiter (Jove) in Rome was turned into the temple of El-Gabal. The religious excesses of the reign finally ended with the murder of Elagabalus. Under the new emperor, Severus Alexander, the temple was cleansed, rededicated to Jupiter, and El-Gabal sent back home to Emesa.

This coin commemorates the journey of El-Gabal to Rome and his entrance into the city. The legend on the reverse translates "Holy Sun-God Elagabal." Silver denarii with this reverse type all seem to be in the "Eastern" style so numismatists generally assign them to the mint at Antioch. It is possible, though, that they could have been minted by a mint that traveled with Elagabalus on his journey from Emesa to Rome, spending the winter of 218-219 in Nicomedia.
1 commentsCallimachus
Elagabulus9.jpg
Elagabulus AR Denarius RIC 13114 viewsOBV: IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate, bearded and draped bust right
REV: SACERD DEI SOLIS ELAGAB, Elagabalus sacrificing right over lighted altar, star in right or left field
2.61g, 19mm

Struck at Rome, 221-2 AD

The reverse legend reads the priest of the sun god baal;
referring to Elagabulus' role as priest of the syrian cult of Baal.
Legatus
Emèse Julia Domna.jpg
Emesa (Homs, Syria) - Julia Domna26 viewsIOV[ΛIA] ΔOMNA [AVΓ]. , bust of Julia Domna right
[EMICΩ]N KOΛΩNIAC / ZKΦ : year 527 sel. = 215-216 AD. , monumental cubic altar on three steps, with 2 storeys ornamented with 3 niches with statues, small lighted altar on top.
24 mm

This kind of monumental cubic altar is well-known in Roman Syria. There was one much like it in front of Jupiter's Temple in Heliopolis (Baalbek, Lebanon), not far from Emesa ; it has been excavated and partially restored by a Swiss mission. A structure f the same kind has been recently restored by Jacques Seigne in Gerasa (Jerash, Jordan) in front of Zeus Temple. We know no trace of any ancient sanctuary in today's Homs, but this altar, depicted on this coin, was probably in front of the Elagabal Temple. The High-Priest (future emperor Elagabalus) is said to have been "dancing around the altars" : this was in fact the circumambulatio, exactly like today's Muslims turn around the Cube (Kaaba) in Mekka.
Ginolerhino
Gordian_III_AR_Denarius.jpg
Emperor Gordian III, 29 July 238 - 25 February 244 A.D.37 views Silver denarius, RIC IV 115, RSC IV 243, Hunter III 33, SRCV III 8680, Choice aMS, about as struck, light rose tone on luster, full circles centering, nice portrait, sharp reverse detail, radiating flow lines, Rome mint, weight 2.861g, maximum diameter 20.6mm, die axis 180o, 241 A.D.; obverse IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse P M TR P III COS II P P (high priest, holder of Tribunitian power for 3 years, consul 2 times, father of the country), Gordian standing right, wearing military garb, transverse spear in right hand, globe in left; from the Jyrki Muona Collection (purchased from Alan Walker at NYINC early 2000's.

Gordian looks rather smug on the obverse and stands proud with the world in his hands on the reverse.

FORVM Ancient Coins./ The Sam Mansourati Collection.

*Superb
2 commentsSam
Philip_I_,_The_Syrian_.jpg
Emperor Philip I the Syrian, February 244 - End of September 249 A.D.39 viewsSilver antoninianus, RIC IV 75A (R); RSC IV 130, SRCV III 8945, Hunter III -, EF, superb strike with sharp dies, nice metal, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, weight 4.966g, maximum diameter 22.4mm, die axis 0o, 247 - 248 A.D.; obverse IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse P M TR P IIII COS P P (high priest, holder of Tribunitian power for four years, consul, father of the country), Felicitas standing left, long caduceus in right hand, cornucopia in left hand; from the Jyrki Muona Collection, ex dear friend Barry Murphy.

FORVM Ancient Coins./ The Sam Mansourati Collection.
*Incredible art


Felicitas was the goddess or personification of happiness, good fortune, and success. She played an important role in Rome's state religion during the empire and was frequently portrayed on coins. She became a prominent symbol of the wealth and prosperity of the Roman Empire.
1 commentsSam
165BEEF3-ACCE-4436-B2DE-2682FE9984C6.jpeg
Ephesos, Ionia, c. 48 - 27 B.C.6 viewsEphesos, on the west coast of Anatolia, was one of the 12 cities of the Ionian League. It was famous for its Temple of Artemis, completed around 550 B.C., one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. The usual symbols of this nature-goddess are the torch, stag, and the bee. Coins of Ephesos most frequently depict a bee on the obverse. The high-priest of the temple of Artemis was called the King Bee, while the virgin priestesses were called honey-bees (Melissae). Ephesus was one of the seven churches of Asia cited in the Book of Revelation and the Gospel of John may have been written there.
GB88324. Bronze AE 16, SNG Cop 350 - 351, SNG München 92, Head Ephesus p. 76, BMC Ionia -, SNGvA -, SNG München -, SNG Kayhan -, F, dark green patina with buff earthen highlighting, slightly off center, scratches, Ephesos mint, weight 3.305g, maximum diameter 16.1mm, die axis 0o, magistrate Iason, c. 48 - 27 B.C.; obverse bee with straight wings seen from above, tiny E-Φ flanking head inside forelegs, all within laurel wreath; reverse stag standing right, head right, fillet in mouth, grounded long torch on far side of stag in center background, IAΣΩN (magistrate's name) in exergue; ex Münzhandlund Ritter
Mark R1
Ephesus_AR.JPG
Ephesus, Ionia63 views390-320 BC
AR Diobol (10mm, 1.02g)
O: Bee with straight wings, within dotted border.
R: Confronted heads of two stags; EΦ above.
SNG Cop 242-43; SNG von Aulock 1835; SNG München 32; Sear 4375v; BMC Ionia 53, 53; 
ex Forvm Ancient Coins

The bee was sacred to the goddess Artemis, whose famous sanctuary at Ephesus was tended by Her priestesses, known collectively as Melissae, a word which translates as ‘bee’, or by some accounts ‘honey gatherer’. It is no surprise then that the coins of this city should feature the bee on their obverse.
5 commentsEnodia
Ethiopian_Coptic_Bible-004.jpg
Ethiopian Coptic Ge’ez Bible (ca. 18th Century)11 viewsEthiopian Handwritten Coptic Ge’ez Bibles were produced as early as the fourteenth century until the late 19th century throughout Ethiopia, the first country to become an independent African nation. Christianity was introduced to Ethiopia in the 4th century when Syrian missionaries first translated the Bible into Ge’ez, the language of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church. The surviving body of Ge’ez literature in composed almost entirely of Christian liturgy, as education was exclusively the responsibility of priests and monks. The bibles produced typically contain the gospels of the New Testament, recounting the life of Jesus of Nazareth and the foundation of the Christian faith with illuminated miniature paintings depicting the lives of the Saints.Quant.Geek
Ethiopian_Coptic_Bible-003.jpg
Ethiopian Coptic Ge’ez Bible (ca. 18th Century)7 viewsEthiopian Handwritten Coptic Ge’ez Bibles were produced as early as the fourteenth century until the late 19th century throughout Ethiopia, the first country to become an independent African nation. Christianity was introduced to Ethiopia in the 4th century when Syrian missionaries first translated the Bible into Ge’ez, the language of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church. The surviving body of Ge’ez literature in composed almost entirely of Christian liturgy, as education was exclusively the responsibility of priests and monks. The bibles produced typically contain the gospels of the New Testament, recounting the life of Jesus of Nazareth and the foundation of the Christian faith with illuminated miniature paintings depicting the lives of the Saints.Quant.Geek
Ethiopian_Coptic_Bible-002.jpg
Ethiopian Coptic Ge’ez Bible (ca. 18th Century)10 viewsEthiopian Handwritten Coptic Ge’ez Bibles were produced as early as the fourteenth century until the late 19th century throughout Ethiopia, the first country to become an independent African nation. Christianity was introduced to Ethiopia in the 4th century when Syrian missionaries first translated the Bible into Ge’ez, the language of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church. The surviving body of Ge’ez literature in composed almost entirely of Christian liturgy, as education was exclusively the responsibility of priests and monks. The bibles produced typically contain the gospels of the New Testament, recounting the life of Jesus of Nazareth and the foundation of the Christian faith with illuminated miniature paintings depicting the lives of the Saints.Quant.Geek
Ethiopian_Coptic_Bible-001.jpg
Ethiopian Coptic Ge’ez Bible (ca. 18th Century)9 viewsEthiopian Handwritten Coptic Ge’ez Bibles were produced as early as the fourteenth century until the late 19th century throughout Ethiopia, the first country to become an independent African nation. Christianity was introduced to Ethiopia in the 4th century when Syrian missionaries first translated the Bible into Ge’ez, the language of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church. The surviving body of Ge’ez literature in composed almost entirely of Christian liturgy, as education was exclusively the responsibility of priests and monks. The bibles produced typically contain the gospels of the New Testament, recounting the life of Jesus of Nazareth and the foundation of the Christian faith with illuminated miniature paintings depicting the lives of the Saints.Quant.Geek
Calise04-2.jpg
Gaius ("Caligula"), RIC 44, Sestertius of AD 3920 viewsÆ Sestertius (28.5g, Ø 35.5mm, 6h) Rome mint, struck AD 39.
Obv.: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON P M TR P III P P around, PIETAS in ex., Pietas, veiled and draped, seated left, holding patera and resting left arm on small statue on pedestal.
Rev.: DIVO AVG / S C (in two lines in field left & right of the temple), Hexastyle guirlanded temple, surmounted with quadriga and statues, before which Gaius, veiled and togate, standing left, sacrifices with patera over garlanded altar; at left, an attendant leading bull to altar; at right, another attendant holding patera.
RIC 44 (R); Sear (Roman Coins & their Values I) 1802; Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 60:2a
ex G.Henzen (1999).

Explanation of the legend: obverse: CAIVS CAESAR DIVI AVGVSTI PRONEPOS AVGVSTVS PONTIFEX MAXIMVS TRIBVNICIA POTESTATE III PATER PATRIAE : Gaius Caesar, great-grandson of Divine Augustus, emperor, High Priest, with tribunician power for the third time, father of the fatherland. reverse: DIVO AVGVSTO SENATVS CONSVLTO: to Divine Augustus by decree of the Senate.
This architectural type commemorates the dedication of the temple to Divus Augustus in August, 37 AD. There were two temples in Rome honoring Augustus, one on the Palatine, the other of uncertain location, possibly behind the Basilica Julia in the depression between the Palatine and the Capitoline Hills. The latter, built under Tiberius, was the one dedicated by Caligula in 37 AD.
Charles S
The_propylon_of_the_Sanctuary_of_Athena_Nikephoros_from_the_Pergamon_Acropolis,_Pergamon_Museum_Berlin_(8404176285).jpg
Germany, Berlin, The propylon of the Sanctuary of Athena Nikephoros from the Pergamon Acropolis, Pergamon Museum Berlin124 viewsThe monumental gateway, which stood at the northeast corner of the sanctuary, was built by Eumenes II in the early 2nd century BC. The two-storey building, had a porch of four Doric columns (tetrastyle) on the ground floor, above which was a dedicatory inscription by Eumenes to Athena Nikephoros. The upper storey was a balcony with four Ionic columns and fronted by a military frieze depicting armour and weapons. The Sanctuary of Athena Nikephoros, on the southwest corner of the walled citadel on the Acropolis, was one of Pergamon's oldest religious centres, used for the worship of Athena and Nike. The cult of Athena at Pergamon had associations with the city's mythical founder Telephos, the son of Herakles and Auge, who was a priestess of Athena. The Attalid rulers of Pergamon claimed to be descendants of Telephos, and thus of Herakles and Auge.Joe Sermarini
Geta3.jpg
GETA Denarius RIC 3, Sacrificial Implements17 viewsOBV: L SEPTIMIVS GETA CAES, draped bust right
REV: SEVERI PII AVG FIL, priestly implements: lituus, knife, jug, simpulum, & sprinkler
2.7g, 17mm

Minted at Rome
Legatus
geta_62(a).jpg
Geta RIC IV, 62(a)27 viewsGeta, AD 198-209, brother of Caracalla
AR - denarius, 2.9g, 18mm
Rome, AD 209
obv. P SEPTIMIVS GETA CAES
Bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind, bare-headed, r.
rev. PONTIF - COS II
Geta, veiled and wearing priestly garment, stg. l., sacrificing from patera over
burning tripod, stg. l.; holding short scepter in l. hand.
RIC IV/1, 62(a); C.119
Scarce, VF, toned

From now on Geta is always bearded!
Jochen
Geta_RIC_107_(limes).JPG
Geta, 198 - 212 AD13 viewsObv: P SEPTIMIVS GETA CAES, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust r.

Rev: SEVERI PII AVG FIL, priestly implements; lituus, knife, jug, simpulum and sprinkler.

Billon Limes Denarius, Type struck at Laodicea, ca. 199 - 200 AD

3.5 grams, 19 mm

RIC IVi 107, RSC 189, S7201
SPQR Coins
Geta_RIC_3~0.JPG
Geta, 198 - 212 AD14 viewsObv: L SEPTIMIVS GETA CAES, bare-headed, draped bust of Geta facing right.

Rev: SEVERI PII AVG FIL, Priestly implements, lituus, knife, jug, simpulum and sprinkler.

Silver Denarius, Rome mint, 198 - 200 AD

4 grams, 19 mm, 0°

RIC IVi 3, RSC 188, S7201 (var.), VM 40
SPQR Coins
GetaRic3d.JPG
Geta, 198 AD40 viewsP SEPTIMIVS GETA CAES
Bust draped, right
SEVERI PII AVG FIL
Priestly implements, lituus, knife, jug, simpulum, sprinker
Rome, RIC 3d, C 188
whitetd49
GordII.jpg
Gordian II Africanus / Victory62 viewsGordian II Africanus. Silver Denarius, AD 238. Rome.
O: IMP M ANT GORDIANVS AFR AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Gordian II right.
R: VICTO-RIA AVGG, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm.
- RIC 2; BMC 28; RSC 12.

Gordian II (Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus Africanus Augustus), was Roman Emperor for one month with his father Gordian I in 238, the Year of the Six Emperors. The double "GG" in "AVGG" (Augustus) on the reverse was to show that power was shared between the two men although Gordian II did not receive the additional title of high priest or Pontifex Maximus. He died in battle outside of Carthage.

Confronted by a local elite that had just killed Maximinus's procurator, Gordian's father (Gordian I) was forced to participate in a full-scale revolt against Maximinus in 238 and became Augustus on March 22.

Due to his advanced age, Gordian I insisted that his son, Marcus Antonius Gordianus (Gordian II), be associated with him. A few days later, Gordian entered the city of Carthage with the overwhelming support of the population and local political leaders. Meanwhile in Rome, Maximinus' praetorian prefect was assassinated and the rebellion seemed to be successful. Gordian in the meantime had sent an embassy to Rome, under the leadership of Publius Licinius Valerianus, to obtain the Senate’s support for his rebellion. The senate confirmed the new emperor on 2 April and many of the provinces gladly sided with Gordian.

Opposition would come from the neighboring province of Numidia. Capelianus, governor of Numidia, loyal supporter of Maximinus Thrax, and who held a grudge against Gordian, renewed his alliance to the former emperor and invaded Africa province with the only legion stationed in the region, III Augusta, and other veteran units. Gordian II, at the head of a militia army of untrained soldiers, lost the Battle of Carthage and was killed, and Gordian I took his own life by hanging himself with his belt. The Gordians had reigned only twenty-two days.
3 commentsNemonater
ephesos~0.jpg
GREEK. Ephesos AR Tetradrachm. Hecatomnus Hoard (1977).110 viewsCirca 405-390 BC (21mm, 14.95 g, 12h). Aristainetos, magistrate. Hecatomnus 53b (O11/R48 – this coin); SNG Kayhan –; Winterthur 2904 (same obverse die). Obverse: bee with curved wings. Reverse: forepart of stag right, head left; palm tree to left (off flan), APIΣTAINETO[Σ] to right. Toned, VF. Struck on a tight flan.

Ex Hecatomnus Hoard (CH V, 17; CH VIII, 96; and CH IX, 387). Ex CNG Electronic Auction 338, lot 85.

The bee, palm tree and the stag are emblems of Ephesos. This city was an important center of worship of the Greek goddess Artemis, and the images on Ephesian coinage represent her. Ephesos also used the bee on its coins since it was a producer of honey, so the bee advertised their most famous product. The bee was also mythologically connected to Ephesos because, according to Philostratos, the colonizing Athenians were led to Ephesos in Ionia by the Muses who took the form of bees. Ephesos occupied the alluvial plain of the lower Cayster, but it owed its chief wealth and renown less to the produce of its soil than to the illustrious sanctuary of the old Anatolian nature-goddess, whom the Ionian Greeks identified with Artemis, the Goddess of Hunt. It is noteworthy that the high-priest of the temple of Artemis was called Ηεσσην, ‘the king bee,’ while the virgin priestesses bore the name of “melissai” or Honey-Bees. The stag was regarded as sacred to her and stag figures were said to have flanked the cult statue of Artemis in her temple at Ephesos. The palm tree alludes to Artemis’ birthplace, the island of Delos, where the goddess Leto gave birth to Artemis and her twin brother Apollo underneath a palm tree. Therefore, the coin might represent the city’s origin as well.

The earlier type tetradrachmae of Ephesos could be identified by the curved pair of wings of the bee on the obverse side of these coins. It is roughly estimated that a total of about less than a hundred of these tetradrachmae exist as compared to the straight wing bee variant of later emissions, which are believed to be seven to eight times more common than the former. These estimates are based on the findings and studies made after the discoveryof the Hecatomnus and Pixodarus hoards in 1977 and 1978, respectively. Prior to their discovery, there were only about 35 of these curved wing tetradrachmae recorded in existence.
1 commentsJason T
63712q00.jpg
Hadrian38 viewsRoman Empire
Hadrian
(Reign as 14th Emperor of the Roman Empire 117-138AD)
(b. 76, d. 138AD)

Obverse: IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG P M TR P COS III, Laureate bust of Hadrian facing right

Reverse: RELIQVA VETERA HS. NOVIES MILL. ABOLITA, Lictor standing facing left, fasces in left hand, lighting a heap of bonds with a torch in his right, three citizens facing him

Orichalcum Sestertius

Minted in Rome 119-121 AD


This design commemorated Hadrian's forgiveness of debts early in his reign. He canceled the arrears of taxes due by individuals from Rome, Italy, and the provinces, for a total of 900 million sestertii and over a period of 16 years. The ceremony took place on the forum where a monument was erected to commemorate the event.



Translations:

IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG P M TR P COS III=Imperator(Commander-in-Chief) Caesar Trajan Hadrian Augustus, Pontifex Maximus(Greatest Priest,) Tribune of the Plebs, Consul for the 3rd time
RELIQVA VETERA HS. NOVIES MILL. ABOLITA=nine times a hundred thousand sestertii of outstanding debts cancelled

The legend RELIQVA VETERA HS NOVIES MILL ABOLITA literally translates to “old receipts in the amount of nine times a hundred thousand sestertii cancelled." The HS is a standard abbreviation for sestertii and, depending upon its context, it can mean a single sestertius, a unit of one thousand sestertii, or a unit of one hundred thousand sestertii. Novies means "nine times" and applies to the sestertius as a unit of one thousand sestertii. Considering the monumental inscription, the HS in the legend of this sestertius should be interpreted with the thousand, or mille, understood. Thus, the figure should be increased to 900 million sestertii, equaling the sum named on Hadrian’s monumental inscription.


Orichalcum=Brass

Reference: RIC 592a
1 commentsSphinx357
RIC_Hadrian_SRCV_-_PM_genius.jpg
Hadrian (Publius Aelius Hadrianus) (117-138 A.D.)5 viewsSRCV ---, RIC II 88-90, Van Meter 46/5.
AR Denarius, 2.86 g., 18.94 mm. max., 0°
Rome mint, 119-122 A.D.
Obv: IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate bust right, drapery on left shoulder.

Rev: P M TR P C-OS III (=Pontifex Maximus Tribunitia Potestas/High priest and holder of Tribunitian power), Genius standing facing, head left, sacrificing from patera in right over lit and garlanded altar, two stalks of grain in left.

RIC rarity __, Van Meter VB2.
Stkp
RIC_Hadrian_SRCV_3250_PM____aequitas.jpg
Hadrian (Publius Aelius Hadrianus) (117-138 A.D.)5 viewsSRCV 3250, RIC II 80, Van Meter 46/11.

AR Denarius, 3.10 g., 18.0 mm. max., 180°

Rome mint, 119-122 A.D.

Obv: IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate bust right, drapery on left shoulder.

Rev: P M TR P C-OS III (=Pontifex Maximus Tribunitia Potestas/High priest and holder of Tribunitian power), Aequitas standing left, holding scales and cornucopia.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB2.
Stkp
IMG_1581.jpg
Hadrian 117-138 A.D. Caesarea Maritima mint 30mm108 viewsHadrian 117-138 A.D. Caesarea Maritima mint 31mm

O:Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
R: Hadrian, as priest-founder, plowing with team of oxen right; above, Nike flying left. Kadman, Caesarea, 27; Hendin 836; SNG ANS 766.
2 commentsMaritima
Hélliogabale.jpg
Heliogabalus - denarius34 viewsIMP. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG. , laureate, draped and cuirassed bearded bust right, with horn on the top of the head
SVMMVS SACERDOS AVG. , Heliogabalus in High-Priest attire holding a branch and a patera above a tripod altar ; six-pointed star to le left.

RIC 146
Ginolerhino
Alexander_Jannaeus,_Hendin_1144.jpg
Hendin 114461 viewsAlexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan). AE Prutah, Jerusalem Mint. Hendin 1144. Obverse: Hebrew inscription (Yehonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews) within wreath. Reverse: Double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns, border of dots. Ex Amphora.

Probable obverse die match to another member's coin of the same type: http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?album=random&cat=24403&pos=-49572
1 commentsLucas H
Alexander_Jannaeus_overstrike,_H_1149(a).jpg
Hendin 1149a overstrike82 viewsAlexander Jannaeus. AE Prutah, Jerusalem Mint. Hendin 1149(a) (cornucopias overstruck on lily and inscription overstruck on anchor). Obverse: Hebrew inscription (Yonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews) within wreath. Reverse: Double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranite between horns.

On the obverse, the circle which originally enclosed the anchor is visible on the top with part of the original Greek inscription from the underlying coin from 1:00 o'clock to 3:00 o'clock. On the reverse of this coin, traces of the lily are clearly visible above and perpendicular to the cornucopias. A portion of the original script from the underlying coin can be seen from 11:00 o'clock to 1:00 o'clock.
1 commentsLucas H
1_Hyrcanus_I_H-452.jpg
Hendin-45237 views HYRCANUS I (Yehochanan) 134-104 BCE
Mint:Jerusalem;AE Prutah
Obv-YEHOCHANAN H KOHEN GADOL V'CHEBER YEHUDYM,
in four lines,surrounded by wreath.
Yehochanan the High Priest the Council the Jews.
CH W H Y
N H K H N N
R B CH W L
Y
Rev- Circle of pellets around double cornucopia
adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns.
Meshorer: AJC 1-K var.; TJC-group F var.
2 commentsbrian l
1__J_Hyrcanus_I,TJC-D9.jpg
Hendin-45320 views HYRCANUS I (Yehochanan) 134-104 BCE
Mint:Jerusalem;AE Prutah
Obv- YEHOCHANAN H KOHEN GADOL V'CHEBER H YEHUDYM,
in five lines,surrounded by wreath.
Yehochanan the High Priest and Council of the Jews.
W H Y
N H K H N N CH
(CH) W L D G H
Y H R B
Y D
Rev- Circle of pellets around double cornucopia
adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns.
Meshorer: AJC 1-Pb7; TJC- D9
brian l
1_Hyrcanus_I_,H453.jpg
Hendin-45313 views HYRCANUS I (Yehochanan) 134-104 BCE
Mint:Jerusalem;AE Prutah
Obv- YEHOCHANAN H KOHEN GADOL V'CHEBER H YEHUDYM,
in five lines,surrounded by wreath.
Yehochanan the High Priest and Council of the Jews.
(W) H Y
(H) K H N N CH
(W) L D G H N
(Y H) R B CH
M Y (D)
Rev- Circle of pellets around double cornucopia
adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns.
Greek A monogram below right of cornucopia
Meshorer: AJC 1-Pb1; TJC-D5
brian l
1__Hyrcanus_I_H-454.jpg
Hendin-45423 views HYRCANUS I (Yehochanan) 134-104 BCE
Mint:Jerusalem;AE Prutah; Date:130-129 BCE
Obv- Greek A YEHOCHANAN H KOHEN H GADOL V'CHABER H YHUDYM,
in five lines,surrounded by wreath.
Yehochanan the High Priest and Council of the Jews.
A
N N CH W H Y
D G H N H K H
(Y) H R B CH W L
M Y D W H
Rev- Circle of pellets around double cornucopia
adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns.
Meshorer: AJC 1-Ma3; TJC-A5
brian l
1__J_Hyrcannus_I,_H-455.jpg
Hendin-45530 views HYRCANUS I (Yehochanan) 134-104 BCE
Mint:Jerusalem;AE Prutah
Obv- YEHOCHANAN H KOHEN H GADOL V'CHABER H YHUDYM,
in five lines,surrounded by wreath.
Yehochanan the High Priest and Council of the Jews.
N N CH W H Y
G H N H K H
R B CH W L D
Y D H Y H
M
Rev- Circle of pellets around double cornucopia
adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns.
Greek A monogram below left of cornucopia.
Meshorer: AJC 1-Na14; TJC-B8

