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Search results - "medallion"
ABM_Postumus.jpg
81 viewsPostumus, Principal Mint, sestertius, 260

IMP C M CASS LAT POST[...],Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
SALVS AVG, Salus standing right, feeding snake held in arms
Weight 15.49g

A very rare early issue with Postumus' full name given on the obverse - normally this only occurs on radiate double-sestertii. This is struck from the same obverse die as a gold medallion in Paris with a SALVS PROVINCIARVM reverse.
Adrianus
Byzag.jpg
003 - John I Tzimisces (969-976 AD), Millaresion - Sear 179241 viewsObv: +IhSyS XRISTyS NICA*, Cross crosslet on globus above two steps. at centre, circular medallion containing facing bust of John with short beard, wearing crown and loros and dividing the inscription I/W - A/N. Triple border ornamented with eight equally spaced glbules.
Rev: IWANN / EN XW AVTO / CRAT´EVESb´/ bASILEVS / RWMAIW´in five lines, -:- above and beneath, triple bordet as on obv.
1 commentspierre_p77
NeroDECVRSIOSestertiusRome.JPG
005. Nero 54-68AD. AE Sestertius, Rome mint, 63AD. DECVRSIO. 38.6mm200 viewsObv. Laureate ead right, wearing aegis NERO CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P
Rev. Nero on horseback prancing right, wearing cuirass, short tunic, and billowing cloak, spear in right hand, to right soldier moving right. carrying vexillum; to leftin shallow relief, soldier running right DECVRSIO in ex
BMCRE 155; Cohen 94, RIC I 176 var (obv legend)
38.6mm, 180o, 63 A.D. Rome mint.
This sestertius was an early emission from the Rome Mint, which resumed striking bronze after about 10 years of inactivity. The talented engraver, perhaps with extra time for this initial project, produced one of the best dies in the entire imperial bronze series. The special style, complemented by superior execution, has similarities to later medallions.


The fine expressive portrait has higher relief than the more common Lugdunum issues.
The reverse uses the roundness of the flan and three geometric planes of relief to both present the scene in a format that draws the eye to the emperor and show movement that is lacking on almost all other Roman coins. The rare use of geometric planes was repeated on ADLOCVTIO sestertii of Galba five years later, perhaps the work of the same artist. Rome sestertii after 70 A.D. are of far less impressive style.


The lack of SC leaves the reverse fields uncluttered. SC stood for Senatus Consultum, "By Decree of the Senate" and signified the role of the Senate in the minting of brass and bronze coinage. Many sestertii of Caligula and some brass and bronze of Nero lack SC. Subsequent issues include SC again, until inflation produced the demise of the sestertius under Gallienus, c. 265 AD
5 commentsLordBest
Marc-Aurelius_AE-Kontorniat-medallion_X_Pax_RIC-_Rome-AD_Q-001_axis-11h_28mm_20,45g-1-s.jpg
037b Marcus Aurelius (139-161 A.D. as Caesar, 161-180 A.D. as Augustus), RIC III ???, AE- Medallion ??? , Rome, Pax?,108 views037b Marcus Aurelius (139-161 A.D. as Caesar, 161-180 A.D. as Augustus), AE- Medallion ??? , Rome, Pax?
avers:- Laurate head right.
revers:- Pax (??) standing left, holding branch and cornucopiae, Or Annona ???.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 28mm, weight: 20,45g, axis: 11 h,
mint: Rome, date: A.D., ref: RIC-????, C-????, Sear-?????,
Q-001
quadrans
RI_064nw_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -45 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP II, laureate head right
Rev:– VICT AVG TR P II COS II P P, Victory walking right, holding wreath in right hand, palm in left
Minted in Rome. A.D. 194
Reference:– BMCRE -. RIC -. RSC 690b (citing Gnecchi Coll., Rome)

Additional information courtesy of Curtis Clay:-
"I know a couple of other specimens too, BM probably has one from me and I may have another in my new collection.

Still very rare and interesting, IMP II generally rare on Rome-mint denarii, a muled obv.-rev. combination because COS II means after 1 Jan. 194, but the medallions prove that Septimius' IMP III must have already been known in Rome by about 25 Dec. 193."
1 commentsmaridvnvm
coin sizes.jpg
098-117 AD - TRAJAN coin sizes142 viewsThis picture can be seen the relationship of different denomination. Unfortunately the AV aureus, AV quinar and the medallion sizes are missing...2 commentsberserker
rjb_cast4_07_05.jpg
11100 viewsConstantius I
305-306
AV 42 mm
Trier Mint
The "Arras Medallion"
mauseus
RI 132kp img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 435 var (Ticinum) (QXXT) 86 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust left in elaborate cuirass decorated with Medusa medallion & holding Vitoriola (Victory on globe, facing left, holding wreath) in right hand, palm up
Rev:– VIRTVS AVG, Soldier standing left, holding Victory and spear and leaning on shield
Minted in Ticinum(QXXT) Emission 2 Officina 4. A.D. 276
Reference:– Cohen unlisted. RIC 435 var. (This bust type not listed in RIC or Cohen)
Die match is illustrated in Bastien's Buste Monetaire... pl. 126 number 11
2 commentsmaridvnvm
rjb_2016_03_02.jpg
16111 viewsMarcus Aurelius
AE medallion
Rome mint
Obv: M AVREL ANTONINVS AVG GERM SARM TRP XXXII
Laureate, draped bust right
Rev: IMP VIIII COS III PP
Emperor standing right, turning left and crowning a trophy of arm with two captives below
Gnecchi II, pl 59, 6 (obv), Gnecchi II, pl 60, 9 (rev)
mauseus
Banda_Quran_Manuscript_A001.JPG
1790 Large Gold Banda Koran Leaf Blue Border Medallion 23 viewsA magnificent leaf from a Koran fragment, probably Banda, before AH 1208/1790-1 AD, on paper (387 x 230 mm.). There are eleven lines of strong black natkh script within gold clouds, gold roundels between verses, illuminated marginal medallions, marking every tenth verse, red Persian interlinear translation, sura headings in red, margins with Tafsir written in black and red, final folio with commentary dated 1205.. Verso: eleven lines of strong black natkh script within gold clouds, gold roundels between verses, illuminated marginal medallions, marking every tenth verse, red Persian interlinear translation, sura headings in red, margins with Tafsir written in black and red. The opening flyleaf is inscribed with a note reading: this copy of the Koran, formally the property of the Bahadoor, Nawab of Banda was delivered after the great victory obtained over Rebels and Mutineers by Major General Whitlocks Troops on the 19th of April 1858 to the Reverend A Kinloch, the Chaplain of the Horse and present to him as a slight token of affectionate remembrance to the Reverend George Gleed the Vicar of Chalfont St. Peters, Bucks Branda Palace. April 29th 1858. A further note on the final flyleaf reads: This Copy of the Koran was taken from the apartments of Ali Bahadoor, Nawab of Banda after the occupation of his City and Palace by the Madras Column under Major General Whitlock.SpongeBob
EdwardVIIasPoW1874.JPG
1874. Edward VII, as Prince of Wales. Royal Horticultural Buildings. Taylor 180b105 viewsObv. Head of Edward left ALBERT EDWARD PRINCE OF WALES PRESIDENT, G MORGAN SC, on truncation BOEHM
Rev. The Royal Horticultural Buildings LONDON ANNUAL INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION OF ALL FINE ARTS INDUSTRIES AND INVENTIONS on scroll below central medallion MDCCCLXXIV

AE51. Taylor 180b.

This medal is arguably the most complex architectural medal ever undertaken, and in my opinion the most accomplished. The depth of view is truly astounding, though this does not come accross to well in the picture. The depiction of the buildings is used as the cover art of Taylor's "The Architectural Medal: England in the Nineteenth Century", British Museum Publication, 1978.

LordBest
1165_P_Hadrian_RPC2329_5.jpg
2329 PHRYGIA, Laodicea Hadrian Medallion Zeus standing53 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2329.5; Von Aulock, Phrygiens -; SNG München -; SNG von Aulock-; SNG Copenhagen 575; BMC 195

Obv. ΑΥ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС ΟΛΥΜΠΙΟС
Laureate head of Hadrian, r. with drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. ΛΑΟΔΙΚΕΩΝ
Zeus Laodiceus standing facing, head l., holding eagle in his extended r. hand, l. resting on sceptre

36.37 gr
39 mm
12h

Note.
From the Group CEM Collection, Classical Numismatic Group 90, 23 May 2012, 1058 and ex Waddell II, 12 September 1987, 363.

The epithet 'Olympios' was adopted by Hadrian in 128/9 following the dedication of the temple of Zeus Olympios in Athens. It emphasized the emperor's Panhellenic program and enthusiastic Philhellenism, for Zeus Olympios, chief god of the Greek peoples, was the Panhellenic god before all others. RPC suggests that the impressive Laodicean medallions bearing the new epithet were struck on the occasion of Hadrian's visit to the city in June 129.
6 commentsokidoki
Lincoln_WF_Medallion.jpg
Abraham Lincoln Columbian Expo Medal 189322 viewsObv: 1809 * ABRAHAM * LINCOLN * 1865, portrait of a young, beardless Lincoln, facing, head turned right. Artist's name H. ZEARING in field above left shoulder.

Rev: A shield with lance heads separated with circles in borders; WITH MALICE TOWARD NONE - WITH CHARITY FOR ALL - WITH FIRMNESS IN THE RIGHT AS GOD GIVES VS TO SEE THE RIGHT LET VS STRIVE ON * * * LET VS HAVE FAITH THAT RIGHT MAKES MIGHT AND IN THAT FAITH LET VS TO THE END DARE TO DO OVR DVTY AS WE VNDERSTAND IT. (Excerpts from Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address on March 4th, 1865 and the Cooper Union Speech on February 27, 1860)

Engraver: Henry H. Zearing

Medal was made for the World's Columbian Exposition in 1893.

Bronze, Diameter: 45.4 mm, Axis: 0°

References: King 504, Eglit 85
Matt Inglima
Lincoln_Medallion.jpg
Abraham Lincoln Medal24 viewsObv: 1809 * ABRAHAM * LINCOLN * 1865, portrait of a young, beardless Lincoln, facing, head turned right. Artist's name H. ZEARING in field above left shoulder.

Rev: A shield with lance heads separated with circles in borders; WITH MALICE TOWARD NONE - WITH CHARITY FOR ALL - WITH FIRMNESS IN THE RIGHT AS GOD GIVES VS TO SEE THE RIGHT LET VS STRIVE ON * * * LET VS HAVE FAITH THAT RIGHT MAKES MIGHT AND IN THAT FAITH LET VS TO THE END DARE TO DO OVR DVTY AS WE VNDERSTAND IT. (Excerpts from Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address on March 4th, 1865 and the Cooper Union Speech on February 27, 1860)

Engraver: Henry H. Zearing

Medal was made for the World's Columbian Exposition in 1893.

Bronze, Diameter: 45.4 mm, Axis: 0°

References: King 504, Eglit 85
Matt Inglima
Anonymous commemorative scripulum, c 530 AD.JPG
Anonymous commemorative scripulum, c 530 AD111 viewsAnonymous
AR scripulum, third-siliqua
Constantinople, c. 530 AD
Helmeted and draped bust of Constantinopolis right
Large K within beaded border
Bendall Type 8; RIC VII -; J.P.C. Kent, "Urbs Roma and Constantinopolis Medallions at the mint of Rome," Essays Sutherland, p. 112, pl. 13, 28; RSC -; Vagi 3051
Ex CNG
4 commentsArdatirion
As_medallion_BMC_541.jpg
As medallion BMC 541122 viewsObverse: IMPSEVALEXANDAVGIULIAMAMAEAAVG round edge
Busts face to face of Severus Alexander laureate (seen from the front), slightly bearded, draped (and cuirassed?) and Julia Mamaea draped wearing stephane, left hair in waves
MATAVG below busts
Reverse: (FELICITAS TEMPORVM)
Severus Alexander draped, holding globe and mappa, seated left on curule chair, being crowned with wreath by Victory draped, standing left, holding palm-branch; in front, Felicitas draped, standing front, head right, holding loing caduceus in right hand; background centre, female figure draped, standing front, head right, but this feature is lost because the coin has been holed.
BMC 541 (plate 19), RIC 661
Weight, 10.352g; Die axis, 12h
Ex Mabbott Collection (Schulman Galleries 1969, lot 4804)
2 commentsmix_val
As_Med_Lib_III_dark_red.jpg
As Medallion Liberalitas III92 viewsObverse: IMP CAES M AVR SEV_ALEXANDER AVG
Bust laureate right, draped and cuirassed
Reverse: PONTIF MAX TR P V COS II P P, LIB AVG III in exergue
Severus Alexander seated left on curule chair on a platform; behind him an officer and a soldier holding a spear; in front, Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopiae; at left, a citizen mounting steps to platform.
BMC 312 (plate 11, same reverse and maybe obverse die), RIC 572*
Weight, 10.428g; die axis, 12h.

mix_val
Screenshot_2019-07-29_13_17_08.png
Byzantine Empire, John I Tzimisces, AR Miliaresion. Provenance: Dr. Serop Simonian.11 viewsConstantinople 969-976 A.D. 2.71g - 23.2mm, Axis 6h.

Obv: + IhSUS XRIStUS nICA* / Iw - AN - Cross crosslet on globus above two steps, circular medallion at center containing facing bust of John with short beard, wearing crown and loros, Iw AN across fields, triple border with eight equally spaced dots.

Rev: + IwANN' - En Xw AVtO - CRAT' EVSEb - bASILEVS - RwmAIw' - Legend in five lines, -+- above and beneath, triple border with eight equally spaced dots.

DO 7; SB 1792.
scarli
Sear-1909.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Alexius I Comnenus (1081-1118) Æ Follis, Thessalonica (Sear-1909; DOC 18)27 viewsObv: Facing bust of the Virgin Mary, with medallion of Christ on chest
Rev: Alexius standing facing, holding labarum and globus cruciger
SpongeBob
SB-1909.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Alexius I Comnenus (1081-1118) Æ Follis, Thessalonica (Sear-1909; DOC 18)53 viewsObv: Facing bust of the Virgin Mary, with medallion of Christ on chest
Rev: Alexius standing facing, holding labarum and globus cruciger
1 commentsSpongeBob
Sear-1989.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Andronicus I Comnenus (1183-1185) Æ Half Tetarteron, Uncertain Mint (Sear-1989; DOC-8)32 viewsObv: Half-length bust of the Virgin Mary facing, orans; medallion with bust of Christ on her chest
Rev: Half-length figure of Andronicus facing, holding labarum and globus cruciger

1 commentsSpongeBob
Sear-1792.jpg
Byzantine Empire: John I Tzimisces (969-976) AR Miliaresion, Constantinople (Sear-1792; DOC 7b)25 viewsObv: +IҺSЧSXRI STЧS ҺICA *
Cross crosslet on globus above two steps, circular medallion at center containing facing bust of John with short beard, wearing crown and loros, I / w | A / N across fields, triple border with eight equally spaced globules.
Rev: Legend in five lines, -+- above and beneath, triple border with eight equally spaced globules
SpongeBob
Sear-1876.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Michael VII Ducas (1071-1078) AR ⅔ Miliaresion, Constantinople (Sear-1876; DOC-8)45 viewsObv: Facing bust of the Virgin Mary, holding medallion with the face of the Holy Infant; pellet to left and right
Rev: + ΘKЄ / BΘHOЄI / MIXAKΛ / ΔЄCΠOTH / Tω ΔUKA in five lines
2 commentsSpongeBob
Sear-1781.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Nicephorus II Phocas (963-969), Miliaresion, Constantinople (Sear-1781)66 viewsObv: + IhSVS XRI-STVS nICA *.
Cross crosslet set on globus above two steps; in central medallion, crowned bust of Nicephorus facing.
Rev: + nICHF´ / En X·W AVTO/CRAT´ EVSEb´ / bASILEVS / RWmAIW´.
Legend in five lines.
4 commentsSpongeBob
P9032256.jpg
Byzantine Lead Seal circa 1000124 viewsObv: Virgin Holding Medallion of Christ's Head
Rev: Four-line Inscription
19 mm
Laetvs
SealID1.jpg
Byzantine Seal of Athanasios 7th Century10 viewsOBVERSE
Bust of the Virgin with medallion between two short crosses. Thin wreath border.
REVERSE
Cruciform monogram. Wreath border. Ἀθανασίου (Seal of) Athanasios
pogh_poor
B-caligula_caesonia_0001.jpg
Caligula AE Medallion68 viewsObv: CAESAR AVG GERMANIC IMP P M TR P COS - Laureate bust right.
Rev: CN ATEL FLAC CN POM FLAC II VIR QVINC / SAL - AVG - Bust of Salus r.
Mint: Carthago Nova
Weight: 18.75g
Ref: Cohen 2
1 commentsoa
Paduan_Caligula.JPG
Caligula, 37 - 41 AD148 viewsObv: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG PM TRP IIII PP, laureate head of Caligula facing left.