1 commentsbrian l
Hyrcannus_I,_H-456_.jpg
Hendin-455 var.24 views HYRCANUS I (Yehochanan) 134-104 BCE
Mint:Jerusalem;AE Prutah
Obv- YEHOCHANAN H KOHEN H GADOL V'CHABER H YHUDYM,
in four lines,surrounded by wreath.
Yehochanan the High Priest and Council of the Jews.
N N CH W H Y
D G H N H K H
H R B CH W L
M Y D H Y
Rev- Circle of pellets around double cornucopia
adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns.
A - Monogram below left of cornucopias.
Meshorer: AJC 1-Na18; TJC-B11
brian l
1__Hyrcanus_I_H457.jpg
Hendin-45725 viewsHYRCANUS I (Yehochanan) 134-104 BCE
Mint:Jerusalem;AE Prutah
Obv- YEHOCHANAN H KOHEN H GADOL H'CHEBER H YEHUDYM
in five lines,surrounded by wreath.
Yehochanan the High Priest and Council of the Jews.
N N CH W H Y
G H N H K H
R B CH H L D
Y D H Y H
M
Rev- Circle of pellets around double cornucopia
adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns.
A-Monogram below left of cornucopias,off flan.
Meshorer: AJC 1-Nc9; TJC-B30
1 commentsbrian l
1__Hyrcanus_I_H-458.jpg
Hendin-45835 viewsHYRCANUS I (Yehochanan) 134-104 BCE
Mint:Jerusalem;AE Half Prutah
Obv- YEHOCHANAN H KOHEN H GADOL V'CHABER H YHUDYM,
in four lines,surrounding a palm branch.
Yehochanan the High Priest and Council of the Jews.
H N N CH W H Y
L D G H N H K
Y H R B CH W
M Y D H
Rev- Circle of pellets around flowering lily between grain ears.
A - Monogram between leaf and grain on left.
Meshorer: AJC 1-O1; TJC-C1
1 commentsBrian L
1_Hyrcanus_I_H-459.jpg
Hendin-45916 views HYRCANUS I (Yehochanan) 134-104 BCE
Mint:Jerusalem;AE Prutah
Obv-YEHOCHANAN H KOHEN H GADOL ROSH CHABER H YHUDYM,
in six lines surrounded by wreath.
Yehochanan the High Priest Head of the Council the Jews.
W H Y
(H) K H N N CH
(R L) D G H N
(B) CH SH W
H Y H R
M D
Rev- Circle of pellets around double cornucopia
adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns.
Tiny monogram to lower left of cornucopia.
Meshorer: AJC 1-Sb4; TJC I-7
brian l
O_6_6_copy.jpg
Hendin-46016 views HYRCANUS I (Yehochanan) 134-104 BCE
Mint:Jerusalem;AE Prutah
Obv-YEHOCHANAN H KOHEN H GADOL ROSH H CHABER H YHUDYM
in five lines surrounded by wreath.
Yehochanan the High Priest Head of the Council the Jews.
(N N CH W H Y)
D G H N H K (H)
CH H SH W R L
H Y H R B
M D
Rev- Circle of pellets around double cornucopia
adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns.
Tiny monogram A to lower right of cornucopia.
Meshorer: AJC 1-Sc17; TJC I-32
brian l
1__Hyrcanus_I,H-463.jpg
Hendin-46314 viewsHYRCANUS I (Yehochanan) 134-104 BCE
Mint:Jerusalem;AE Prutah
Crude Style
Obv-YEHOCHANAN H KOHEN H GADOL CHEBER,
in four lines surrounded by wreath.
Yehochanan the High Priest and Council of the Jews.
W H Y
K H N N CH
D G H N H
R B CH
Rev- Circle of pellets around double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns.
Meshorer: AJC 1-La23; TJC-E25
brian l
3_O_9_copy.jpg
Hendin-463 var.11 views HYRCANUS I (Yehochanan) 134-104 BCE
Mint:Jerusalem;AE Prutah
Obverse-YEHOCHANAN H KOHEN H GADOL CHABER,
in four lines surrounded by wreath
Yehohanan the Priest the High Council
CH W H Y
H H K H N
L D G
R B CH
Rev- Circle of pellets around double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns.
Meshorer: AJC 1-Lb4; TJC-G10
This group consists of irregular coins,
of different epigraph styles,
most of which are crude and the reading is sometimes conjectural.-TJC,Yaakov Meshorer
brian l
1__Hyrcanus_I_H464.jpg
Hendin-46427 views HYRCANUS I (Yehochanan) 134-104 BCE
Mint:Jerusalem;AE Prutah
Obv: YEHOCHANAN H KOHEN H GADOL V'CHABER H YHUDYM,
in four lines,surrounded by wreath.
Yehochanan the High Priest and Council of the Jews.
W H Y
H N N CH
G H N H
G D
Rev- Circle of pellets around double cornucopia
adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns.
Meshorer: AJC 1-La30; TJC-E32
brian l
1__Judah,_H465.jpg
Hendin-46521 views JUDAH ARISTOBULUS I (Yehudah) 104-103 BCE
Mint:Jerusalem;AE Prutah
Obv: YEHUDAH KOHEN GADOL V'CHEBER YEHUDYM
in five lines surrounded by wreath.
Yehudah High Priest the Council the Jews.
D W H Y
D G N H K H
R B CH W L
(D W H Y)
(M)
Rev- Circle of pellets around double cornucopia
adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns.
Type A reverse-wide,large style pomegranate.
Meshorer: AJC 1-Ja13; TJC-U15
1 commentsbrian l
1__Jannaeus_grp_P41.jpg
Hendin-47310 views ALEXANDER JANNAEUS (Yehonatan) 103-76 BCE
Mint:Jerusalem;AE Prutah
Obv-YEHONATAN H KOHEN GADOL V'CHEBER H YEHUDYM,
in five lines,surrounded by wreath.
Yehonatan the High Priest and Council of the Jews.
W H Y
K H N T N
D G H N H
R B CH W L
Y
Rev- Circle of pellets around double cornucopia
adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns.
Meshorer: AJC 1-Ea44; TJC- P41
brian l
1__Jannaeus__grp_P.jpg
Hendin-473 14 views ALEXANDER JANNAEUS (Yehonatan) 103-76 BCE
Mint:Jerusalem;AE Prutah
Obv-YEHONATAN H KOHEN GADOL V'CHEBER H YEHUDIM
in four lines,surrounded by wreath.
Yehonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews.
W H Y
K H N T N
L D G H N H
R B CH W
Y
Rev- Circle of pellets around double cornucopia
adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns.
Meshorer: AJC 1-Ea33; TJC-P30
brian l
O_12_1_copy.jpg
Hendin-47314 views ALEXANDER JANNAEUS (Yehonatan) 103-76 BCE
Mint:Jerusalem;AE Prutah
Obv- YEHONATAN H KOHEN H GADOL V'CHEBER H YEHUDIM,
in five lines surrounded by wreath
Yehonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews.
(W H Y)
K H N T N
L D G H N H
H R B CH W
M D Y
Rev- Circle of pellets around double cornucopia
adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns.
Meshorer: AJC 1-Ea20; TJC-P17
brian l
1_Alexander_Jannaeus_H474.jpg
Hendin-4749 viewsALEXANDER JANNAEUS (Yehonatan) 103-76 BCE
Mint:Jerusalem;AE Prutah
Obv- YEHONATAN H KOHEN H GADOL V'CHEBER YEHUDIM,
in four lines surrounded by wreath
Yehonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews.
N W H Y
G K H N T
R B CH V L D
N H Y
Rev- Circle of pellets around double cornucopia
adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns.
Meshorer: AJC 1-group Fa ; TJC-group Q
brian l
1__Jannaeus_cursive,grp_R.jpg
Hendin-47511 views ALEXANDER JANNAEUS (Yehonatan) 103-76 BCE
Mint;Jerusalem;AE Prutah
Cursive Style Script
Obv-Yehonatan the high priest and Council of Jews,surrounded by wreath.
Yehonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews.
Rev- Circle of pellets around double cornucopia
adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns.
Meshorer: AJC 1-G ; TJC-group R
brian l
1__Hyrcanus_II,T13.jpg
Hendin-47815 views HYRCANUS II, King 67 BCE, Ethnarch 63-40 BCE
Mint:Jerusalem;AE Prutah
Overstruck on a Jannaeus lily
Obv-YONATAN H KOHEN GADOL V'CHEBER
in three lines surrounded by wreath,
few traces of anchor rim.
Yonatan the high Priest and Council of the Jews
N T N Y
G H K H
R B CH W
Rev- Circle of pellets around double cornucopia
adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns;
outline of lily around pomegranate from previously coin.
Meshorer: AJC 1-Ia ; TJC- T13
1 commentsbrian l
1_Hyrcanus_II.jpg
Hendin-47814 viewsHYRCANUS II, King 67 BCE, Ethnarch 63-40 BCE
Mint:Jerusalem;AE Prutah
Obv-YONATAN H KOHEN H GADOL W'CHEBER YEHUDIM
in five lines,surrounded by wreath.
Yonatan the High Priest and Council of the Jews,surrounded by wreath.
(H NTNOY)
H N H K
CH W L D G
D H Y R B
M Y
Rev- Circle of pellets around double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns.
Meshorer: AJC 1-Ia ; TJC-group T
brian l
O_6_5_copy.jpg
Hendin-4788 viewsHYRCANUS II, King 67 BCE, Ethnarch 63-40 BCE
Mint:Jerusalem;AE Prutah
Overstruck on a Jannaeus lily
Obv-Yonatan the High Priest and Council of the Jews,surrounded by wreath
Rev- Circle of pellets around double cornucopia
adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns;
traces of Greek letters on obverse @9:00
Meshorer: AJC 1-Ia ; TJC-group T
brian l
1_Hyrcanus_II_S13.jpg
Hendin-47915 viewsHYRCANUS II, King 67 BCE, Ethnarch 63-40 BCE
Mint:Jerusalem;AE Prutah
"wild inscription"
Obv: YONATAN H KOHEN GADOL V'CHEBER YEHUDIM,
in five lines surrounded by wreath.
Yonatan the High Priest and Council of the Jews.
(H N T N Y)
L D G N H K
Y R B CH W
Y D H
M
Rev: Double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns, border of dots.
Meshorer: AJC 1-Ha5; TJC-S5
brian l
00herenetrus.jpg
HERENNIUS ETRUSCUS39 viewsAR antoninianus. 250 AD. 3.36 g, 1h. Radiate and draped bust right. Q HER ETR MES DECIVS NOB C. / Priest implements ( sprinkler, simpulum, jug, patera and lituus). PIETAS AVGVSTORVM.
RIC 143 (T.Decius). RSC 14.


2 commentsbenito
00herenetrus~0.jpg
HERENNIUS ETRUSCUS 30 viewsAR antoninianus. 250 AD. 3.36 g, 1h. Radiate and draped bust right. Q HER ETR MES DECIVS NOB C. / Priest implements ( sprinkler, simpulum, jug, patera and lituus). PIETAS AVGVSTORVM.
RIC 143 (T.Decius). RSC 14.
benito
Herennius_Etruscus_RIC_143.JPG
Herennius Etruscus (as Caesar), 250 - 251 AD73 viewsObv: Q HER ETR MES DECIVS NOB C, radiate, draped bust of Herennius Etruscus facing right.

Rev: PIETAS AVGVSTORVM, priestly implements; sprinkler, simpulum, jug and lituus.

Billon Antoninianus, Rome mint, 250 - 251 AD

4.4 grams, 20.9 mm, 45°

RIC IViii T. Decius 143, RSC 14, S9521, VM 4
1 commentsSPQR Coins
herennius-etruscus_AR-antoninianus_implements_3_86gr_inside-flip_obv_02_rev_09.JPG
Herennius Etruscus AR Antoninianus - 'Priestly Implements'37 viewsHERENNIUS ETRUSCUS, son of Emperor Decius ( 249 - 251 AD ) and his wife, Herennia Etruscilla.
Silver Antoninianus as Caesar under Trajan Decius, AD 250-251.

obv: Q HER ETR MES DECIVS NOB C - His young radiate draped bust right.
rev: PIETAS AVGVSTORVM - around five sacrificial implements. Sprinkler/whip, ladle(simpulum?), jug, patera, lituus.

Weight: 3.86 Grams.

*note the detail on the reverse, especially the jug.
1 commentsrexesq
obv-01.jpg
Herennius Etruscus AR Antoninianus - Implements - Obverse 0130 viewsHERENNIUS ETRUSCUS AR Antoninianus, 3.86gr.
As Caesar under Trajan Decius, AD 250-251.

obv: Q HER ETR MES DECIVS NOB C - His young radiate draped bust right.
rev: PIETAS AVGVSTORVM - around five sacrificial implements. Sprinkler, ladle(simpulum?), jug, patera, lituus.
rexesq
herennius-etruscus_AR-antoninianus_implements_3_86gr_inside-flip_obv_07.JPG
Herennius Etruscus AR Antoninianus - Implements - Obverse 0221 viewsHERENNIUS ETRUSCUS AR Antoninianus, 3.86gr.
As Caesar under Trajan Decius, AD 250-251.

obv: Q HER ETR MES DECIVS NOB C - His young radiate draped bust right.
rev: PIETAS AVGVSTORVM - around five sacrificial implements. Sprinkler/whip, ladle(simpulum?), jug, patera, lituus.
rexesq
herennius-etruscus_AR-antoninianus_implements_3_86gr_inside-flip_obv_06.JPG
Herennius Etruscus AR Antoninianus - Implements - Obverse 0318 viewsHERENNIUS ETRUSCUS AR Antoninianus, 3.86gr.
As Caesar under Trajan Decius, AD 250-251.

obv: Q HER ETR MES DECIVS NOB C - His young radiate draped bust right.
rev: PIETAS AVGVSTORVM - around five sacrificial implements. Sprinkler/whip, ladle(simpulum?), jug, patera, lituus.
rexesq
obv-02-side.jpg
Herennius Etruscus AR Antoninianus - Implements - Obverse 0429 viewsHERENNIUS ETRUSCUS AR Antoninianus, 3.86gr.
As Caesar under Trajan Decius, AD 250-251.

obv: Q HER ETR MES DECIVS NOB C - His young radiate draped bust right.
rev: PIETAS AVGVSTORVM - around five sacrificial implements. Sprinkler, ladle(simpulum?), jug, patera, lituus.
rexesq
Copy_of_herennius-etruscus_AR-antoninianus_implements_3_86gr_inside-flip_obv_15_flash.JPG
Herennius Etruscus AR Antoninianus - Implements - Obverse 1514 viewsHERENNIUS ETRUSCUS AR Antoninianus, 3.86gr.
As Caesar under Trajan Decius, AD 250-251.

obv: Q HER ETR MES DECIVS NOB C - His young radiate draped bust right.
rev: PIETAS AVGVSTORVM - around five sacrificial implements. Sprinkler/whip, ladle(simpulum?), jug, patera, lituus.
------------------
*Note photo may be a bit brighter and golden toned due to lighting, Flash.
rexesq
rev-02-side.jpg
Herennius Etruscus AR Antoninianus - Implements - Reverse.48 viewsHERENNIUS ETRUSCUS AR Antoninianus, 3.86gr.
As Caesar under Trajan Decius, AD 250-251.

obv: Q HER ETR MES DECIVS NOB C - His young radiate draped bust right.
rev: PIETAS AVGVSTORVM - around five sacrificial implements. Sprinkler/whip, ladle(simpulum?), jug, patera, lituus.

*note the detail on the reverse, especially the jug.
1 commentsrexesq
rev-01.jpg
Herennius Etruscus AR Antoninianus - Implements - Reverse.29 viewsHERENNIUS ETRUSCUS AR Antoninianus, 3.86gr.
As Caesar under Trajan Decius, AD 250-251.

obv: Q HER ETR MES DECIVS NOB C - His young radiate draped bust right.
rev: PIETAS AVGVSTORVM - around five sacrificial implements. Sprinkler, ladle(simpulum?), jug, patera, lituus.

*note the detail on the reverse, especially the jug.
rexesq
herennius-etruscus_AR-antoninianus_implements_3_86gr_inside-flip_rev_06.JPG
Herennius Etruscus AR Antoninianus - Implements - Reverse.17 viewsHERENNIUS ETRUSCUS AR Antoninianus, 3.86gr.
As Caesar under Trajan Decius, AD 250-251.

obv: Q HER ETR MES DECIVS NOB C - His young radiate draped bust right.
rev: PIETAS AVGVSTORVM - around five sacrificial implements. Sprinkler/whip, ladle(simpulum?), jug, patera, lituus.

*note the detail on the reverse, especially the jug.
rexesq
herennius_etruscus_143.jpg
Herennius Etruscus RIC IV, 14366 viewsHerennius Etruscus AD 250-251, son of Trajan Decius
AR - Antoninian, 4.32g, 21mm
Rome 6. officin, Jan.-Dec. 250
obv. Q HER ETR MES DECIVS NOB C
bust draped, radiate r.
rev. PIETAS AVGVSTORVM
priestley implement
RIC IV/3, 143; C.14
Scarce; good VF, mint luster

Priestly implement from l. to r.:
1. ASPERGILLUM, a whisk for sprinkling holy water. Word not used in ancient authors!
2. SIMPUVIUM, an earthen ladle, Symbol of the PONTIFICES of Rome. Often called incorrectly Simpulum!
3. GUTTURNIUM, a narrow-necked jug for small quantities of liquids
4. PATERA, a shallow bowl for pouring liquids, grain or salt upon the fire or victims. In the early times symbol of the VI VIRI EPULONES, then used by many emperors or deities without a special meaning.
5. LITUUS, a curved staff, top hooked. With this staff the AUGURES marked out the 'templum', the area to undertake observations of birds. Origin of the Bishop's Staff.
1 commentsJochen
ARI-H__Etruscus-3.jpg
Herennius Etruscus, AR Denarius7 viewsAD 251
3.83 grams
Obv.: Q HER ETR MES DECIVS NOB C - Radiate bust right, draped
Rev.: PIETAS AVGVSTORVM - Sprinkler, simpulum, jug, (shield?), and lituus
RIC 143v Scarce, Cohen 14 - There are four varieties listed in Wildwinds and it appears these varieties are differentiated by the order and style of the Priestly implements, as best I can determine this is a RIC 143v
I purchased this coin from Heritage Auctions
NGC - Ch XF: Strike 4/5: Surface 5/5
Richard M10
122.jpg
HPA (monogram of)126 viewsMACEDON. Philippi. Tiberius. Æ 17. A.D. 14-37. Obv: TI▪(AVG). Bare head right. Rev: Two colonists (or priests) ploughing right with two oxen; countermark. Ref: BMC 89-91 (Mysia: Parium); RPC 1657; Axis: 330°. Weight: 4.09 g. CM: Monogram of HPA, in rectangular punch, 7 x 3 mm. Howgego -. Note: The countermark may possibly refer to a city by the name Heracleia, of which there was one in Bithynia, Caria and Macedon. Collection Automan.Automan
Hyrcanus I H453.jpg
Hyrcanus I (135-104BC) Hendin 45347 viewsPrutah, 13mmm 2.44g.

Obverse: YHW/ChNNH CH/HGDL WCh/BR HY (Yehonachan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews) in wreath.

Reverse: Crossed cornucopias, ribbons, pomegranate between them. A in lower R field.

Hendin 453

TJG Group D
Robert_Brenchley
Hyrcanus I H458a.jpg
Hyrcanus I (135-104BC) Hendin 458a46 viewsLepton, 12mm, 0.65g.

Obverse: Illegible inscription (Yehochanan the High Priest and Council of the Jews) in four lines, flanking palm branch.

Reverse: Lily, two corn ears below.

Hendin 458a

TJC Group J
1 commentsRobert_Brenchley
Hyrcanus I H459.jpg
Hyrcanus I (135-104BC) Hendin 45971 viewsPrutah, 14x16mm, 2.56g.

Obverse: YHW/ChNN HCHN/GDL RWSh H/ChBR HY (Yehochanan the High Priest Head of the Council of the Jews) within wreath.

Reverse: Crossed cornucopiae, ribbons, pomegranate between them.

Hendin 459

TJC I5
1 commentsRobert_Brenchley
hyrcanus_full_S.jpg
Hyrcanus I AE prutah161 viewsHendin 457. Hasmonian Kingdom of Judaea, John Hyrcanus I AE Prutah. 135-104 BC. Archaic Hebrew text within wreath: Yehohanan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews / Double cornucopia adorned with ribbons and pomegranate between, Faded monogram to the bottom left. AJC I Group N.

Hyrcanus I really put the Hasmonean country on the map by conquering so much land around, making Judaea the biggest it has ever been, larger then during the reign of King Solomon.
2 commentsaarmale
hyrcanus_i_scan.jpg
Hyrcanus I Half-Prutah62 viewsJohn Hyrcanus I, 135-104 B.C.E. AE Lepton (Half-prutah).
Obverse: Palm branch with fillet on top. In four lines of Ancient Hebrew, "John the High Priest and Council of the Jews." Reverse: Lily stemming from between two ears of corn; in left field, faint A monogram.
Meshorer 1 21. TJC pl. 10, C. Hendin 1134 (formerly Hendin 458).

Rare half-prutah. Ex. FORVM.
2 commentsAarmale
Hyrcanus II H479.jpg
Hyrcanus II (67, 63-40BC Hendin 47973 viewsPrutah, 14mm, 2.04g.

Obverse: YNTN H/CHN GD/L WChBY/HDY (Yonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews) in wreath.

Reverse: crossed cornucopiae, ribbons, pomegranate between them.

Hendin 479

TJC Group S

Kaufman HA44
Robert_Brenchley
Hyrcanus II H478.jpg
Hyrcanus II (67, 63-40BC) Hendin 47866 viewsPrutah, 14x16mm, 2.44g.

Obverse: Yonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews in wreath.

Reverse: Crossed cornucopiae, ribbons, pomegranate between them.

Hendin 478

Most of these are overstruck on Jannaeus' star and anchor prutot, but this one shows no evidence of an overstrike.
Robert_Brenchley
Hyrcanus_II.jpg
Hyrcanus II (Yonatan)24 viewsHyrcanus II, 67 and 63-40 BCE. Prutah, 14.7 mm, 1.85 g.
O: Paleo-Hebrew, Yonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews. Legible but in a "wild" or highly stylized version of the script.
R: Double cornucopias, pomegranate between. Hendin 1159.

After the death of Alexander Jannaeus in 76 BCE, his wife, Salome Alexandra (Shlomozion), ruled the land till her death in 67 BCE. During her reign The Pharisees, who had suffered intense misery under Alexander, now became the ruling class. Alexandra installed Alexander's oldest son, Hyrcanus II as high priest and the Sanhedrin was reorganized according to their wishes. In contrast to this, Alexander Jannaeus had supported the Sadducees. Hyrcanus II ruled for only a few months till his younger brother, Aristobulus II, led a successful rebellion and took the throne.

Although Hyrcanus II's Hebrew name is not known, it's theorized that the non-overstruck coins with the name Yonatan may belong to him.
1 commentsNemonater
Caracalla-Denar-Priestergeräte-RIC4.jpg
II-CARACALLA -a- 001 Denar RIC IV/I/412 viewsAv) M AVR ANTONINVS CAES
Bare bust, draped right

Rv) SEVERI AVG PII FIL
Priestly emblems

Weight: 3,4g; Ø:20mm; Reference: RIC IV/I/4; ROME mint, struck: 196 A.D.
sulcipius
Caracalla-As-Priestergeraete-RIC404.jpg
II-CARACALLA -a- 017 As RIC IV/I/404t23 viewsAv) M AVR ANTONINVS CAES
Drapierte, bloße Büste nach rechts

Rv) SEVERI AVG PII FIL SC
Priestly emblems

Weight: 10,0g; Ø:24mm Reference: RIC IV/I/404;ROME mint, struck:196
sulcipius
lg1_quart_sm.jpg
IMP•CAESAR•DIVI•F•AVGVSTVS•IMP•XX / •PONTIF•MAXIM•TRIBVN•POT•XXXIIII / Ӕ As (10-12 A.D.)11 viewsIMP • CAESAR • DIVI • F • AVGVSTVS • IMP • XX, bare head left / • PONTIF • MAXIM • TRIBVN • POT • XXXIIII, huge letters S•C, no field or mint marks.

Ӕ, 26-27mm, 5.77g, die axis 5h (slightly turned coin alignment), material: supposed to be pure red copper.

IMPerator (originally meant "supreme commander", Augustus started to use it as a title)
CAESAR (Augustus adopted the last name from Julius, this is not a title yet)
DIVI Filius (Son of the divine [Julius], Augustus was thus named, having been adopted by Caesar as his son) AVGVSTVS (following his defeat of Mark Antony and Cleopatra in 31 BC Senate granted Octavian this new name, meaning "majestic")
IMPerator XX (Vicesimum) (i. e. "invested with the twentieth imperial acclaim", second 'imperator' means his military title, a victorious general, the number refers to important victories when the title was renewed) PONTIFex MAXIMus (the high priest, starting with Augustus the emperor was always the head of state religion)
TRIBVNitia POTestas (Tribunal power, the function of the tribune of the people, originally an important republican official, was "hijacked" by Augustus when he was building the imperial structure of power and subsequently became another emperor's title, renewed every year and thus very useful for dating coins)
XXXIIII (Augustus got his tribunal power for life in 23 BC, during the Second Settlement with the Senate, so the 34th tribunal year of Augustus gives us 11 AD as the year of issue of the coin, ±1 since the coin could have been minted slightly before or after, and there is alos some uncertainty about when exactly the tribunal year number was increased by)
SC = [Ex] Senatus Consulto (Senatus is genitive, Consulto is ablative of Consultum) = by decree of the Senate, i. e. the authority of the Senate approved minting of this coin (necessary to justify issue of copper alloy coins for which the intrinsic value was not obvious)
As or assarius – the lowest-valued Roman coin (in times of Augustus minted of pure red copper).

The size and weight of the coin, large SC and the bare head of the emperor (who actually looks really like a typical official portrait of Augustus) all point towards an early imperial as. Unfortunately due to a very poor condition of the coin all that can be reliably gathered from the legends: IMP… left of the neck, …(DI)VI… top of the head on obverse and …XII… 10-11 o'clock on reverse, perhaps also …PONTI… at 2 o'clock and a few other letters, that get increasingly unreliable. Fortunately to my knowledge this excludes all of the coins except just one as of Augustus: RIC 471, Cohen 226, BMC 275, minted in Rome, with the legends as given above and very common. The closest other coin fitting the general outlook is Ӕ as of Tiberius (RIC 44, Cohen 25, BMC 91), but for it the obverse legend starts with TI and DIVI never gets close to 12 o'clock. And the face of Tiberius typically looks noticeably different.

Still, I will be very grateful if anybody looking at this coin points out any other possibilities for identification.

No biographical info here, since Augustus (reign 27 BC - 14 AD) is too well known.
Yurii P
ephesos.jpg
IONIA, Ephesos AR Tetradrachm.66 viewsCirca 405-390 BC. AR Tetradrachm (21mm, 14.95 g, 12h). Aristainetos, magistrate. Hecatomnus 53b (O11/R48 – this coin); SNG Kayhan –; Winterthur 2904 (same obverse die). Obverse: bee with curved wings. Reverse: forepart of stag right, head left; palm tree to left (off flan), APIΣTAINETO[Σ] to right. Toned, VF. Struck on a tight flan.

Ex Hecatomnus Hoard (CH V, 17; CH VIII, 96; and CH IX, 387). Ex CNG Electronic Auction 338, lot 85.

The bee, palm tree and the stag are emblems of Ephesos. This city was an important center of worship of the Greek goddess Artemis, and the images on Ephesian coinage represent her. Ephesos also used the bee on its coins since it was a producer of honey, so the bee advertised their most famous product. The bee was also mythologically connected to Ephesos because, according to Philostratos, the colonizing Athenians were led to Ephesos in Ionia by the Muses who took the form of bees. Ephesos occupied the alluvial plain of the lower Cayster, but it owed its chief wealth and renown less to the produce of its soil than to the illustrious sanctuary of the old Anatolian nature-goddess, whom the Ionian Greeks identified with Artemis, the Goddess of Hunt. It is noteworthy that the high-priest of the temple of Artemis was called Ηεσσην, ‘the king bee,’ while the virgin priestesses bore the name of “melissai” or Honey-Bees. The stag was regarded as sacred to her and stag figures were said to have flanked the cult statue of Artemis in her temple at Ephesos. The palm tree alludes to Artemis’ birthplace, the island of Delos, where the goddess Leto gave birth to Artemis and her twin brother Apollo underneath a palm tree. Therefore, the coin might represent the city’s origin as well.