Rev: AGRIPPINA DRVSILLA IVLIA, The three sisters of Caligula, standing side by side; on the left, Agrippina (personified as Securitas) with head turned right, holds cornucopia, resting right hand on column, left hand on Drusilla’s shoulder; in center Drusilla (personified as Concordia), with head turned left, holding patera in right hand and cornucopia in left; on right Julia (personified as Fortuna Augusta), with head turned left, holding rudder in right hand and cornucopia in left; SC in exergue.

20.1 grams, 35 mm

This coin is a copy of a medallion made my Giovanni da Cavino of Padua, Italy. Though it's not an "ancient forgery" I would estimate it's manufacture to be sometime in the mid to late 19th Century. There appears to be genuine wear on the coin's surface along with a waxy residue visible in the lettering above Caligula's head leading me to believe this coin might have been used as a host to cast other fakes. It appears to be a direct copy of the Paduan housed in the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris. It is pictured in Imitations and Inventions of Roman Coins by Zander H. Klawans as Caligula 1.

RIC 41, Klawans Caligula 1
SPQR Coins
CARASE02.jpg
Caracalla, sestertius of AD 210, two emperors crowned by Victories36 viewsObv.: M AVREL ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate bust of Caracalla facing right.
Rev.: CONCORDIAE AVGG (around) S C (in ex.), Caracalla and Geta clasping hands above tripod altar, both holding spears, each crowned by Victory.
RIC -; Cohen -
ex Henzen (1995, "found during dredging in Lagliari harbour, Sardinia" ).
The reverse has been badly double struck but the representation can clearly be seen.

This type is not listed in RIC nor Cohen. Cohen reports a medallion of Caracalla with the same reverse representation. The same reverse is listed in RIC, Cohen and BMC but only for Geta and Septimius Severus. Another related type is listed in RIC 459 (R2) and Cohen 28: Caracalla and Geta clasping hands and holding spears, being crowned by Apollo and Hercules, minted A.D. 210.

A sestertius of Caracalla with the same reverse was in the Santamaria sale of 1938 but was overlooked for inclusion in RIC. It was purchased by Curtis Clay in 1967 and is in the British Museum since 1993. Thus this coin is the second specimen known of this type for Caracalla.
Curtis Clay noted that the obv. and rev. dies of this specimen are both different from the Santamaria-BM specimen. The rev. die was entirely new to him and unknown in combination with a Geta obv. either; the obv. die of this coin is known with TR P XIII (thus dating this coin to AD 210): three emps. sacrificing rev. dies, one being BMC pl. 62.1. (That BM coin has been tooled, and the tribunician number altered to XIIII.).
1 commentsCharles S
getamylasa2.jpg
Caria, Mylasa. Geta AE38 Medallion. Cult statue of Artemis 83 viewsCARIA, Mylasa. GETA. As Caesar, 198-209 AD. AE Medallion (22.95 gm; 38 mm). Bare-headed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Tetrastyle temple of Zeus Labraundus, cult statue of Artemis within, holding labrys and spear; tresses hanging from each hand. Round shield with two supporters in pediment.
Akarca 90; BMC 38; Price & Trell 442.
ancientone
Harness_7a.jpg
Cavalry Harness Decoration - obverse75 viewsThis large harness decoration, circa early- to mid-1st century AD has extensive incised decorations which were likely filled with niello. It is often called a phalera though differes from the phalera worn on soldiers armour or belts. Exact parallels can be seen in the Romisches Museum Germany from Vindonissa and Colchester (believed to have belonged to Ala I Thracia attached to Legio XX); and in Feugere, figure 187, #2 from Hod Hill UK dating to the Neronian era. The centre hole was for a lost attachment - possibly a silver medallion.otlichnik
gordianIIIMed.jpg
Cilicia, Tarsos. Gordian III AE38 Medallion35 viewsCilicia, Tarsos.
Obv. Radiate cuirassed bust right with spear & shield decorated with gorgon's head.
Rev. Selene, crescent on head, driving biga of bulls right.
ancientone
Tarsos.jpg
Cilicia, Tarsos. AE35. Philip I or II / Spes70 viewsCilicia, Tarsos AE35 23.4gm.

Bronze Medallion 35mm (21.94 grams) of Tarsus in Cilicia
AVT KAI IOV ΦIΛIΠΠON ЄVT ЄVC CЄ around, Π - Π in field, radiate, draped, cuirassed bust right.
TAPCOV THC MHTPOΠOΛEΩC AMK, Elpis (Spes) standing left, holding flower and pulling on skirt, Γ B across fields.

Philip I or Philip II as Augustus, same obv. die as Ziegler, Smaller German Collections, pl. 42, 799 ("Philip II"); SNG Paris 1730 ("Philip I"); and SNG Aulock 6062 ("Philip I").

The light beard would speak for Philip I, yet the features look different and younger than other portrait dies at Tarsus that are definitely Philip I. -Curtis Clay


ancientone
Commode Hercule.jpg
Commodus - Medallic sestertius51 viewsWorn obverse legend, that should read : L. AELIVS AVRELIVS COMMODVS AVG. PIVS FELIX , head of Hercules/Commodus left, wearing lion's skin
HER CVLI / ROM ANO / AVG VST. in three lines divided by club, all in wreath. No SC.
33-34 mm

This bronze coin has the size of a large sestertius, but has not the letters SC, and the obverse is from the die engraver who worked for medallions, while the reverse die was carved with much less care. It is a reduced version of a medallion (42 mm) discovered in Crete - the only parallel I could find :
http://www.maat.com.au/commodusmedallion.html

Probably unpublished
Ginolerhino
020O.jpg
Commodus AE36 Medallion199 viewsHierocaesarea mint
Magistrate (archon) Artemidoros
BMC Lydia -, SNG Cop -, SNGvA -, Imhoof-Blumer -
24.976 g, maximum diameter 36.4mm, die axis 180o,
Obverse AVT KAI Λ AVPH KOMMO∆O, laureate and cuirassed bust right;
Reverse ΕΠΙ[...]ΟΥ[...] ΑΡΤΕΜΙ∆ΟΡΟΥ ΑΡΧ[...] ΙΕΡΟΚΑΙCΑΡΕΩΝ, Artemis standing half-right wearing chiton; Leto standing half-left holding patera; Apollo standing half-left, naked, resting left hand on lyre; nice armored bust.

An interesting reverse depicting a mythological scene: Leto and her children Artemis and Apollo. The two were fathered by Zeus, arousing Hera's jealousy. Leto was banned from giving birth on earth or sea, but found the island of Delos, which supposedly was not connected to either.

(all notes from FORVM website)

Extremely rare with no other specimens found on Wildwinds.com, acsearch.info or coinarchives.com.

No examples in Loebbecke, Scholz or all the Imhoof additions.-Dane Kurth

One same size, same obv. die as {this coin}, same magistrate (archon) Artemidoros, but different rev. type (river god reclining), in RPC temp. (online) 8174 = Peus 365, 2000, Burstein 696, there stated to be unpublished and apparently unique.-Curtis Clay

(Many thanks to Mr. Curtis Clay and Ms. Dane Kurth "Helvetica" for further information)

EX: FORVM Ancient Coins
8 commentsMark Z
_T2eC16V,!)QE9s3HFdodBQhF6YhUgQ~~60_57.JPG
Countermark on coin of Septimius Severus904 viewsSeptimius Severus AE45 medallion of Acrasus, Lydia. 43.5 gr.

AYT KAI L CEP CEOYHROC PER, laureate, draped cuirassed bust
right, countermark of Artemis Ephesia standing facing (Howgego 234.)
EPI CTRA ONHCIPFOROY APOLL TO B AKRACIWTWN (or [2] EPI CTR
FILODHMOY NOYMERIANOY AKRACIWTWN), Biga of stags right
with statue of Artemis Ephesia standing half right with supports.

SNG von Aulock 2883; Hirsch Collection 1571; [2] SNG Cop 6.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection
2 commentsSam
IMGP3138Darcombo.jpg
Dareios of Media Atropatene (?), ca. 70 BC40 viewsAR dr., 3,99gr, 19,6mm; Sellwood 35.1var., Shore --, Sunrise 326 (Phraates III.);
mint: Ekbatana; axis: 12h;
obv.: bare-headed, facing, w/broad diadem and 1 broad ribbon on each side of the neck; large puffy tuft of hair in 4 waves on either side of head; mustache, short beard; necklet w/center medallion; cuirass; dotted border 8:30 to 14:30;
rev.: archer, right, on throne, w/bow in one hand; monogram below bow; 7-line legend: BΛΣIΛEΩΣ MEΓΛΛoV APΣ(retrograde)ΛKo(V) (Θ)EoΠΛToPOΣ(retrograde)(last 2 lines to be read from the inside) ΣVEPΓEToV EΠIΦΛNoVΣ (Φ)ΛEΛΛHNoΣ;

There is a possibility that this coin is a forgery

ex: Gorny & Mosch Auction 204, # 1627; ex: B. Peus Auction 311, 1984, #415.
Schatz
IMGP3140Darcombo.jpg
Dareios of Media Atropatene (?), ca. 70 BC49 viewsAR dr., 4,14gr, 19,3mm; Sellwood 35.4var. (legend iii), Shore --, Sunrise --;
mint; Mithradatkart; axis: 12h;
obv.: bare-headed, facing, w/broad diadem and 1 broad ribbon on each side of the neck; long hair in 5 waves as large puffy tufts on either side of the head, mustache, short beard; necklet w/center medallion; cuirass; dotted border 7:30 to 15h;
rev.: archer, right, on throne, w/bow in one hand; below bow monogram; 7-line legend: BAEIΛEΩ(Σ) MEΓAΛoV APΣAKoV (ΘE)oΠAToPoΣ EVEPΓEToV(last 2 lines to be read from the inside) EΠIΦANoV ΦIΛEΛΛHNo(Σ); exergual line;

1 commentsSchatz
IMGP3142Darcombo.jpg
Dareios of Media Atropatene (?), ca. 70 BC104 viewsAR dr., 4,14gr, 20,1mm; Sellwood 35.7, Shore 165 (Phraates III.), Sunrise 330;
mint: Rhagai; axis: 12h
obv.: bare-headed, facing, w/broad diadem, 1 ribbon each between hair and bust; 2 puffy long hair tufts in 5 waves on either side of head, mustache, short beard; necklet w/center medallion; cuirass; dotted border 11 to 17h;
rev.: archer, right, on throne, w/bow in one hand; monogram below bow; 7-line legend: BAΣIΛEΩΣ MEΓAΛOV APΣAKoV KAIΦAEΛΛHN(OΣ) EΠIΦANoΣ(last 2 lines to be read from the inside) Θ(EO)ΠAToPoΣ EVEPΓEToV; exergual line.

4 commentsSchatz
IMGP4432Orod2brcombo.jpg
Dareios of Media Atropatene or Phraates III., 70 - 57 BC27 viewsAE 14, 2,07gr., 13,8mm;
Sellw. 36.20 (Dareios), Shore 163 (Phraates III.);
mint: Ekbatana, axis: 12h;
obv: bare-headed, left, w/diadem, knot and a broad ribbon; medium-long hair in 4 waves, mustache, short beard; necklet w/center medallion; cuirass; on the right side Nike holding diadem;
rev.: winged Nike walking right, 6-line legend visible.
Schatz
IMGP4416Phra3brcombo.jpg
Dareios of Media Atropatene, ca. 70 BC, or Phraates III., 70 - 57 BC 17 viewsAE tetrachalkous (?), 5,09gr., 16,17mm;
Sellw. 35.14, Shore 167var.;
mint: Ekbatana, axis: 12h;
obv.: bare head and torso facing, diadem and 2 broad ribbons floating above shoulders;
mustache, short beard, 2 large bunches of hair over ears; necklet w/center medallion;
cuirass; complete reed border;
rev: horse standing, right, framed by a 7-line mostly illegible square legend;

ex: CNG 90, #36,
ex: Spink Auction 08/05/83.


It becomes more and more difficult to assign denominations to Parthian bronzes. What is described as a tetrachalkous in Sellwood no longer meets the weight requirements and should be a dichalkous. Shore avoids the dilemma by using the approximate diameter of the coin for identification: AE16 in this case. I will follow his example in the following postings.
Schatz
IMGP4411Darbrcombo.jpg
Dareios of Media Atropatene, ca. 70 BC, or Phraates III., 70 - 57 BC20 viewsAE 17, 3,84gr., 16,61mm;
Sellw. 35.15, Shore 167.;
mint: Rhagai, axis: 12h
obv.: bare head and torso facing, diadem and 2 broad ribbons floating above shoulders; mustache, short beard, 2 large bunches of hair over ears; necklet w/center medallion; cuirass; goddess in right field (or corrosion); dotted border;
rev.: horse walking, right, 5(?) lines of legend: BAΣIΛEΩΣ MEΓAΛOY rest illegible;

ex: Civitas Galleries, WI.
Schatz
Diocletian Medallion Cast Obv_S.jpg
Diocletian (UNIFACE PLASTER CAST)108 viewsObv:- IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, Laureate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle

UNIFACE PLASTER CAST
1 commentsmaridvnvm
Livia_and_Augustus_Megaglion.JPG
DIVINE AUGUSTUS & LIVIA (by Tiberius). AE34 medallion? of Colonia Romula (Seville), RPC 73. Obverse: PERM. DIVI AVG. COL. ROM. Radiate head of Divus Augustus right; six-rayed star 21 viewsDIVINE AUGUSTUS & LIVIA (by Tiberius). AE34 medallion? of Colonia Romula (Seville), RPC 73. Obverse: PERM. DIVI AVG. COL. ROM. Radiate head of Divus Augustus right; six-rayed star above; thunderbolt before. Reverse: IVLIA AVGVSTA GENETRIX ORBIS. Head of Livia left on globe of the world; crescent moon above. RPC I, 73. SNG Copenhagen 421. F. Scarce. Livia, the mother of the emperor Tiberius, is honored as mother of the world by him on this exceptional coin.Antonivs Protti
DomitianTRPIIII.jpg
Domitian AR Denarius AD 85133 viewsDomitian. AD 81-96. AR Denarius, 20mm, 3.50g. Rome mint. Struck AD 85
O: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P IIII; Laureate bust Domitian right with aegis
R: IMP VIIII COS XI CENS POT P P; Minerva standing right on capital of rostral column with spear and shield; aegis draped over back with snakes around; owl to right.
- RIC 334

Minerva was clearly the favorite goddess and patroness of Domitian, evidenced here by his wearing of her aegis.
In the Thebaid Minerva is represented as a terrifying battle goddess, entrusted with Jupiter's horrible aegis, that terrifies the Thebans. The popular perception of Domitian as cruel and capricious was entirely consistent with the wanton destructiveness of Minerva in the epic.

What scene is portrayed on the center of the capital?
From Dressel, Berlin Medallions (published 1973), p. 14, note 1: 'Cohen 237 note says, "a standing figure and a seated figure". Gnecchi, Medaglioni I, p. 43, 4 says "two small figures, the one on the left seated and the second one kneeling before the seated figure". As can be seen on many of the more carefully engraved specimens [Dressel continues], the first figure is shown seated right, while the second figure kneels before the first figure, with arms raised in entreaty.'
6 commentsNemonater
D342_2012.jpg
Domitian RIC-342139 viewsAR Denarius, 3.13g
Rome mint, 85 AD
Obv: IMP•CAES DOMIT AVG•GERM P M TR P V; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: IMP VIIII COS XI CENS POT P P; Minerva adv r., with spear and shield (M1)
RIC 342 (R2). BMC -. RSC -. BNC -.
Ex Harry N. Sneh Collection. Ex Jyrki Muona Collection.