The earlier type tetradrachmai of Ephesos could be identified by the curved pair of wings of the bee on the obverse side of these coins. It is roughly estimated that a total of about less than a hundred of these tetradrachmai exist as compared to the straight wing bee variant of later emissions, which are believed to be seven to eight times more common than the former. These estimates are based on the findings and studies made after the (unofficial/looted) “discovery” of the Hecatomnus and Pixodarus hoards in 1977 and 1978, respectively. Prior to their discovery, there were only about 35 of these curved wing tetradrachmai recorded in existence.
4 commentsJason T
Tulul_Abu_el-Alaiq_A(east).JPG
Israel, Jericho - Herod's Palace182 viewsThe ruins at Tulul Abu el-Alaiq, site of Herod the Great’s winter retreat on the outskirts of Jericho. Jericho is over 300m below sea level and hence pleasantly warm in winter, even when it's freezing in Jerusalem. Around 35 BCE, Aristobulus, the last Hasmonaean high-priest and Herod’s brother-in-law, was murdered here on Herod’s orders, drowned in a fish pond. The palace and grounds extended across the Wadi Qilt (the seasonal river-bed in the foreground of the picture), which was spanned by a bridge. Abu Galyon
Kidron_Valley_Tombs.JPG
Israel, Jerusalem - Kidron Valley (2)157 viewsAnother Kidron valley tomb complex (about 60m south of Tantour Faroun). Jewish pilgrims called this the ‘Tomb of Zechariah’, while the Christian pious associated it with their own early martyrs, notably St. James. In fact, an inscription shows that this was the burial place of the priestly Bene Hezir family, who get a passing mention in the Bible (1 Chronicles 24:15). The nefesh with a pyramidal top marks the entrance to a passage ascending into the cliff on the left. The actual burial chambers (four of them) lie in the area behind the Doric-columned façade. The complex dates from the later second-century BC. Abu Galyon
Temple_of_Vesta_%28Rome%29.jpg
Italy, Rome, Temple of Vesta in the Forum Romanum.74 viewsTemple of Vesta in the Forum Romanum in Rome. See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temple_of_Vesta. All temples to Vesta were round, and had entrances facing east to symbolize connection between Vesta’s fire and the sun as sources of life. The Temple of Vesta represents the site of ancient cult activity as far back as 7th century BCE. Numa Pompilius is believed to have built this temple along with the original Regia and House of the Vestal Virgins in its original form. Around the Temple stood The Sacred Grove, in which also there was a graveyard for the priests and virgins. It was one of the earliest structures located in the Roman Forum although its present reincarnation is the result of subsequent rebuilding. Instead of a cult statue in the cella there was a hearth which held the sacred flame. The temple was the storehouse for the legal wills and documents of Roman Senators and cult objects such as the Palladium. The Palladium was a statue of Athena (Roman Minerva) believed to have been brought by Aeneas from Troy; the statue was felt to be one of the Pignora Imperii, or pledges of imperium, of Ancient Rome. According to Dionysius of Halicarnassus, the Romans believed that the Sacred fire of Vesta was closely tied to the fortunes of the city and viewed its extinction as a portent of disaster. The sacred flame was put out in 394 by Theodosius I after he won the Battle of the Frigidus, defeating Eugenius and Arbogast. The Temple of Vesta remained reasonably intact until the Renaissance. However, in 1549 the building was completely demolished and its marble reused in churches and papal palaces. The section standing today was reconstructed in the 1930s during the dictatorship of Benito Mussolini.

By Wknight94, 26 April 2008. Source:
Joe Sermarini
hyrcanus8.jpg
John Hyrcanus17 viewsYehochanan the high priest and Concil of Jews
mint : Jerusalem
134-104 BC
Hendin 453
frederic
hyrcanus12.jpg
John Hyrcanus7 viewsYehochanan the high priest and Concil of Jews
mint : Jerusalem
134-104 BC
AJC I, Group Nc
frederic
hyrcanus11.jpg
John Hyrcanus43 viewsYehochanan the high priest and Concil of Jews
mint : Jerusalem
134-104 BC
Hendin 454; AJC I, Group Ma
1 commentsfrederic
hyrcanus10.jpg
John Hyrcanus10 viewsYehochanan the high priest and Concil of Jews
mint : Jerusalem
134-104 BC
AJC I, Group Na
frederic
hyrcanus13.jpg
John Hyrcanus16 viewsYehochanan the high priest and Concil of Jews
mint : Jerusalem
134-104 BC
TJC B, AJC N
same die than Na 66 in Kaufman I
frederic
hyrcanus20.jpg
John Hyrcanus47 viewsYehochanan the high priest and Concil of Jews
mint : Jerusalem
134-104 BC
AJC I, Group La
1 commentsfrederic
hyrcnIscript.jpg
John Hyrcanus (Yehohanan)33 viewsJohn Hyrcanus, 135-104 BCE. Bronze Prutah, 15mm, 1.58g Jerusalem mint. O: Paleo-Hebrew inscription: Yonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews, {(HH)WHY NHK H NN B(HH)W LD DY} surrounded by wreath. R: Double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns, border of dots. Hendin 1141

From right to left: YHWHNN (Yehohanan) H (The) KHN (Priest) LD (Short of GDOL, high) W (And) B (HH) (Short of Haber which means the Council) DY (Short of YHWDEM which means the Jews) - Courtesy of Salem Alshdaifat

It is generally believed that the governing council referred to on the coins of Hyrcanus became known as the Sanhedrin during his reign or shortly after it. It was also during his reign that the sects of the Pharisees, Sadducees and Essenes became well established. He died at the age of 60 years old after governing for 31 years.
Nemonater
F101.jpg
John Hyrcanus I44 viewsYehochanan the high priest and Concil of Jews
mint : Jerusalem
134-104 BC
Hendin 452
frederic
Image3.jpg
John Hyrcanus I16 viewsYehochanan the high priest and Concil of Jews
mint : Jerusalem
134-104 BC
frederic
juive 1.jpg
John Hyrcanus I23 viewsYehochanan the high priest and Concil of Jews
mint : Jerusalem
134-104 BC
Hendin 463
frederic
hyrcanus5.jpg
John Hyrcanus I28 viewsYehochanan the high priest and Concil of Jews
mint : Jerusalem
134-104 BC
Hendin 456
frederic
hyrcanus4.jpg
John Hyrcanus I 30 viewsYehochanan the high priest and Concil of Jews
mint : Jerusalem
134-104 BC
Hendin 454
1 commentsfrederic
hyrcanus3.jpg
John Hyrcanus I30 viewsYehochanan the high priest and Concil of Jews
mint : Jerusalem
134-104 BC

1 commentsfrederic
hyrcanus2.jpg
John Hyrcanus I 9 viewsYehochanan the high priest and Concil of Jews
mint : Jerusalem
134-104 BC

frederic
hyrcanus.jpg
John Hyrcanus I 20 viewsYehochanan the high priest and Head of the Concil of Jews
mint : Jerusalem
134-104 BC
frederic
hyrcanus9.jpg
John Hyrcanus I21 viewsYehochanan the high priest and Head of the Concil of Jews
mint : Jerusalem
134-104 BC


frederic
a1.jpg
John Hyrcanus I44 viewsYehochanan the high priest and Head of the Concil of Jews
mint : Jerusalem
134-104 BC
AJC I, Type Sb
frederic
H-460.jpg
John Hyrcanus I13 viewsOBV: Hebrew (Yehohanan the High Priest and Head of the Council of the Jews) surrounded by wreath.
REV: Double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns, border of dots.
Hendin-460 134-104 B.C.
1.98gm 13.5mm
1 commentsgoldenancients
jannaeus7.jpg
John Hyrcanus I48 viewsYehochanan the high priest and Concil of Jews
mint : Jerusalem
134-104 BC
Hendin 452
1 commentsfrederic
Judea,_John_Hyrcanus_I.jpg
John Hyrcanus I 7 viewsAE Prutah (Widow's mite)
Jerusalem mint, 134-103 B.C.
14mm, 1.48g

Obverse:
Greek letter A above Hebrew inscription.
"Yehonanan the High Priest and the council of the Jews"

Reverse:
Double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns, border of dots
Will J
J06j-Hyrcanus H-459.jpg
John Hyrcanus I "Yehochanan", (Hasmonean King), Æ Prutah, 134-104 BCE61 viewsBronze prutah of Hyrcanus I "Yehochanan", 2.2g, 13.5mm, Jerusalem mint.

Obverse: Double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns.
Reverse: Hebrew inscription, “Yehochanan the High Priest and Head of the Council of the Jews” –
יהוחנן הכהן הגדול ראש חבר היהדים, surrounded by wreath.

References: Hendin 459

Added to collection: November 7, 2005
Daniel Friedman
J06e-Hyrcanus H-453.jpg
John Hyrcanus I "Yehochanan", (Hasmonean King), Æ Prutah, 134-104 BCE83 viewsBronze prutah of Hyrcanus I "Yehochanan", aVF+, 2.3g, 13.8mm, 0o, Jerusalem mint.

Obverse: double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns.
Reverse: Hebrew inscription, “Yehochanan the High Priest and Head [of the Council of the Jews]” –
יהוחנן הכהן הגדול ראש ח[בר היהדי]ם, surrounded by wreath.

References: Hendin 453, TJC type D

Added to collection: November 4, 2005
1 commentsDaniel Friedman
20170404_084532.jpg
John Hyrcanus I (134 - 104 BC). AE prutah 22 viewsObv. Paleo-Hebrew (Yehohanan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews) within wreath, Greek A above inscription.
Rev. Double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns, border of dots.
References: Hendin 1132.
Good Very Fine. (15mm, 2.16 gm).
Canaan
DSC01680.JPG
John Hyrcanus I (Yehohanan) 134 - 104 B.C.51 viewsHasmonean Dynasty, 14mm Bronze Prutah, Jerusalem mint
Obverse: Hebrew inscription, Yehonanan the High Priest and Head of the Council of the Jews, surrounded by wreath
Reverse: Double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns
3 commentsDk0311USMC
e732.jpg
John Hyrcanus I (Yehohanan) AE Lepton. H 1134 35 viewsJudaea
John Hyrcanus I (Yehohanan)
134-104 BC
AE Lepton (0.48 gm ; 9 mm)

Obv: Palm branch flanked by four lines of Hebrew inscription "Yehonanan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews".
Rev: Lily flower, monogram below.

Hendin 1134

1 commentsSkySoldier
e736.jpg
John Hyrcanus I (Yehohanan) AE Prutah. H 1135. Scarce die variety20 viewsJudaea
John Hyrcanus I (Yehohanan)
134-104 BC
AE Prutah (1.81 gm ; 13 mm)

Four letters on first line.

Obv: Hebrew inscription "Yehohanan the High Priest and Head of the Council of the Jews".
Rev: Double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns.

Hendin 1135

SkySoldier
e739.jpg
John Hyrcanus I (Yehohanan) AE Prutah. H 113923 viewsJudaea
John Hyrcanus I (Yehohanan)
134-104 BC
AE Prutah (1.93 gm ; 14 mm)

Clear Script !

Obv: Hebrew inscription "Yehohanan the High Priest and Head of the Council of the Jews" within wreath.
Rev: Double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns.

Hendin 1139

SkySoldier
e740.jpg
John Hyrcanus I (Yehohanan) AE Prutah. H 114023 viewsJudaea
John Hyrcanus I (Yehohanan)
134-104 BC
AE Prutah (2.36 gm ; 13 mm)


Obv: Hebrew inscription "Yehohanan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews" within wreath.
Rev: Double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns.

Hendin 1140
SkySoldier
Judean_Kingdom,_John_Hyrcanus_I_(Yehohanan).jpg
John Hyrcanus I (Yehohanan), 134 - 104 B.C. Bronze prutah7 viewsJudean Kingdom, John Hyrcanus I (Yehohanan), 134 - 104 B.C. Bronze prutah, Hendin 457, Fair, off center, Jerusalem mint, 1.816g, 14.7mm, 225o, obverse Hebrew inscription, Yehonanan the High Priest and Head of the Council of the Jews, surrounded by wreath; reverse, double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns, monogram A left below horns (off flan). ex FORVMPodiceps
hendin_453.jpg
John Hyrcanus I (Yehohanan), 134 - 104 B.C. Bronze prutah, Hendin 45310 viewsJudean Kingdom, John Hyrcanus I (Yehohanan), 134 - 104 B.C. Bronze prutah, Hendin 453, (fair MM) AJC I, Group P, Jerusalem mint, 1.877g, 14.1mm, obverse Hebrew inscription, Yehonanan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews, surrounded by wreath; reverse, double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns, tiny A to lower right (off flan). Ex FORVMPodiceps
alexander-jannaeus-prutah-2.jpg
John Hyrcanus I, Hasmonean AE Prutah, (103-76 BC)29 viewsAncient Greek, John Hyrcanus I, Hasmonean AE Prutah, (103-76 BC)

Obverse: "Yehonatan the High Priest & the Council of the Jews", Four lines of Paleo-Hebrew text within wreath. First three lines are readable, the rest are blundered possibly.

YHWHNN
KHHNHGD
WLHHBR
HYHWDYM

𐤉𐤄‬𐤅𐤇‬𐤍𐤍
𐤄‬𐤊‬𐤄‬𐤍𐤄‬‬𐤂𐤃‬
𐤅𐤋𐤄‬‬𐤇‬𐤁‬𐤓
𐤅𐤄‬𐤃‬𐤃‬𐤌

Reverse: Two joined cornucopias, ribbons on each side, pomegranate between, all within dotted circle border. Two monogram characters right and left.

Reference: Hendin 1133 var

Ex: Holyland Ancient Coins Corporation - Musa Ali
1 commentsGil-galad
John_Hyrcanus_II.jpg
John Hyrcanus II - AE prutah9 viewsJerusalem
King 67 BC, Ethnarch 63-40 BC
Hebrew inscription: "Yonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews" within wreath
double cornucopia with pomegranate between horns
Hendin 1159
Johny SYSEL
judaea_alex_jannaeus_TJC_P10.jpg
Judaea, Alexander Jannaeus, TJC P106 viewsJudaea, Alexander Jannaeus, TJC P10
Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103-76 BC
AE - Prutah, 2.00g, 13.97mm, 315°
Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 5 lines within laurel wreath:
יהו / נתןהכ / הןהגדלו / חברהי / הדמ
from r. to l.:
= YHW / NTN H K / HN H GDL W / (Ch)BR H Y / HDM
= Yehonatan Ha Kohen Ha Gadol We Chaver Ha Yehudim
= Yehonatan the Highpriest and Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae, pomegranate between, in dotted circle
ref. Hendin 73; AJC Ea10.; TJC P10
F+, legend clearly readable
Jochen
judaea_alex_jannaeus_TJC_P14.jpg
Judaea, Alexander Jannaeus, TJC P11 var.28 viewsAlexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103-76 BC
AE - Prutah, 1.26g, 12.64mm, 150°
Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 5 lines within laurel wreath:
יהו / נתןהכ / הןהגדלו / חברהיה / הדימ
from r. to l.:
= YHW / NTN H K / HN H GDL W / (Ch)BR H YH / HDYM
= Yehonatan Ha Kohen Ha Gadol We Chaver Ha Yehudim
= Yehonatan the Highpriest and Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae, pomegranate between, in dotted circle
ref. Hendin 73; AJC Ea11 var.; TJC P11 var. (last line only דימ)
F+, legend clearly readable
3 commentsJochen
judaea_alex_jannaeus_TJC_P13var.jpg
Judaea, Alexander Jannaeus, TJC P13 var.18 viewsJudaea, Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103-76 BC
AE - Prutah, 2.36g, 13.64mm, 180°
Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebraic legend in 5 lines within laurel wreath:
יהו / נתןהכ / הןהגדל / וחברהי / הדי
from r. to l.:
YHW / NTN H K / HN H GDL / W (Ch)BR H Y / HDY
= Yehonatan Ha Kohen Ha Gadol We Chaber Ha Yehudi[m]
= Yehonatan the Highpriest and Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae, pomegranate between, all in dot circle
ref. Hendin 743; AJC Ea12 var.; TJC P13 var. (last מ missed)
about VF, complete legend, clearly readable
2 commentsJochen
judaea_alex_jannaeus_TJC_P15.jpg
Judaea, Alexander Jannaeus, TJC P1511 viewsJudaea, Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103-76 BC
AE - Prutah, 2.48g, 14mm
Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebraic legend in 5 lines within laurel wreath:
יהו / נתןהכ / הןהגדלו / חברהי / ודמ
from r. to l.:von re.:
YHW / NTN H K / HN H GDL W / (Ch)BR H Y / WDM
= Yehonatan Ha Kohen Ha Gadol We Chaber Ha Yehudim
= Yehonatan the Highpriest and Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae, pomegranate between, all in dot circle
ref. Hendin 743; AJC Ea17; TJC P15
about VF, complete legend, clearly readable
Jochen
judaea_alexander_jannaeus_Hendin473.jpg
Judaea, Alexander Jannaeus, TJC P17 #189 viewsAlexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103-76 BC
AE - Prutah, 1.85g, 13.73mm, 330°
Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 5 lines within laurel wreath:
יהו / נתןהכ / הןהגדל / וחברה / ידמ
from r. to l.:
YHW / NTN H K / HN H GDL / W (Ch)BR H / [YDM]
= Yehonatan Ha Kohen Ha Gadol We Chaver Ha [Yehudim]
= Yehonatan the High Priest and the Council [of the Jews]
rev. Double Cornucopiae, flled with fruits and a grain ear each, decorated with ribbons, in dotted circle, between horns a pomegranate with long stalk
ref. GBC5 1145; GBC4 473; AJC Ea19; TJC P17
VF, rev. excentric
Jochen
judaea_alex_jannaeus_TJC_P17_#2.jpg
Judaea, Alexander Jannaeus, TJC P17 #23 viewsAlexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103-76 BC
AE - Prutah, 2.45g, 15.72mm, 0°
Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 5 lines within laurel wreath:
יהו / נתןהכ / הןהגדל / וחברה / ידמ
from r. to l.:
YHW / NTN H K / HN H GDL / W (Ch)BR H / YDM
= Yehonatan Ha Kohen Ha Gadol We Chaver Ha Yehudim
= Yehonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews
rev. Double Cornucopiae, filled with fruits and a grain ear each, decorated with ribbons, in dotted circle, between horns a pomegranate with long stalk
ref. GBC5 1145; GBC4 473; AJC Ea19; TJC P17
VF, dark green patina
Jochen
alex_jannaeus_Hendin473_#5.jpg
Judaea, Alexander Jannaeus, TJC P19 #119 viewsAlexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103-76 BC
AE - Prutah, 1.58g, 13.96mm, 0°
Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 5 lines in laurel wreath:
יהו / נתןהכ / הןהגדל / וחברה / יהמ
from r. to l. (transcription):
YHW / NTN H K / HN H GDL / W (Ch)BR H / YHM
= Yehonatan Ha Kohen Ha Gadol We Chaver Ha Yehudim
= Yehonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae, pomegranate between
ref. GBC5 1145; GBC4 473; AJC Ea21; TJC P19
about VF/F, sand patina, detailed inscription
1 commentsJochen
judaea_alex_jannaeus_TJC_P19_#2.jpg
Judaea, Alexander Jannaeus, TJC P19 #27 viewsAlexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103-76 BC
AE - Prutah, 13.6mm, 1.3g
Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 5 lines within laurel wreath:
יהו / נתןהכ / הןהגדל / וחברה / יהמ
from r. to l.:
[YHW] / NTN H K / HN H GDL / W (Ch)BR H / YHM
= Yehonatin Ha Kohen Ha Gadol We Chaver Ha Yehudim
= Yehonatan the Highpriest and Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae, ribboned, between pomegranate
ref. Hendin IV 473; AJC Ea2; TJC P19
about VF, red desert patina, clear legend
Jochen
judaea_alex_janneus_Hendin473_#3.jpg
Judaea, Alexander Jannaeus, TJC P3558 viewsAlexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103-76 BC
AE - Prutah, 1.14g, 13.21mm, 330°
Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 5 lines within laurel wreath:
יהו / נתןהכ / הןהגדל / וחבהי / דמ
from r. to l.:
YHW / NTN H K / HN H GDL / W (Ch)B H Y / DM (R of ChBR missed!)
= Yehonatan Ha Kohen Ha Gadol We Chaver Ha Yehudim
= Yehonatan the High Priest and Council of the Jews
rev. Double Cornucopiae, filled with fruits and a grain-ear each, decorated with ribbons, in dotted circle, between horns a pomegranate with long stalk
ref. GBC5 1145; GBC4 473; AJC Ea38; TJC P35
about VF, detailed inscription
Pedigree:
ex coll. Daniel Friedenberg
Jochen
judaea_alex_jannaeus_Hendin473_#4.jpg
Judaea, Alexander Jannaeus, TJC P3810 viewsAlexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103-76 BC
AE - Prutah, 2.36g, 14.89mm, 315°
Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 5 lines in laurel wreath:
יהו / נתןהכ / הןהגדל / וחברהי / הידמ
from r. to l. (transcription):
YHW / NTN H K / HN H GDL / W (Ch)BR H Y / HYDM
= Yehonatan Ha Kohen Ha Gadol We Chaver Ha Yehudim
= Yehonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews
rev. Double Cornucopiae, filled with fruits and a grain-ear each, decorated with ribbons, in dotted circle, between horns a pomegranate with long stalk
ref. GBC5 1145; GBC4 473; AJC Ea41; TJC P38
about VF, detailed inscription
Jochen
judaea_alexander_jannaeus_Hendin473_#2.jpg
Judaea, Alexander Jannaeus, TJC P41105 viewsAlexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103-76 BC
AE - Prutah, 1.99g, 13.76mm, 135°
Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 5 lines in laurel wreath:
יהו / נתןהכ / הןהגד / לוחבר / י
from r. to l.:
YHW / NTN H K / HN H GD / L W (Ch)B[R] / W
= Yehonatan Ha Kohen Ha Gadol Ha Chaver [Ha Yehudim]
= Yehonatan the High Priest and the Council [of the Jews]
rev. Double Cornucopiae, filled with fruits and a grain-ear each, decorated with ribbons, between horns a pomegranate with long stalk, all in dotted circle
ref. GBC5 1145; GBC4 473; AJC Ea44; TJC P41
about VF, detailed inscription
2 commentsJochen
judaea_alexander_jannaeus_Hendin474.jpg
Judaea, Alexander Jannaeus, TJC Q0470 viewsAlexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103-76 BC
AE - Prutah, 2.17g, 13.99mm, 330°
Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 5 lines in laurel wreath:
יהונ / תןהכהן / הגדלוח / ברהיהו / דימ
from r. to l.:
YHWN / TN H KHN / H GDL W (Ch) / BR H YHW / DYM
= Yehonatan Ha Kohen Ha Gadol We Chaver Ha Yehudim
= Yehonatan the High Priest and Council of the Jews
rev. Double Cornucopiae with ribbons, between horns a pomegranate, in dotted circle (very schematical depiction)
Hendin 474; AJC Fa4; TJC Q4
VF, nice sandpatina
Jochen
judaea_alex_jannaeus_Hendin474_#2.jpg
Judaea, Alexander Jannaeus, TJC Q21 var.80 viewsJudaea, Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103-76 BC
AE - Prutah, 1.51g, 13.15mm, 0°
Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legendin 4 lines within laurel-wreath:
יהונ / תן ה כ ג / דול ו ח / בר ה / מ
from r. to l.:
= YHWN / TN H K G / DWL W (Ch) / BR H / M(?)
= Yehonatan Ha K[ohen] Gadol We Chaver Ha [Yehud]im
= Yehonatan the High Priest and Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae, filled with fruits and a grain-ear each, decorated with ribbons hanging down, a pomegranate with long stalk between horns, in dotted circle
ref. Hendin 474; AJC Fa21; TJC Q21 var.
VF+

This type has no article before the title! And it has GDWL instead of GDL!
2 commentsJochen
judaea_alex_jannaeus_Hendin474_#3.jpg
Judaea, Alexander Jannaeus, TJC Q22 #121 viewsAlexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103-76 BC
AE - Prutah, 1.87g, 14.07mm, 0°
Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 5 lines within laurel wreath:
יהונ / תןהכג / דולוחב / ריהו / מ
from r. to left:
= [YH]WN / [T]N H K G / DWL W (Ch)B / R YHW / M
= Yehonatan Ha Kohen Gadol We Chaver Yehudim
= Yehonatan the Highpriest and Council of Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae with ribbons, pomegranate between horns, all in dotted circle
ref. Hendin IV, 474; AJC Fa22; TJC Q22
about VF
1 commentsJochen
judaea_alex_jannaeus_Hendin474_#5.jpg
Judaea, Alexander Jannaeus, TJC Q22 #29 viewsAlexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103-76 BC
AE - Prutah, 2.01g, 15.55mm, 0°
Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 5 lines within laurel wreath:
יהונ / תןהכ / דולוח / ריה / מ
from r. to l. YHWN / TN H K G / DWL W (Ch)B / R YHW / M
= Yehonatan Ha K[ohen] Gadol We Chaver Yehu[d]im
= Yehonatan the Highpriest and Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae, pomegranate between
ref. Hendin 474; AJC Fa22; TJC Q22
VF/F+, patina damage on rev.
pedigree:
ex coll. Ira Ettinger
Jochen
judaea_alex_jannaeus_TJC_Q23.jpg
Judaea, Alexander Jannaeus, TJC Q239 viewsAlexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103-76 BC
Prutah, 1.64g, 14mm
Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 5 lines within laurel wreath:
יהונ / תן ה כ ג / דול חבר / יהוד / מ
from r. to l. YHWN / TN H K G / DWL (Ch)BR / YHWD / M
= Yehonatan Ha Ko[hen] Gadol Chaver Yehudim
= Yehonatan the Highpriest Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae decorated with ribbons, pomegranate between
ref. Hendin4 474; AJC Fa23; TJC Q23
F+, sand patina
Jochen
judaea_alex_jannaeus_Hendin474_#4.jpg
Judaea, Alexander Jannaeus, TJC Q2718 viewsAlexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103-76 BC
AE - Prutah, 2.23g, 14.49mm, 0°
Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 4 lines within laurel wreath:
יהונ / תןהכג / דולוחב / יהד
from r. to l.:
YHWN / TN H K G / DWL W (Ch)B / YHD
= Yehonatan Ha K[ohen] Gadol We Chaver Yehudi[m]
= Yehonatan the High Priest and Council of the Jews
rev. Double Cornucopiae, decorated with ribbons, in dotted circle, between horns a pomegranate with long
stalk
ref. GBC4 474; AJC I Fa27; TJC Q27
about VF, nice inscription, black patina with earthen deposits
Pedigree:
ex coll. Schöttle/Stuttgart (acquired 1968)

The last R (at the wrong place!) is missed, but there is enough space for it.
1 commentsJochen
judaea_alex_jannaeus_TJC_Q45.jpg
Judaea, Alexander Jannaeus, TJC Q45 9 viewsAlexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103-76 BC
AE - Prutah, 2.29g, 14.38mm, 0°
Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 4 lines within laurel wreath:
יהונ / תןכהן / דולוח / ידמ
from r. to l.:
= YHWN / TN KHN / [G]DWL W (Ch) / YDM
= Yehonatan Kohen Gadol We Ch[aver] Yehudim
= Yehonatan Highpriest and Council of [the] Yews
rev. Double cornucopiae with pomegranate
ref. Hendin IV, 474; AJC Fb3; TJC 45
F+, black green patina, rev. extremely excentric
Jochen
judaea_alex_jannaeus_Hendin475.jpg
Judaea, Alexander Jannaeus, TJC R2046 viewsAlexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103-76 BC
AE - Prutah, 1.93g, 13.93mm, 0°
Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 4 lines within laurel wreath, in typical cursive style:
[יהונת / ןכהןג / דלוחב / [רהיהוד
from r. to l.:
= YHWNT / N KHN G / DL W (Ch)B / [R H YHWD]
= Yehonatan Kohen Gadol We Chaver Ha Yehud[im]
= Yehonatan High Priest and Council of the Jews
rev. Double Cornucopiae with ribbons, between horns a pomegranate, in dotted circle
ref. GBC5 1136; GBC4 475; AJC Gb17; TJC R20
VF, nice sandpatina
From Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!