Another very rare denarius from a brief series minted in 85. Interesting to note that two silver medallions (4 and 8 denarii weight) were minted in this series. Not in London or Paris. RIC cites Berlin and the Jyrki Muona collection (this coin).

Struck on a large flan (21 mm) and toned almost a chocolate brown. The portrait is pretty stylish too. Same reverse die as the RIC plate coin.
This is a wonderful coin in hand.

Thanks to Harry Sneh for additional info.
6 commentsDavid Atherton
IMGP4872KaOrEltdrcombo.jpg
Elymais -- Kamnaskires-Orodes, early to mis 2nd cent. AD10 viewsBI tdr., 14,83gr, 26,65 mm,
Alram 480, Van't Haaff 12.1.1-3D, Sunr. -;
mint: Susa;
obv.: bare-headed bust, facing,w/diadem and 2 ribbons over shoulders; low tiara w/cross like emblem on top; hair i 2 large side tufts w/upward directed rows of curls; triple necklace w/center medallion; in left field Aramaic lettering (Van't H. legend 2) meaning King Kamnaskires Orodes, son of king Orodes; in right field anchor w/2 crossbars on top and 1 at the bottom, above it crescent open to left w/star; dotted border 13:30 to 15:30h;
rev.: field of perpendicular slashes.
Almost black tone.
Schatz
IMGP4848ElOrod3dr.jpg
Elymais -- Orodes III., 2nd cent. AD28 viewsAE 14, 3,30gr.,
Van’t Haaff 16.2.1-2A;
mint; Susa, axis: 12h;
obv.: bust, left, w/anchor adorned tiara, row of pellets as crest, 2-strand diadem, knot, and ribbon; mustache, med.-long beard; earring, necklace w/center medallion; in right field anchor w/1 upper and 1 lower crossbar, crescent and pellet above; dotted border 3 - 10h;
rev.: bust of Belos w/necklace, left; garment held by fibula; in right field cornucopia; complete dotted border;
verdigris patina on obv. and rev.
Schatz
IMGP4798Elbrcombo.jpg
Elymais -- Orodes IV., 2nd half of 2nd cent. AD16 viewsAE dr, 3,32gr,
Van’t Haaff 17.3.1-2Bb, Alram -;
mint: Susa, axis: 12h;
obv.: bare-headed male bust, facing, w/2-strand diadem and 2 ribbons over right shoulder; mustache, med.-long beard consisting of 2 rows of dots, 2 large curly buns consisting of dots on either side, top hair 1 row of dots above the diadem whose lower strand appears to have a center medallion; necklace; tunic; parts of Aramaic lettering (YUX ...) in right field;
rev: 1- crossbar anchor surrounded by wreath or diadem.
Schatz
IMGP4808Elbrcombo.jpg
Elymais -- Orodes V., late 2nd to early 3rd cent. AD21 viewsAE 13, 2,04gr, 12,53mm;
Van’t Haaff 18.1.1-2a-d, Alram 490;
obv.: male bust, left, w/2-strand diadem, loop, and 2 ribbons; top hair on a stilted bun, 2 ties floating in the back, mustache, short, pointed beard; necklace; tunic; dotted border 12:30 to 16:30h;
rev.: female bust (Artemis?) w/diadem, loop, and 2 ribbons; double necklace w/center medallion in the lower ring, earring; tunic w/shoulder pad;
black patina on obv. and rev.;

ex: J. Elsen, BEL.
Schatz
IMGP4790Elbrcombo.jpg
Elymais -- Kamnaskires Orodes, 1st half of 2nd cent. AD19 viewsAE dr., 4,08gr., 15,09mm;
Van’t Haaff 12.3-1.2Ac-e, Alram 482 -485 var. (rev.);
mint: ? ; axis: 12h;
obv.: bare-headed, facing,w/diadem and ribbons; small tuft in center of top hair, mustache, med.-long beard, large bunch of hair on either side, the vertical dotted lines pointing upward; necklace w/center medallion; in right field anchor w/2 crossbars and crescent w/pellet above, pellet left of anchor; dotted border 6 - 11h;
rev.: circle of slashes surrounding 2 large vertical center slashes;

ex: J. Elsen, BEL.
Schatz
IMGP4794Elbrcombo.jpg
Elymais -- Kamnaskires Orodes, 1st half of 2nd cent. AD19 viewsAE dr., 4,04gr., 15,23mm;
mint: ? , axis: 12H;
Van’t Haaff 12.2.1.-1B, Alram 482-485var. (rev.);
obv.: bare-headed, facing, w/2-strand diadem, 2 loops and ribbons; large, grape like bunch of hair on either side of head, mustache, med.-long beard; double necklace w/center medallions; tunic; in right field anchor w/2 crossbars, crescent w/pellet above;
rev.: field of seemingly random letters and symbols.
Schatz
115ElKamOrcombo.jpg
Elymais -- Kamnaskires Orodes, early to mid 2nd cent. AD,6 viewsAE dr., 3,53gr., 16,38mm;
Alram 479, Van't Haaff 12.3.1-2A1a;
mint: Susa, axis 12h;
obv.: bare-headed bust, facing, w/diadem and 4 ribbons (2 next to top tuft, 2 next to neck); mustache, medium-long chin beard, 2 large side tufts coins. of 5 rows of upward curls, 1 top tuft; necklace w/center medallion; in upper right field crescent w/pellet, below anchor w/2 top bars and i bottom bar; complete dotted border; floating bust;
rev: field of vertical dashes;
almost black tone
Schatz
ElymKamOrdrcombo2.jpg
Elymais -- Kamnaskires-Orodes, early to mid 2nd cent. AD,9 viewsAE dr., 3,87gr, 15,94mm;
Alram 482 ff. , Van't Haaff 12.3.1-2A1, Sunr. 487var.;
obv.: bare-headed bust, facing, w/diadem, 2 ribbons over shoulder; top hair tuft, side tufts consisting of rising rows of pellets, mustache, short beard; necklace w/center medallion; in upper right field crescent w/pellet, below anchor w/2 top and 1 bottom bars, pellet between anchor and shoulder; dotted border 5 - 10h;
rev.: field of multidirectional slashes.
Lovely dark tone.
1 commentsSchatz
Sear-2154.jpg
Empire of Nicaea: Anonymous (ca. 1204-1261) AE Tetarteron (Sear-2154)11 viewsObv: MP - ΘV; The Virgin Mary standing facing, orans, with Christ medallion on breast.
Rev: Pelleted cross, with crescent ends; all over pelleted saltire cross.
Quant.Geek
France_Henri_III_and_Rene_de_Birague_AE39_Medallion.jpeg
France: Henri III and Rene de Birague28 viewsFrance: Henri III and Rene de Birague AE39 Medallion. Henri III and Rene de Birague AE39 medallion (bronze, 39mm), later restrike c. 1930. Laureate bust of King Henri III right. HENRICVS.III.D.G.FRANCOR.ET.POL.REX.1574/ Bare headed bust of Chancellor Rene de Birague right. RENATVS.BIRAGVS.FRANCIAE.CANCEL.1577. Ex Barry & Darling; ex areich. Photo credit areichPodiceps
france_expo.jpg
France: Universal Exposition 1789-188926 viewsFrance; Æ Medallion (33 mm) 1889, Universal Exposition. CentennialPodiceps
Regilianvs.jpg
German Medalist Christian Wermuth Roman Emperor Regilianus Medallion, c. 1700153 viewsGerman Medalist Christian Wermuth Roman Emperor Regilianus Medallion, c. 1700

German medalist Christian Wermuth (1661 - 1739) white metal medallion (32 mm), minted circa 1700. Portrait of Regilianus right. / 16 lines of text. One of a series of 80+ white metal medallions created by Wermuth of Roman emperors.

ex Barry & Darling
2 commentsareich
gord2~0.jpg
GORDIAN III101 viewsAE medallion. 238-244 AD. 35.52 gr. Anchialos. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust seen from the front, head left, holding spear and shield, eagle with spread wings on the shield . AVT K M ANT AVΓ ΓOPΔIANOC / Hercules nude , lion skin over head and streaming behind him, kneeling left on back of the fallen Ceryneian Hind, grasping her antlers with both hands; club lying on the ground behind the captured beast. OVΛΠIANΩN AΓXIAΛEΩN. AMNG 622.
Gemini III. Lot 433. Harlan J.Berk B.or B. 153 Lot 442
4 commentsbenito
00gordherc3.jpg
GORDIAN III152 viewsAE medallion. 238-244 AD. 35.52 gr. Anchialos. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust seen from the front, head left, holding spear and shield, eagle with spread wings on the shield . AVT K M ANT AVΓ ΓOPΔIANOC / Hercules nude , lion skin over head and streaming behind him, kneeling left on back of the fallen Ceryneian Hind, grasping her antlers with both hands; club lying on the ground behind the captured beast. OVΛΠIANΩN AΓXIAΛEΩN. AMNG 622.
3 commentsbenito
gordianmedallion.jpg
GORDIAN III30 viewsAE 34. Antioquia (Pisidia) 238-244 AD. 21,57 grs. Laureate,draped and cuirassed bust right seen from behind. IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS
AVG / Gordian right on horseback, hurling spear at speared lion below, advancing left. CAES ANTIOCH COL. SR to left.
SNG France 1234.
benito
gordianmedallion~0.jpg
GORDIAN III39 viewsAE 34. Antioquia (Pisidia) 238-244 AD. 21,57 grs. Laureate,draped and cuirassed bust right seen from behind. IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS
AVG / Gordian right on horseback, hurling spear at speared lion below, advancing left. CAES ANTIOCH COL. SR to left.
SNG France 1234.
benito
gordian_III_01.jpg
Gordian III Medallion from Tarsos47 viewsObv: AVT K M ANT GORDIANOC CEB PP - Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, holding spear and shield decorated with aegis.
Rev: TAPCOV MHTROPOLEWC - Gordian, radiate, on horseback right, casting javelin at lion leaping right; A/M/K and B-G in fields.
Cat #: SNG Levante 1132/3
oa
1427LG.jpg
Greek decorated guttus (oil lamp filler)69 viewsGuttus in orange terracotta with black glaze and central medallion showing a facing head, probably Apollo.

275-225 B.C. Apulian. Greek colonies of S. Italy. Maximum diameter 11.08 cms (4.37 inches).

Glaze retouched on the central medallion but intact.

Ex London trade in 2007.

Ex Lodge Antiquities

3 commentsPhiloromaos
Byblos,_450_-_410_BC_Sphinx.jpg
GREEK, Phoenicia, Byblos mint. c. 450 - 410 B.C. 21 viewsPhoenicia, Byblos mint. c. 450 - 410 B.C. Silver medallion, 0.469g, 8.0mm, F/Fair. Obv: Sphinx seated left, wearing double crown of Egypt. Rev: lightning bolt of Baal Hadad (or double lotus) in dotted circle within incuse square. Ref: Betlyon 4; SNG Cop Supp. 1208 corr. (denomination). Very rareBard Gram O
gord2~1.jpg
Hercules292 viewsThis medallion of Gordian III represents the third labour of Hercules. This labour was to capture the Hind of Cerynaea, the hind was known as Cerynitis. Eurystheus bestowed this task upon Heracles knowing full well that the animal was the sacred property of Artemis, that meant he would be committing impiety against the goddess. Artemis found a small herd of five while out hunting, she captured four to harness to her chariot, but the fifth escaped to Mount Cerynaea which borders Arcadia and Achaea. The animal was larger than a bull, brazen-hoofed also with huge golden horns or antlers of a stag.
With the hind being swift of foot it took Heracles a whole year to get close to the creature. He tracked the hind through Greece and into Thrace, (in some versions it says the chase took Heracles as far as Istria and the northern lands of the Hyperboreans). Never daunted by the long chase, Heracles was waiting for the hind to tire, this was not to be, and the hind seemed to have plenty of stamina and agility left.
Heracles knew he must disable the creature in some way, then by chance the hind stopped to drink at a river. Taking an arrow and removing the blood of the Hydra from the tip, Heracles took aim and hit the hind in the leg, making it lame, this made catching the creature much easier. Heracles bound the wound and then set off on his long journey home. On the way to the palace of Eurystheus he was met by the goddess Artemis and her twin brother Apollo. On seeing the Ceryneian Hind, the huntress accused Heracles of sacrilege. Heracles pleaded with them, saying it was a necessity to return the sacred hind to the court of king Eurystheus, as he was bound by the labor imposed on him. Artemis granted Heracles forgiveness and he was allowed to carry the hind alive to the palace.
Upon bringing the hind to Eurystheus, he was told that it was to become part of the King's menagerie. Heracles knew that he had to return the hind as he had promised, so he agreed to hand it over on the condition that Eurystheus himself come out and take it from him. The King came out, but the moment Heracles let the hind go, it sprinted back to its mistress, and Heracles left saying that Eurystheus had not been quick enough

5 commentsbenito
Kashmiri_Quran_Manuscript_A001.JPG
Illuminated Kashmiri Qur'an, 19th Century8 viewsA leaf from a Qur'an, Kashmir, 19th Century, Manuscripts on gold sprinkled paper, with fourteen lines of black Naskh script within gold rules, illuminated marginal medallions, Sura headings in white within gold panels (240 x 145 mm. or 9.45" x 5.7")SpongeBob
Qajar_Quran_Manuscript_A002.JPG
Illuminated Qur'an Manuscript: Early Qajar Persia (AH 1224/1809-10 AD) Anonymous Scribe7 viewsAn Illuminated manuscript leaf from a large Koran on polish ivory paper measuring 310x190 mm with twelve lines of black naskh script between gold rules, gold roundels between verses, Sura headings in red on gold panels with polychrome floral spandrels, red Persian interlinear translation, extensive marginal commentary within gold clouds, elsewhere in the form of Cyprus trees and finial shapes and magnificent medallions in gold in filled with polychrome. SpongeBob
Qajar_Quran_Manuscript_A001.JPG
Illuminated Qur'an Manuscript: Early Qajar Persia (AH 1224/1809-10 AD) Anonymous Scribe19 viewsAn Illuminated manuscript leaf from a large Koran on polish ivory paper measuring 310x190 mm with twelve lines of black naskh script between gold rules, gold roundels between verses, Sura headings in red on gold panels with polychrome floral spandrels, red Persian interlinear translation, extensive marginal commentary within gold clouds, elsewhere in the form of Cyprus trees and finial shapes and magnificent medallions in gold in filled with polychrome. SpongeBob
Qajar_Quran_Manuscript_A003.JPG
Illuminated Qur'an Manuscript: Early Qajar Persia (AH 1224/1809-10 AD) Anonymous Scribe11 viewsAn Illuminated manuscript leaf from a large Koran on polish ivory paper measuring 310x190 mm with twelve lines of black naskh script between gold rules, gold roundels between verses, Sura headings in red on gold panels with polychrome floral spandrels, red Persian interlinear translation, extensive marginal commentary within gold clouds, elsewhere in the form of Cyprus trees and finial shapes and magnificent medallions in gold in filled with polychrome.
SpongeBob
Qajar_Quran_Manuscript_A004.JPG
Illuminated Qur'an Manuscript: Early Qajar Persia (AH 1224/1809-10 AD) Anonymous Scribe13 viewsAn Illuminated manuscript leaf from a large Koran on polish ivory paper measuring 310x190 mm with twelve lines of black naskh script between gold rules, gold roundels between verses, Sura headings in red on gold panels with polychrome floral spandrels, red Persian interlinear translation, extensive marginal commentary within gold clouds, elsewhere in the form of Cyprus trees and finial shapes and magnificent medallions in gold in filled with polychrome. SpongeBob
Qajar_Quran_Manuscript_B003.JPG
Illuminated Qur'an Manuscript: Early Qajar Persia (AH 1263/1846-47 AD), Scribed by Muhammad 'Ali ibn Muhammad Baqir4 viewsA leaf from a large Koran, Qajar Iran, AH 1263 (1846-7 AD) on fine paper (345 x 200 mm.) There are fifteen lines of black naskh script, gold rosettes between verses, sura headings in red on illuminated panels, large polychrome medallions in borders, borders ruled in gold, red Persian interlinear translation, colophon signed by the scribe Muhammad 'Ali ibn Muhammad Baqir, Persian translation dated 1263.

Passages from Surah Al-Infitar (The Cleaving) Verses 82:2 to 82:19 and Surah Al-Mutaffifin (The Defrauding) Verses 83:1 onward...
SpongeBob
Qajar_Quran_Manuscript_B002.JPG
Illuminated Qur'an Manuscript: Early Qajar Persia (AH 1263/1846-47 AD), Scribed by Muhammad 'Ali ibn Muhammad Baqir2 viewsA leaf from a large Koran, Qajar Iran, AH 1263 (1846-7 AD) on fine paper (345 x 200 mm.) There are fifteen lines of black naskh script, gold rosettes between verses, sura headings in red on illuminated panels, large polychrome medallions in borders, borders ruled in gold, red Persian interlinear translation, colophon signed by the scribe Muhammad 'Ali ibn Muhammad Baqir, Persian translation dated 1263.

Passages from the Surah Az-Zukhruf (The Ornaments of Gold). Verses 43:23 onward...
SpongeBob
Qajar_Quran_Manuscript_B001.JPG
Illuminated Qur'an Manuscript: Early Qajar Persia (AH 1263/1846-47 AD), Scribed by Muhammad 'Ali ibn Muhammad Baqir10 viewsA leaf from a large Koran, Qajar Iran, AH 1263 (1846-7 AD) on fine paper (345 x 200 mm.) There are fifteen lines of black naskh script, gold rosettes between verses, sura headings in red on illuminated panels, large polychrome medallions in borders, borders ruled in gold, red Persian interlinear translation, colophon signed by the scribe Muhammad 'Ali ibn Muhammad Baqir, Persian translation dated 1263.

Passages from the Surah Az-Zukhruf (The Ornaments of Gold). Verses 43:23 onward...



SpongeBob
Safavid_Quran_Manuscript_A001.JPG
Illuminated Qur'an Manuscript: Safavid Persia (ca. 1575 AD) Anonymous Scribe11 viewsA leaf from an illuminated Safavid Koran, Persia, circa 1575 A.D., Arabic manuscript on paper, (155 x 90 mm.) There are twelve lines of text to the page in black strong hand of Naskhi script with full vowels and diacritical signs, gold ruled borders, sura headings in white ornamental ruja' script on a gold ground within illuminated panels, blue centered gold roundels mark the 5th and 10th verses and marginal annotations in gold and red and poly-chromed marginal medallions. Verso: twelve lines of text to the page in black strong hand of Naskhi script with full vowels and diacritical signs, gold ruled borders, sura headings in white ornamental ruja' script on a gold ground within illuminated panels, blue centered gold roundels mark the 5th and 10th verses and marginal annotations in gold and red and poly-chromed marginal medallions.
SpongeBob
IMGP0382Paktdrcombo.jpg
Indo-Parthians: Pakoros, mid to late 1st cent. AD, Gondopharid Dynasty29 viewsAE unit, 10,26gr, 26mm;
Senior 269 1aT
mint: unknown in Arachiosa, axis: 13h;
obv.: bust, left, w/diadem and 2 ribbons linked at end; large tuft of top hair, large bunch of curls in back of neck, mustache, med.-long beard; 2-stand necklace w/center medallion; padded (?) shoulder armor; around rim Greek legend: BAΣIΛE ... rest barely legible;
rev: winged Nike, standing right, holding out diadem; ‘gi’ in Karoshti to left, ‘pu’ to right; around rim Karoshti legend;
black surfaces on both sides;

ex: CNG e-Auction 409, # 358; ex: Dr. Wilfried Pieper Collection.
1 commentsSchatz
john_I_s1792.jpg
John I Tzimisces, miliaresion; Sear 17929 viewsJohn I Tzimisces 969-976, Constantinople, 2.14g, AR miliaresion. Cross crosslet on globe above two steps, bust of John in small medallion in center / IWANN' / EN XW AVEO / CRAT' EVSEb' / bASILEVS RWMAIW' in 5 lines. Sear 1792. Podiceps
Domna_Ceres.JPG
Julia Domna129 viewsJULIA DOMNA, wife of Septimius Severus, 193-217
Sestertius, late 195-early 196. AE 18.89 g. IVLIA - AVGVSTA Draped bust r., the hair in a large bun on the back of the head. Rev. CE-RES / S - C Ceres, wearing long dress and veil, standing facing, head turned l., holding long torch with her l. hand, ears in her lowered r. hand over burning round altar. RIC 848

CERES is a comparatively common type on sestertii, so must fall before the drastic cutback in the production of sestertii early in 198, and indeed even before the preliminary cutback of sestertius production in mid-196.

Its date is beyond question late 195-early 196, since CERES is the type that appeared on Julia's New Year's issue of large bronze medallions and asses for 1 January 196. In the course of 196, after defeating Albinus on 19 Feb. 196 (not 197 as all the books say), Septimius cancelled the annual New Year's issues of medallions and asses, so that none at all were issued for 1 Jan. 197 or 198.

The misdating of Julia's CERES type to 198 that appears in various resources is due to P.V. Hill, whose work on the Severan coinage is largely mere guesswork and therefore often grossly mistaken. It is a shame that Hill's largely erroneous dates have now been taken over as fact and so given wide currency by David Sear in his new Roman Coins and Their Values!

I was able to establish the true chronology of the coinage of 193-8 in my Oxford thesis of 1972, which Hill couldn't of course consult for his first edition of 1964, and didn't consult for his second edition of 1977, though the Coin Room at the BM has a copy.

This CERES sestertius is no. 1761 in my die catalogue, obv. 453, rev. 661, other specimens in BM 764, Glasgow, Paris, and Naples.

Obv. die 453 is interesting, because it was used first with the CERES rev. die 661, like this coin; then with all five recorded MATRI CASTRORVM dies, this type coming from this obv. die only on sestertii; and finally with an early rev. die of the next normal type, HILARITAS.

HILARITAS of 196 was the last comparatively common sestertius rev. type of Julia's early coinage; then came the preliminary cutback, and the next three types, DIANA LVCIFERA, IVNO REGINA, and VESTAE SANCTAE, were considerably scarcer. Thereafter came the drastic cutback early in 198. (Curtis Clay)
3 commentsAuer
julianosiliqua.jpg
JULIAN II45 viewsAR siliqua. Lugdunum 361 AD. 1,72 grs. 6 h. Pearl-diademed,draped and cuirassed bust right. D N IVLIANVS AVG / VOT V MVLT X in four lines within wreath with medallion at top. LVG in exergue.
RIC 229. Bastien, Monnage de Lyon 272. Cohen -
benito
julianosiliqua~0.jpg
JULIAN II26 viewsAR siliqua. Lugdunum 361 AD. 1,72 grs. 6 h. Pearl-diademed,draped and cuirassed bust right. D N IVLIANVS AVG / VOT V MVLT X in four lines within wreath with medallion at top. LVG in exergue.
RIC - Cohen -
1 commentsbenito
FriedrichWilhellm_Medallion.jpg
Kronprinz Friedrich Wilhelm AE60 Medallion55 views60.2mm, 77.8g
Obv: his bare head right, FRIEDRICH WILHELM KRONPRINZ VON PREUSSEN * PROTECTOR *
Rev: Germania standing, facing with figures representing the trades to either side. "Allgemeine Deutsche Gewerbe und Industrie Ausstellung Wittenberg"
1 commentsareich
lesbos_carac.jpg
Lesbos, Mytilene. Caracalla AE3516 viewsLesbos, Mytilene. AE35 (Medallion?), 21.15gr. Caracalla(198-217).Obv. – Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of young Caracalla - AYT KA MAR AY ANTWNEINOC;
Rev. – Nike riding in biga with two horses to left, holding palm branch(?) - EPI STRA POIOY LEONTEWC MYTILHNAIWN.  BMC 13 S209,211
Very rare, probably the second or third known
maxthrax
Marcus_Aurelius_Paduan_Medal.JPG
Marcus Aurelius Paduan Medal277 viewsPaduan Medal.
Marcus Aurelius. After Giovanni Cavino. 1500-1570. Æ “Medallion”
Obverse: Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Reverse: Victory seated right, inscribing VIC AVG on shield, trophy before her.
Klawans 2.
Later electrotype from the original Paduan dies.
36mm, 28.86 gm
Ex. CNG 144 lot 368

2 commentsJerome Holderman
fantasy2b.jpg
Medallion21 viewsWhite metal, 10.69 gr., 32 mm, die-axis 12.jmuona
sest1b.jpg
Medallion19 viewsLate cast of a Paduan medallion. 31.69 gr., max 36 mm, die axis 6. The piece is in reality deep brown in colour.jmuona
Sev_Alex_and_Mamaea_Med_Sest.jpg
Medallion showing facing busts of Severus Alexander and Mamaea27 viewsObverse: (IMPSE)VALEXANDERAVGIULIAMAMAEAAVG
Busts face to face of Severus Alexander laureate (seen from the front), slightly bearded, draped and cuirassed and Julia Mamaea draped wearing stephane, left hair in waves
MAT(AVG) below busts
Reverse: AEQVITAS AVGVS(TI)
The three Monetae draped , standing front, holding, each, scales in right hand and cornucopiae in left; the Monetae left and right have head turned left; to left of each Moneta small pile of coins(?) or die (?)
BMC 556*, RIC 316
Weight, 28.522g; Die axis, 12h

mix_val
IMGP0048Mith3brcombo.jpg
Mithradates III. 57 - 54 BC21 viewsAE 14, 2,2gr., 14,28mm;
Sellw.40.19, Shore 207;
mint: Ekbatana, axis : 12h;
obv.: bare-headed, left, w/diadem; medium-long hair in 5 waves, mustache, short beard; segmented necklet w/ central medallion;
rev.: horse’s head, right, framed by 7-line illegible legend;

ex: Canmoose, CAN.
Schatz
IMGP3258Mith3combo.jpg
Mithradates III. 57 - 54 BC10 viewsAR dr., 4,07gr, 20,7mm; Sellwood 41.14var., Shore --, Sunrise --;
mint: Court at Ekbatana, axis: 11:30h;
obv.: bare-headed, left, w/broad diadem, knot and 3 ribbons; medium-long hair in 4 waves, mustache, short beard; segmented necklace w/center medallion; star in right upper field; dotted border 11:30 to 14h;
rev.: archer, right, on throne, w/bow in one hand and monogram below bow; 8-line legend: BΛCIΛEΩretrograde C BΛCIΛEΩN ΛPCΛKoV M(E)ΓΛΛoV ΔIKΛIoV EΠIΦΛNoV(Σ) ΘEoVEVΠΛToPoC ΦIΛEΛΛHNoC;

ex: Pars Coins, ex: Triskeles Auction 6.
Schatz
IMGP3248Mith3combo.jpg
Mithradates III., 57 - 54 BC12 viewsAR dr., 4,03gr, 20,2mm; Sellwood 41.8var., Shore --, Sunrise ---;
mint: Court at Rhagai; axis: 14h;
obv.: bare-headed, left, w/broad diadem and 3 ribbons; medium-long hair in 4 waves, mustache, short beard; segmented necklace w/center medallion; cuirass; dotted border 8 to 16h;
rev.: archer, right, on throne, w/bow in one hand, monogram under bow; behind the top of the throne a second monogram, a circle dissected by a vertical line; 8-line legend: BΛCIΛEΩΣ BΛCIΛEΩN APΣΛKoV MEΓΛoV ΔIKΛIoV ΘEoVEVΠΛT(o)P(o)Σ ΦIΛEΛΛΗ(N)oC;
in: Parthika.fr, Les Différents Types;

ex: Javeed, UK.
Schatz
IMGP3256Mith3combo.jpg
Mithradates III., 57 - 54 BC10 viewsAR dr., 3,95gr, 20,8mm; Sellwood 41.16, Shore --, Sunrise --;
mint: Mithradatkart, axis: 12h;
obv.: bare-headed, left, w/3-tier diadem and 3 ribbons; medium-long hair in 5 waves, mustache, short beard; segmented necklace w/center medallion; in upper right field crescent above star; dotted border 9 to 15h;
rev.: archer, right, on throne, w/bow in one hand and monogram below bow; 8-line legend: PΛCIΛEΩC (B)ΛC(I)ΛEωN ΛPCΛKoV MEΓΛ(o)V the 2 bottom lines and the 2 lines on the left side are very garbled;

ex: H. Lanz, Germany
Schatz
IMGP3250Mith3combo.jpg
Mithradates III., 57 - 54 BC17 viewsAR dr., 4,09gr, 19mm; Sellwood 41.2 (?), Shore --, Sunrise --;
mint: Ekbatana, axis: 12h;
obv.: bare-headed, left, w/broad diadem, 3 ribbons; medium-long hair, mustache, short, wavy beard; segmented necklace w/center medallion; dotted border 14:30 to 15:30; in the right upper field are traces of erasure of possibly a star, which would make this coin a Sellwood 41.12ff. type. The portrait also resembles those of some of the S.41.12ff. coinage.
rev.: archer, right, on throne, w/bow in one hand, monogram below bow; 8-line legend: BΛCIΛCΩ(Σ) BΛCIΛCΩN ΛPCΛ(KOY) MEΓΛoV ΔIKΛIOV EΠIΦΛN(OYΣ) ΘEOVEVΠΛTOP(OΣ) ΦIΛEΛΛHN(OΣ);
Schatz
IMGP0060Mith3brcombo.jpg
Mithradates III., 57 - 54 BC14 viewsAE16, 3,70gr., 16,44mm;
Sellw. 41.20, Shore 208;
mint: Rhagai, axis: 12mm;
obv.: bare-headed, left, w/diadem and ribbons joined at the end;medium-long hair in 4 waves, mustache, short beard; segmented necklace w/center medallion; star (or sun) in upper right field; dotted border 11 - 17:30h;
rev.: elephant standing, right, framed by 8-line legend: BACIΛEC BACIΛEΩN APCAKoV MEΓAΛoV ΔIKAIoV EΠIΦANoVC ΘEoV EVΠAToPoC ΦIΛEΛΛHNoC;

ex: G. Clark, VA.
Schatz
IMGP3246Mith3combo.jpg
Mithradates III., 57 - 54 BC16 viewsAR dr., 4,08gr., 21mm; Sellwood 41.5, Shore 200, Sunrise 356 (Mithradates IV.);
mint: Mithradatkart (?), axis: 12h;
obv.: bare-headed. left, w/broad diadem, knot and 3 ribbons (connected at the end); medium-long hair in 5 waves, mustache, medium-long beard in 3 rows of curls; segmented necklace w/center medallion; cuirass; dotted border 11 to 17h;
rev.: archer, right, on throne, w/bow in one hand, monogram below bow; 8(?)-line legend on previously used flan: BΛCIΛ(EΩΣ) BΛCIΛ(EΩN) the 2 lines on the right side are illegible, CIIHVretrogradeNV ΛI retrograde NVo (for: ΔIKAIOY?) ΘEoVEΠΛTC (K)ΛIΦIΛEΛΛHNo ;

ex: H. Lanz, Germany.
Schatz
IMGP3254Mith3combo.jpg
Mithradates III., 57 - 54 BC 9 viewsAR dr., 4,00gr, 19,6mm, Sellwood 41.12 or 14, Shore 201or 202, Sunrise --;
mint: Court at Rhagai or Ekbatana, axis: 12h;
obv.: bare headed, left, w/broad diadem, knot and 3 ribbons; medium-long hair in 4 waves, mustache, short beard; segmented necklace w/center medallion; star in upper right field; dotted border 9 to 14:30h;
rev.: archer, right, on throne, w/bow in one hand and monogram below bow; partial 8-line legend: BΛCIΛEΩC BΛCIΛEΩN ΛRCΛK(OY) MEΓΛΛ(OY) EΠIΦΛNo(YΣ) 6th line off flan ΘEoVEΠΛToP(OΣ) KΛIΦIΛEΛΛΗ(NOΣ);

ex: D. Grotjohann, Germany.
Schatz
IMGP0053Mith3brcombo.jpg
Mithradates III., 57 - 54 BC14 viewsAE 16, 3,28gr., 16,24mm;
Sellw. 41.20, Shore 208;
mint: Rhagai, axis 12h;
obv.: bare-headed, left, w/diadem and 3 ribbons; medium-long hair in waves, mustache, short beard; segmented necklet w/center medallion; star (or sun) in upper right field; rev.: elephant standing right, 7-line illegible legend;

ex: CNG at Baltimore Coin Show.
Schatz
nikopolis_geta_HrJJ8_22_9_5.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 22. Geta, HrHJ (2018) 8.22.09.0519 viewsGeta, AD 209-212
AE 28, 13.43g, 27.66mm, 195°
struck under governor Flavius Ulpianus
obv. [AVT] KP CE - [P] GETAC [AV]
Bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind, laureate, r.
rev. V FL OVLPIAN - N - IKOPOLIT / PROC I
Nike, wingted, in double chiton, advancing l., holding in l. arm palmbranch and in extended r. hand
unknown object
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1669, pl. XVI, no.12 (4 ex., Bukarest, Sofia, Turin, Wien)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3298 (same dies)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.22.9.5 (same dies)
F/F+, dark green patina

Pick, p. 341: "The attribute is suggested to be an open wreath. But that is barely possible. Some similar is found on medallions of Perinthos where Serapis is holding two of these objects on a ribbon over an altar (Ex.: Gotha; Mus. Hunter; London cat. 153, 39; Mailand; Paris Mionnet 1, 400, 302; Wien); for this type, seen on a coin of the Bithynian city of Kios too, a plausible explanation is found neither."
Take a look at the discussion on FAC under the title "So what IS she holding?"!