The last line is very crude.
1 commentsJochen
hyrcanus_full_S~0.jpg
JUDAEA, Hyrcanus I, Prutah201 viewsHendin 457. Hasmonian Kingdom of Judaea, John Hyrcanus I AE Prutah, Dark Image. 135-104 BC. Archaic Hebrew text within wreath: Yehohanan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews / Double cornucopia adorned with ribbons and pomegranate between, unknown monogram. AJC I Group N. 1 commentsaarmale
judaea_hyrcanusI_Hendin454.jpg
Judaea, Johannes Hyrcanus I, TJC A10100 viewsJohn Hyrcanus I (Yehochanan), 135-104 BC
AE - Prutah, 14.13mm, 1.73g, 0°
struck in Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 5 lines within laurel wreath:
יהוחנן / הכהןהג / דלוחברה / יהדימ / A
from r. to l.:
YHW(Ch)NN / H KHN H G / DL W (Ch)BR H / YHDYM
= Yehochanan Ha Kohen Ha Gadol We Chaver Ha Yehudim
= Yehochanan the High Priest and Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae, coming from a floral base, filled with fruits and a grain-ear each, decorated with ribbons hanging down, a pomegranate with long stalk between horns, in dotted circle
ref. GBC5 1132; GBC4 454; AJC Ma9; TJC A10
very rare, about EF

The 'A' probably signifies that this is John's earliest mintage and thus under the authority of Antiochos VII. Hence also the fine style.
2 commentsJochen
judaea_hyrcanusI_Hendin456.jpg
Judaea, Johannes Hyrcanus I, TJC B1160 viewsJohn Hyrcanus I (Yehochanan), 135-104 BC
AE - Prutah, 13.77mm, 1.92g, 0°
struck in Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 4 lines, 2 dots above, all within laurel wreath:
יהוחנן / הכהןהגד / להחברה / יהדימ
from r. to l.:
YHW(Ch)NN / H KHN H GD / L H (Ch)BR H / YHDYM
= Yehochanan Ha Kohen Ha Gadol Ha Chaver Ha Yehudim
= Yehochanan the High Priest the Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae, coming from a floral base, filled with fruits and a grain-ear each, decorated with ribbons hanging down, a pomegranate with long stalk between horns, in dotted circle, monogram in l. field (not visible)
ref. Hendin 5, 1133; Hendin 4, 456; AJC Na18; TJC B11
VF/F+
pedigree:
ex Hendin

This type has 2 different shapes for the Nun.
1 commentsJochen
judaea_hyrcanusI_Hendin 455cf.jpg
Judaea, Johannes Hyrcanus I, TJC B1366 viewsJohn Hyrcanus I (Yehochanan), 135-104 BC
AE - Prutah, 14.53mm, 2.17g, 0°
struck in Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 5 lines within laurel wreath:
יהוחנן / הכהןהג / דלוחברה / יהדי / מ
from r. to l.:
YHW(Ch)NN / H KHN H G / DL W (Ch)BR H / YHDY / M
= Yehochanan Ha Kohen Ha Gadol We Chaver Ha Yehudim
= Yehochanan the High Priest and Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae, coming from a floral base, filled with fruits and a grain-ear each, decorated with ribbons hanging down, a pomegranate with long stalk between horns, in dotted circle
ref. Hendin cf. 455/7; AJC Na29; TJC B13
F+/VF
Jochen
judaea_hyrcanusI_Hendin455.jpg
Judaea, Johannes Hyrcanus I, TJC B16 var.97 viewsJohn Hyrcanus I (Yehochanan), 135-103 BC
AE - Prutah, 2.14g, 13.53mm, 0°
Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 5 lines within laurel wreath:
יהוחנ / ןהכהןהג / דלוחבר / היהדי / מ
from r. to l.:
YHW(Ch)N / N H KHN H G / DL W (Ch)BR / H YHDY / M
= Yehochanan Ha Kohen Ha Gadol We Chaver Ha Yehudim
= Yehochanan the High Priest and Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae, filled with fruits and a grain-ear each, decorated with ribbons hanging down, a pomegranate with long stalk between horns, in dotted circle
ref. Hendin IV 455-57; Hendin V 1133; AJC Na33; TJC B16 var. (has G in 3rd line)
about EF, dark brown patina

Thanks to Frederic!
1 commentsJochen
judaea_hyrcanusI_Hendin453_#1.jpg
Judaea, Johannes Hyrcanus I, TJC D554 viewsJohn Hyrcanus I (Yehochanan), 135-104 BC
AE - Prutah, 1.85g, 14.17mm, 0°
struck in Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 5 lines within laurel wreath:
יהו / חנןהכה / ןהגדלו / חברה / ידמ
from r. to l.:
YHW / (Ch)NN H KH / N H G DL W / (Ch)BR H / YDM
= Yehochanan Ha Kohen Ha Gadol We Chaver Ha Yehudim
= Yehochanan the High Priest and Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae, decorated with ribbons hanging down, a pomegranate with long stalk between horns, in dotted circle
ref. Hendin 4, 453; AJC Pb3; TJC D5
VF/F

Typically for group D is the line as N
Jochen
judaea_hyrcanusI_Hendin453_#2.jpg
Judaea, Johannes Hyrcanus I, TJC D621 viewsJohn Hyrcanus I (Yehochanan), 135-104 BC
AE - Prutah, 2.13g, 14.22mm, 0°
struck in Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 5 lines within laurel wreath:
יהו / חנןהכהן / הגדלו / חברה / ידמ
from r. to l.:
YHW / (Ch)NN H KHN / H GDL W / (Ch)BR H / Y[DM]
= Yehochanan Ha Kohen Ha Gadol We Chaver Ha Yehud[im]
= Yehochanan the High Priest and Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae, decorated with ribbons hanging down, a pomegranate with long stalk between horns, in dotted circle
ref. Hendin 4, 453; Hendin 5, 1135; AJC Pb4; TJC D6
very rare, EF/VF, nice sand patina

Typically for group D is the line as N
1 commentsJochen
judaea_hyrcanusI_Hendin460.jpg
Judaea, Johannes Hyrcanus I, TJC D846 viewsJohn Hyrcanus I (Yehochanan), 135-104 BC
AE - Prutah, 2.08g, 14.37mm, 180°
struck in Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 5 lines within laurel wreath:
יהו / חנןהכה / ןהגדלו / חברהי / די
from r. to l.:
YHW / (Ch)NN H KH / N H GDL W / (Ch)BR H Y / DY
= Yehochanan Ha Kohen Ha Gadol We Chaver Ha Yehudi[m]
= Yehochanan the High Priest and Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae, coming from a floral base, filled with fruits and a grain-ear each, decorated with ribbons hanging down, a pomegranate with long stalk between horns, in dotted circle
ref. Hendin 453; AJC Pb6; TJC D8
VF+

Letter of N designed as a simple stroke I
Jochen
judaea_hyrcanusI_TJC_E10.jpg
Judaea, Johannes Hyrcanus I, TJC E107 viewsJohannes Hyrcanus I (Yehochanan), 135-103 BC
AE - Prutah, 14mm, 2.14g
Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 4 lines within laurel wreath:
יהוח / כהן ה נן / חר ו גדל / י ה ב
from r. to l.:
= YHW(Ch) / NN H KHN / GDL W (Ch)[B] / R H Y
= Yehochanan Ha Kohen Gadol We Chaver Ha [Yehudim]
= Yehochanan the Highpriest and Council [of the Jews]
rev. Double cornucopiae with ribbons, pomegranate between horns
ref. Hendin IV, 463; AJC La10; TJC E10
F/about VF, sand patina
Jochen
judaea_hyrcanusI_Hendin464.jpg
Judaea, Johannes Hyrcanus I, TJC E1913 viewsJohannes Hyrcanus I (Yehochanan), 135-103 BC
AE - Prutah, 14.28mm, 1.69g, 0°
Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 4 lines within laurel wreath:
יהו / חנןהכ / הןהגדל / וחבר
from r. to l.:
= YHW / (Ch)NN H K / HN H GDL / W (Ch)BR
= Yehochanan Ha Kohen Ha Gadol We Chaver [Ha Yehudim]
= Yehochanan the Highpriest and Council [of the Jews]
rev. Double cornucopiae with ribbons, pomegranate between horns
ref. Hendin V, 1139; Hendin IV, 464; AJC La18; TJC E19
about VF/F+, brown patina, rev. excentric

Strange depiction on rev. below the dotted circle, overstruck?
Jochen
judaea_hyrcanusI_Hendin452.jpg
Judaea, Johannes Hyrcanus I, TJC F1162 viewsJohn Hyrcanus I (Yehochanan), 135-104 BC
AE - Prutah, 1.59g, 14mm
struck in Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 4 lines within laurel wreath:
יהוח / נןהכהן / הגדלוח / ברי
from r. to l.:
= YHW(Ch) / NN H KHN / H GDL W (Ch) / BR Y
= Yehochanan Ha Kohen Ha Gadol We Chaver Ye[hudim]
= Yehochanan the High Priest and Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae, decorated with ribbons hanging down, a pomegranate with long stalk between horns, in dotted circle
ref. GBC4 452; AJC K8; TJC F11
about VF
1 commentsJochen
judaea_hyrcanusI_TJC_F22.jpg
Judaea, Johannes Hyrcanus I, TJC F225 viewsJohn Hyrcanus I (Yehochanan), 135-104 BC
AE - Prutah, 1.92g, 13mm
struck in Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 4 lines within laurel wreath:
יהוח / ןנ ה ןהכ ג / דל רבח / י
from r. to l.:
= YHW(Ch) / NN H KHN G / DL (Ch)BR / Y
= Yehochanan Ha Kohen Gadol Chaver Ye[hudim]
= Yehochanan the High Priest Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae, decorated with ribbons hanging down, a pomegranate with long stalk between horns, in dotted circle
ref. GBC4 452; AJC K21; TJC F22
about VF
Jochen
judaea_hyrcanusI_Hendin463cf.jpg
Judaea, Johannes Hyrcanus I, TJC G834 viewsJohn Hyrcanus I (Yehochanan), 135-104 BC
AE - Prutah, 1.52g, 15.01mm, 0°
struck in Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 5 lines within laurel wreath, typical square style:
[יהו / חנןהכ / ןהגדל / חברה / [דמ
from r. to l.:
= YHW / (Ch)NN H K / N H GDL / (Ch)BR H / [DM]
= Yehochanan Ha Kohen Ha Gadol Chaver Ha [Yehudim]
= Yehochanan the High Priest Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae, coming from a floral base, filled with fruits and a grain-ear each, decorated with ribbons hanging down, a pomegranate with long stalk between horns, in dotted circle
ref. Hendin IV, 463; Hendin V, 1140; AJC Lb2; TJC G8
about VF/F+
pedigree:
ex Hendin
Jochen
judaea_hyrcanusI_Hendin457.jpg
Judaea, Johannes Hyrcanus I, TJC I3982 viewsJohn Hyrcanus I (Yehochanan), 135-104 BC
AE - Prutah, 14.46mm, 2.22g, 90°
struck in Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 5 lines within laurel wreath:
יהו / חנןהכה / ןהגדלר / אשהד / הימ
from r. to l.: YHW / (Ch)NN H KH / H GDL R / '(Sh) H Y / HYM
= Yehochanan Ha Kohen Ha Gadol Rosh Ha Yehudim
= Yehochanan the High Priest, Head of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae, coming from a floral base, filled with fruits and a grain-ear each, decorated with ribbons hanging down, a pomegranate with long stalk between horns, in dotted circle; in l. field monogram Lambda
ref. Hendin 457; AJC Sc25; TJC I39
rare, VF+, rev. excentric

The legend with rosh is rare.
1 commentsJochen
judaea_hyrcanusII_TJC_S13.jpg
Judaea, Johannes Hyrcanus II (Yonatan), TJC S136 viewsJohn Hyrcanus II (Yonatan), king 67 BC, ethnarch 63-40 BC
AE - Prutah, 2.30g, 13.97mm, 0°
Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 5 lines in laurel wreath:
יהונת / ןכהןגד / לוחבר / יהוד
from r. to l. (transcription):
YHWNT / N KHN GD / L W (Ch)BR / YHWD[M]
= Yehonatan Kohen Gadol We Chaver Yehudim
= Yehonatan High Priest and Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae, pomegranate between
ref. GBC4 479-80; AJC Ha10; TJC S13 (last M missing)
about VF/F, rev. extremely excentric

cursive letters, crude style
Jochen
judaea_hyrcanusII_Hendin479.jpg
Judaea, Johannes Hyrcanus II, TJC S10 var.56 viewsJohn Hyrcanus II (Yonatan), king 67 BC, ethnarch 63-40 BC
AE - Prutah, 13mm, 1.40g
Jerusalem
obv. Legend in paleo-Hebraic in 4 lines in laurel-wreath:
ינתן ה / כהן גדל / ו חבר ה / יהדי
from r. to l.:
YNTN H / KHN GDL / W (Ch)BR H / YHDY
= Yonatan Ha Kohen Gadol We Chaver Ha Yehud[im]
= Yonatan the High Priest and Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae, decorated with ribbons, pomegranate between horns, in dotted circle
ref. Hendin 479; AJC type Ha31 var.; TJC S10 var. (without H after ChBR!)
VF, crude style as usual, but complete inscription!
From Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!

This type could have been struck during the reign of his mother, Salome Alexandra, as queen, 76-67 BC, or during his reign as king or ethnarch. Some scientists think that this type has been struck under Alexander Jannaeus at the end of his reign. Usually this type is crude with unreadable letters and incomplete legends.
Jochen
judaea_hyrcanusII_TJC_S24var.jpg
Judaea, Johannes Hyrcanus II, TJC S24 var.7 viewsJohn Hyrcanus II (Yonatan), king 67 BC, (ethnarch) 63-40 BC
AE - Prutah, 1.60g, 13.35mm, 0°
struck in Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 5 lines within laurel wreath:
ינתן / כהן גדל / ו חבר י / הדי / מ
from r. to l.:
YNTN / KHN GDL / W (Ch)BR Y / HDY / M
= Yonatan Kohen Gadol We Chaver Yeduhim
= Yonatan Highpriest and Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae with pomegranate
ref. Hendin IV 479-80; AJC Ha21 var.; TJC 24 var. (without מ in 4th line)
about VF, nice sand patina


Jochen
judaea_hyrcanusII_TJC_S30var.jpg
Judaea, Johannes Hyrcanus II, TJC S30 var.4 viewsJohannes Hyrcanus II (Yonatan), king 67 BC, ethnarch 63-40 BC
AE - prutah, 2.15g, 16.14mm
Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 5 lines within laurel wreath:
ינתן / הכהןגדל / וחברי / הדימ / ה
from r. to l.:
= YNTN / H KHN GDL / W (Ch)BR Y / H DYM / H
= Yonatan Ha Kohen Gadol We Chaver Yehudim
= Yonatan the Highpriest and Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae with pomegranate between horns
ref. Hendin 479-80; AJC Ha33; TJC S30 var. (different legend break between 1st and 2nd line)
VF
Jochen
judaea_hyrcanusII_TJC_T1var.jpg
Judaea, Johannes Hyrcanus II, TJC T1 var.10 viewsJohn Hyrcanus II (Yonatan), king 67 BC, ethnarch 63-40 BC
AE - Prutah, 1.66g, 14.77mm, 0°
struck in Jerualem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 5 lines within laurel wreath:
ינתן / ה כהן כ / דל ו ח / בר יהד / [מ]
from r. to l.:
YNTN / H KHN G / DL W (Ch) / BR YHD / [M]
= Yonatan Ha Kohen Gadol We Chaver Yehudim
= Yonatan the Highpriest and Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornuopiae with pomegranate
ref. Hendin IV 478; AJC I1 var.; TJC T1 var. (has הגדל and ג at 1. letter in 3rd line)
sand patina

These type was overstruck on coins of type N, anchor in circle and lily. On the r. edge of the rev. we can read ונתן of the underlying coin.


Jochen
judaea_alex_jannaeus_Hendin1149b.jpg
Judaea, Johannes Hyrcanus II, TJC T10 var.21 viewsJohannes Hyrcanus II (Yonatan), king 67 BC, ethnarch 63-40 BC
AE - prutah, 2.27g, 14.54mm
Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 4 lines within laurel wreath:
ינתן / הכהןה / גדלוחבר / היהמ
from r. to l.:
= YNTN / H KHN / GDL W (Ch)BR / H YHM(?)
= Yonatan Ha Kohen We Chaver Ha Yehudim
= Yonatan the Highpriest and Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae with pomegranate between horns; anchor undertype visible, at the border remains of the Greek legend: ALEXA
ref. Hendin 478; AJC Ia8 var.; TJC T10 var. (last 2 lines different)
VF
From Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!

This type is overstruck on type TJC N (legend over lily, cornucopiae over anchor)

This type has been reattributed from Hyrcanus II to Alexander Jannaeus by Hendin and Shachar in `The Identity of YNTN on Hasmonean Overstruck Coins and the Chronology of the Alexander Jannaeus Types,` Israel Numismatic Research 3, 2008: 87-94. It appears this type was overstruck on earlier coins of Alexander Jannaeus that had never been released from the mint. (FAC)
Jochen
judaea_hyrcanusII_TJC_T11.jpg
Judaea, Johannes Hyrcanus II, TJC T1112 viewsJohn Hyrcanus II [Yonatan], king 67 BC, ethnarch 63-40 BC
AE - Prutah, 2.48g, 16.13mm, 0°
struck in Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 5 lines within laurel wreath:
ינתן / ה כהן [ה] / כדל ו ח / בר יה / מ
from r. to l.:
YNTN / H KHN [H] / GDL W (Ch) / BR YH / M
= Yonatan Ha Kohen [Ha] Gadol We Chaver Yehu[d]im
= Yonatan the Highpriest and Council of the Jews
ref. Hendin IV 478; AJC Ia9; TJC T11
sand patina
1 commentsJochen
judaea_hyrcanusII_Hendin478.jpg
Judaea, Johannes Hyrcanus II, TJC T3 var.77 viewsJohn Hyrcanus II (Yonatan), king 67 BC, ethnarch 63-40 BC
AE - Prutah, 1.82g, 14.66mm, 45°
Jerusalem
obv. Legend in Paleo-Hebrew in 6 lines in laurel-wreath:
ינתןה / כהןגד / לוחבר / היהדי / מ
from r. to l.:
YNTN H / KHN GD / L W (Ch)BR / H YHDY / M
= Yonatan Ha Kohen Gadol We Chaver Ha Yehudim
= Yonatan the High Priest and Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae, filled with fruits and a grain-ear each, decorated with ribbons hanging down, a pomegranate with long stalk between horns, in dotted circle
ref. GBC5 1149; GBC4 478; AJC Ia1 var.; TJC T3 var. (have in 4. line only YDHY)
VF, crude style as usual, but complete inscription!
1 commentsJochen
judaea_hyrcanusII_Hendin478_#2.jpg
Judaea, Johannes Hyrcanus II, TJC T759 viewsJohn Hyrcanus II (Yonatan), king 67 BC, ethnarch 63-40 BC
AE - Prutah, 2.60g, 17mm
Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 5 lines within laurel-wreath:
ינתן / ה כהן ה / גדל ו חב / ר הדי / מ
from r. to l.:
YNTN / H KHN H / GDL W (Ch)B / R HDY / M(?)
= Yonatan Ha Kohen Gadol We Chaver Yehudim
= Yonatan the High Priest and Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae, decorated with ribbons, pomegranate between horns, in dotted circle
ref. Hendin 478; AJC type I; TJC T7
VF

This coin clearly is an overstruck of Hendin 467. You can see ANDROV BAC around the circle on the rev.
This type has been reattributed from Hyrcanus II to Alexander Jannaeus by Hendin and Shachar in "The Identity of YNTN on Hasmonean Overstruck Coinas and the Chronology of the Alexander Jannaeus Types," Israel Numismatic Research 3, 2008: 87-94. It appears this type was overstruck on earlier coins of Alexander Jannaeus that had never been released from the mint. (FAC)
Jochen
hyrcanus_ii_k.jpg
JUDAEA, John Hyrcanus II, king 67 BC, ethnarch c. 47-40 BC3 viewsÆ prutah, 15mm, 2.9g, 6h; Jerusalem mint.
Obv.: YNTN (Jonantan) H (the) KHN (priest) GDL (high) W (and) BR (council) H (the) YHDYM (Jews), all within wreath.
Rev.: Double cornucopia with pomegranate between horns.
Reference: Hendin 1159.
John Anthony
hircanof.JPG
JUDAEA, John Hyrcanus II, Prutah24 viewsJudaea, John Hyrcanus II Æ Prutah.
Two cornucopias, pomegranate between them / legend in wreath, 'Yonatan the High Priest and the Community of the Jews'.

Hendin 479, Meshorer 18

YNTN (Yonatan) H (the) KHN (Priest) GDOL (high) W (and) (HH)BR (consil) YHDEM (Jews)
anthivs
aristobulus~0.JPG
JUDAEA, Judah (Yehudah), Aristobulus Hendin 465143 viewsHendin 465 - Judah (Yehudah) Aristobulus. 104-103 B.C.E. AE Prutah. Hebrew inscription (Yehudah the High Priest and the Council of the Jews -
YHNTN HCHN HGDL V'chVR YHDEM) surrounded by wreath / Non visible: Double cornucopiae adorned with ribbons; pomegranate between horns.
Script reads:
DUHY
DGNHKH
RB(CH)VLO
YDUHY
Interestingly, Gadol is spelt as GDOL, unlike the commen GDL.
aarmale
judaea_judah_aristobulusI_Hendin465_#2~0.jpg
Judaea, Judah Aristobulus I, TJC U223 viewsJudah Aristobulus I (Yehudah), 104-103 BC
AE - Prutah 1.69g, 14.42mm, 45°
Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 5 lines within laurel wreath:
יהוד / הכהןגד / ולוחברה / יהוד / ימ
from r. to l.:
= YHWD / H KHN GD / WL W (Ch)BR H / YHWD / YM
= Yehudah Kohen Gadol We Chaver Ha Yehudim
= Yehudah Highpriest and Council of Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae with ribbons, pomegranate between horns
Rev. type A: broad pomegranate
ref. Hendin IV, 465; Hendin V 1143; AJC Ja2; TJC U2
VF
Jochen
aristobulusI_TJC_U9var.jpg
Judaea, Judah Aristobulus I, TJC U9 var.16 viewsJudah Aristobulus I (Jehudah), 104-103 BC
AE - Prutah, 2.19g, 14.98mm, 0°
Jerusalem
obv. Legend in Paleo-Hebrew in 5 lines within laurel-wreath:
יהוד / הכהןגד / ולוחבר / היהד / ימ
from r. to l.:
YHWD / H KHN GD / WL W (Ch)BR / HYHD / YM
= Yehudah Kohen Gadol We Chaver Ha Yehudim
= Yehudah High Priest and Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae, filled with fruits and a grain-ear each, decorated with ribbons hanging down, a pomegranate with long stalk between horns, in dotted circle
ref. Hendin IV, 465; AJC Ja9 var; TJC U9 var. (has in 5th line only M, but here it is MY!)
VF+, nice sand patina

This type has no article before the title! and it has GDWL instead of GDL!
Jochen
judaea_judah_aristobulusI_Hendin466.jpg
Judaea, Judah Aristobulus I, TJC V1120 viewsJudah Aristobulus I (Jehudah), 104-103 BC
AE - Prutah, 1.88g, 15.21mm, 0°
Jerusalem
obv. Legend in Paleo-Hebrew in 6 lines within laurel-wreath:
יהו / דההכה / ןהגדל / וחברה / יהד / ימ
from r. to l.:
YHW / DH H KH / N H GDL / W (Ch)BR H / YHD / YM
= Yehudah Ha Kohen Ha Gadol We Chaver Ha Yehudim
= Yehudah the High Priest and Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae, filled with fruits and a grain-ear each, decorated with ribbons hanging down, a pomegranate with long stalk between horns, in dotted circle
ref. GBC5 1142; GBC4 466; AJC Jc1; TJC V1
very rare, EF, nice black patina with red earthen layers
Thanks to Salem!

This type has articles before the titles!
2 commentsJochen
judaea_matttathias_antigon_Hendin481.jpg
Judaea, Mattathias Antigonus, TJC 3646 viewsMatthathias Antigonus (Mattatayah), 40-37 BC
AE 24 (big bronze), 13.25g, 24.13mm
obv. Double cornucopiae with fruits and Palaeo-Hebrew legend:
[ימ / רהיוד / וחב / הגד / ן]הכה / תתיה[מ]
from r. to l.:
= [M]TTYH / H KH[N / H GDL / W (Ch)B / R H YWD / YM]
= Matitiah Ha Kohen H Gadol We Chaver Ha Yehudim
= Matitiah the Highpriest and the Council of the Jewish
rev. Ivy wreath with legend around in Greek:
[BAC]ILEO ANTIG[ONOV] (N of ANTIG retrograd)
ref. Hendin IV, 481; AJC type U; TJC 36
VF, dark green patina
Jochen
judaea_mattathias_antigonos_Hendin482.jpg
Judaea, Mattathias Antigonus, TJC 37c101 viewsMatthathias Antigonus (Mattatayah), 40-37 BC
AE 21 (prutah), 6.47g, 20.74mm, 90°
obv. Cornucopiae with fruits and Palaeo-Hebrew legend:
מתתיההכהןהג
from r. to l:
[MT]TYH H KHN H G
= Matitiah Ha Kohen Ha Ga[dol]
= Matitiah the Highpriest
rev. Laurel wreath, Greek legend within in two lines:
BACIL / ANTIG
Hendin 482; AJC type V4; TJC group 37c
about VF, nice green patina, rev. a bit excentric
Jochen
prutah_4_res.jpg
JUDAEA--ALEXANDER JANNAEUS (Yehonatan)9 viewsKing of Judaea from 103 - 76 BC
AE Prutah 14 mm 2.17 g
O:Double cornucopiae, pomegranate between
R: Hebrew inscription within wreath, "Yehonaten the high priest and the council of the Jews"
Jerusalem mint
laney
JUD_Alexander_Jannaeus_Hendin_473.JPG
Judaea. Alexander Jannaeus (103-76 B.C.)77 viewsHendin 473, TJC Group P, AJC I Group E

AE Prutah, 13 mm.

Obv: Paleo-Hebrew legend in five lines in a wreath:
יהו/נתן הכ/הן הגדל/וחבר הי/הידם
(YHWNTN HKHN HGDL WHBR HYHWDYM = Yehonatan the high priest and the council of the Jews)

Rev: Double cornucopia with pomegranate in between the horns.

Stkp
JUD_John_Hyrcanus_Hendin_454.jpg
Judaea. John Hyrcanus I (135-104 B.C.)9 viewsHendin 454 (4th ed.), Hendin 1132 (5th ed.), Meshorer TJC A (A3), Meshorer AJC I Group A

AE Prutah, 1.753 gr., 14.9 mm.

Obv: Paleo-Hebrew legend in wreath: יהותנן / הכהן הגד / ל וחבר הי / הודים
(YHChNN HKHN HGDL WHBR HYH)
(Yehohanan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews), Greek A (alpha) above inscription.

Rev: Double cornucopia with pomegranate in between the horns.

ex Forum Ancient Coins (photo Forum Ancient Coins)
Stkp
JUD_Hyrcanus_Hendin_479.JPG
Judaea. John Hyrcanus II (67 and 63-40 B.C.)12 viewsHendin 479, Meshorer TJC Group S, Meshorer AJC I Group H

AE Prutah, 13-14 mm.

Obv: Crude paleo-Hebrew legend in four lines in a wreath: ינתן ה/כהן גדל/וחבר י/הדי; גדול/וחבר י/הדי
(YHWN H/KHN GDWL/HBR/VHVR Y/HDY = Yonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews)

Rev: Double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate in between the horns.
Stkp
JUD_Hyrcanus_Hendin_480.JPG
Judaea. John Hyrcanus II (67 and 63-40 B.C.)9 viewsHendin 480, Meshorer TJC Group S, Meshorer AJC I Group Hd

AE Prutah, 13-14 mm.

Obv: Illegible paleo-Hebrew legend in four lines in a wreath, imitative of: ינתן ה/כהן גדל/וחבר י/הדי;
(YHWN H/KHN GDWL/HBR/VHVR Y/HDY = Yonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews)

Rev: Double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate in between the horns.
Stkp
JUD_Jannaeus_Hendin_474.JPG
Judaea. Alexander Jannaeus (103-76 B.C.)55 viewsHendin 474 (4th ed), Hendin 1174 (5th ed), Meshorer TJC Group Q, Meshorer AJC I Group F

AE Prutah, 14-15 mm.

Obv: Paleo-Hebrew legend in five lines in a wreath: יהונ/תן הכג/דול חבר/היו/ם
(YHWN/TN HK G/DWL HBR/HYW/M = Yehonatan the high priest and the Council of the Jews)

Rev: Double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate in between the horns.
Stkp
coins21.JPG
Judaea; Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem), Hardian50 viewsAelia Capitolina (Jerusalem) in Judaea.

In 130, Hadrian visited the ruins of Jerusalem, in Judaea, left after the First Roman-Jewish War of 66–73. He rebuilt the city, renaming it Aelia Capitolina after himself and Jupiter Capitolinus, the chief Roman deity. A new temple dedicated to the worship of Jupiter was built on the ruins of the old Jewish Second Temple, which had been destroyed in 70. In addition, Hadrian abolished circumcision, which was considered by Romans and Greeks as a form of bodily mutilation and hence "barbaric". These anti-Jewish policies of Hadrian triggered in Judaea a massive Jewish uprising, led by Simon bar Kokhba and Akiba ben Joseph. Following the outbreak of the revolt, Hadrian called his general Sextus Julius Severus from Britain, and troops were brought from as far as the Danube. Roman losses were very heavy, and it is believed that an entire legion, the XXII Deiotariana was destroyed. Indeed, Roman losses were so heavy that Hadrian's report to the Roman Senate omitted the customary salutation "I and the legions are well". However, Hadrian's army eventually put down the rebellion in 135, after three years of fighting. According to Cassius Dio, during the war 580,000 Jews were killed, 50 fortified towns and 985 villages razed. The final battle took place in Beitar, a fortified city 10 km. southwest of Jerusalem. The city only fell after a lengthy siege, and Hadrian did not allow the Jews to bury their dead. According to the Babylonian Talmud, after the war Hadrian continued the persecution of Jews. He attempted to root out Judaism, which he saw as the cause of continuous rebellions, prohibited the Torah law, the Hebrew calendar and executed Judaic scholars (see Ten Martyrs). The sacred scroll was ceremonially burned on the Temple Mount. In an attempt to erase the memory of Judaea, he renamed the province Syria Palaestina (after the Philistines), and Jews were forbidden from entering its rededicated capital. When Jewish sources mention Hadrian it is always with the epitaph "may his bones be crushed" (שחיק עצמות), an expression never used even with respect to Vespasian or Titus who destroyed the Second Temple.

JUDAEA, Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem). Hadrian. 117-138 CE. Æ 22mm (11.03 gm, 11h). Struck 136 CE. IMP CAES TRAIANO HADRIANO AVG P P, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust / COL AEL KAPIT, COND in exergue, Hadrian, as priest-founder, plowing with team of oxen right; vexillum behind. Meshorer, Aelia 2; Hendin 810; SNG ANS -.
ecoli
judas_f.JPG
JUDAEAN, Judah Aristobulus I, Prutah13 viewsJudah Aristobulus I (Yehudah). 104-103 B.C.E. AE prutah.

Obv: Hebrew inscription (Yehudah the High Priest and the Council of the Jews) surrounded by wreath

Rev: Double cornucopiae surrounded by ribbons; pomegranate between horns
anthivs
aris2.png
Judah (Yehudah) Aristobulus (TJC U, Hendin 1143)41 viewsJudah (Yehudah) Aristobulus. 104-103 B.C.E. AE Prutah. Hebrew inscription (Yehudah the High Priest and the Council of the Jews) surrounded by wreath / Double cornucopiae adorned with ribbons; pomegranate between horns.

The script reads:
יהוד
ה כהן גד
ול וחבר
...

As with many other Yehudah coins, גדל is spelled as plene: גדול
Aarmale
aris1.png
Judah (Yehudah) Aristobulus (TJC U, Hendin 1143)61 viewsJudah (Yehudah) Aristobulus. 104-103 B.C.E. AE Prutah. Hebrew inscription (Yehudah the High Priest and the Council of the Jews) surrounded by wreath / Double cornucopiae adorned with ribbons; pomegranate between horns.

The script reads:
יהוד
ה כהן גד
ול וחבר
י]הוד]
ם

As with many other Yehudah coins, גדל is spelled as plene: גדול
2 commentsAarmale
aristobulus.JPG
Judah (Yehudah) Aristobulus Hendin 465108 viewsHendin 465 - Judah (Yehudah) Aristobulus. 104-103 B.C.E. AE Prutah. Hebrew inscription (Yehudah the High Priest and the Council of the Jews -
YHNTN HCHN HGDL V'chVR YHDEM) surrounded by wreath / Non visible: Double cornucopiae adorned with ribbons; pomegranate between horns.
Script reads:
DUHY
DGNHKH
RB(CH)VLO
YDUHY

Interestingly, Gadol is spelt as GDOL, unlike the common GDL.
aarmale
judah1.jpg
Judah Aristobulus57 viewsYehudah the high priest and Concil of the Jews
mint : Jerusalem
104-103 BC
Hendin 465
1 commentsfrederic
JudahAristobulusI.jpg
Judah Aristobulus I (Yehudah)60 viewsJudah Aristobulus I, 104-103 BCE. Prutah, 13.7 mm, 2.27 g. O: Paleo-Hebrew inscription in wreath. Yehudah the High Priest and the Council of the Jews. R: Two cornucopias, adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns, border of dots. Hendin 1143

Aristobulus, the oldest son of Hyrcanus, was the first Hasmonean to officially take the title “King of the Jews.” This was the kingdom of a Levite priest, it was not a restoration of God’s kingdom in the line of King David of the royal tribe of Judah.
The Judaeans considered him heartless and cruel. This reputation appears completely justified even within his own family. After taking power he starved his mother to death in a dungeon and assassinated his brother. His rule lasted no more than a year.
1 commentsNemonater
J08M-Aristobulus.jpg
Judah Aristobulus I, (Hasmonean King), Æ prutah, 104-103 BCE51 viewsJudah Aristobulus I, 104-103 BCE, bronze prutah of 13.7 mm, 2.02 grams, Jerusalem.

Obverse: Hebrew inscription surrounded by wreath; “Yehudah the High Priest and the Council of the Jews”, יהוד הכהן גדול וחבר הי[הודים]
Reverse: 2-cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns

Reference: Hendin 465.

Added to collection: January 16, 2006
Daniel Friedman
AGRIPPA~1.jpg
Judea Herod Agrippa I57 viewsAΓΡI ΠA BACIΛEWC
King Agrippa umbrella canopy with fringes

Three ears of barley between two leaves flanked by date L - ς
(year 6).

Jerusalem Mint 41-42 AD
Bronze Prutah

Hendin 1244

Ex-Zurgieh


Herod Agrippa I was a son of Aristobulus and grandson of Herod the Great by Mariamne I, granddaughter of High Priest Hyrcanus II. His father Aristobulus had been put to death by Herod the Great. Named after Augustus best friend and genreal Marcus Agrippa, Herod Agrippa was the last of the Herods to become king of all Palestine, as his grandfather had been. Agrippa was educated in Rome with the Emperor Tiberius’ son Drusus and his nephew Claudius and he became a familiar figure in important circles in Rome.

An injudicious statement got Agrippa into trouble with Emperor Tiberius. In an unguarded moment he expressed the wish to Gaius (Caligula) that he, Gaius, might soon be emperor. Overheard by Agrippa’s servant, his remarks came to the ears of Tiberius, who cast Agrippa into prison. His life was in the balance for several months. Fortunately for Agrippa, Tiberius died and Caligula became emperor. He released Agrippa and elevated him to the position of king over the territories that his late uncle Philip had governed.

When Caligula was assassinated Agrippa was in Rome. He was able to act as liaison between the Senate and his friend, the new Emperor Claudius. Claudius expressed his appreciation by awarding him the territory of Judea and Samaria as well as the kingdom of Lysanias. Agrippa now became ruler of about the same dominion that his grandfather Herod the Great had held.


1 commentsJay GT4
h474.jpg
JUDEA - ALEXANDER JANNAEUS (Yehonatan)34 viewsHendin #474: AE Prutah. 103-76 B.C.E. Hebrew inscription - Yehonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews, wreath around. Double cornucopia with ribbons, pomegranate between horns. dpaul7
h473.jpg
JUDEA - ALEXANDER JANNAEUS (Yehonatan)35 viewsHendin #473: AE Prutah. 103-76 B.C.E. In Hebrew: Yehonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews; wreath surrounding it. Rev: Double cornucopia with ribbons, pomegranate between horns.dpaul7
H463.jpg
JUDEA - JOHN HYRCANUS I (YEHOHANAN)33 viewsHENDIN #463. AE Prutah. 135-104 B.C.E. Obverse: In Hebrew: Yehohanan the High Priest and Head of the Council of the Jews. Reverse: Double cornucopia w/Ribbons, pomegranate between.dpaul7
h478.jpg
JUDEA - JOHN HYRCANUS II (Yonatan)28 viewsHENDIN #478. AE Prutah. 67 and 63-40 B.C.E. In Hebrew: Jonatan the High Priest and the COuncil of the Jews; surrounded by wreath. Double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns. dpaul7
h482.jpg
JUDEA - MATTATHIAS ANTIGONUS (Mattatayah)32 viewsHendin #482 - 40-37 B.C.E. AE-20. Single cornucopia with ribbons, vine leaf & grapes; in Hebrew: Mattatayah the High Priest. Reverse: In Greek: King Antigonus. dpaul7
coin57.JPG
Judea Alexander Jannaeus 31 viewsAlexander Janneus 103-76 BC

Obv: Hebrew Inscription (Yehonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews) surrounded by wreath.
Rev: Double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns.

ecoli
domna_cybele.jpg
Julia Domna, Cybele20 viewsJulia Domna, Augusta 194 - 8 April 217 A.D. Copper as, SRCV II 6645, RIC IV 883, Cohen 127, aVF, Rome mint, 10.130g, 25.1mm, 225o, 198 A.D.; obverse IVLIA AVGVSTA, draped bust right; reverse MATER DEVM S C, Cybele enthroned left between two lions, left elbow resting on drum, branch in extended right; scarce. Cybele was born a hermaphrodite, but castrated by the gods, she became female. Heeding the Sibylline oracle, the senate brought her worship to Rome in 204 B.C. as the first officially sanctioned Eastern cult. After approval they were dismayed to learn that the priesthood required voluntary self-castration, which was abhorrent to the Romans. Romans were barred from entering the priesthood or even entering the priest's sanctuary. The eunuch priests, recruited from outside Rome, were confined to their sanctuary, leaving only to parade in the streets during festivals in April. Claudius removed the bans on Roman participation, making worship of Cybele and her consort Attis part of the state religion. ex FORVM Podiceps
JuliusCaesar_Ceres_priestlyImplements.jpg
Julias Caesar denar, Ceres / priestly implements69 views46 BC
3.67g
obv. head of Ceres right
rev: priestly implements
8 commentsareich
Julius_caesar.jpg
Julius Caesar48 viewsJULIUS CAESAR DICTATOR AR silver denarius. Struck 49-48 BC. CAESAR in exergue, elephant right, trampling on serpent. Reverse - Simpulum, sprinkler, axe and priest's hat. RCV 1399, RSC 49.
This is the first coin struck in the name of Julius Caesar. The symbolism on the obverse apparently alludes to the conquest of good over evil and/or Caesar's victory over the Gauls, while the reverse refers to Caesar's possession of the office of Pontifex Maximus.


1 commentsSoxfan
JC_Elephant.jpg
Julius Caesar175 viewsJulius Caesar. 49-48 BC. AR Denarius (19 mm, 3.66 g). Military mint traveling with Caesar.
O: Elephant right, trampling on serpent
R: Simpulum, sprinkler, axe and priest's hat. - Crawford 443/1; CRI 9; Sydenham 1006; RSC 49.
Variant type recognized by B. Woytek, in cruder style and with the elephant's two front legs and two back legs virtually parallel with each other.

Julius Caesar and his armies assembled on the banks of the Rubicon River on 10 January 49 BC, ready to invade Italy. Since large quantities of denarii were necessary to pay Caesar's military expenses, the mint traveled with them. This issue was ordered, not by a moneyer, as was usual, but by Julius Caesar himself. In all likelihood, this type was used by Caesar's military forces at least until the decisive battle of Pharsalus.

"It is the inscription CAESAR in the exergue that has led to the modern identification of the elephant as Caesar. But the exergue is the traditional place for the moneyer’s name and Caesar is separated from the field by the ground line. When Hirtius minted, he put his own name there. Presumably the Caesarian message remained the same with or without CAESAR inscribed on the coin. So whatever that message was, it had to be using symbols easily recognized by the people he was speaking to.

The main problem with a Good over Evil interpretation is that the snake was not a symbol of evil in the pagan Roman mind. As for the elephant, the most frequent use of the elephant on coinage had been by the Metelli. Of all the families of Rome they had done more to connect their name with the elephant image than any other family line. And Metellus Scipio himself even used the elephant again (without snake, of course) after Caesar minted his coin.

As others have pointed out, the other side of the coin with the implements of the pontifex maximus makes an unmistakable reference to Caesar with or without the name Caesar. But that also got me to thinking. Why did he want to advertise that position? Simply put, the main concern of the Roman state religion was the Salus of the state, hence it was Caesar’s chief concern as Pontifex Maximus. If the Metellan elephant was trampling on the Salus of the state, it was his duty as Pontifex Maximus to protect and restore Salus." - mharlan, http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=88757.0
4 commentsNemonater
JCaesarFatEle.jpg
Julius Caesar158 viewsJulius Caesar. 49-48 BC. AR Denarius (18.07 mm, 3.87 g). Military mint traveling with Caesar.
O: Elephant right, trampling on serpent
R: Emblems of the pontificate - Simpulum, sprinkler, axe and priest's hat.
- Crawford 443/1; Sear (History and Coinage of the Roman Imperators) 9; Sydenham 1006; BMCRR (Gaul) 27; Cohen/RSC 49; Babelon (Voconia) 1; Sear (Roman Coins & Their Values I) 1399.

Julius Caesar and his armies assembled on the banks of the Rubicon River on 10 January 49 BC, ready to invade Italy. Since large quantities of denarii were necessary to pay Caesar's military expenses, the mint traveled with them. This issue was ordered, not by a moneyer, as was usual, but by Julius Caesar himself. In all likelihood, this type was used by Caesar's military forces at least until the decisive battle of Pharsalus.

"It is the inscription CAESAR in the exergue that has led to the modern identification of the elephant as Caesar. But the exergue is the traditional place for the moneyer’s name and Caesar is separated from the field by the ground line. When Hirtius minted, he put his own name there. Presumably the Caesarian message remained the same with or without CAESAR inscribed on the coin. So whatever that message was, it had to be using symbols easily recognized by the people he was speaking to.

The main problem with a Good over Evil interpretation is that the snake was not a symbol of evil in the pagan Roman mind. As for the elephant, the most frequent use of the elephant on coinage had been by the Metelli. Of all the families of Rome they had done more to connect their name with the elephant image than any other family line. And Metellus Scipio himself even used the elephant again (without snake, of course) after Caesar minted his coin.

As others have pointed out, the other side of the coin with the implements of the pontifex maximus makes an unmistakable reference to Caesar with or without the name Caesar. But that also got me to thinking. Why did he want to advertise that position? Simply put, the main concern of the Roman state religion was the Salus of the state, hence it was Caesar’s chief concern as Pontifex Maximus. If the Metellan elephant was trampling on the Salus of the state, it was his duty as Pontifex Maximus to protect and restore Salus." - mharlan, http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=88757.0
5 commentsNemonater
caes.jpg
Julius Caesar (Died 44 B.C.)193 viewsAR Denarius
O: CAESAR below elephant right trampling on snake.
R: Emblems of the pontificate – culullus (cup) or simpulum (ladle), sprinkler, axe and apex (priest's hat).
Military Mint, Traveling with Caesar 49 B.C.
3.96g
18.5mm
RSC I 49, SRCV I 1399, Sydenham 1006, Crawford 443/1

This was the first coin issued in Caesar's name. It was minted after his invasion of Italy and crossing of the Rubicon on 10 January 49 B.C. until his defeat of Pompey at Pharsalus. The symbolism on the obverse appears to be the triumph of good over evil. The reverse refers to Caesar's office of Pontifex Maximus.
8 commentsMat
00763.jpg
Julius Caesar (RSC I 49, Coin #763)3 viewsRSC I 49, AR Denarius, Rome, 44 BC
OBV: CAESAR; Elephant walking right trampling on a carnyx (a Celtic war trumpet) ornamented to look like a dragon.
REV: Implements of the pontificate: culullus (cup) or simpulum (ladle), aspergillum (sprinkler), securis (sacrificial ax), and apex (priest's hat).
SIZE: 17.6mm, 3.62g
MaynardGee
Caesar_elephant.jpg
Julius Caesar - AR denarius11 viewsmoving mint (Cisalpine Gaul or Hispania)
I 49 - VIII 48 BC
elephant right, trampling on serpent
CAESAR
sacrificial implements - simpulum (laddle), sprinkler, axe, apex (priest's hat)
RSC I 49, SRCV I 1399, Sydenham 1006, Crawford 443/1
4,00g

According to Harlan this issue is Caesar's answer to the issue of Mn. Acilius Glabrio from 50 BC (incorrectly 49 according to Crawford) which presented Pompeyans as protectors of Salus of the Republic. Elephant as traditional symbol of Metteli family symbolizes Caesar's most vehement enemy in senate Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius Scipio who in Caesar's view was the biggest threat for the Salus of the Repubic represented by snake. Caesar was careful to avoid blaming Pompey directly so he claimed that Pompey had been led astray and corrupted by Caesar’s enemies who were jealous of his glory, while he himself had always promoted Pompey’s honor and dignity. Caesar showed Rome that Metellus Scipio and his supporters were the true threat to the health and safety of the Republic, the true cause of the civil war. Sacrificial implements reminds Caesar as Pontifex Maximus.
Johny SYSEL
Julius_Caesar_-_Elephant.jpg
Julius Caesar - Elephant24 viewsJulius Caesar Silver Denarius
Obverse: CAESAR below elephant right trampling on snake
Reverse: Emblems of the pontificate - culullus (cup) or simpulum (ladle), sprinkler, axe and apex (priest's hat);
Minted: 49-48 BC
Mint: military mint traveling with Caesar, 49 B.C
Size: 3.39gm, 19mm
ID: RSC I 49, SRCV I 1399, Sydenham 1006, Crawford 443/1
ickster
Julius Caesar Crawford 443-1 obv and rev.jpg
JULIUS CAESAR - Elephant Walking280 viewsJULIUS CAESAR
AR Denarius
16.9mm. 3.6g.
Die Alignment: 270 degrees
Gaul Mint. 49 - 48 B.C.
Obv: CAESAR - Elepahant walking right trampling a serpent.
Rev: [NO LEGEND] - Emblems of the pontificate: callus (cup) or simpulum (ladle), sprinkler, axe and apex (priest's hat).
Ref: Crawford 443/1. Sydenham 1006. RSC 49. Van Meter 4.
seraphic
caesar denar.jpg
JULIUS CAESAR AR denarius - 49-48 BC51 viewsobv: CAESAR in exergue, elephant right, trampling on serpent
rev: Simpulum, sprinkler, axe and priest's hat.
ref: Cr443/1; Syd 1006; BMCRR (Gaul) 27, SRC 1399, RSC 49
Military mint travelling with Caesar.
3.62gms, 18.5mm
This is the first coin struck in the name of Julius Caesar. The symbolism on the obverse apparently alludes to the conquest of good over evil, Caesar's victory over the Gauls, while the reverse refers to Caesar's possession of the office of Pontifex Maximus.
berserker
sale_25_lot_378_NN_Caesar_elephant.jpg
Julius Caesar Craw 443/165 viewsIulius Caesar. Denarius mint moving with Caesar 49-48., AR (18.66 mm., 3.85g).
Obv: Pontifical emblems: culullus, aspergillum, axe and apex.
Rev: Elephant r., trampling dragon; in exergue, CAESAR.
Babelon Julia 9. C 9. Sydenham 1006. Sear Imperators 9. RBW 1557. Crawford 443/1.
Ex: E.E. Clain Stefanelli, Ex: Naville Numismatics Auction #25 Lot 378 September 25, 2016.




This denarius is the famous elephant denarius of Julius Caesar. They were minted in the millions in 49-48 BCE. The obverse has an elephant trampling an object which could be a snake, a Carnyx (war trumpet), or even a dragon. There are many theories as the what the elephant represents. The one I find most interesting is the idea that Julius Caesar is the elephant and that the object, a snake for example, represents Pompey, his adversary.

On the reverse is a group of priestly implements. Julius Caesar was not only the ruler, he was also the chief priest. The objects include an Aspergillum (horse-haired sprinkler), a Culullus (a horn shaped vessel), an axe, and an Apex (a hat with a spike on top).

I wanted this coin because I was interested in the symbolism, and of course because one cannot have too many coins of Julius Caesar. I also like that this coin was owned by E. E. Clain-Stefanelli, a former curator at the Smithsonian.
3 commentsorfew
2ada_1_sblB.jpg
Julius Caesar Denarius45 viewsJulius Caesar Denarius - Elephant trampling on serpant, CAESAR in exergue / Simpulum, sprinkler, axe and priest's hat.2 commentsAdrian S
Julius_Caesar_-_Cr_443-1.jpg
Julius Caesar Denarius - Cr 443/126 viewsJulius Caesar. 49-48 BC. AR Denarius. CAESAR in exergue, elephant right, trampling on serpent / Simpulum, sprinkler, axe and priest's hat. Cr443/1; Syd 1006; BMCRR (Gaul) 27. Aldo
Julius_Caesar.jpg
Julius Caesar Denarius RSC 49 , Elephant16 viewsOBV: Elephant advancing right. CAESAR
REV: Simpulum, sprinkler, axe and apex. No legend
3.1g, 15mm
Minted in Gaul, 49-48 BC
Depicts a simpulum (a ladle used in sacrifices), a sprinkler (to spread perfume), an axe and a priest's hat.
Legatus
JCElephantII.jpg
Julius Caesar Elephant Denarius59 viewsJulius Caesar. 49-48 BC. AR Denarius. Military mint traveling with Caesar.
O: Elephant right, trampling on serpent
R: Emblems of the pontificate - Simpulum, sprinkler, axe and priest's hat.
- Crawford 443/1; Sear (History and Coinage of the Roman Imperators) 9; Sydenham 1006; BMCRR (Gaul) 27; Cohen/RSC 49; Babelon (Voconia) 1; Sear (Roman Coins & Their Values I) 1399. Ex HJBerk 90th Buy or Bid Sale, 4/17/96, Lot 232, listed as Mint state.

Julius Caesar and his armies assembled on the banks of the Rubicon River on 10 January 49 BC, ready to invade Italy. Since large quantities of denarii were necessary to pay Caesar's military expenses, the mint traveled with them. This issue was ordered, not by a moneyer, as was usual, but by Julius Caesar himself. In all likelihood, this type was used by Caesar's military forces at least until the decisive battle of Pharsalus.

"It is the inscription CAESAR in the exergue that has led to the modern identification of the elephant as Caesar. But the exergue is the traditional place for the moneyer’s name and Caesar is separated from the field by the ground line. When Hirtius minted, he put his own name there. Presumably the Caesarian message remained the same with or without CAESAR inscribed on the coin. So whatever that message was, it had to be using symbols easily recognized by the people he was speaking to.

The main problem with a Good over Evil interpretation is that the snake was not a symbol of evil in the pagan Roman mind. As for the elephant, the most frequent use of the elephant on coinage had been by the Metelli. Of all the families of Rome they had done more to connect their name with the elephant image than any other family line. And Metellus Scipio himself even used the elephant again (without snake, of course) after Caesar minted his coin.

As others have pointed out, the other side of the coin with the implements of the pontifex maximus makes an unmistakable reference to Caesar with or without the name Caesar. But that also got me to thinking. Why did he want to advertise that position? Simply put, the main concern of the Roman state religion was the Salus of the state, hence it was Caesar’s chief concern as Pontifex Maximus. If the Metellan elephant was trampling on the Salus of the state, it was his duty as Pontifex Maximus to protect and restore Salus." - mharlan, http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=88757.0
2 commentsNemonater
JulCaesFlip.jpg
Julius Caesar Flip Over Double Strike153 viewsJulius Caesar. 49-48 BC. AR Denarius (19 mm, 3.66 g). Military mint traveling with Caesar.
O: Elephant right, trampling on serpent
R: Simpulum, sprinkler, axe and priest's hat; CAESA[R] to right

After being struck, a blank flan was placed in the die and somehow this coin was flipped and re-struck!
4 commentsNemonater
EM003_Julius_Caesar.JPG
Julius Caesar; 46 - 44BC19 viewsAE 20
Struck ca. 45 BC; Lampsacus, Mysia
Obv: C G I L (Colonia Gemella(?) Iulia Lampsacus), laureate head of Julius Caesar right; countermark: ΛAE monogram in a rectangular punch.
Rev: priest plowing with two oxen, marking the pomerium (sacred boundary marking the foundation of a new Roman colony), Q LVCRETIO / L PONTIO in two lines above, II VIR before bull's forelegs, M TVRIO LEG in exergue;

This type was the second issue to definitively feature a lifetime portrait of Julius Caesar, the first being an issue from Bithynia minted ca. 47/6 BC (RPC I 2026). Both of these bronze issues precede the earliest appearance of his portrait on a coin minted at Rome, that being the denarii of M. Mettius issued in January 44 BC.
1 commentscmcdon0923
aksumOR.jpg
Kings of Aksum, Ezanas (Struck after his conversion to Christianity in 330 A.D.), BMC Aksum 9060 viewsKings of Aksum, Ezanas (Struck after his conversion to Christianity in 330 A.D.) c 330-350 A.D. AE, 0.60g 12mm, Munro-Hay 52; BMC Aksum 90
O: BACI ΛEΨC, draped bust right wearing headcloth
R: +TOV TO APECH TH XWPA (May This [the cross] Please the Country), small cross in circle (generally the interiors of the circle and cross were gilt with gold, but none is evident on this example)

Aksum was the first civilization anywhere to use the cross of Christ on its coins (Pankhurst 27), even before the Romans. King Ezana (also known as Abreha) was the first to do so around 330 CE (Pankhurst 27). Ezana became king sometime between 320-325 CE and as a child, he and his court, were converted to Christianity by Frumentius (Prouty and Rosenfeld 65). Ezana began to use the coins as propaganda to spread his religion by replacing the crescent symbols with the cross. Later rulers from late 4th and 5th centuries incorporated on the coins phrases such as ‘By the grace of God’ and ‘Christ is with us (Munro-Ray 190-2).’