Jochen
IMGP3634Phr_Mcombo.jpg
Musa and Phraatakes, 2 - 4 AD48 viewsAR dr., 3,66gr, 18,8mm; Sellwood 58.9, Shore 324, Sunrise 404;
mint: Ekbatana; axis: 12h;
obv.: bare-headed, left, w/4-layer diadem and 3 ribbons; medium-long hair in 5 waves, mustache, medium-long beard squared off at the end; multiple necklace; goddess offering diadem in left and right upper field; dotted border 8 to 14h;
rev.: female head, right, w/3-tier tiara and double diadem below, 2 loops and 2 ribbons; tiara consisting of 2 layers of decorated with different size pearls topped off by a crown-like arrangement of 3 pearls; the hair is swept over the ear to form a bun-like tuft; multiple necklaces, the top one w/a center medallion; legend in front of and behind head: MOUCHC BAC(IΛICHC) ΘEAC OYPANIA(C); mint monogram in lower left field;

ex: Stack’s, NY.
1 commentsSchatz
JCT_National_Association_for_the_Jewish_Blind_2.JPG
National Association for the Jewish Blind190 viewsAE token, 31.5 mm., undated?

Obv: ••• NATIONAL ASSOCIATION ••• and FOR THE JEWISH BLIND N.Y.C. 58 in border along rim, Light, above crowd of people reaching upward toward rays of light, in center.

Rev: THIS / MEDALLION / IS AWARDED / IN APPRECIATION / FOR YOUR AID / IN THE CAUSE /OF THE BLIND in SEVEN rows, laurel leaves along rim.

Ref: None known.

Note: No information is known about this organization.
Stkp
109102.jpg
One ugly but huge and rare coin. :)116 viewsElagabalus --AE Medallion (39-41mm, 37.72gm). Mysia, Germe. Laureate and cuirassed bust right / Herakles standing right, holding club and lion by the hind leg.

Ehling 175 (V1/R1), 1 = LIMC 5/2, 1987 (this coin); SNG France 992 = Waddington 7037 = Voegtli 2f (same dies). Very rare, one of two known specimens and the only one available to the collector. From the Garth R. Drewry Collection. Ex Mabbott Collection Part I (Hans Schulman Gallery, 6-11 June 1969), lot 1797; G. Hirsch 35 (25 June 1963), lot 956.
featherz
IMGP3391Orod2combo.jpg
Orodes II., 57 - 38 BC49 viewsAR dr., 3,58gr, 19,6mm; Sellwood 46.24, Shore -, Sunrise -;
mint: Areia; axis: 13h;
obv.: bare-headed, left, w/ broad diadem, knot and 2 broad ribbons w/closed ends; medium-long hair in 5 waves, mustache, short beard in 3 rows of dashes; necklet w/center medallion! crescent in upper right field; cuirass; reed-and-pellet border 11 to 15h; -- while the head is turned left the torso is facing!
rev.: archer, right, on seatless throne, w/bow in one hand and monogram below; 7-line legend: BACIΛ(EΩC) BACIΛE(ΩN) APCA(KOV) ΔIKAIOC EVEPΓETOC (the 2 bottom lines to be read from the outside) EΠIΦΛNOVC, (K)AIΦIΛHNO(C);


Schatz
B-commodus_01_1.jpg
Paduan Cast Copy of Commodus AE Medallion49 viewsObv: M COMMODVS ANTONINVS PIVS FELIX AVG BRIT - Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust r.
Rev: HERC COMMODIANO P M TR P XVI IMP VIII - Hercules, in the guise of Commodus, standing l., holding cornucopiae and sacrificing out of patera over lighted altar, at the side of which rests his club; to l., a tree from which hang the lion’s skin and the quiver. In exergue, COS VI P P.
Cat #: Cohen.176 (original)
Year: 191 AD (original)
1 commentsoa
IMGP4097Pak2combo.jpg
Pakoros II., 77/78 - 105 AD23 viewsAR dr., 3,75gr, 21,52mm; Sellwood 75.7, Shore 398, Sunrise 432 (Pakoros I., 78 - 120 AD); Sinisi Type VI, p. 90;
mint: Ekbatana; axis: 12h;
obv.: bare-headed, left, w/broad 4-layer diadem, double loop and 3 ribbons; med.-long hair in 3 waves, mustache, short chin beard; earring, 3-layer necklace w/medallion-like addition to the center of the bottom ring; dotted border 9:30 to 14h;
rev.: archer, right, on throne, w/bow in one outstretched hand and monogram below bow; left lower leg missing; 7 line legend: OΛIIΛE(ΛC) OΛIIΛEΛ(N) ΛPIΛͶOC ΔIXΛI OV(to be read from the inside) bottom line illegible CΠIΦΛHI IΛΛͶ;

ex: Vienna Coin Show, VA.
Schatz
Mithradates_III_FORVM.jpg
Parthia - Mithradates III (57-54 BCE)12 viewsMetal/Size: AR16; Weight: 3.9 grams; Denomination: Drachm; Mint: Ecbatana; Date: 57-54 BCE; Obverse: Short-bearded and short-haired bust left wearing double-banded diadem and segmented necklet with medallion; circular border of pellets. Reverse: Beardless archer wearing bashlyk and cloak seated right on throne, holding bow in right hand; behind archer's head, B; above throne back, T; below bow, monogram [~]; no border; seven-line Greek inscription = ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΜΕΓΑΛΟΥ ΑΡΣΑΚΟΥ ΔΙΚΑΙΟΥ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΘΕΟΥ ΕΥΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ ΦΙΛΕΛΛΗΝΟΣ (Of the) Great King Arsaces, the Just, the Noble, Friend of the Greeks. Reference: Sellwood #40.2.museumguy
Mithradates_III_FORVM~0.jpg
Parthia - Mithradates III (57-54 BCE)38 viewsMetal/Size: AR19; Weight: 4.12 grams; Denomination: Drachm; Mint: Mithradatkart; Date: 57-54 BCE; Obverse: Short-bearded, mustachioed bust of king left, wearing double-banded diadem, segmented necklet with a medallion. Hair in five rows. Reverse: Archer (Arsaces) seated right on throne, holding bow and wearing bashlyk - monogram below. Legend possibly: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΜΕΓΑΛΟΥ ΑΡΣΑΚΟΥ ΔΙΚΑΙΟΥ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΘΕΟΥ ΕΥΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ ΦΙΛΕΛΛΗΝΟΣ (Of the) Great King Arsaces, the Just, the Noble, God-like, Friend of the Greeks. Reference: Sellwood #40.3; Shore #190.1 commentsmuseumguy
Mithradates_III.jpg
Parthia - Mithradates III (57-54 BCE)10 viewsMetal/Size: AR20; Weight: 3.94 grams; Denomination: Drachm; Mint: Kangavar; Date: 57-54 BCE; Obverse: Short-bearded, mustachioed bust of king left, wearing double-banded diadem, segmented necklet with a medallion. Circular border of pellets. Reverse: Beardless archer wearing bashlyk and cloak seated right on throne, holding bow in right hand; below bow, monogram [~]; no border; seven-line Greek inscription = ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΜΕΓΑΛΟΥ ΑΡΣΑΚΟΥ ΔΙΚΑΙΟΥ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΘΕΟΥ ΕΥΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ ΦΙΛΕΛΛΗΝΟΣ ((Of the) Great King Arsaces, the Just, the Noble, God-like, Friend of the Greeks). Reference: Sellwood #40.9; Shore #197.museumguy
Mithradates_III__(57-54_BC),_AR-Drachm,_Sellwood_40_3,_Shore_190,_Q-001,0h,_19,0-20mm,_3,55g-s.jpg
Parthia, Sellwood 40.3var.(legend!), Mithradates III. (57-54 B.C.), AR-Drachm, Archer right on throne, #1120 viewsParthia, Sellwood 40.3var.(legend!), Mithradates III. (57-54 B.C.), AR-Drachm, Archer right on throne, #1
avers: Short-bearded bust left wearing double-banded diadem and segmented necklet with medallion; circular border of pellets
reverse: beardless archer wearing bashlyk and cloak seated right on throne, holding a bow in the right hand, below the bow, monogram, no border, seven-line Greek inscription: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΜΕΓΑΛΟΥ ΑΡΣΑΚΟΥ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΔΙΚΑΙΟΥ ΘΕΟΥ ΕΥΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ ΚΑΙ ΦΙΛΕΛΛΗΝ
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 19,0-20,0mm, weight: 3,55g, axes: 0h,
mint: Mithradatkart, date: 57-54 B.C., ref: Sellwood 40.3 (legend !), Shore --0,
Q-001
quadrans
Vologases-V__(191-208_AD)_Bi-Tetradrachm_Seleukia-Q-001_0h_24mm_13,12g--s.jpg
Parthia, Sellwood 87.15., Vologases V. (191-208 A.D.), BI-Tetradrachm, King left on throne, #1179 viewsParthia, Sellwood 87.15., Vologases V. (191-208 A.D.), BI-Tetradrachm, King left on throne, #1
avers: King head, left, w/multi-strand diadem, loop, and 4 ribbons, curly hair on top, side hair in a bun of concentric curls over the ear, mustache, long triangular beard, earring (?) 2-layer necklace w/central medallion, tunic/cuirass w/ornamental border.
reverse: King, left, on the throne, receiving wreath or diadem from facing goddess in a long robe, between the heads the year HΦ (194/195 AD), exergual line, partial letters around the edge.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 24mm, weight: 13,12g, axes: 0h,
mint: Seleucia, date:HΦ=194/195 A.D., ref: Sellwood 87.15, Shore 444,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
PhraatesIV-moeda1.jpg
PARTHIA/PERSIA, Phraates IV (c. 38 - 2 B.C.), AR Tetradrachm41 viewsWeight: 14.82 g
Size: 26 mm
Condition: VF/VF
Minted in Seleucia in November 50 BC (Year 362 of Seleucian Era).
Obv: bust left with pointed beard wearing diadem and segmented torque with medallion; a wart visible on
forehead;
Rev: archer seated right on throne, holding bow in right hand; below bow, monogram
Ref: Sellwood 54.1
Rarity: Common
Value: 150
Jorge C
Sellwood-41_20.jpg
Parthian Empire: Mithradates IV (58/7-55 BCE) Æ Tetrachalkon, Rhagai (Sellwood 41.20; Shore 208)16 viewsObv: Short-bearded bust left wearing double-banded diadem and segmented necklet with medallion; behind bust, star; circular border of pellets
Rev: Elephant standing right; no border; ΚΑΙ omitted from eight-line Greek inscription = ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΝ ΑΡΣΑΚΟΥ ΜΕΓΑΛΟΥ ΔΙΚΑΙΟΥ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΘΕΟΥ ΕΥΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ ΚΑΙ ΦΙΛΕΛΛΗΝΟΣ
Quant.Geek
IMGP0178PersNapcombo.jpg
Persis42 viewsManuchtir II, 2.cent. AD, AR hdr, 1,4gr., 13mm;
Alram 635, Sunrise 661, K&M --;
mint: Persepolis, axis:
obv.: bust, left, w/Parthian style tiara, diadem w/loop and 2 ribbons, tiara has 2 rows of pellets over the crest of the head and a crescent w/pellet on the side, outline of lower tiara decorated w/pellets; mustache, long pointed beard, long hair emerging from under tiara’s neck guard; necklace w/center medallion(?); tunic/cuirass; Aramaic letters on right rim;
rev.: bare-headed, left, w/diadem; similar but beardless profile to that on the obv.; 4 Aramaic letters in left field;

ex: Triskeles Auction 9, #51.
1 commentsSchatz
IMGP0182PersUnkncombo.jpg
Persis43 viewsUncertain King, 1.-2. cent. AD, AR hdr., 1,41gr.,
Alram 619var., Sunrise 646var., K&M --;
mint: Persepolis, axis: ?
obv.:head, left, w/tiara and diadem, 2 loops, ribbon, over tiara crest a row of pellets, 1 pellet on the side, long earflaps and very long neck guard; short beard, mustache; double necklace w/pellet medallion; in right field triskeles w/2 pellets above;
rev.: 2 concentric circles (diadem?) surrounded by dashes forming third circle;

ex: Pegasi Coins, Baltimore Coin Show.
1 commentsSchatz
IMGP3172Phrcombo.jpg
Phraates III., 70 - 57 BC8 viewsAR dr., 4,18gr, 20,1mm; Sellwood 38.15, Shore 178, Sunrise: --;
mint: Susa; axis: 12h;
obv.: head, left, w/broad diadem, 3 ribbons; long hair in 5 waves, mustache, long pointed beard; necklet w/center medallion; cuirass w/star on chest; complete dotted border;
rev.: archer, right, on throne, w/bow in one hand; monogram below bow; 6-line legend: BΛΣIΛEΩΣ MEΓΛΛoV APΣΛKoV (the last two letters having been moved to the right side by one letter height) EVEPΓE(ToV)(this line beginning at the level of the last letters of the previous line) EΠIIΦΛNoVΣ ΦIΛEΛΛHNo(Σ);

ex: B. Peus, Germany, auction 388/389 (ex: R. Gonnella collection);
ex: G. Hirsch, Germany, auction 176.