The establishment of Christianity in Aksum saw the beginning of an active pilgrimage traffic between Ethiopia and the Holy Land. Pilgrims traveled down the Nile valley and then across to Palestine and Jerusalem. The pilgrims of course brought their coins with them, and the overt Christian symbolism appealed to the local communities through which they passed. As a result, Axumite bronze coins and local imitations of them saw considerable circulation in Egypt and Palestine. They have been found at numerous 4th to 6th century sites, circulating alongside the regular Roman and Byzantine nummi. A settlement of Coptic Ethiopian monks remains in Jerusalem to this day, their main shrine being on the roof of the Holy Sepulchre church, the only location permitted them by the more numerous Christian sects.

Aksum is the purported home of the Ark of the Covenant. According to regional tradition, the Ark is housed in the Church of Mary of Zion. The Ark, according to legends, was brought to Aksum by King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba's son and placed under guard. No one but the one guard priest is allowed in, and thus no one can verify the Ark's existence. According to the Kebra Nagast, when Menelik, came to visit his father in Jerusalem, his father gave him a copy of the Ark, and commanded the first-born sons of the elders of his kingdom to go to Ethiopia and settle there. The sons of the elders did not want to live away from the presence of the Ark, so they switched the copy with the original and smuggled the Ark out of the country. Menelik only learned that the original was with his group during the journey home.
2 commentscasata137ec
den001_quad_sm.jpg
L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP [VIIII?] / P M TR P V COS II P P / Septimius Severus Fortuna denarius (197 AD) 17 viewsL SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP [VIIII?], laureate head right / P M TR P V COS II P P, Fortuna standing left, holding rudder on globe in right hand, cornucopiae in left.

AR (post 196 mint, so probably 54% purity), 17 mm, 3.48g, die axis 12h.

Both small flan and image style (bust, wreath, shape of the rudder etc.) point towards the mint of Rome rather than the Eastern one. A bit heavier than expected (the standard supposed to be 3.41g), but WildWinds reports a 3.63g denarius of this type. Unfortunately it is impossible to read the number after IMP (it can be either VIIII or X for TR P V), but based on the spacing and, perhaps, a hint of V I think it is VIIII. So this must be RIC IV 104, BMCRE 229, RSC 442 type. Two other, less probable ID possibilities: RIC 115A (Rome, IMP X) and RIC 493 (Eastern mint, Laodicea ad Mare(?) IMP VIIII).

Lucius SEPTimius SEVeverus PERTinax AVGustus IMPerator (in this case not just an imperial title, but a military one, "invested with the Nth imperial acclaim", a victorious general, the number refers to important victories when the title was renewed); Pontifex Maximus (the high priest, starting with Augustus the emperor was always the head of state religion) TRibunitia Potestas (Tribunal power, the function of the tribune of the people, originally an important republican official, was "hijacked" by Augustus when he was building the imperial structure of power and subsequently became another emperor's title, renewed every year and thus very useful for dating coins) V (5th year means 193+4=197, give or take the actual date of renewing the title), COnSul (under the Empire, the office of Consul remained of some importance and was held by the Emperor with some frequency) II (during or after the consulship of 194 and before next one in 202), Pater Patriae (Father of his Country, the title was held by most Augusti but was usually not assumed at the very beginning of the reign). Denarius was the staple of Roman monetary system from 211 BC to mid 3d century AD.

SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS, *11 Apr 145 in Leptis Magna (Khoms, Libya) † 4 Feb 211 (aged 65) Eboracum (York, England) ‡ 14 April 193 – 4 February 211

Septimius Severus was born in the Roman province of Africa. He came from a wealthy and distinguished family of equestrian rank, had Roman ancestry on his mother's side (gens Fulvia was one of the most famous plebeian clans in Rome) and descended from Punic, and perhaps also Libyan, forebears on his father's side. Several members of his family held important imperial offices (although, strangely, not his father who seemed to have no career to speak about). He was trilingual, speaking Punic, Latin and Greek, and got some classical education, but probably less than he wanted to. At 17 he was helped by his influential relatives to relocate to Rome, to be presented to the Emperor Marcus Aurelius, and start his political career. With some difficulty he started to advance through the cursus honorum, holding a variety of offices. His career was helped by the Antonine Plague of 166, Septimius avoided it by returning to Leptis Magna for a while, and when he was back in Rome he found his competition conveniently thinned out. Despite him going through an impressive number of offices in a very short time there is very little record of his actual accomplishments in 170s and 180s.

In 191 Severus was appointed governor of Pannonia Superior (one of the provinces on Danube frontier) by Emperor Commodus (on advice from one of Septimius' friends). When the hell was unleashed by the assassination of Commodus on 31 December 192 and 193, , the infamous Year of the Five Emperors started, as a general in charge of significant army Severus was able to fight for the highest office. While he moved on Rome, Pertinax, the first Emperor of 193, was killed by the Praetorian Guard, and the next one, Didius Julianus, who famously bought the emperorship at an auction, was condemned by the Senate and executed, so Septimius entered Rome virtually unopposed. He then wisely appeased the powerful governor of Britannia, Clodius Albinus, who was also proclaimed the Emperor, by offering him the title of Caesar, which implied some degree of co-ruling and a chance to succession (Albinus did not give up that easy, reasserting his claim in three years, but then he was easily dealt with at the Battle of Lugdunum in Gaul). Afterwards he had to fight off the final pretender, Pescennius Niger, the former governor of Syria, who was proclaimed the Emperor by the eastern legions. Losing no time, Severus sent a considerable vanguard force to the East and, later, joined in with additional armies. In a series of battles in 193-195 Niger and his supporters were defeated. The last to surrender was Byzantium, which held even after the head of Niger was sent there. It is interesting to note that during this campaign Septimius visited the tomb of his famous fellow countryman, Hannibal Barca in Libyssa (Gebze, Turkey) and ordered to cover it with fine marble. Severus also took an opportunity to wage a short punitive campaign beyond the eastern frontier, annexing the Kingdom of Osroene as a new province.

After consolidating his rule over the western provinces, Severus waged another brief, more successful war in the east against the Parthian Empire, sacking their capital Ctesiphon in 197 and expanding the eastern frontier to the Tigris. He then enlarged and fortified the Limes Arabicus in Arabia Petraea. In 202 he campaigned in Africa and Mauretania against the Garamantes; capturing their capital Garama and expanding the Limes Tripolitanus along the southern desert frontier of the empire. In 208 he travelled to Britain, strengthening Hadrian's Wall and reoccupying the Antonine Wall. In the same year he invaded Caledonia (modern Scotland), but his ambitions were cut short when he fell fatally ill in late 210, dying in early 211 at Eboracum (York, England), and was succeeded by his sons Caracalla and Geta, thus founding the Severan dynasty. It was the last dynasty of the Roman empire before the Crisis of the Third Century.

In the context of this coin it is interesting to note, that, due to huge military expenses, upon his accession Severus decreased the silver purity of the denarius from 81.5% to 78.5%, although the silver weight actually increased, rising from 2.40 grams to 2.46 grams. Nevertheless, the following year he debased the denarius again because of rising military expenditures. The silver purity decreased from 78.5% to 64.5% – the silver weight dropping from 2.46 grams to 1.98 grams. In 196 he reduced the purity and silver weight of the denarius again, to 54% and 1.82 grams respectively [corresponds to this issue]. Severus' currency debasement was the largest since the reign of Nero.
Yurii P
PhilidelphiaCaligula.JPG
Lydia, Philadelphia. Caligula AE18. Dioscuri39 viewsObv: ΓAIOΣ KAIΣAΡ, bare head right, star behind
Rev: ΦIΛAΔEΛΦEΩN ..., laureate and jugate busts of the Dioscuri right.

Older references identify imperial family members on the reverse but RPC identifies them as Dioscuri. RPC notes, "That the jugate busts probably do not represent Germanicus and Agrippina I, Germanicus and Agrippina as Apollo and Artemis, or Apollo and Artemis (see BMC; Imhoof-Blumer, LS, pp. 116-117; Trillmich, Familienpropaganda der Kaiser und Claudius, pp. 130-131) since the further figure can sometimes be seen to be laureate (e.g. 2023/1 = BMC 53). It must therefore be male, and the two interpreted as the Dioscuri, who had previously appeared on the coinage of Philadelphia." The Dioscuri are also found on the imperial coinage of Caligula. In addition, since the magistrate named on the reverse is a priest, religious symbolism would be appropriate. The facial features of the reverse busts do, however, resemble members of the family of Caligula. Perhaps the they are Nero and Drusus Caesars as the brothers Castor and Pollux.
-FORVM ANCIENT COINS
ancientone
1000-18-090.jpg
M. Aemilius Scaurus & Pub. Plautius Hypsaeus26 viewsIn 67 BCE, Hyrcanus II ascended to the throne of Judea. Scarcely three months later, his younger brother Aristobulus II incited a rebellion, successfully leading the uprising to overthrow Hyrcanus and take the offices of both King and High Priest. Hyrcanus was confined to Jerusalem, where he would continue to receive revenues of the latter office. However, fearing for his life, he fled to Petra and allied himself with Aretas, who agreed to support Hyrcanus after receiving the promise of having the Arabian towns taken by the Hasmoneans returned to Nabataea by Hyrcanus' chief advisor, Antipater the Idumaean.

Aretas advanced towards Jerusalem at the head of 50,000 men, besieging the city for several months. Eventually, Aristobulus bribed Marcus Aemilius Scaurus, deputy of the Roman general Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus. Scaurus ordered Aretas to withdraw his army, which then suffered a crushing defeat at the hands of Aristobulus on the journey back to Nabatea.

Despite the compliance of Aretas, in 62 BCE Scaurus marched on Petra. However, a combination of the rough terrain and low supplies, obliged Scaurus to seek the aid of Hyrcanus, now High Priest (not king) of Judea, who sent Antipater to barter for peace with Aretas. The siege was lifted in exchange for several hundred talents of silver (to Scaurus himself) and recognition of Roman supremacy over Nabatea. Aretas would retain all Nabataean territory and possessions, becoming a vassal of the Roman Empire.

M. Aemilius Scaurus & Pub. Plautius Hypsaeus. 58 B.C. AR denarius (18.8 mm, 3.75 g, 3 h). Rome mint. M SCAVRV above, AED CVR in exergue, EX - SC on either side, REX ARETAS in exergue, King Aretas kneeling beside camel right, offering olive branch / P HVPSAEVS/AED CVR above, C·HVPSAE COS/PREIVER in exergue, CAPTV on right, Jupiter driving quadriga left. Crawford 422/1b; Sydenham 913; RSC Aemilia 8. Fine.
ecoli
philippi_tiberius_RPC1657_#2.jpg
Macedonia, Philippi(?), Tiberius, RPC 165747 viewsTiberius, AD 14-37
AE 17 (Semis), 3.41g
obv. [TI] AVG
bare head, r.
rev. (anepigraphic)
two priests plowing sulcus primigenius right with two oxen
RPC 1657; BMC (Parium) ?
rare, VF, nice green patina

This edition is uncertain. Formerly it was located to Parium/Mysia, recently more to Philippi because of a found hoard.
Jochen
philippi_tiberius_RPC1657.jpg
Macedonia, Philippi(?), Tiberius, RPC 1657 #152 viewsCommodus(?), AD 177-192
AE 17 (Semis), 4.31g, 16.91mm, 225°
obv. [.....]
bare head, r., curly hair
rev. [CGI] - H PAR
two priests ploughing right with two oxen
ref. ?
F+, nice green-blue patina

HPAR is part of CGIH PAR = Colonia Gemelli Iulia Hadriana Pariana
Jochen
Augustus_AE_Macedonia_or_Berytus.JPG
Macedonia, Philippi, Tiberius, AE 16.12 viewsBare head of Tiberius right / Two priests plowing right. RPC 1657 _soldAntonivs Protti
coins113.JPG
Macedonia, Philippi; Tiberius18 viewsMacedonia,Tiberius, AE 16, (Philippi?). Bare head of Tiberius right / Two priests plowing right.
ecoli
MAAUSE33-2.jpg
Marcus Aurelius, RIC (Antoninus Pius) 1234(b), Sestertius of AD 140-14413 viewsÆ Sestertius (26,10g). Rome mint. Struck AD 140-144 (under Antoninus Pius).
Obv.: [AVRELIVS] CAESAR A[VG PII F COS], bare draped bust right.
Rev.: [PIETAS AVG] around, S C in ex., Priestly emblems: Knife, sprinkler, jug, lituus and simpulum.
RIC (Antoninus Pius) 1234(b); BMCRE 1406; Cohen 457; Strack 922; Banti 232/3
Ex Künker Auction 153.
Charles S
MaauSe12-2.jpg
Marcus Aurelius, RIC 1075, Sestertius of AD 173 (Mercury temple)13 viewsÆ Sestertius (21.7g, Ø 30mm, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 173.
Obv.: M ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXVII, laureate head right.
Rev.: RELIG AVG IMP VI COS III S C left and right of temple, Tetrastyle temple with Mercury standing on pedestal within, holding a purse and caduceus, the columns in the form of herms supporting semicircular pediment containing reliefs of a tortoise, cock, ram, caduceus, and purse.
RIC 1075; Cohen 535; Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali III-1) 256 (22 spec.); Sear (Roman Coins and their Values) 4996; Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 139/47b
Ex D.Ruskin (Oxford, 1995)
Coin struck in honour of incidents in the Danubian campaigns in 173: the siege works of the enemy were destroyed by lightning: a miraculous cloudburst saved the Roman army which was believed to be thanks to the prayers of an Egyptian Priest to Mercury.
Charles S
MaauSe19-2.jpg
Marcus Aurelius, RIC 1076, Sestertius of AD 173 (Mercury temple)24 viewsÆ Sestertius (25.1g, Ø 30mm, 11h). Rome mint. Struck between Dec. 172 and Dec. 173.
Obv.: M ANTONINVS AVG TR P [XXVII], laureate and cuirassed bust right.
Rev.: [REL]IG AVG in ex., [IMP VI COS III] around, S C across field, Tetrastyle temple with Mercury standing on pedestal within, holding a purse and caduceus, the columns in the form of herms supporting semicircular pediment containing reliefs of a tortoise, cock, ram, caduceus, and purse.
RIC 1076; BMCRE 1446; Cohen 534; Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali III-1) 259 (8 spec.); Sear (Roman Coins and their Values II) 4996; Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 139/47b
Ex D.Ruskin (Oxford, 1995).

The temple of Mercury, which was founded in 495 BC and stood on the northern sloes of the Aventine, is depicted on this type in honour of an incident, known as the "rain miracle of the Thundering Legion". During the Danubian campaigns in AD 173, while battling Quadi forces along the Danube, the Legio XII Fulminata, exhausted by thirst, was close to falling to their opponents. Defeat seemed eminent until a sudden rain storm reinvigorated the Roman troops while frightening the enemy. A miraculous cloudburst, believed to be thanks to the prayers of an Egyptian Priest to Mercury, destroyed the enemy siege works struck by lightning. While Marcus attributed the storm to the grace of Mercury, an alternative Christian version, one that appears to have been established quite early, gave credit to the prayers of Christian soldiers serving in the legion. See also RELIG AVG in Numiswiki.
Charles S
Marcus Aurelius- Salus.jpg
Marcus Aurelius- Salus57 viewsMarcus Aurelius, 7 marts 161- 17 marts 180 A.D.

Obverse:
Marcus Aurelius with radiate head right.

IMP CAES M AVREL ANTONINVS AVG P M

IMP: Imperator, general
CAES: Caesar
M: Marcus
AVREL: Aurelius
ANTONINVS: Antoninus
AVG: Augustus, emperor
P M: Pontifix Maximus, high priest.

Reverse:
SALVTI AVGVSTOR TR P XVII S-C, COS III below the buste.

SALVTI: Salus
AVGVSTOR: Augustus, emperor
TR P: Tribunicia Potestate. The tribunician power, the emperor as civil head of the state.
XVII: 17
S-C: Senatus Consultum, by the decret of the senate.
COS III: Consul for the third time. One of the two chief magistrates of the Roman state, and often the emperor was one.

Salus standing left offering a patera to snake arising from altar, and holding sceptre

Comment: The reverse is Salus. If it was a male, the garment would not go all the way to the ground.


Domination: Orichalcum Dupondius, size 23 mm

Mint: Rome. The coin has been struck 162/163 AD. Cohen 568. RIC 846
John Schou
AntonySoldenarius.jpg
Mark Antony Sol denarius149 viewsM ANTONIVS M F M N AVGVR IMP TERT around (MP and RT ligatured)
Mark Antony, veiled and wearing the priestly robes of an Augur, standing right, holding lituus in right hand.

III VIR R P C COS DESIG ITER ET TERT
Radiate head of Sol right

Athens
Summer 38 BC

2.73g
Crawford 533/2, Sear Imperators 267

Purchased broken into several pieces and Glued together.

Antony's third Imperatorial acclimation resulted from Ventidius' victory at Gindarus. Antony's depiction in priestly robes of an augur emphasizes the importance which he placed on the possession of this religious office. The word AVGVR features prominently on most of Antony's remaining coinage right down to Actium. No doubt this was to stress his adherence to Republican traditions. Sol is symbolic of the East and shows Antony's personal concern for eastern affairs after the distraction caused by his extended stay in Italy starting in the second half of 40 BC and running almost the whole of the following year.
5 commentsJay GT4
AntonySolAVG.jpg
Mark Antony Sol denarius100 viewsM ANTONIVS M F M N AVGVR IMP TERT around (MP and RT ligatured)
Mark Antony, veiled and wearing the priestly robes of an Augur, standing right, holding lituus in right hand.

III VIR R P C COS DESIG ITER ET TERT
Radiate head of Sol right

Athens
Summer 38 BC

3.92g
Crawford 533/2, Sear Imperators 267

Ex-ANE, Ex-Seaby with original ticket

New Photo

Antony's third Imperatorial acclimation resulted from Ventidius' victory at Gindarus. Antony's depiction in priestly robes of an augur emphasizes the importance which he placed on the possession of this religious office. The word AVGVR features prominently on most of Antony's remaining coinage right down to Actium. No doubt this was to stress his adherence to Republican traditions. Sol is symbolic of the East and shows Antony's personal concern for eastern affairs after the distraction caused by his extended stay in Italy starting in the second half of 40 BC and running almost the whole of the following year
6 commentsJay GT4
Mark_Antony_RSC_13.JPG
Mark Antony, 83 - 30 BC104 viewsObv: M ANTONIVS M F M N AVGVR IMP TERT, Mark Antony, veiled and wearing the priestly robes of an augur, standing right holding lituus in right hand.

Rev: III VIR R P C COS DESIG ITER ET TERT, radiate head of Sol facing right.

Silver Denarius, Athens mint, Summer 38 BC

3.9 grams, 19.98 mm, 225°

RSC 13, S1474

Ex: Robert O. Ebert Collection. Stack’s N.Y.I.N.C. Auction, Lot #5582, January 2013.
3 commentsSPQR Matt
Maroneia.jpg
MARONEIA20 viewsMARONEIA - AE 14mm horse / grapes Maroneia, Greek city on Aegean see. AE 14mm., 3.12 g. Circa 400-350 B.C. Maroneia was named after Maron, a priest of Apollo. The city was famous with the producing of high quality wine. That is why the images of Dionysos and grapes are presenting on the City’s coinage. Obv.: Horse prancing right. Monogram beneath. No legend. Rev.: MARWNITWN around three sides of square. Vine in the square. Monogram beneath. SNGCop 632
dpaul7
Maroneia_2.jpg
MARONEIA32 viewsMARONEIA - Greek city on Aegean see AE 17 Dionysos Maroneia, Greek city on Aegean see. AE 17mm, 7.73 g. type is stuck after 148 B.C. Maroneia was named after Maron, a priest of Apollo. The city was famous with the producing of high quality wine. That is why the images of Dionysos and grapes are presenting on the City’s coinage. Obv.: Head of young Dionysos right,wreathed with ivy and with band across forehead. Rev.: Dionysos, naked, standing left, holding grapes and two narthex wands. SNGCop 646.
dpaul7
Mattatayah_Antigonus.jpg
Mattatayah Antigonus33 viewsBronze prutah, 14mm, 1.53g. Jerusalem mint. O: Retrograde Paleo-Hebrew inscription, Mattatayah, surrounded by wreath and border of dots. R: Double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, barley grain between horns, border of dots. Hendin 1164

In 40 BCE, Mattatayah Antigonus, youngest son of Aristobulus II, bribed the Parthians to assist him in his invasion of Jerusalem. Josephus reports that after their conquest, Mattatayah tore into Hyrcanus II ears with his teeth in order to permanently disqualify him from being High Priest. Later this same year, the Roman Senate and Octavian appointed Herod King of Judaea.

After years of fighting, Herod, with the help of Roman troops under Gaius Sosius, took Jerusalem and captured Antigonus in 37 BCE. His later execution at Antioch ended five generations of Hasmonean rule, now replaced by what would become the Herodian Dynasty.
1 commentsNemonater
mattatias.jpg
Mattathia Antigonus AE 25, Hasmonean kings of Judaea, 40-37 BC14 viewsObverse; Double cornucopia with Hebrew "Mattatayah the High Priest and Council of the Jews" around and between horns
Reverse: Ivy Wreath tied at top with ribbons hanging down inscribed around; BACILWS ANTIGONOY (of King Antigonus)
daverino
h482.jpg
Mattathias Antigonus (Mattatayah), 40 - 37 B.C. AE 20, Hendin 4826 viewsJudean Kingdom, Mattathias Antigonus (Mattatayah), 40 - 37 B.C. Bronze AE 20, Hendin 482, aF, 7.65g, 19.8mm, obverse Hebrew inscription, Mattatayah the High Priest and Council of the Jews, single cornucopia tied with ribbons, grapes and grape vine hang; reverse BACILE“Ω”C ANTI“Γ”ONOY (of King Antigonus), legend within wreath and border of dots; scarce. The single cornucopia and weight indicate this type was valued at half of Antigonus double cornucopia type. Even so, it is a large bronze compared to the usual Judean prutah denomination. Ex FORVMPodiceps
13100_Mattathias_Antigonus_(Mattatayah),_40_-_37_B_C_.jpg
Mattathias Antigonus (Mattatayah), 40 - 37 B.C. AE 20, Hendin 4827 viewsJudean Kingdom, Mattathias Antigonus (Mattatayah), 40 - 37 B.C. Bronze AE 20, Hendin 482, F, soft obverse strike, 8.82g, 19.8mm, 45o, obverse Hebrew inscription, Mattatayah the High Priest and Council of the Jews, single cornucopia tied with ribbons, grapes and grape vine hang; reverse BACILE“W”C ANTI“G”ONOY (of King Antigonus), legend within wreath and border of dots; scarce. The single cornucopia and weight indicate this type was valued at half of Antigonus double cornucopia type. Even so, it is a large bronze compared to the usual Judean prutah denomination. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
Judean_Kingdom,_Mattathias_Antigonus_(Mattatayah),_40_-_37_B_C.jpg
Mattathias Antigonus (Mattatayah), 40 - 37 B.C. Bronze AE 2310 viewsJudean Kingdom, Mattathias Antigonus (Mattatayah), 40 - 37 B.C. Bronze AE 23, Hendin 481, F, 14.36g, 23.3mm, obverse Hebrew inscription, Mattatayah the High Priest and Council of the Jews, around and between the horns of a double cornucopia; reverse BACILE“W”C ANTI“G”ONOY (of King Antigonus), ivy wreath tied at the top with ribbons hanging down; softly struck, reverse off center; scarce. This large bronze type was meant to impress the population and improve support for Antigonus against his rival Herod the Great. ex FORVMPodiceps
mattathias.jpg
Mattathias Antigonus (Mattatayah), 40 - 37 B.C. Bronze AE 25.0mm; Hendin 4818 viewsJudean Kingdom, Mattathias Antigonus (Mattatayah), 40 - 37 B.C. Bronze AE 23, Hendin 481, VG, 12.04g, 25.0mm, obverse Hebrew inscription, Mattatayah the High Priest and Council of the Jews, around and between the horns of a double cornucopia; reverse BACILE“W”C ANTI“G”ONOY (of King Antigonus), ivy wreath tied at the top with ribbons hanging down; scarce. Ex FORVMPodiceps
thrax.jpg
Maximinus Thrax55 viewsRoman Empire
Maximinus Thrax
(Reign as 27th Emperor of the Roman Empire 235-238 AD)
(b. ca. 173 AD, d. 238 AD)


Obverse: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Maximinus facing right

Reverse: PM TR P II COS PP, Maximinus standing facing left, raising hand and holding spear, legionary standards on both sides




Silver Denarius
Minted in Rome 236AD



Translations:

IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG= Imperator(Commander-in-Chief) Maximinus Pious Emperor
PM TR P II COS PP=Greatest Priest, Tribune of the Plebs for the Second Time, Consul, Father of the Country





Reference:
RIC IVii 3
1 commentsSphinx357
00492.jpg
Maximus (RIC 11, Coin #492)38 viewsRIC 11 (C), AE Sestertius, Rome, 236 - 239 AD.
Obv: MAXIMVS CAES GERM Draped bust right.
Rev: PIETAS AVG S C Priestly emblems. Jug between lituus, knife and patera to left, simpulum and sprinkler to right.
Size: 31.0mm 21.24gm
1 commentsMaynardGee
Vessel-complete-2.JPG
Mayan vessel38 viewsMayan ceremonial cylindrical vessel, late classic, from El Salvador. Painted in black and red on yellow-orange background with shiny luster. The decoration represents a row of five black priests, all facing right, with richly decorated headresses with feathers and ribbons, with earplugs, wrist and ankel bracelets, their mouths and hands are red. Each is carrying large decorated object. Above them mythical birds; the bottom of the vessel is decorated with pseudoglyphs, the inside with geometrical patterns. Broken and repaired, one small fragment missing.Charles S
msngx936OR.jpg
Melita, Autonomous issue, SNG Vol: X 936 John Morcom Collection39 viewsMelita (Malta) mint, Autonomous issue, Last quarter 3rd century B.C. -225 -200 AE, 22mm 6.24g, SNG Vol: X 936 John Morcom Collection
O: Bearded male head, r.; to r., caduceus
R: Priest’s cap in wreath, below, mono

Following the Roman conquest, the Maltese Islands were apparently allowed a limited measure of self-government, including the privilege of minting their own coins. The Maltese coins of that period were all circular and struck in bronze, the only metal the Roman authorities permitted to be coined in the Sicilian municipia. These autonomous issues circulated alongside the official currency of the Roman Republic which consisted of gold, silver and bronze coins.
The exact date of the first locally struck coin is not known but it is likely to have been after 212 B.C. when Sicily became a Roman province (with the Maltese Islands being incorporated into it) and was given the right by Rome to mint its own coinage in 211 B.C.
The first Maltese coins bear on their obverse a male curly head with a thick beard. A kerykeion or a caduceus is depicted on the right. The identity of the deity on these coins has for a long time been disputed by scholars and has been attributed mainly to Melkart (Heracles), Eshmun (Aesculapius) and Baal Hammon. The reverse design has been also given various interpretations such as the tomb of Battus, a sacrificial cap and a pillar over an urn. That which is unanimously agreed upon by the more authoritative scholars is the interpretation of the three Punic letters aleph, nun, nun, indicating the pre-Roman name of Malta - ANN - which may mean ship.

http://coins.mos.net.au/preKoM.htm
1 commentscasata137ec
parion_commodus_unbekannt.jpg
Mysia, Parion, Commodus, cf. BMC 101 (for the type only)9 viewsCommodus, AD 177-192
AE 17 (Semis), 4.31g, 16.91mm, 225
obv. [...]
Bare head r., curly hair
rev. [CGI] - H PAR
2 priests ploughing with oxen r.
ref. not found
rare, G/G+, nice blue Patina, double struck on rev.

HPAR is part of CGIH PAR = Colonia Gemella Iulia Hadriana Pariana. So it couldn't be Augustus nor Tiberius, but probably Commodus.
Jochen
Lg008_quad_sm.jpg
Nerva Aequitas Ӕ As (c. 97 A.D.)8 viewsIMP NERVA CAES [AVG P M TR P ? COS ? P P], laureate head right / AEQVITAS AVGVST + S - C across fields, Aequitas standing left, holding scales and cornucopiae

Ӕ, oval 25+ to 28mm, 10.23g, die axis 7.5h, base metal seems yellow, orichalcum? Can it be a dupontius?

Mint: Rome. Regnal period is end 96 – Jan 98 AD, so 97 is the most probable minting year.

End of the obverse legend is missing, so TR P and COS numbers are unknown. Thus three types are possible:

TR P COS II --> RIC II 51, Sear 3060 var
TR P COS III --> RIC II 77, Cohen 7, BMC 127, Sear 3060
TR P II COS III --> RIC II 94, Cohen 10

IMPerator NERVA CAESar AVGustus Pontifex Maximus (the high priest, starting with Augustus the emperor was always the head of state religion) TRibunitia Potestas (Tribunal power, the function of the tribune of the people, originally an important republican official, was "hijacked" by Augustus when he was building the imperial structure of power and subsequently became another emperor's title, renewed every year and thus very useful for dating coins, no number means first year of reign, II second), COnSul (under the Empire, the office of Consul remained of some importance and was held by the Emperor with some frequency) II or III (Nerva started his 3d consulship in 97, so II would mean minting year of 96, he also became a consul for 98, but since he died in January, COS IIII is very rare), Pater Patriae (Father of his Country, the title was held by most Augusti but usually not at the very beginning of the reign, in this case it was probably assumed immediately because of Nerva's old age). Aequitas = justice, equality, conformity, symmetry. Nemesis was originally understood as honest distributor of fortune, neither bad nor good, but in due proportion. Later it gained aspects of justice and divine retribution, but in Nemesis-Aequitas her qualities of honest dealing is emphasized. Aequitas Augusti symbolizes honesty, equality and justice of the emperor towards his subjects. The scales here mean honest measure rather than justice, and the cornucopia is self explanatory. SC = [Ex] Senatus Consulto (Senatus is genitive, Consulto is ablative of Consultum) = by decree of the Senate, i. e. the authority of the Senate approved minting of this coin (necessary to justify issue of copper alloy coins for which the intrinsic value was not obvious). As or assarius – the basic Roman bronze coin, reintroduced and firmly established for centuries by Augustus (often minted of pure red copper).

On the obverse to the right of the neck there is a mysterious symbol (looks like a special field mint mark in LRB, but these were not used before 4th century I think), which is too far in to be a distorted letter of the legend.

NERVA, *8 Nov 30 (or 35) AD (Narni, central Italy) † 27 Jan 98 AD (aged 67 or 62) Gardens of Sallust, Rome ‡ 18 Sep 96 – 27 Jan 98 (effectively abdicated in autumn 97 naming Trajan as his successor)

Marcus Cocceius Nerva was born in the village of Narni, 50 kilometers north of Rome. Ancient sources report the date as either 30 or 35. He had at least one attested sister, named Cocceia, who married Lucius Salvius Titianus Otho, the brother of the earlier Emperor Otho. Like Vespasian, the founder of the Flavian dynasty, Nerva was a member of the Italian nobility rather than one of the elite of Rome. Nevertheless, the Cocceii were among the most esteemed and prominent political families of the late Republic and early Empire, attaining consulships in each successive generation. The direct ancestors of Nerva on his father's side, all named Marcus Cocceius Nerva, were associated with imperial circles from the time of Augustus.

Not much of Nerva's early life or career is recorded, but it appears he did not pursue the usual administrative or military career. He was praetor-elect in the year 65 and, like his ancestors, moved in imperial circles as a skilled diplomat and strategist. He received many high honors during the reign of Nero and Flavians, including two ordinary (!) consulships of 71 and 90, usually for services that remained unclear, so probably of highly delicate and clandestine nature, e. g. he played a prominent role of uncovering at least two major conspiracies against the ruling emperors. During 69, the transitional Year of the Four Emperors he was nowhere to be seen, but then emerged on the winning Flavian side, which was quite a feat for a former Neronian loyalist and a relative of one of the defeated emperors, Otho. It is also known that Nerva had excellent literary abilities praised by his contemporaries.

On 18 September, 96, Domitian was assassinated in a palace conspiracy organised by court officials. The same day the Senate proclaimed Nerva emperor in somewhat obscure circumstances. Modern historians believe Nerva was proclaimed Emperor solely on the initiative of the Senate, within hours after the news of the assassination broke, to avoid the inevitable civil unrest, and neither him nor the Senate had anything to do with the conspiracy. The change of government was welcome particularly to the senators, who had been harshly persecuted during Domitian's reign. As an immediate gesture of goodwill towards his supporters, Nerva publicly swore that no senators would be put to death as long as he remained in office. He called an end to trials based on treason, released those who had been imprisoned under these charges, and granted amnesty to many who had been exiled. All properties which had been confiscated by Domitian were returned to their respective families. Nerva also sought to involve the Senate in his government, but this was not entirely successful.

Nerva had to introduce a number of measures to gain support among the Roman populace. As was the custom by this time, a change of emperor was to bring with it a generous payment of gifts and money to the people and the army. This was followed by a string of economic reforms intended to alleviate the burden of taxation from the most needy Romans. Furthermore, numerous taxes were remitted and privileges granted to Roman provinces. Before long, Nerva's expenses strained the economy of Rome and necessitated the formation of a special commission of economy to drastically reduce expenditures. The most superfluous religious sacrifices, games and horse races were abolished, while new income was generated from Domitian's former possessions. Because he reigned only briefly, Nerva's public works were few, instead completing projects which had been initiated under Flavian rule. This included extensive repairs to the Roman road system and the expansion of the aqueducts. The only major landmarks constructed under Nerva were a granary, known as the Horrea Nervae, and a small Imperial Forum begun by Domitian, which linked the Forum of Augustus to the Temple of Peace.

Despite Nerva's measures to remain popular with the Senate and the Roman people, support for Domitian remained strong in the army, which led to problems. Upon his accession, he had ordered a halt to treason trials, but at the same time allowed the prosecution of informers by the Senate to continue. This measure led to chaos, as everyone acted in his own interests while trying to settle scores with personal enemies.

The situation was further aggravated by the absence of a clear successor, made more pressing because of Nerva's old age and sickness. In October 97 these tensions came to a head when the Praetorian Guard laid siege to the Imperial Palace and took Nerva hostage. He was forced to submit to their demands, agreeing to hand over those responsible for Domitian's death. Nerva was unharmed in this assault, but his authority was damaged beyond repair. He realized that his position was no longer tenable without the support of an heir who had the approval of both the army and the people. Shortly thereafter, he announced the adoption of Trajan as his successor, and with this decision all but abdicated.

On 1 January, 98, at the start of his fourth consulship, Nerva suffered a stroke during a private audience. Shortly thereafter he was struck by a fever and died. His largest legacies were avoiding the civil war after the fall of Flavians and establishing a new dynasty that ruled almost until the end of the 2nd century and achieved "the golden age" of the Roman empire.
Yurii P
1-image00785.jpg
Nerva AR Denarius. Rome, AD 97.7 viewsNerva AR Denarius. Rome, AD 97.
Obverse..IMP NERVA CAES AVG P M TR POT, laureate head right
Reverse..COS III PATER PATRIAE, Priestly emblems: simpulum, aspergillum, guttus, and lituus.
RIC 24; RSC 48. 3.12g, 17mm, 6h.
Near Very Fine.
From a private Swiss collection.
Paul R3
119.jpg
Nerva Denarius - Priestly Implements (RIC 23)77 viewsAR Denarius
Rome 97 AD
3.43g

Obv: Laureate bust of Nerva (R)

Rev: Priestly Implements
Ladle, Sprinkler, Jug and Lituus
COS III PP above

RIC 23 RSC 52

Cayón Subastas, Auction May 2012, Lot 4330, 16/05/19
4 commentsKained but Able
96.jpg
Nerva Denarius - Priestly Implements (RIC 24)83 viewsAR Denarius
Rome 97 AD
3.75g

Obv: Laureate bust of Nerva (R)
IMP NERVA CAES AUG PM TRPOT

Rev: PRIESTLY IMPLEMENTS, Ladle, Sprinkler, Jug and Lituus;
COS III PATER PATRIAE

RIC II 24 RSC 48
5 commentsKained but Able
nerva_24.jpg
Nerva RIC II, 2457 viewsNerva 96 - 98
AR - Denar, 3.08g, 17mm
Rome Jan. - Sep. 97
obv. IMP NERVA CAES - AVG PM TR POT
laureate head r.
rev. COS III PATER PATRIAE
priestly implement
RIC II, 24; C.48
about EF, mint luster

Priestly implement (from l.):
1 SIMPULUM, a small ladle made of earthenware for sprinkling holy water,
symbol of the Pontifices
2 ASPERGILLUM, word of the Christian church to describe a whisk
3 GUTTUS, a narrow-necked jug, container for liquids used in religious
ceremonies, Etruscian origin
4 LITUUS, a short curved staff, hooked at the end, used by the Augures
to mark out holy areas, Etruscian origin(?)
Jochen
[901a]_NervaAntiochAE26.jpg
Nerva, 18 September 96 - 25 January 98 A.D., Antioch, Syria195 viewsBronze AE 26, BMC Syria, p. 182, 261, aVF, Antioch mint, weight 13.524g, maximum diameter 25.0mm, die axis 0o, Jan - Sep 97 A.D.; Obverse: IMP CAESAR NERVA AVG III COS, laureate head right; Reverse: large S C in wreath, D below; unbelievable portrait. Ex FORVM. Photo courtesy FORVM.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families
Nerva (96-98 A.D.)

David Wend

Introduction
Although short, the reign of Marcus Cocceius Nerva (A.D. 96-98) is pivotal. The first of Edward Gibbon's so-called "Five Good Emperors," Nerva is credited with beginning the practice of adopting his heir rather than selecting a blood relative. Claimed as an ancestor by all the emperors down to Severus Alexander, he has traditionally been regarded with much good will at the expense of his predecessor, Domitian.

Ancestry
Nerva could claim eminent ancestry on both sides of his family. On the paternal side, his great-grandfather, M. Cocceius Nerva, was consul in 36 B.C.; his grandfather, a distinguished jurist of the same name, accompanied Tiberius on his retirement to Capri in 26 A.D. On his mother's side an aunt, Rubellia Bassa, was the great-granddaughter of Tiberius. In addition, a great-uncle, L. Cocceius Nerva, played a part in the negotiations that secured a treaty between Octavian and Antony in 40 B.C

Early Career and Life under Domitian
Nerva was born on 8 November, 30 A.D. Little is known of his upbringing beyond the fact that he belonged to a senatorial family and pursued neither a military nor a public speaking career. On the other hand, he did hold various priesthoods and was a praetor-designate. More importantly, as praetor designate in 65, Nerva was instrumental in revealing the conspiracy of Piso against the emperor Nero.

As a result, he received triumphal ornaments and his statue was placed in the palace. Following Nero's fall in 68, Nerva must have realized that support of Vespasian and the Flavian cause was in his best interests. In 71 his loyalty was rewarded with a joint consulship with the emperor, the only time that Vespasian ever held the office without his son Titus. It was under the reign of Vespasian's other son, Domitian, that Nerva's political fortunes were ultimately determined, however. He shared the ordinary consulship with Domitian in 90, an honor that was perhaps the result of his alerting the emperor about the revolt of Antonius Saturninus, the governor of Upper Germany, in 89. Even so, like so many others of the senatorial class, Nerva came under scrutiny in the final years of Domitian's reign, when the emperor was unwilling to tolerate any criticism.

Whether or not Nerva was forced to withdraw from public life during Domitian's final years remains an open question. What is not in dispute is that he was named emperor on the same day that Domitian was assassinated in September, 96. Indeed, in some respects the accession was improbable, since it placed the Empire under the control of a feeble sexagenarian and long-time Flavian supporter with close ties to the unpopular Domitian. On the other hand, Nerva had proven to be a capable senator, one with political connections and an ability to negotiate. Moreover, he had no children, thereby ensuring that the state would not become his hereditary possession.

Imperial Initiatives
Upon taking office, Nerva made immediate changes. He ordered the palace of Domitian to be renamed the House of the People, while he himself resided at the Horti Sallustiani, the favorite residence of Vespasian. More significantly, he took an oath before the senate that he would refrain from executing its members. He also released those who had been imprisoned by Domitian and recalled exiles not found guilty of serious crimes. Nevertheless, Nerva still allowed the prosecution of informers by the senate, a measure that led to chaos, as everyone acted in his own interests while trying to settle scores with personal enemies.

In the area of economic administration Nerva, like Domitian, was keen on maintaining a balanced budget. In early 97, after appointing a commission of five consular senators to give advice on reducing expenditures, he proceeded to abolish many sacrifices, races, and games. Similarly, he allowed no gold or silver statues to be made of himself. Even so, there was some room for municipal expenditure. For the urban poor of Italy he granted allotments of land worth 60 million sesterces, and he exempted parents and their children from a 5% inheritance tax. He also made loans to Italian landowners on the condition that they pay interest of 5% to their municipality to support the children of needy families. These alimentary schemes were later extended by Trajan, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius.

Because he reigned only briefly, Nerva's public works were few. By early 98 he dedicated the forum that Domitian had built to connect the Forum of Augustus with the Forum of Peace. It became known as the Forum of Nerva, or the Forum Transitorium. Nerva also built granaries, made repairs to the Colosseum when the Tiber flooded, and continued the program of road building and repairs inaugurated under the Flavians. In addition, pantomime performances, supressed by Domitian, were restored.

In the military realm, Nerva established veterans' colonies in Africa, a practice that was continued by the emperor Trajan. Normal military privileges were continued and some auxiliary units assumed the epithet Nervia or Nerviana. We are not well informed beyond these details, and any military action that may have occurred while Nerva was emperor is known sketchy at best.

Nature of Nerva's Government
Nerva's major appointments favored men whom he knew and trusted, and who had long served and been rewarded by the Flavians. Typical was Sextus Julius Frontinus. A consul under Vespasian and governor of Britain twenty years earlier, Frontinus came out of retirement to become curator of the water supply, an office that had long been subject to abuse and mismanagement. He helped to put an end to the abuses and published a significant work on Rome's water supply, De aquis urbis Romae. As a reward for his service, Frontinus was named consul for the second time in 98. Similarly, the emperor's own amici were often senators with Flavian ties, men who, by virtue of their links to the previous regime, were valuable to Nerva for what they knew. Thus do we find the likes of A. Didius Gallus Fabricius Veiiento, one of Domitian's ill-reputed counselors, seated next to Nerva at an imperial dinner. Nerva was less willing to consult the Senate as a whole. In many cases he preferred the opinions of his own consilium, and was less submissive than many senators would have liked. This attitude may have been responsible for hostile discontent among several senators.

Mutiny of the Praetorians and the Adoption of Trajan
It was not long before the assassination of Domitian came to work against the new emperor. Dissatisfied that Domitian had not been deified after his death, the praetorian guards mutinied under Casperius Aelianus in October 97. Taking the emperor as hostage, they demanded that Nerva hand over Domitian's murderers. The emperor not only relented, but was forced to give a public speech of thanks to the mutineers for their actions. His authority compomised, Nerva used the occasion of a victory in Pannonia over the Germans in late October, 97 to announce the adoption of Marcus Ulpius Traianus, governor of Upper Germany, as his successor. The new Caesar was immediately acclaimed imperator and granted the tribunicia potestas. Nerva's public announcement of the adoption settled succession as fact; he allowed no time to oppose his decision. From the German victory, Nerva assumed the epithet Germanicus and conferred the title on Trajan as well. He also made Trajan his consular colleague in 98.

Death and Deification
On January 1, 98, the start of his fourth consulship, Nerva suffered a stroke during a private audience. Three weeks later he died at his villa in the Gardens of Sallust. From his headquarters at Cologne, Trajan insisted that Nerva's ashes be placed in the mausoleum of Augustus and asked the senate to vote on his deification. We are further told that he dedicated a temple to Nerva, yet no trace of it has ever been found. Nor was a commemorative series of coins issued for the Deified Nerva in the wake of his death, but only ten years later.

Conclusion
Nerva's reign was more concerned with the continuation of an existing political system than with the birth of a new age. Indeed, his economic policies, his relationship with the senate, and the men whom he chose to govern and to offer him advice all show signs of Flavian influence. In many respects, Nerva was the right man at the right time. His immediate accession following Domitian's murder prevented anarchy and civil war, while his age, poor health and moderate views were perfect attributes for a government that offered a bridge between Domitian's stormy reign and the emperorships of the stable rulers to follow.

Copyright (C) 1998, David Wend.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Octaviano.JPG
Octavian, AR Denarius, Foundation of Nicopolis4 viewsOctavian AR Denarius. Rome, 29 - 27 BC.

Celebrating the foundation of Nicopolis in Epirus.

Obv.: Laureate bust of Apollo of Actium, right, with features of Octavian
Rev.: Octavian, veiled and in priestly robes, ploughing right with team of oxen
Exe.: IMP CAESAR
RIC I 272

Diameter: 20mm.
Weight: 3.7g
Jose Polanco
893_Augustus_Philippi.jpg
Octavianus Augustus - Philippi10 views27 BC - 14 AD
head right
AVG
2 priests with yoke of 2 oxen right plowing the pomerium (sacred boundary)
RPC I 1656, Varbanov III 3770, SNG Cop 282, BMC Macedonia 86
4,4g 16mm
ex Gitbud and Naumann
Johny SYSEL
892_Augustus_Philippi.jpg
Octavianus Augustus - Philippi9 views27 BC - 14 AD
head right
AVG
2 priests with yoke of 2 oxen right plowing the pomerium (sacred boundary)
RPC I 1656, Varbanov III 3770, SNG Cop 282, BMC Macedonia 86
5,5g 17mm
ex Gitbud and Naumann
Johny SYSEL
Siglos.jpg
Persian Siglos12 viewsOBV: King runs or kneels right, holding a transverse
spear and bow. Large round incuse punch. With
two smaller test cut (punches) - one rectangular
shaped, the other V shaped. Merchant's mark in
shape of a key or priestly instrument.
REV: Oblong punch with no die image. Incuse U-shaped
merchant's mark on bottom edge of coin.

485 B.C. - 420 B.C.
5.56gm 15mm
goldenancients
Antiochia_(Pisidien)_BMC19_(-)_Nr_unpublished.jpg
Philip Arab2 viewsAv. IMP MIVL PHILIPPVS AVG PM
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rv. CAES ANTIOCH COL -SR-
priestly emblems
BMC 19 - Nr. unpublished , 26,5mm 11,48g, -City Antiochia-
(Error in the BMC, because Philip II. was not Persicus Maximus (PM), the bust is Gordian III.)
Priscus
RIC_215.jpg
Philip II.13 viewsAv. MIVL PHILIPPVS CAES
Radiate and draped bust right
Rv. PIETAS AVGVSTOR
priestly emblems
RIC 215 4,36g Rom
Priscus
akmoneia_RPC3177.jpg
Phrygia, Akmoneia, pseudo-autonomous, RPC 317727 viewsAE 16, 2.80g
struck under archiereus Servinius Capito and his wife, archiera Julia Severa, time of Nero
obv. QEAN ROMHN - AKMONEIC
Bust of Roma, turreted, r.
rev. CEROVHNIOV KAPITWNOC KAI IOVLIAC CEOVHRAC
Nike advancing r., holding wreath and palm-branch
RPC 3177
good S

This is a rare coin where both spouses are named in the legend. That is said to be typical for archierontes, highpriests of Asia.
Jochen
eumeneia_agrippina_jun_RPC3151.jpg
Phrygia, Eumeneia, Agrippina jun., RPC 315127 viewsAgrippina jun., Augusta AD 54-59, mother of Nero
AE 16, 4.19g
struck under archiera Bassa Kleonos
obv. AGRIPPINAN SEBASTHN
Bust draped, r.
behind CM: Double-axe
rev. BASSA KLEWNOS ARXIERA EVMENEWN
Kybele, turreted, std. l., holding patera(?) in r. hand and leaning with l. arm on drum.
RPC 3151
about VF

Bassa Kleonos, wife of archiereus Julius Kleon, was archiera too. So both were highpriests of Eumeneia.
Jochen
eumeneia_nero_SNGcop394_#1.jpg
Phrygia, Eumeneia, Nero, SNG Copenhagen 394 #146 viewsNero AD 54-69
AE 20, 4.60g
struck under Nero as Caesar AD 50-54
obv. SEBASTOS - NERWN
Bust, draped, bare-headed, r.
rev. (from r. to l., each from top to bottom)
EVMENEWN / IOVLIOS / KL - EWN / ARXIEREVS ASIAS
Apollo, nude, chlamys over l. arm, stg. l., holding raven in outstretched r. hand and double-axe in l. arm
RPC 3149 (28 ex. listed); SNG Copenhagen 394; SNG von Aulock 3591; SNG München 207; BMC 41
rare, VF, nice for the type
Eumeneia was named Fulvia BC 41/40 to honour the eastern activities of Marcus Antonius whose wife was Fulvia.

Julius Kleon, mentioned on the rev., had the title ARXIEREVC THC ACIAC, meaning 'Highpriest of Asia'. His wife, Bassa Kleonos, was Highpriest, Archiera, too. She too was mentioned on coins, struck for Agrippina jun., mother of Nero. This feature is known only for Archierontes: Both spouses were Archierontes und for both were struck coins. The function of the Archiereus was closely related to the Imperial Cult.

For more information to the double-axe look at the thread 'Mythological interesting coins'.
3 commentsJochen
carinus_156.jpg
PIETAS AVGG, priestly implements. RIC V 156 Rome2 viewsCarinus, first half 283 - spring 285 A.D. Bronze antoninianus, RIC V 156, F, Rome mint, 3.990g, 22.0mm, 0o, as Caesar 283 A.D.; obverse M AVR CARINVS NOB C, draped and cuirassed radiate bust right; reverse PIETAS AVGG, priestly implements. Ex FORVMPodiceps
434,2_Pompeius_Rufus.jpg
Pompeius Rufus - AR denarius5 viewsRome
¹²54 BC
curule chair, arrow left, laurel branch right
Q·POMPEI·Q·F
RVFVS
COS
curule chair, lituus left, wreath right
SVLLA·COS
Q·POMPEI·RVF
¹Crawford 434/2, SRCV I 400, RSC I Pompeia 5, Cornelia 49, Sydenham 909
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
4,1g
ex Aureo and Calico

Coin commemorates two moneyer's grandfathers. Q. Pompeius Rufus, member of the college (collegium) with priestly duties - decimviri sacris faciundis (obverse), and L. Cornelius Sulla, Augur (reverse), held consularship together in 88 BC.
Johny SYSEL
bpCelticRing5Knobs.jpg
PROTO-COINAGE, Ring money, Celtic, 400 - 200 B.C.72 views4.9 gm 24.4 mm Produced circa 400-200 BC Five knobbed base metal ring.
Measurement was taken without the knobs. The meaning of the knobs is not understood in modern times. The most obvious theory would be that they are related to the value of the ring money. However, a quick scan of the rings presented here clearly demonstrates that whatever value was represented could not be based on either dimension or weight. My own guess is that the value was controlled by dictum, perhaps by the priestly class. This particular example is considered scarce.
Massanutten
bpRing79Knobs.jpg
PROTO-COINAGE, Ring money, Celtic, 400 - 200 B.C.63 views14.3 gm 36 mm Produced circa 400-200 BC. Base metal ring with 79 knobs.
The text-book definition of why knobs and value are related to neither weight nor dimension when compared to the ring shown just previous. To my mind it must solidify the theory that the relative value of these rings (coins) were dictated by a social class recognized and respected by the Celtic peoples, which I believe (without fact) were the priestly caste. This coin is considered extremely rare.
Massanutten
428,3_Q__Cassius.jpg
Q. Cassius Longinus - AR denarius21 viewsRome
¹²55 BC
head of young Jupiter (or Bonus Eventus or Genius Populi Romani)* right, scepter behind
eagle on thunderbolt right, lituus on left and jug on right
Q·CASSIVS
¹Crawford 428/3, SRCV I 391, Sydenham 916, BMCRR 3868, RSC I Cassia 7
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
4,03g
ex Aurea

* The sceptrum, fulmen and aquila point to this being the bust of a young Jupiter, for whom such insignia are normally reserved. The priestly implements on the reverse likely allude to an ancestor who belonged to the college of pontiffs, and if we take the symbolism of this coin to be in reference to Jupiter, then it is probable that this coin is in reference to a family member who was once Flamen Dialis, (high priest of Jupiter), a position of great importance and privilege in Rome that entitled the holder of that office to many honours, including the right to a lictor, the toga praetexta, the sella curulis, and to a seat in the Senate. (ROMA NUMISMATICS historical articles)

Q. Cassius Longinus was brother or cousin of C. Cassius Longinus (Caesar's murderer). He served as a quaestor of Pompey in Hispania Ulterior in 54 BC. In 49 BC, as tribune of the people, he strongly supported the cause of Caesar, by whom he was made governor of Hispania Ulterior. He treated the provincials with great cruelty, and his appointment (48 BC) to take the field against Juba I of Numidia gave him an excuse for fresh oppression. The result was an unsuccessful insurrection at Corduba. Cassius punished the leaders with merciless severity, and made the lot of the provincials harder than ever. At last some of his troops revolted under the quaestor Marcellus, who was proclaimed governor of the province. Cassius was surrounded by Marcellus in Ulia. Bogud, king of Mauretania, and Marcus Lepidus, proconsul of Hispania Citerior, to whom Cassius had applied for assistance, negotiated an arrangement with Marcellus whereby Cassius was to be allowed to go free with the legions that remained loyal to him. Cassius sent his troops into winter quarters, hastened on board ship at Malaca with his ill-gotten gains, but was wrecked in a storm at the mouth of the Iberus (Ebro). His tyrannical government of Hispania greatly injured the cause of Caesar. (wikipedia)
1 commentsJohny SYSEL
Vespasian_AVG.jpg
RIC 0356 Vespasian denarius73 viewsIMP CAES VESP AVG P M COS IIII
Laureate head of Vespasian right.