Schatz
IMGP3565Phr4combo.jpg
Phraates IV., 38 - 2 BC10 viewsAR dr., 3,76gr, 20,4mm; Sellwood 52.32var.(star on rev.), Shore 288, Sunrise -;
mint: Mithradatkart; axis: 12h;
obv.: bare-headed, left, w/ broad 3-layer diadem, knot and 3 ribbons; medium-long hair in 5 waves, mustache, medium-long pointed beard; warts on forehead and next to nostril; segmented necklace w/center medallion; in the right upper field eagle on line offering diadem; dotted border 12 to 16h;
rev.: archer, right, on throne, w/bow in one hand and monogram below bow, star behind throne; 6-line garbled legend visible;

ex: B. Peus Auction 388, ex: B. Peus Auction 376
Schatz
IMGP3480Phr4combo.jpg
Phraates IV., 38 - 2 BC41 viewsAR dr., 3,98gr, 20,1mm; Sellwood 51.44, Shore 275, Sunrise -;
mint: Ekbatana; axis: 11h;
obv.: bare-headed bust, left, w/ broad 4-layer diadem, loop and 3 ribbons joined at the ends; medium-long hair in 5 waves, mustache, medium-long pointed beard; segmented necklace w/center medallion; wart on forehead; cuirass w/star on chest
rev.: archer, right, on throne, w/bow in one hand and monogram below bow; 7-line legend: OACIΛEΩO OACIΛEΩV ΛPΣΛK EVEPΓETo >IKΛIoY EΠIΦANoVΣ (Φ)IΛEΛΛHNo(Σ);
a Sellwood plate coin;

ex: Baldwin’s Auction 90 (ex: David Sellwood Collection).
2 commentsSchatz
IMGP3511Phr4combo.jpg
Phraates IV., 38 - 2 BC19 viewsAR dr., 3,66gr, 21,8mm; Sellwood 52.10, Shore 276, Sunrise -;
mint: Ekbatana; axis: 13h;
obv.: bare-headed bust, left, w/ broad 4-layer diadem and 3 ribbons; medium-long hair in 5 waves, mustache, medium-long pointed beard in 3 rows of curls; segmented necklace w/center medallion; wart on forehead; cuirass; in right upper field eagle on line offering diadem; dotted border 7 to 13h;
rev.: archer, right, on throne, w/bow in one hand and monogram below bow; 7-line legend: BΛ(C)IΛEΩC BΛCI(Λ)EΩN ΛPΣΛ(KoV) ΔIKAIoV (E)VEPΓEToV (the 2 previous lines to be read from the inside) EΠIΦANoVΣ ΦIΛEΛΛHNo(Σ).
Schatz
IMGP3509Phr4combo.jpg
Phraates IV., 38 - 2 BC17 viewsAR dr., 3,58gr, 18,2mm; Sellwood 52.10, Shore 276, Sunrise -;
mint: Ekbatana; axis: 12h;
obv.: bare-headed bust, left, w/ broad 4-layer diadem and 3 ribbons joined at the ends; medium-long hair in 5 waves, mustache, long beard squared off at the tip; segmented necklace w/center medallion; wart on forehead; cuirass; in right upper field eagle offering diadem; stern looking face, transition to the Eastern looking series from Ekbatana;
rev.: archer, right, on legless and seatless throne, w/bow in one hand and monogram below bow; 7-line legend: BAΣIΛEΩΣ BΛΣIΛEΩN APΣAKoV ΔIKAIoV EVEPΓETo(V) (the 2 previous lines to be read from the inside) EΠIΦANoVC (ΦI)ΛEΛΛHN(oC);

ex: H. Lanz, Germany.
Schatz
IMGP3548Phr4combo.jpg
Phraates IV., 38 - 2 BC9 viewsAR dr., 3,23gr, 19,7mm; Sellwood 52.21, Shore -, Sunrise -;
mint: Susa; axis: 13:h;
obv.: bare-headed, left, w/ broad 4-layer diadem and 4 ribbons; medium-long hair in 5 waves, mustache, medium-long shaped beard; segmented necklace w/center medallion; in the right upper field eagle on line offering diadem; dotted border 10 to 15h;
rev.: archer, right, on throne, w/bow in one hand and monogram below bow, second bow; 7-line legend; BΛCIΛEΩC(mostly off flan) BΛCIΛEΩ(N) APCΛVo(V) CICIΓCOV ΔIKΛIoV (the 2 bottom lines to be read from the inside) (E)ΠIΦΛNVC (ΦIΛ)EΛΛHNCC;

ex: Civitas Gallery, ex: Numismatic Fine Arts, USA.
Schatz
IMGP3546Phr4combo.jpg
Phraates IV., 38 - 2 BC28 viewsAR dr., 3,63gr, 18,35mm; Sellwood 52.22, Shore -, Sunrise -;
mint: Susa; axis: 12h;
obv.: bare-headed, left, w/ broad 4-layer diadem and 3 ribbons; medium-long hair in 5 waves, mustache, medium-long shaped beard; wart on forehead; segmented necklace w/center medallion; in the right upper field eagle on line offering diadem; dotted border 11 to 14h;
rev.: archer, right, on throne, w/bow in one hand and monogram below bow, monogram H behind head; 6-line legend visible; OACIΛEΛC OACIΛE(ΛN) (E)VEIΓETOV ΔIKΛIOV (the 2 bottom lines to be read from the inside) EΠIΦANOYC (Φ)IΛEΛΛHNOC;

ex: Indus Valley Coins, UK.
1 commentsSchatz
IMGP3558Phr4combo.jpg
Phraates IV., 38 - 2 BC13 viewsAR dr., 3,77gr, 19,7mm; Sellwood 52.31var.(exergual line), Shore -, Sunrise -;
mint: court at Susa; axis: 14:30h;
obv.: bare-headed, left, w/ broad 4-layer diadem and 4 ribbons; medium-long hair in 5 waves, mustache, medium-long shaped beard; wart on forehead; segmented necklace w/center medallion; in the right upper field eagle on line offering diadem; dotted border 13:30 to 14h;
rev.: archer, right, on throne, w/bow in one hand and monogram below bow; 6-line legend visible; 1. line off flan, IΛCIΛCΩ(C) IΛCIΛCΩN ΛICIΛO CVCIΓ(rest off flan) ΔIKΛIOV (the last 2 lines to be read from the inside) EΠIΦANO(VC) outside left line off flan; very large straight exergual line;

ex: H. Hass, Germany.
Schatz
IMGP3581Phr4combo.jpg
Phraates IV., 38 - 2 BC11 viewsAR dr., 3,67gr, 18,8mm; Sellwood 53.6var.(obv. star removed) , Shore -, Sunrise -;
mint: Rhagai; axis: 14:30h;
obv.: bare-headed, left, w/ broad 4-layer diadem, loop and 3 ribbons; medium-long hair in 5 waves, mustache, medium-long beard squared off at the tip; warts on forehead and next to nostril; segmented necklace w/center medallion; in the right upper field eagle on dotted line offering diadem, the star in the left upper field has been removed; dotted border 12 to 14h;
rev.: archer, right, on throne, w/bow in one hand and monogram below bow, star behind throne; 6-line garbled legend visible;
Schatz
IMGP3567Phr4combo.jpg
Phraates IV., 38 - 2 BC13 viewsAR dr., 3,91gr, 19,4mm; Sellwood 52.32/33var.(symbol behind head on rev.), Shore 288var.(same), Sunrise 395;
mint: Mithradatkart; axis: 12h;
obv.: bare-headed, left, w/ broad 3-layer diadem and 3 ribbons; medium-long hair in 5 waves, mustache, short pointed beard in 2 rows of curls; warts on forehead and next to nostril; segmented necklace w/center medallion; in the right upper field eagle on line offering diadem; dotted border 12 to 15:30h;
rev.: archer, right, on throne, w/bow in one hand and monogram below bow, star behind throne, large σ above bow; 7-line legend visible: BΛCIΛEΩ(C) IΛCIΛEΩN, the following 4 lines are garbled, (ΦI)ΛCΛΛNN(OC);

ex: H. Hass, Germany.
Schatz
IMGP3569Phr4combo~0.jpg
Phraates IV., 38 - 2 BC11 viewsAR dr., 3,71gr, 19,4mm; Sellwood 52.35, Shore -, Sunrise -;
mint: Rhagai; axis: 12h;
obv.: bare-headed, left, w/ broad 3-layer diadem, loop and 3 ribbons; medium-long hair in 5 waves, mustache, short pointed beard in 4 rows of curls; wart on forehead; segmented necklace w/center medallion; in the right upper field eagle on dotted line offering diadem; faint dotted border 10:30 to 15:30h;
rev.: archer, right, on throne, w/bow in one vise-like hand, monogram below bow, crescent behind head; 7-line partial legend visible: (BΛC)IΛEΩ(C) BACIΛEΩ(N), the remaining lines are broken up;
in: Parthika.fr, Les Différents Types;

ex: B. Peus Auction 388.
Schatz
IMGP3575Phr4combo.jpg
Phraates IV., 38 - 2 BC21 viewsAR dr., 3,89gr, 19,7mm; Sellwood 53 type, Shore -, Sunrise -;
mint: Areia; axis: 12h;
obv.: bare-headed, left, w/broad diadem and 3 ribbons; medium-long hair in 5 waves, mustache, short beard; wart on forehead; necklace w/center medallion; in the right upper field eagle, in the left a star; dotted border 7:30 to 14:30h;
rev.: archer, right, on throne, w/bow in one hand, monogram below bow, eagle w/diadem behind head; 7-line totally garbled legend;

Schatz
VII_Sacrifice_Cldc_medallion.jpg
PMTRP VII Sacrif Cldc med83 viewsObverse: IMPCAESMAVRSEVALEXANDERAVG
Bust laureate right, draped and cuirassed
Reverse: P_MTRPVII_COSII_PP, SC left and right, low in field
Severus Alexander, laureate, togate, standing front, head left, sacrificing out of patera in right hand over ligted tripod left and holding scroll in left hand at side
Cf. BMC 467 (normal weight), RIC 484
Weight, 24.85g; die axis, 12h.
medallion size flan
3 commentsmix_val
VIII_Medallion_Dsd.jpg
PMTRP VIIII Dlsd, Decennalia issue 59 viewsObverse: IMPSEVALE_XANDERAVG
Bust laureate right, left shoulder slightly draped
Reverse: P_MTRP VIIII round edge, COS III PP in ex. S and C low in field, l and r, respectively.
Severus Alexander, obverse Dlsd, and reverse seated on Curule chair holding Victory in r. hand and long sceptre in l, crowned by Victory, naked to the waist, holding palm-branch in l. hand; before him, Virtus helmeted in military dress, standing front head turned back r., resting r. hand on shield, inscribed VOT X, set on cippus, and holding parazonium in l. hand.
BMC 667-8, RIC 510
Weight, 12.61g; die axis, 12h.
1 commentsmix_val
Probus Medallion Cast Obv_S.jpg
Probus Medallion (UNIFACE PLASTER CAST)90 viewsObv:- IMP PROBVS AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right, holding pugio, cuirass decrated with Medusa

UNIFACE PLASTER CAST
1 commentsmaridvnvm
Kronprinz_Friedrich_Wilhelm_AE60_Medallion_.jpeg
Prussia: Kronprinz Friedrich Wilhelm & Wittenberg expo46 viewsKronprinz Friedrich Wilhelm AE60 Medallion. 60.2mm, 77.8g
Obv: his bare head right, FRIEDRICH WILHELM KRONPRINZ VON PREUSSEN * PROTECTOR * Rev: Germania standing, facing with figures representing the trades to either side. "Allgemeine Deutsche Gewerbe und Industrie Ausstellung Wittenberg". Ex Barry & Darling. Ex areich, photo credit areich
Podiceps
Septimius_Severus_AE45_medallion_of_Acrasus,_Lydia.jpg
Roman Empire / Emperor Septimius Severus AE45 medallion of Acrasus, Lydia.38 viewsSeptimius Severus AE45 medallion of Acrasus, Lydia. 43.5 gr.

AYT KAI L CEP CEOYHROC PER, laureate, draped cuirassed bust
right, countermark of Artemis Ephesia standing facing (Howgego 234.)
EPI CTRA ONHCIPFOROY APOLL TO B AKRACIWTWN (or [2] EPI CTR
FILODHMOY NOYMERIANOY AKRACIWTWN), Biga of stags right
with statue of Artemis Ephesia standing half right with supports.

SNG von Aulock 2883; Hirsch Collection 1571; [2] SNG Cop 6.

Coin is listed at Wildwinds.

From the Sam Mansourati Collection.
Sam
antinoi.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE PROVINCIAL, Antinous Medallion937 viewsHadrian favourite,Antinous,Medallion 40 gr,39 mm,very fine condition,very rare8 commentsjames
020O~0.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE PROVINCIAL, Commodus AE36 Medallion107 viewsHierocaesarea mint
Magistrate (archon) Artemidoros
BMC Lydia -, SNG Cop -, SNGvA -, Imhoof-Blumer -
24.976 g, maximum diameter 36.4mm, die axis 180o,
Obverse AVT KAI Λ AVPH KOMMO∆O, laureate and cuirassed bust right;
Reverse ΕΠΙ[...]ΟΥ[...] ΑΡΤΕΜΙ∆ΟΡΟΥ ΑΡΧ[...] ΙΕΡΟΚΑΙCΑΡΕΩΝ, Artemis standing half-right wearing chiton; Leto standing half-left holding patera; Apollo standing half-left, naked, resting left hand on lyre; nice armored bust.

An interesting reverse depicting a mythological scene: Leto and her children Artemis and Apollo. The two were fathered by Zeus, arousing Hera's jealousy. Leto was banned from giving birth on earth or sea, but found the island of Delos, which supposedly was not connected to either.

(all notes from FORVM website)

Extremely rare with no other specimens found on Wildwinds.com, acsearch.info or coinarchives.com, or in Loebbecke, Scholz or all the Imhoof additions.

[One same size, same obv. die as {this coin}, same magistrate (archon) Artemidoros, but different rev. type (river god reclining), in RPC temp. (online) 8174 = Peus 365, 2000, Burstein 696, there stated to be unpublished and apparently unique.

(Many thanks to Mr. Curtis Clay and Ms. Dane Kurth "Helvetica" for further information)
3 commentsMark Z
Commodus_Bronze_Medaillon.jpg
Roman Empire, Commodus, Bronze Medallion127 viewsObv. M AUREL COMMODUS ANTONINVS AVG PIVS, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev. P M TR P VIIII IMP VI COS IIII P P / TEMPORVM FELICITAS, Pomona seated right, holding corn ears and poppy in left hand, right hand raised to grapevine, below which two children in tub, and a third at feet of goddess.
Mint: Rome, 183 AD.

40mm 65.92g

Ex Tradart Sale 21, 15th February 2018, Lot 139.
Ex Ars Classica XVIII, Lucerne 1938, Lot 292.
Ex Dr. Jacob Hirsch, Auction 18, 27th May 1907, Lot 1031.
Ex Collection Dr. Friedrich Imhoof-Blumer.

Pomona, a goddess among the Romans, presiding over fruit -trees. Her worship was of long standing at Rome, where there was a Flamen Pomonalis who sacrificed to her every year for the preservation of the fruit. She lived in the time of Procas, king of Alba, devoted to the culture of gardens, to which she confined herself and shunning all society with the male deities.
Vertumnus, under various shapes, tried to win her hand, sometimes he came as a reaper, sometimes as a haymaker, another time as a ploughman or a wine-dresser, a soldier and a fisherman, but to equally little purpose. At length, under the guise of an old woman, he won the confidence of the goddess. And, by enlarging on the evils of a single life and the blessings of the wedded state, by launching out into the praises of Vertumnus, and relating a tale of the punishment of female cruelty to a lover, he moved the heart of Pomona; whereupon, resuming his real form, he obtained the hand of the no longer reluctant nymph.

Felicitas Temporum ("Prosperity of the Times"), reflecting a Golden Age ideology, was among the innovative virtues that began to appear during the reigns of Trajan and Antoninus Pius. Septimius Severus, whose reign followed the exceedingly brief tenure of Pertinax and unsatisfactory conditions under Commodus, used coinage to express his efforts toward restoring the Pax Romana, with themes such as Felicitas Temporum and Felicitas Saeculi, "Prosperity of the Age" (saeculum), prevalent in the years 200 to 202. Some Imperial coins use these phrases with images of women and children in the emperor's family.
6 commentskc
Picture_6~8.png
ROMAN EMPIRE, Constantine I, RIC VII 1915 viewsCONSTANTINE I. 307-337 AD. Æ Follis (13mm 0.9gms). Constantinople mint.
Obv: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, laureate head right.
Rev: SPES PVBLIC across field, labarum, with three medallions on drapery and crowned by a christogram, spearing serpent.
13mm 0.9gms
RIC VII 19.

This is a small coin that I purchased with other coins from a UK metal detectorist. It was found in North Yorkshire UK.
jessvc1
Gallienus~0.jpg
Roman Empire, Gallienus Antoninian - unpublished328 viewsGallienus AR-Antoninianus, struck at Milan mint.
Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate bust with bare back and large aegis on strap left.
Rev: VIRTVS AVGG, Hercules standing right, holding club and lion skin.
Ø 20-24 mm 3.12 g.
Not in RIC and Göbl, apparently unpublished.

Curtis Clay and his friend Markus Weder kindly provided me with some additional information:
"Other examples of this rare bust type on Milan coins of the same issue: Göbl pl. 82, 1034u (rev. MARTI PACIFE, P in l. field); pl. 84, 1044u (rev. VIRTVS AVGG, Hercules stg. l. holding branch, club, and lionskin). Neither ill. spec. is from the same obv. die as your coin.
Other AVGG coins of the same issue at Milan: pl. 84, 1044u, just cited; 1045o (apparently from the same VIRTVS AVGG rev. die, different sort of armored obv. die). Pl. 72, 937z (ADVENTVS AVGG Emp. on horseback, obv. of Saloninus as Caesar). Pl. 71, 929r (bronze medallion, ADLOCVTIO AVGG Emp. and two attendants on platform addressing troops)." Markus Weder knows of just one other specimen of my coin, ex Gibraltar hoard, it is in his own collection.
Pscipio
Severus_Alexander_Bimetallic_Medaillon_2.jpg
Roman Empire, Severus Alexander, Bimetallic Medaillon91 viewsObv. IMP CAES M AVREL SEV ALEXANDER PIVS FELIX AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left, seen from behind.
Rev. PONTIF MAX TR P V COS II P P, Alexander on quadriga right, holding eagle-tipped scepter and olive branch, crowned by Victory.
Mint: Rome, 226 AD.

38mm 41.44g

Cohen 481?


Curtis Clay

"A spectacular acquisition!

I know of two other specimens of this medallion:

(1) In ANS, ex Newell Coll.; ex Naville X, 1926, 1765; ex Hirsch 29, 1910, Herzfelder Coll., 1221; ex Sotheby, 29 June 1893, Hermann Weber Coll., 230; doubtless ex Northwick Sale, 1860, 333 (description only). Published by Toynbee, Roman Medallions, p. 85, note 103 and Fagerlie, ANS Medallions, Museum Notes 15, 1969, p. 82.

From the same dies as yours, 55.14g, and also bimetallic according to the Naville X catalogue, though Fagerlie fails to mention this fact and it's not clear one way or the other from the photographs.

(2) In Paris according to Gnecchi no. 21, 50.0g, not illustrated, no mention of bimetallic, but personal examination would be needed to be sure!"
3 commentskc
Julian_II_RIC_VIII-312.jpg
Roman Imperial: Julian II (361-363) AR Siliqua, Arelate (RIC VIII 312; RSC V 148c)19 viewsObv: DN FL CL IVLI-ANVS PF AVG; Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: VOT / X / MVLT / XX in laurel wreath, circular medallion at top of wreath; TCONST in exergue

Ex Harptree Hoard
1 commentsQuant.Geek
Theodosius_II_RIC-449.jpg
Roman Imperial: Theodosius II (402-450 CE) Æ Nummus, Uncertain mint, Cyzicus? (RIC 441/444/447/449)9 viewsObv: D N THEODO-SIVS P F AVG; diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Theodosius II right
Rev: Cross within wreath with medallion containing X at top; mint mark in exergue off flan
Quant.Geek
40551q00.jpg
Roman, Commodus, March or April 177 - 31 Dec 192 A.D.465 viewsSH40551. Bimetallic medallion, Cohen 376 var (300 fr., bust right, central reverse figure hand downward); Gnecchi II p. 57 No. 52 - 53 var (same), aEF, dark brown patina, Rome mint, weight 59.635g, maximum diameter 39.6mm, die axis 0o, 188 A.D.; obverse COMMODVS ANTONINVS PIVS FELIX AVG BRIT, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse P M TR P XIII IMP VIII COS V P P, MON AVG, three monetae standing slightly left, each with a scale in right and cornucopia in left, the center figure is smaller, right hand upward and standing on a short round base; ex Gorney & Mosch, auction 180, lot 404; ex Helios Numismatik auction 3, 155; possibly unique5 commentsJoe Sermarini
Valerian Junior 40.jpg
Saloninus - UNIFACE PLASTER CAST72 viewsObv:- LIC COR SAL VALERIANVS N CAES, Draped, bare headed bust right

Cast of a silvered AE Medallion,
Gnecchi 3.
Reverse is PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Saloninus in military attire left with globe and spear, captive at feet.
There are three originals known, this one in Paris (41 mm / 60 gr).

UNIFACE PLASTER CAST
maridvnvm
IMGP0194Sasscombo.jpg
Sasanian Empire: Hormizd II, 303 - 309 AD15 viewsAR dr., 4,51gr., 26mm;
Göbl I/1a, Sunrise 815var.;
axis: 15h;
obv.: bust, right, w/eagle crown, korymbos, and diadem w/knot and ribbons; short curly beard, long hair in undulated bunch in back of neck; earring, necklace w/center medallion; tunic; Pahlavi legend on inside of complete dotted border;
rev.: fire altar in center w/ flames surrounding a bust, right, flanked by two attendants, the left one w/korymbos headgear, the right one w/mural crown, the altar being adorned w/a diadem; complete dotted border;

ex: Triskeles Auction 9, #60.
Schatz
IMGP0202Sasscombo.jpg
Sasanian Empire: Khusrow II, 591 -628 AD19 viewsSasanian Empire: Khusrow II, 591 -628 AD
AR dr., 4,15 gr, 32mm;
Göbl II/3, Sunrise 979var.;
mint: BBA (court), date: 623 AD, axis: 14h;
obv.: bust, right, w/winged mural crown topped by star and crescent; small star on either side of crown; large undulated bunch of hair in back of neck, mustache, short beard; earring, necklace w/center medallion; in right lower field crescent; Pahlavi legend to left and right inside the borders, complete double dotted border, on outside rim at 3, 6, and 9h crescent and star;
rev.: fire altar flanked by 2 facing attendants, ribbons at base, star and crescent on sides of flames; triple dotted border, outside borders at 3, 6, 9, and 12h crescent and star.

ex: Triskeles Auction 9, #74.
Schatz
Anon_A2_type_40.jpg
Sear 181384 viewsAnonymous Class A2 follis, weight 11.34g, diameter 30mm. Type 40 ornamentation. Inspection of the edge leads me to think that this specimen may have been mounted as a medallion or piece of jewellery at some point in its history, with its flan trimmed accordingly. 2 commentsAbu Galyon
Lusitania_Medal.jpg
Sinking of the RMS Lusitania Medallion, 191524 viewsObv: KEINE BANNWARE “No Contraband,” a depiction of the sinking of the R.M.S. Lusitania. Cannons and an airplane can be seen on her deck. Exergue: DER GROSSDAMPFER = LUSITANIA = DURCH EIN DEUTSCHES TAUCHBOOT VERSENKT 5 MAI 1915 ”The liner Lusitania sunk by a German submarine 5 May 1915” (the actual date of the sinking was May 7th)

Rev: GESCHÄFT ÜBER ALLES. ”Business above all,” A crowd of men, one reading a newspaper, standing clamoring to buy tickets from Death at the window of a ticket office. CUN[ARD] LINIE above ticket window, CUNARD to the right of window, FARHKARTEN AUSGABE ”Ticket Office” below. Exergue: K. G.

Designer: Karl Goetz

Note: This medallion is a British copy made for propaganda purposes. It is estimated that over 300,000 copies were produced and sold for 1 shilling each. It came in a presentation box, and included propagandist literature.

Cast iron, Diameter: 55.24 mm, Axis: 0⁰
Matt Inglima
Sogdiana_Chach_01.jpg
Sogdiana, Chach: Unknown Ruler (3rd-5th c.) AE Unit (Shagalov & Kuznetsov-1)44 viewsObv: Portrait of a ruler in profile facing left surrounded by a linear rim. The ruler has an almond shaped eyes, a large nose, sloping forehead, pointed chin with a forked beard, and small mustache. Hair is flowing down to his shoulders and individual strands of curly hair is intercepted by a tiara, which ends tied behind his head with two loops back down to his head. The top of the tiara has a crescent-shaped pommel attached. On the neck of the ruler is a jewlery with a round medallion in the middle.
Rev: Tamgra surrounded by Sogdian legend - c'c'n n'pn'c wnwn xw b - Chach people ruler - King Vanvan.
SpongeBob
Coinstantius2_Galley_RQ.JPG
Struck A.D.348 - 350. CONSTANTIUS II as Augustus. AE Maiorina of Rome13 viewsObverse: D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG. Laurel and rosette diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Constantius II facing right; behind head, A.
Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO. Constantius II, bare-headed and in military dress, standing facing left on galley sailing left with Victory at the helm. Constantius holds globe surmounted by phoenix with wreath in its beak in his right hand and standard with Chi-Rho on banner in his left In left field, A; in exergue, RQ.
RIC VIII : 112
SCARCE

This coin is one of the vast issues struck for several years after a reform of the bronze coinage by Constantius II and Constans in conjunction with the 1100th anniversary of Rome in A.D.348. The coins depict historical events associated with these emperors. This reverse type, though struck under both emperors, was in the East struck only for Constans, even though this part of the Empire wasn't under his jurisdiction. It therefore more than likely alludes to Constans' crossing to Britannia in c.A.D.343 to repel incursions into the province by the Picts. An extremely rare gold medallion exists celebrating the same event, it depicts Constans and has the legend "BONONIA OCEANEN".
1 comments*Alex
JULIAN2_SILIQ_CON.JPG
Struck A.D.360 - 363. JULIAN II as Augustus. AR Siliqua of Arelate13 viewsObverse: D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of bearded Julian facing right.
Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within laurel-wreath surmounted by medallion containing eagle; in exergue, PCONST.
RIC VIII : 309
1 comments*Alex
LOUIS_XIV_AE__NEC_PACE_MINOR.JPG
Struck c.1699, LOUIS XIV (1643 – 1715), AE (Brass) Jeton5 viewsObverse: LVDOVICVS•MAGNVS•REX•. Head of Louis XIV facing right; T•B in small letters below head.
Reverse: NEC•PACE•MINOR•. Hercules standing facing, head left, leaning on club in his left hand and holding cloak at his hip with his right; in exergue, crossed palms.

Struck at unidentified mint, possibly Caen, France
Die engraver: Thomas Bernard
Dimensions: 26.5mm | Weight: 5.1gms | Die Axis: 6
Ref. Feuardent: 12788

Thomas Bernard entered the King's service while still young and from 1685 to 1688 famously engraved dies to produce a history of Louis XIV in gold medallions. He was Engraver General at the Caen mint between 1693 and 1703.

This jeton was struck under the authority of the “Extraordinaire des Guerres” in commemoration of the signing of the “Peace of Rijswijk” on the 20th of September 1697. This treaty settled the War of the League of Augsburg (Nine Years' War), which had seen France pitted against the Grand Alliance of England, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire and the United Provinces.

Louis XIV was unusual by taking particular pleasure from having a large collection of coins and medals, claiming that he used his coins to instruct himself in classical history. He enjoyed his coin collection so much that, at Versailles, he had his cabinet of coins and medals placed where visitors passed every day, between the grand staircase and his apartments, so that he could see them and show them off.
*Alex
Belt_3.jpg
Sword Belt Plate Fragment 1st century BC to 1st century AD.111 viewsThe left hand 1/3 of a large sword belt plate. The edge of the central medallion design can just be made out. According the Bishop and Coulston's Roman Military equipment, 2nd edition, figure 33, #2, this design dates from the Republican era. Similar items were found in Castillejo Spain. Mills Celtic and Roman Artefacts notes that these were attached with rivets and indeed a single rivet remains on the reverse of this plate fragment. otlichnik
Tarse Sévère Alexandre.jpg
Tarsus (Cilicia) - Severus Alexander AE37108 views[ ... CE]OVHPOC AΛ[EΞAN]ΔPOC , laureate, draped and cuirassed bust ; Γ in field to right
Rev.: illegible circular legend. Apollo facing, resting on column. Beneath, Nike holding palm and wreath driving quadrifa right. In field : A M. K. / H MHTP. / Π. B.
3 commentsGinolerhino
Sancroft_Medal_.jpg
temp. STUART, William Sancroft, Archbishop of Canterbury, 1677-1690, AR Medal by George Bower 1688 30 views* GVIL · SANCROFT · ARCHIEPISC · CANTVAR · 1688 Bust of William Sancroft, the Archbishop of Canterbury, wearing camauro and canonical robes, facing right.
Seven medallions of the Bishops committed to the Tower of London: Bishops Henry Compton (middle – London), Francis Turner (upper right, proceeding clockwise – Ely), Thomas Ken (Bath), Sir John Trelawney (Bristol), Thomas White (Peterborough), John Lake (Chichester), and William Lloyd (St. Asaph); twelve stars around; signed GB·F· (George Bower fecit) below.

MI 622/37; Eimer 288b. By G. Bower. Dated 1688.

(51 mm, 53.45 g, 12h).

CNG 85 (15 September 2010) Lot 1562: California Collection of British Historical Medals.

This remarkable medallion portrays no less than eight people directly associated with a historical event that did much to shape the modern secular British democracy. In 1687, King James II enacted unilaterally and against the will of the Parliament the Declaration of Indulgence as the first step in establishing the freedom of religion in England. The ensuing protest concerned the legality of James right to make the dispensation in the absence of the support of Parliament, plus the absence of a guarantee that the Anglican Church would remain as the established church. Many leaders within the clergy refused to read the Declaration in church from the pulpit as instructed by the King in early 1688. This culminated in a petition to the King against the reading of the Declaration. The petition originated from the hand of the Archbishop of Canterbury, William Sancroft, depicted on the obverse of the medal and was signed by the six other bishops identified around the margin of the reverse of the medallion. Bishop Henry Compton, depicted in the centre of the reverse, was included on the medal due to his earlier dissent to the King’s approach to Catholicism, for which James removed him from office.

The seven bishops who signed the petition were charged with seditious libel and imprisoned in the Tower of London in May 1688. Brought to trial before the Court of the King’s Bench, the bishops were acquitted. This served as a precursor to James’ deposition shortly thereafter.

This medal was issued following the trial, in commemoration of the action taken by William Sancroft and his fellow bishops in refusing to follow James II’s edict to read the Declaration of Indulgence from the pulpit. The medal connects directly with one of the key events in British history, which lead ultimately to the deposition of James II by his son-in-law and daughter, William III and Mary II of Orange on 5 November 1688. As a direct result of the action of the seven bishops, the right to petition the king was enshrined in the new Bill of Rights in 1689. Simplistically, some people see this medal as a testament to religious intolerance, although the issues of the time that brought it into being were far more complex, involving matters of secular authority, constitutional right, and the very basis of power in the evolving secular democratic British state. This is demonstrated by the decision of Sancfroft and five of the seven bishops that they could not swear allegiance to the new protestant King William III, for to do so would be a repudiation of their prior sworn loyalty to the deposed Catholic King James II. As a result, Sancroft was dismissed from his role in 1690 and died in relative obscurity three years later.

Few coins, or medals, connect so directly with history and in doing so depict so many influential participants. The medal was the work of George Bower (d. 1690) a medallist who worked in London from 1650-1689. He had been appointed to the position of Engraver of the Royal Mint and Embosser in Ordinary in 1664.
2 commentsn.igma
traj_dec__vim_pan.jpg
Trajan Decius, July 249 - June or July 251 A.D., Viminacium, Moesia Superior 28 viewsAE medallion?; Aleksandar 5-5-1, (Varbanov I 164), (Martin 3.04), (AMNG I/II 125), weight 14.84 g, max. diameter 29.4 mm, 3.5mm thick, die axis 180o, Viminacium mint, 249 - 250 A.D.; Obv. IMP TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; Rev. P M S CO L VIM, Moesia standing facing, head left, extending hands over bull on left standing right and lion on right standing left, AN XI (year 11 of the Viminacium colonial era) in ex. Brown and dusty green patina.

Aleksandar shows this as a possible medallion. It is oversized and thicker than the standard sestertius, yet slightly undersized and lighter than the medallion. It does have the medallion's beaded border not shown on the sestertius.
Steve E
Trebonianus_Gallus_Viminacium_SGI_357.jpg
Trebonianus Gallus & Volusian Viminacium AE 33 (Small medallion?)86 viewsAE 33
15.06 g Viminacium
OBV: IMP C VIBIO TREBON GALLO AVG IMP C C VIB VOLVSI AV - confronting laureate, draped, and cuirassed busts

Rev: P M S COL VIM The Two emperors in military attire, standing face to face, holding Victory on globe and resting on spear

In ex: bull on lion on either side of AN XIII

F+ by wear, rough.

SGI 357, BMC 44
cliff_marsland
US_Medal_-Centennial.jpg
U.S. Centennial Medal19 viewsUNITED STATES.
Æ Medal (76mm, 273.96 g, 12h).
Exhibition Medal Commemorating the Centennial of Independence.
By H. Mitchell.
Dated 1876 in Roman numerals.

O: Female figure seated left, crowning instruments of science, commerce, and industry; shield below elbow; around, four oval medallions representing the four quarters of the globe

R: INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION/PHILADELPHIA, MDCCCLXXVI, AWARDED BY/UNITED STATES/CENTENNIAL/COMMISSION in four lines; all within wreath.

Julian AM-10. EF, warm brown surfaces, tiny edge bumps.

At 274 grams and 70+mm, this this thing is a big, beautiful beast!