AVGVR TRI POT
Simpulum, sprinkler, jug, and lituus (Priestly implements).

Rome 72-73 AD

2.51g

RIC II: 356 (C3)

Ex-ANE
3 commentsJay GT4
new_vesp_combined.jpg
RIC 068551 viewsVespasian. AD 69-79. AR Denarius Rome mint. Struck AD 74.
(18.47 mm, 3.39 g, 6h).
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESP AUG Laureate head right
Rev: PONTIF MAXIM Vespasian seated right, holding scepter and branch.
RIC II 685; BMCRE pg. 27 ; RSC 386.
Ex: J. Eric Engstrom Collection
Ex: CNG E-auction 373, Lot 366 April 20, 2016




I like collecting interesting coins of Vespasian. While not as rare as my examples already posted, this one is certainly not all that easy to find either. What attracted me to this coin was the dark toning. I really like the way the highlights on the portrait and the figure on the reverse seem to come to life against the darker background.

This coin is an example where the emperor is featured on both sides of the coin. His portrait is on the obverse, but he is pictured seated on the reverse. This coin has plenty of detail left on both sides. I also really like that the full legend on both the obverse and reverse are preserved. The legend "Maxim Pontiff" refers to Vespasian's role as chief priest of the empire.
1 commentsorfew
Carinus_02.jpg
RIC 5b, p.157, 155 - Carinus, priestly implements29 viewsCarinus
Antoninianus, Rome mint
Obv.: M AVR CARINVS NOB CAES, draped and cuirassed radiate bust right
Rev.: PIETAS AVGG, sprinkler, simpulum, jug, patera, knife and lituus, KAZ in ex
4.20g, 21.3x23.3mm
RIC 155, C 74
Ex Helios-Numismatik
1 commentsshanxi
Caracalla_Denarius_Asclepius.jpg
Roman Empire , Emperor Caracalla, 28 January 198 - 8 April 217 A.D.48 viewsSilver Denarius.
Ref; RIC IV 251; RSC III 302; BMCRE V p. 451, 103; Hunter III 27; SRCV II 6834, Very Fine , excellent portrait, slightly off center on a broad flan, some die wear, Rome mint, weight 3.232g, maximum diameter 19.2mm, die axis 180o, Struck in 215 A.D..
Obverse : ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, laureate head right.
Reverse : P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P (high priest, tribune of the people for 18 years, consul 4 times, father of the country), Aesculapius standing slightly right, head left, leaning on snake-entwined staff in right hand, globe at feet on right.


Asclepius is the god of medicine and healing in ancient Greek mythology. Asclepius represents the healing aspect of the medical arts, while his daughters Hygieia, Meditrina, Iaso, Aceso, Aglaea and Panacea (literally, "all-healing") symbolize the forces of cleanliness, medicine, and healing.

The Sam Mansourati Collection./Given as a souvenir to a superb dear friend Dr. Joseph Diaz.
3 commentsSam
Caracalla_AR_Asclepius.jpg
Roman Empire / Emperor Caracalla , Silver Denarius. 87 viewsCaracalla, 28 January 198 - 8 April 217 A.D.
Silver denarius, RIC IV 251; RSC III 302; BMCRE V p. 451, 103; Hunter III 27; SRCV II 6834, Choice EF, nice portrait, well centered, Rome mint, weight 2.902g, maximum diameter 18.5mm, die axis 180o, 215 A.D.; obverse ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, laureate head right; reverse P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P (high priest, tribune of the people for 18 years, consul for the 4th time, father of the country), Aesculapius standing slightly right, head left, leaning on snake-entwined staff in right hand, globe at feet on right.

Asclepius is the god of medicine and healing in ancient Greek mythology. Asclepius represents the healing aspect of the medical arts, while his daughters Hygieia, Meditrina, Iaso, Aceso, Aglaea and Panacea (literally, "all-healing") symbolize the forces of cleanliness, medicine, and healing.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection.

Given as a wedding present to my dear cousin Dr. Pierre Bazo.
3 commentsSam
Claudius_II_Gothicus_AE_Antoninianus.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE / Emperor Claudius II Gothicus ( AD 268-270 ) 24 viewsAE Antoninianus , with a superb portrait.
Obverse: IMP CLAVDIVS P F AVG, radiate and draped bust right
Reverse: FIDES MILIT, Fides ( goddess of trust ) standing left holding two Legionary ensigns. S in Exergue.
Mediolanum ( Milan ) mint AD 268-270.
Weight: 3.4 gr. Diameter: 18 mm.
Reference: RIC VI 149 Mediolanum.

Coin is listed as a masterpiece ;
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-126910

**The Golden Legend of 1260 AD recounts how St. Valentine refused to deny Christ before the "Emperor Claudius" in 270 AD ( in some ref ; 269 AD as he was beheaded in that year 269 AD ,per Sam) and as a result was beheaded. Since then, February 14 marks Valentine's Day, a day set aside by the Christian church in memory of the Roman priest and physician.
Sam
Elegabalas.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE / Emperor Elagabalus ( Reign 8 June 218 – 11 March 222)43 viewsEmperor Elagabalus Silver Denarius.
Obverse: “IMP ANTO - NINVSAVG" Laureate, and draped bust right.
Reverse: “LAETIT - IA PVBL" Latetia standing left, holding wreath and rudder placed on globe.
aXF , 3.04 Gr. Max Dia 18.7.
Rome mint , RIC 95 (The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol.IV, Part II, #95)


Emperor Elagabalus (Reign 8 June 218 – 11 March 222 ) , Born in 203 or 204 A.D., Varius Avitus Bassianus was the grandson of Julia Maesa, the sister of Julia Domna, wife of Septimius Severus, and mother of Caracalla. Soon after the assassination of Caracalla in 217, Domna committed suicide, while Maesa planned to overthrow Caracalla’s successor, Macrinus. Her choice fell upon her eldest grandson, who was the hereditary high priest of the sun God El-Gabal at Emesa. On May 16, 218, the boy was proclaimed Emperor by the Eastern armies. He took the name of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, the same as Caracalla, whose son he claimed to be. He would be known to history as Elagabalus, referencing his fanatical loyalty to the Eastern God. He would win a victory over Macrinus near Antioch on June 8, with Macrinus being killed soon after.

One of Elagabalus’ first acts was the deification of Caracalla and Julia Domna. Coins were issued in their names, as well as Julia Maesa, and her daughter, Elagabalus’ mother, Julia Soamias. The three would reach Rome in the fall of 219 A.D. They promptly installed several of their Syrian compatriots in influential positions in the government, a fact resented by the Senate.
Elagabalus’ reign was a complete fiasco. While the earlier Severan emperors had introduced Eastern elements into the roman state religion, Elagabalus attempted to insert the worship of El-Gabal as the center of the state religion. He went as far as to “marry” the roman Goddess Minerva to El-Gabal, an act mimicked on an earthly plain by Elegabalus’ marriage to the Vestal Virgin, Aquilia Severa, an act which shocked Rome to its core.

Further, Elagabalus made no secret of being a passive homosexual, and in fact indulged his taste to its fullest. Rome was not used to an Emperor with painted eyes and rouged cheeks. As a counterbalance, his advisors forced him into a series of marriages, including the above mentioned Vestal. Between his religious extremism, and his public personal life, Elagabalus had earned the contempt and hatred of both Senate and people.

In 221, in an attempt to bolster his reign, Maesa and her second daughter, Julia Mamaea, convinced Elagabalus to adopt Mammea’s son Alexianus, as his heir. Alexianus took on the name of Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander. Alexander’s popularity soon aroused Elagabalus’ suspicions. He planned to have Alexander killed, but Maesa and Mamaea, instead had Elagabalus and his mother Julia Soaemias murdered by the Guard. Alexander would succeed his cousin on the throne.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection.
Sam
Titustet~0.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE PROVINCIAL, Titus Tetradrachm349 viewsSilver tetradrachm

AYTOK TITOY KAIΣO YEΣΠAΣIANOY ΣEB
laureate head of Titus right

ΣAPAΠIΣ
bust of Serapis right, wearing taenia, modius on head ornamented with branches of laurel, date LB (year 2) right

Alexandria mint, 29 Aug 79 - 28 Aug 80 A.D
12.254g, 25.4mm

Milne 456 - 457; Geissen 319; Dattari 426; cf. BMC Alexandria p. 34, 281 (year 3); Emmett 235

Ex-Forum

This is the Wildwinds example

Ptolemy Soter, wanting to integrate Egyptian religion with that of their Hellenic rulers, promoted worship of Serapis as a deity that would win the reverence of both groups alike. This was despite the curses of the Egyptian priests against the gods of previous foreign rulers (i.e Set who was lauded by the Hyksos). Alexander the Great had attempted to use Amun for this purpose, but Amum was more prominent in Upper Egypt, and not as popular in Lower Egypt, where the Greeks had stronger influence. The Greeks had little respect for animal-headed figures, and so an anthropomorphic statue was chosen as the idol, and proclaimed as the equivalent of the highly popular Apis. It was named Aser-hapi (i.e. Osiris-Apis), which became Serapis, and was said to be Osiris in full, rather than just his Ka (life force). Ptolemy's efforts were successful - in time Serapis was held by the Egyptians in the highest reverence above all other deities, and he was adored in Athens and other Greek cities.

4 commentsJay GT4
Antoninus Pius 7.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Antoninus Pius, 138-161 AD39 viewsAntoninus Pius
Struck 145-161 A.D.
OBV: ANTONINVSAVGPIVSPPTRPXII
Laureate head right
REV: COSIIII
Antoninus Pius veiled as a priest, sacrificing from patera over tripod
Denomination: Denarius
RIC 183; Cohen 304
17 mm, 2.6 gm
Fine
2 commentsbaseball_7
bpJ1A5AugustusAltLug.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Augustus, Altar of Lugdunum, Common, 15-10 BC.253 viewsObv: CAESAR PONT MAX
Laureate head, right.
Rev: ROM ET AUG
Altar flanked by two columns, each surmounted by a Victory. On the face of the altar the most central symbol is generally described as a depiction of the 'Corona Civica', a wreath awarded for civil performance. On either side of this there appears to be a tree (probably Laurel). The outside is flanked by two crude figures (dancers?). Top surface arrayed with priestly implements.
As 9.5 gm 22.5 mm Mint: Lugdunum (Lyons) RIC 230, S 1690
2 commentsMassanutten
Commodus-moeda1.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Commodus 161-192 AD.23 viewsAR Denarius of Commodus 161-192 AD.

Minted in 191 AD at Rome after another outbreak of plague.

Weight: 2.7gr
size: 18mm

Obv: L AEL AVREL COMM AVG P FEL - Commodus right.

Rev: VOTA SOLV PRO SAL P R - Commodus, veiled as a priest, standing left, sacrificing over a tripod, with a carcass of a bull behind him.

EF/EF

Sear ?? - RIC ?? - VM 123 - Cohen 924.
Jorge C
Domitian.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Domitian, Silver Denarius37 viewsStruck 95 AD, Rome mint, 19mm, 3.4g, EF, RIC II 771

OBVERSE: Laureate head of Domitian, right. IMP[ERATOR] CAES[AR] DOMIT[IAN] AVG[USTUS] GERM[ANICUS] P[ONTIFEX] M[AXIMUS] TR[IBUNICIA] P[OTESTATE] XIIII (Commander Caesar Domitian, the Revered One, Conqueror of the Germans, Highest Priest, Tribune of the People for the 14th time).

REVERSE: Goddess of wisdom and strategic warfare, Minerva, standing right on capital of rostral column, holding spear and shield, owl at foot right. IMP[ERATOR] XXII COS XVII CENS[OR] P[ERPETUUS] P[ATER] P[ATRIAE] (Imperium for the 22nd year, Consul for the 17th time, Eternal Censor, Father of the Country).
1 commentsMichael H4
bpS1H3Ellagab.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Elagabalus39 viewsObv: IMP ANTONIVS AVG
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust, right.
Rev: TEMPORVM FELICITAS
Felicitas standing, head left, holding caduceus and cornucopia.
Antoninianus, 4.6 gm, 22 mm, RIC 149
ex: Joe Baran in Forum Auctions
Comment: Varius Avitus Bassianus was the son of Julia Soaemias and made a priest of the Syrian sun-god Elagabal. Thanks to the machinations of his mother and grandmother, Julia Maesa, who rumored that he was actually the bastard son of Caracalla, he was positioned to succeed Macrinus. On his ascension in 217 he attempted the introduction of his Eastern religion to the Roman mainstream. His reign was seen as a series of affronts to Roman traditions and sensibility and he was finally put to death on March 6, 222 along with his mother and then dragged through the streets of Rome and thrown into the Tiber River.
Massanutten
bpS1H5Ellagab.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Elagabalus52 viewsObv: IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG
Laureate and draped bust right, sideburns but no beard on chin and ornamented at top with a bull's reproductive organ.
Rev: SACERD DEI SOLIS ELAGAB
Emperor right, in Syrian priestly dress sacrificing with patera at altar and holding cypress branch. Star in right field.
Denarius, 2.7 gm, 18.6 mm, Rome RIC 131
ex: Berk
Comment: For a discussion of Elagabalus' unusual headgear, see here on Forum the Classical Numismatics board and topic 'Elagab's Horn' dated Sept. 2002.
Massanutten
Elagabalus_Possibly_Unique~0.jpg
Roman Empire, Elagabalus, 16 May 218 - 11 March 222 A.D. Silver denarius71 viewsPossibly unique! The combination of this reverse legend with a recumbent bull behind the altar is apparently unpublished and this is the only example known to Forum. The bull is present on a similar type with the reverse legend INVICTVS SACERDOS AVG.


Silver denarius, RSC III 213c var. (no bull); BMCRE V 269 var. (same); Hunter III 68 var. (same); RIC IV 52 (S) var. (same, also no horn); SRCV II 7538 var. (same), NGC XF, strike 5/5, surface 3/5 (2412840-011), Rome mint, weight 3.07g, maximum diameter 18.4mm, die axis 0o, Jan 222 A.D.; obverse IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, horned, laureate, draped and bearded bust right, from the front; reverse P M TR P V COS IIII P P, Elagabalus standing slightly left, wearing Syrian priestly dress, sacrificing from patera in right hand over flaming altar at feet on left, club (or branch) cradled in left hand and arm, star in upper left field, recumbent bull behind altar; NGC certified (slabbed); extremely rare.

Coins with a horned portrait and the title TR P V were struck in January 222 A.D. After some days or weeks the horn was removed from Elagabalus' portrait. Elagabalus had shocked the public with bizarre behavior including cross dressing and marrying a vestal virgin. Removing the unusual horn from his portrait was probably part of a last ditch effort to show that he had changed, dropping his peculiar Syrian ways. The effort failed. On 11 March 222, Elagabalus and his mother were murdered, dragged through the streets of Rome and dumped into the Tiber.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection.
Sam
ELVWcvdGNN8.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Elagabalus, AR denarius11 viewsRome, AD 220-222. Laureate and draped bust right / Elagabalus in priestly robes standing left holding patera and branch, sacrificing over altar, behind which is a bull; star above. RIC 88. Toned. Extremely Fine.

This reverse refers to Elagabalus' role as priest of the Syrian god from whom he took his nickname. His religious fanaticism was a primary cause of his downfall.
Ruslan K
WYUYq.jpg
Roman Empire, Elagabalus, RIC IVb 14618 viewsA silver denarius of the notorious Elagabalus (218-222 AD). He was actually only called Elagabalus after his death; his real name as Emperor was, confusingly, Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Pius Augustus. He served in his youth as the high priest of Elagabal, the sun-god of his home city of Emesa (modern Homs, Syria, currently a hotspot in the Syrian Civil War). He was allegedly an eccentric sicko, and after only four years of rule, he was assassinated at 18 years of age by the Praetorian Guards under orders from his own grandmother (I guess he should have visited her more often?) and replaced by his cousin, Alexander Severus. The front of the coin shows Elagabalus wearing a laurel crown with the inscription IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG = "Commander-In-Chief and Emperor Antoninus Pius". There is actually a horn projecting from his head below his laurel crown, too, as a symbol of his divinity -- it looks like part of the laurel crown on this specimen. The back shows Elagabalus again conducting a sacrifice over an altar, with the inscription SVMMVS SACERDOS AVG = "The Emperor, Highest Priest". Minted in Rome, 221-222 AD.pfrederiksen
Herrenius_Etruscus.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Herennius Etruscus, Rome mint, struck 250-251 AD, AE Sestertius293 viewsQ HER ETR MES DECIVS NOB C bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right
PIETAS AVGVSTORVM, SC Priestly emblems
RIC 168a, Cohen 15

6 commentsdupondius
bpS1I7JulSoaem.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julia Soaemias60 viewsObv: IVLIA SOAEMIAS AVG
Bare headed and draped bust right.
Rev: VENVS CAELESTIS
Venus entroned left, holding apple and and sceptre. Child standing right at her feet.
Denarius, 2.7 gm, 17 mm, Rome, RIC 243
ex Joe Baran out of Forum Auctions
Comment: Mother to Elagabalus, niece of Julia Domna (the wife of Septimus Severus), daughter of Julia Maesa and younger sister of Julia Mamaea (the mother of Severus Alexander). She promoted the induction of her son, Elagabalus, to the priesthood of the god that he is remembered by and she helped engineer the return of the House of the Severans to the Emperial power. Unfortunately, the excesses of her son so embittered the Roman people that he was abandoned by the family matriarch (Julia Maesa) and through benign neglect her son was allowed to fall into the angry hands of the Praetorian Guard and the mob of Rome. Soaemias was caught up in the blood lust and put to death with her son.
Massanutten
Marcus_Aurelius.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Marcus Aurelius, Silver Denarius75 viewsStruck 165 AD, Rome mint, 19mm, 3.5g, VF, RIC III 142

OBVERSE: Laureate head of Marcus Aurelius, bearded, right. M[ARCUS] [AURELIUS] ANTONINVS AVG[USTUS] ARMENIACVS (Marcus Aurelius Antonius, the Revered One, Conqueror of the Armenians).

REVERSE: Goddess of the grain supply to the city of Rome, Annona, standing front, head left, holding corn-ears in right hand and cornucopias in left hand; on left, modius (cylindrical headdress so called for its resemblance to the unit measure of grain); on right, ship. P[ONTIFEX] M[AXIMUS] TR[IBUNICIA] P[OTESTATE] XIX IMP[ERATOR] III COS III (Highest Priest, Tribune of the People for the 19th time, Imperium for the 3rd year, Consul for the 3rd time).
Michael H4
Septiumius_Severus.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Septimius Severus, Silver Denarius67 viewsStruck 203 A.D., Rome mint, 19mm, 3.4g, EF, RIC IV 189b

OBVERSE: Laureate head of Severus, bearded, right. SEVERVS PIVS AVG[USTUS] (Severus Pius, the Revered One).

REVERSE: Goddess of luck, Fortuna, seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia, wheel below seat. P[ONTIFEX] M[AXIMUS] TR[IBUNICIA] P[OTESTATE] XI COS III P[ATER] P[ATRIAE] (Highest Priest, Tribune of the People for the 11th time, Consul for the 3rd time, Father of the Country).
3 commentsMichael H4
bpS1Q4Severina.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Severina40 viewsObv: SEVERINA AVG
Diademed and draped bust, right.
Rev: PROVIDEN DEOR
Fides standing between two standards facing Sol Invictus who is holding a globe.
Antoninianus, 4 gm, 23 mm, Ticinum RIC 9
Note: This coin may have been issued in connection with the introduction of the Sun Cult by Aurelian as the primary religion of the empire and Severina's appointment as its priestess.
Massanutten
bpS1R6TetricusII.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Tetricus II (Gallic Empire)84 viewsObv: C P E TETRICVS CAES
Radiate and draped bust, right.
Rev: PIETAS AVG
Five priestly sacrificial implements.
Billon Antoninianus, 1.9 gm, 17.6 gm, Cologne RIC 255
Comment: The normal interpretation of this reverse is that it was meant to indicate the Priestly Collages which the Imperial personage was decreed membership of. In this was the case for the young Tetricus, it must have occurred 'in absentia'.
Massanutten
unknown2_mini.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Tetricus II, Barbarous Radiate53 viewsobv. C PIV ESV TETRICVS CAES,
radiate draped bust right
rev. PIETAS AVGVSTOR,
priestly implements, from left to right: sprinkler, simpulum with handle right, plain jug and lituus.
Ref.: Cf. RIC 258f (unknown gallic mint)
Jani
30618q00.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Tiberius, 19 August 14 - 16 March 37 A.D., Gold aureus18 viewsSH30618. Gold aureus, Giard Lyon, group 5, 151; RIC I 29 (R); BMCRE I 47; Calico 305c (S.3); Cohen 15; SRCV I 1760, gVF, attractive red tone, weight 7.709 g, maximum diameter 19.0 mm, die axis 135o, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, c. 36 - 37 A.D.; obverse TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right, laurel wreath ties fall in small undulations (waves); reverse PONTIF MAXIM (high priest), Pax (or Livia as Pax) seated right on chair with decorated legs, a single line below, long scepter vertical behind in her right hand, branch in left hand, feet on footstool; Ex-Bosco Reale Hoard, Pompeii 1898; rareJoe Sermarini
37558q00.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Tiberius, 19 August 14 - 16 March 37 A.D., Gold aureus15 viewsSH37558. Gold aureus, Giard Lyon, group 1, 143; RIC I 25 (R2); BMCRE I 30; SRCV I 1760; Calico 305d (S.1); Cohen 15; SRCV I 1760, Choice VF, weight 7.677 g, maximum diameter 19.0 mm, die axis 45o, Lugdunum (Lyon) mint, early 'plain' fine style, c. 15 - 18 A.D.; obverse TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right; reverse PONTIF MAXIM (high priest), Pax (or Livia as Pax) seated right on chair with plain legs set on base, long scepter vertical behind in her right hand, branch in left hand, no footstool; a beautiful coin; rare (R2)Joe Sermarini
TitusRaven~0.jpg
Roman Empire, Titus Denarius RIC 131112 viewsTitus AR Denarius Rome Mint, 80 AD
O: IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M; Head of Titus, laureate, bearded, r.
R: TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P; Tripod, with fillets streaming out l. and r., on which are ravens r. and l., and in the center, dolphin over wreath: ('exuviae' of Apollo, for 'pulvinar' of Apollo and Diana (?)).
- RIC 131 (R), BMC 82, RSC 323a

Reka Devnia hoard, recording only 3 specimens with ravens and the dolphin and 24 specimens of the regular type with only the dolphin. The dolphin, ravens, laurel and tripod are all symbols of Apollo. His most famous attribute is the tripod, the symbol of his prophetic powers. It was in the guise of a dolphin that Apollo brought priests from Crete to Delphi, explaining Apollo's cult title "Delphinios" and the name of the town. He dedicated a bronze tripod to the sanctuary and bestowed divine powers on one of the priestesses, and she became known as the "Pythia." It was she who inhaled the hallucinating vapors from the fissure in the temple floor, while she sat on a tripod chewing laurel leaves. After she mumbled her answer, a male priest would translate it for the supplicant.
4 commentsNemonater
a12.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Vespasian49 viewsVespasian Den "Lituus, et al" NICE Ancient Roman Coin Vespasian AD 69-79 Silver Denarius "The priestly instruments I use as Pontifex Maximus." Obv: IMP CAES VESPA AVG P M - Laureate head right. Rev: AVGVR TRI POT - Simpulum, aspergillum, jug and lituus. Rome mint: AD 70-72 = RIC II, 30, page 18 - Cohen 43 - SEAR RCV I (2000), #2282, page 435 Mike Deigan
Ephesus,_Claudius_AR_Tetradrachm.jpg
Roman Ephesus37 viewsIonia, Ephesus, Claudius, 41-54, AR Cistophoric Tetradrachm

TI. CLAVD CAES AVG. Claudius bare head, facing left.
DIAN-EPHE Cult statue of Diana (Artemis) of Ephesus inside a tetra style temple, set on three tiered base; pediment decorated by figures flanking three windows.

RIC I 118; RPC I 2222; BMCRE 229; RSC 30; Sear Millennium 1839. Ephesus ca. 41-42 AD.

(25 mm, 11.14 g, 6h).

The Temple of Artemis (Diana) at Ephesus was one of the Seven Wonders of the ancient world. Depicted on this coin, which was minted shortly after Claudius’ accession to the throne, there remains no trace of the temple other than some recently stacked column remnants to mark the location. Pliny The Elder described the temple as 115 meters in length, 55 meters in width, made almost entirely of marble; consisting of 127 Ionic style columns 18 meters in height. The original temple, which stood on the site from about 550 BC, was destroyed by arson in 356 BC. It was rebuilt at the direction of Alexander III the Great around 330 BC, in the form depicted on the coin, only to be destroyed by the Goths in 262 AD. Again rebuilt, it was destroyed for the final time by Christians in 401 AD. The marble of the temple was used to construct other buildings. Some of the columns found their way into the church of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople (Istanbul).

The site of the temple was rediscovered in 1869 by an expedition sponsored by the British Museum, but little remains to be seen today. A Christian inscription found at Ephesus reads Destroying the delusive image of the demon Artemis, Demeas has erected this symbol of Truth, the God that drives away idols, and the Cross of priests, deathless and victorious sign of Christ. This Christian zeal explains why so little remains of the site despite its repute in the ancient pre-Christian world.

This coin is rare with a few dozen examples known. In contrast to most examples, which show a four-tiered temple base, the reverse of this coin shows a three-tiered temple base, the same as that found on the Parthenon. The rectangles visible on the pediment of the temple are frequently identified as depictions of tables, or altars attended by flanking figures. However, architectural reconstructions of the temple show these rectangles as windows permitting light into the temple interior, a fact supported by the presence of pediment window frame moldings amongst the remains of other temples from the period in Asia Minor. The Ionic style of the temple’s columns, as described by Pliny, is clearly visible in the reverse image.
4 commentsn.igma
brutustripod.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Brutus, AR Denarius - Crawford 502/214 viewsRome. The Imperators.
Brutus, 44-42 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.76g; 17mm).
Military Mint, Spring-Summer 42 BCE.

Obverse: L·SESTI - PRO·Q; Veiled and draped bust of Libertas, facing right.

Reverse: Q·CAEPIO·BRVTVS·PRO·COS; Tripod with axe on left and simpulum on right.

References: Crawford 502/2; HCRI 201; Syd 1290; BMCRR East 41; Junia 37; Sestia 2.

Provenance: Ex Alan J. Harlan Collection [Triton XXII (9 Jan 2019), Lot 951]; Kunker 288 (13 Mar 2017) Lot 314; Theodor Prowe Collection [Hess (20 May 1912) Lot 933].

Marcus Junius Brutus was posthumously adopted by his maternal uncle, Quintus Servilius Caepio. Afterward, Brutus sometimes used the name Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus, which both honored his uncle and advertised his maternal descent from Gaius Servilius Structus Ahala. Ahala was a Roman Republican hero who had killed someone with regal aspirations. In his early political career, Brutus issued coins with the portrait of Ahala on one side (see Crawford 433/2; http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-144687). Following the assassination of Caesar, Brutus resurrected his use of the name Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus, as on this coin, again alluding to this Servilian connection in his family tree. Combined with the b