Ex-CNG
Sosius
IMGP4659Unknbrcombo.jpg
Unknown Ruler, 150 - 200 AD16 viewsAEdr., 3,47gr., very irregular flan w/sprue;
Sellw. 93.6-8, Shore 479, Koch 12;
mint: Abarshahr, axis: 12h;
obv.: bare-headed, left, w/diadem; long hair in large curls, medium-long beard cut off at end, cheek hair, handlebar mustache; earring cons. of pellet in crescent, 2-layer necklace w/central medallion; the torso is facing, the head is turned left; star and crescent in upper left field disecting border;
rev.: archer w/helmet, right, on seat, w/bow in extended right hand, mint mark A over Π below, other letters around rim: 2 v-shaped angles behind stool, E behind archer’s back, letters behind and in front of head only partial;

ex: H. Hass, GER.
Schatz
1359.jpg
varb17219 viewsElagabalus
AE Medallion
Philippopolis, Thrace

Obv: AVT K M AVPHΛ ANTΩNEINOC, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left.
Rev: MHTPOΠOΛεΩC ΦIΛIΠΠOΠOΛEΩC (NE)Ω →KOPOV, Herakles standing facing, head left, right hand resting on club, lion skin hanging over left arm. Flan defect on reverse.
41.5 mm, 37.46 gms

Varbanov 1721
1 commentsCharles M
vesp divus quadriga.jpg
Vespasian-RIC-361261 viewsAR Denarius, 3.08g
Rome Mint, 79-80 AD (Titus)
Obv: DIVVS AVGVSTVS VESPASIANVS; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: EX S C in ex.; Tensa l., surmounted by two victories
RIC 361 (C). BMC 119. RSC 146. BNC 94.
Acquired from Klassische Münzen, March 2007.

Here are Curtis Clay's comments concerning the reverse which I cannot improve upon:

"The wagon is a tensa, a chariot in which the symbols of the gods were carried to the games in the circus procession. The wagon has a pediment, evidently in imitation of the temple where those symbols were normally stored.

A unique medallion of A. Pius in Berlin, illustrated by Cohen 1186, shows a similar pedimented wagon drawn by four horses, with a statue of Roma seated atop the pediment and ROM inscribed on the front of the wagon, evidently the tensa of the goddess Roma.

Suetonius and Dio Cassius report that a tensa in the circus procession was one of the excessive honors voted to Julius Caesar in 45-44 BC, shortly before his assassination.

No literary text or inscription attests that tensae were also accorded to consecrated emperors and empresses, but this fact is demonstrated by the coin types, namely the type of Divus Claudius I, your type of Divus Vespasianus, and the type of Diva Marciana showing a similar pedimented wagon drawn by two mules, BMC pl. 21.7-8.

I believe I was the first scholar to correctly identify these wagons, with a full argument bringing in several other examples too, in my paper on the coinage of Nero, Num. Zeitschrift 96, 1982, pp. 28-9 and Appendix 3."

2 commentsVespasian70
IMGP3722Vol1tdrcombo.jpg
Vologases I. 51 - 54/55 AD (first reign)18 viewsBI tdr., 14,06gr; 27,63mm; Sellw. 68.7 , Shore 370, Sunrise 419; Sinisi type I/1(1a), pp56ff.
mint: Seleukia; axis: 12h; date: Juli/August 52 AD;
obv.: bare-headed, head turned to the left, w/ diadem of 2 broad strands and 2 broad ribbons; medium-long hair in 4 rows of curls, mustache, short beard; 3-layer necklace w/ central medallion; tunic/cuirass w/ornamental border; dotted border 9 to 15;
rev.: king,left, on throne receiving diadem from facing goddess; between the heads the year ΓXT= 52 AD; exergual line; 5 lines of legend visible: (BACIΛEΩC) (B)ACI(ΛEΩN) (APCAKOY) (EYEPΓETOY) ΔIKAIOY(to be read from inside) ΩΛOI(OY) EΠIΦANOY(C) (ΦIΛ)EΛΛHNO(C);

ex: Pars Coins, CA.
Schatz
IMGP3720Vol1tdrcombo.jpg
Vologases I., 51 - 54/55 AD (first reign)15 viewsBI tdr., 14,66gr; 27,55mm; Sellw. 68.2 , Shore 370var., Sunrise 419; Sinisi type I/1(1a), p.56ff.
mint: Seleukia; axis: 12h; date: August 50 AD;
obv.: bare-headed, head turned to the left, w/ diadem of 2 broad strands and 3 broad ribbons; medium-long hair in 4 rows of curls, mustache, short beard; 3-layer necklace w/ central medallion; tunic/cuirass w/ornamental border; dotted border 11 to 16;
rev.: king,left, on throne receiving diadem from facing goddess; between the heads the year BXT= 51 AD; exergual line; 8 lines of legend: BACIΛ(EΩC) BACIΛEΩ(N) (AP)CAK(OY) EYEPΓET(OY) ΔIKAIOY(to be read from inside) (Γ)OPΠI(AIOY) EΠIΦANO(YC) (ΦI)ΛEΛΛHNO(C);

ex: Vienna Coin Show.
Schatz
IMGP3795Vol5tdrcombo~0.jpg
Vologases V, 191 - 208 AD12 viewsBI tdr., 7,49gr; 22,94mm; Sellw. 87 type, Shore 442 type, Sunrise 457 type;
mint: Seleukia; axis: 12h;
obv.: head, left, w/2-strand diadem, loop, and 4 ribbons; curly hair on top, side hair in a bun of concentric curls over the ear, mustache, long triangular beard ; earring, 2-layer necklace w/central medallion;
rev.: king, left, on throne, faced by goddess in long robe; between the heads illegible year;

the beakiest nose in my collection; rather degenerated die cutting craftsmanship;
Schatz
IMGP3831Vol5tdrcombo.jpg
Vologases V., 191 - 208 AD13 viewsBI tdr., 11,46gr; 22,2mm; Sellw. 87.2-9, Shore 442-47var., Sunrise 457var.;
mint: Seleukia; axis: 12h; date: ΔΦ (192 AD);
obv.: head, left, w/4-strand diadem and 3 ribbons; hair in a bun of concentric curls over the ear, mustache, long triangular beard ; earring, 2-layer necklace w/central medallion; tunic/cuirass w/ornamental border;
rev.: king, left, on throne, receiving wreath or diadem from facing goddess in long robe; between the heads the year ΔΦ; exergual line; partial letters around the edge; small deposits of copper on obv. and rev.

ex: Zurquieh, UAE.
Schatz
IMGP3795Vol5tdrcombo.jpg
Vologases V., 191 - 208 AD20 viewsBI tdr., 7,49gr; 22,94mm; Sellw. 87 type, Shore 442 type, Sunrise 457 type;
mint: Seleukia; axis: 12h;
obv.: head, left, w/2-strand diadem, loop, and 4 ribbons; curly hair on top, side hair in a bun of concentric curls over the ear, mustache, long triangular beard ; earring, 2-layer necklace w/central medallion;
rev.: king, left, on throne, faced by goddess in long robe; between the heads illegible year;

the beakiest nose in my collection; rather degenerated die cutting craftsmanship;

ex: Pars Coins.
Schatz
IMGP3793Vol5tdrcombo.jpg
Vologases V., 191 -208 AD12 viewsBI tdr., 13,13gr; 24,66mm; Sellw. 87.10-11, Shore 442, Sunrise 457;
mint: Seleukia; axis: 12h; date: EΦ (193/94 AD);
obv.: head, left, w/multi-strand diadem, loop, and 4 ribbons; curly hair on top, side hair in a bun of concentric curls over the ear, mustache, long triangular beard ; earring, 2-layer necklace w/central medallion; tunic/cuirass w/ornamental border;
rev.: king, left, on throne, receiving wreath or diadem from facing goddess in long robe; between the heads the year EΦ; exergual line; partial letters around the edge;

ex: CNG 67 (09/04), #991, ex: Malter Galleries, CA.
Schatz
AntoninusPiusAequitasSear4053.jpg
[904a] Antoninus Pius, August 138 - 7 March 161 A.D.127 viewsAntoninus Pius, AD 138 to 161. Silver denarius. Sear-4053; gVF; Rome;16.4 x 17.9 mm, 3.61 g; issue of AD 138; Obverse : Head of Antoninus Pius right, with IMP T AEL CAES HADRI ANTONINVS around; Reverse : Aequitas standing left, holding scales and a cornucopiae, with AVG PIVS P M TR P COS DES II around. This is an interesting part of the Antoninus Pius series, struck in the first year of his reign, using his adoptive name of Hadrianus, and with the reverse inscription a continuation from the obverse.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Antoninus Pius (A.D. 138-161)

Richard D. Weigel
Western Kentucky University

Introduction
The long reign of the emperor Antoninus Pius is often described as a period of peace and quiet before the storm which followed and plagued his successor, Marcus Aurelius. In addition to the relative peacefulness, this emperor set the tone for a low-keyed imperial administration which differed markedly from those of his two immediate predecessors, Trajan and Hadrian. Antoninus managed to govern the empire capably and yet with such a gentle hand that he earned the respect, acclaim, and love of his subjects.

Early Life
The future emperor was born T. Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus on September 19, A.D. 86 at Lanuvium, an old Latin city southeast of Rome. His father's family had originally migrated to Rome from Nemausus (Nîmes) in Narbonese Gaul, but his paternal grandfather, T. Aurelius Fulvus, had served twice as Roman consul and also as city prefect and his father, Aurelius Fulvus, also held the consulship. The future emperor's mother was Arria Fadilla and her father, Arrius Antoninus, had also been consul twice. Young Antoninus was raised at Lorium, on the via Aurelia, where he later built a palace.

Career Under Hadrian
Very little is known about Antoninus' life before he became emperor. The brief biography in the Scriptores Historiae Augustae credited to Julius Capitolinus refers to his services as quaestor, praetor, and consul and P. von Rohden's entry in Pauly-Wissowa dates his tenure of these offices to A.D. 112, 117, and 120 respectively. At some point between A.D. 110 and 115, Antoninus married Annia Galeria Faustina, the daughter of M. Annius Verus. Hadrian later appointed Antoninus as one of his consular administrators of Italy and between A.D. 130 and 135 Antoninus served as proconsul of Asia.
Antoninus had achieved a distinguished career under Hadrian. and could have retired from imperial service with great pride, but events in A.D. 138 changed Antoninus' future quite radically. Early in the year, the death of Aelius Verus, whom Hadrian had previously adopted and named Caesar, opened a new path. Hadrian met with the Senate and announced his decision to adopt Antoninus as his son and heir and to share both proconsular and tribunician power with him. After giving this offer careful thought, Antoninus accepted and agreed in return to adopt as his heirs his wife's nephew, M. Antoninus, the future Marcus Aurelius, and L. Verus, the son of Aelius Verus.

Imperial Reign
When Hadrian died in the following summer, Antoninus oversaw the conveyance of his body from Baiae to Rome for interment in the new imperial tomb (now Castel Sant' Angelo). To honor his adoptive father, Antoninus set up a magnificent shield, established a priesthood, and, against serious opposition in the Senate, requested and bargained for senatorial confirmation of Hadrian's deification. Antoninus' devotion to Hadrian's memory is one of the reasons cited for the Senate's bestowal upon the new emperor of the name "pius". After initially refusing the Senate's recognition of Antoninus as "pater patriae", the new emperor accepted the honor with thanks. He declined, however, the Senate's decree authorizing the renaming of the months of September and October after the new emperor and empress. The Senate did honor the new empress with the title of "Augusta". On her death only a few years later in A.D. 141, the Senate deified Faustina and voted her a temple and priestesses. In memory of his wife, Antoninus also instituted an alimentary program, similar to those of his immediate predecessors, which combined loans to Italian farmers with funds, generated by interest on those loans, set aside for the care of orphaned girls. On coins these orphans are designated as puellae Faustinianae.

Antoninus returned all of Italy's share of the aurum coronarium, the money raised in honor of his accession, and one-half of that contributed from the provinces. His economic policy in general was relatively conservative and avoided luxurious waste while supporting public works of practical application. His procurators were told to keep provincial tribute reasonable and they were held accountable for exceeding fixed bounds. The provinces in general prospered under his administration and the use of informers was ended. Julius Capitolinus summarizes the excellence of Antoninus' administration when he says: "With such care did he govern all peoples under him that he looked after all things and all men as if they were his own." In spite of his caution in raising imperial revenues, however, Antoninus provided regular gifts of money to the people and to the soldiers and produced spectacular public games with a great variety of animals on display. The emperor also used his own funds to distribute oil, grain, and wine free in a time of famine and helped relieve the devastation caused in Rome by fire, flood, and a collapse of stands in the Circus Maximus and by fires and earthquakes in the provinces.

Although the reigns of his two immediate predecessors, Trajan and Hadrian, had seen prolific building activity in Rome and throughout the empire, Antoninus chose to be less lavish in his public works projects. He felt an obligation to complete work begun or promised by Hadrian. Antoninus completed the Mausoleum of Hadrian along the Tiber and built the temples of the Divine Hadrian in the Campus Martius and of Faustina in the Forum. He also restored the oldest bridge in Rome, the Pons Sublicius, the Graecostadium, and the Colosseum. He may even have put some finishing touches on the Pantheon because Julius Capitolinus mentions restoration of a templum Agrippae, but the text may be corrupt and the temple of the Divine Augustus, the restoration of which is recorded on some of Antoninus' coins, may be the intended reference here. Outside Rome, Antoninus repaired several roads and renovated ports in Alexandria, Caieta, and Terracina, a bath at Ostia, an aqueduct at Antium, and the temples in his birthplace, Lanuvium.

Although some sources suggest that Antoninus went in person to Egypt and Syria to put down a revolt of peoples along the Red Sea, Julius Capitolinus says that Antoninus made his home in Rome where he could receive messages from all parts of the empire equally quickly . He also states that to avoid burdening the provinces with the expenses of housing an emperor and his associates Antoninus took expeditions out of Rome only to his estates in Campania. If correct, these actions marked a decided break with the visibility of his two predecessors in the provinces and recreated a more Rome- and Italy-centered empire. Wilhelm Weber commented on this policy: "As if, perhaps, in criticism of Hadrian's conception of his task, he sat like a beneficent spider at the centre of his web, power radiating steadily from him to the farthest bounds of the empire and as steadily returning to him again. For the last time in Imperial history the Emperor was wholly one with Rome and its centralization."

During his third consulship (A.D. 140-144), Antoninus issued a series of unusual coins and medallions which featured entirely new or modified religious/mythological images. Jocelyn Toynbee correctly pointed out that these types were issued to prepare for the celebration of Rome's nine hundredth birthday in A.D. 147/148 and she also discussed two images which represent the emperor's reaction against Hadrian's "cosmopolitanism" and his attempt to restore Rome and Italy to a superior position over the provinces. This unusual series, issued especially in bronze, commemorated Rome's connection to her distant roots from Trojans, Latins, and Sabines and honored gods who had protected the city in the past. Themes associated with Aeneas, Romulus, Numa Pompilius, and Augustus by implication tied in Antoninus as successor to these four model Roman leaders. Although the death of Faustina may have motivated Antoninus' display of public piety to some degree on these coins and medallions, the series also set the tone for the games and rituals of the birthday celebration in 147/148, renewed religious values, and restored Rome's proper relationship with protective gods who had brought the city past success both in war and in peace. Another series of coins, the "anonymous quadrantes", combines a portrait of a god or goddess on the obverse with a reverse symbol of an animal associated with the same deity. The absence of an imperial portrait or any inscription aside from the S.C. authorization of the Senate makes it especially difficult to date this series. However, the similarity of the Jupiter and Venus portraits to images of Antoninus and Faustina and other links to Antoninus' coin-types make it probable that several of these types were issued in Antoninus' reign, perhaps again in connection with Rome's birthday celebration in A.D. 147/148.

Although Antoninus' reign was generally peaceful, Capitolinus says that he fought wars, through legates, against the Britons, Moors, Germans, Dacians, and the Alans and suppressed revolts in Achaea, in Egypt, and among the Jews. The war in Britain was fought around A.D. 142 against the Brigantes and led to the construction of the Antonine Wall across the island as a second line of defense north of Hadrian's Wall. In foreign relations, the emperor's authority was respected among peoples bordering on the empire. Antoninus approved the appointment of kings for the Armenians, for the Lazi, and for the Quadi and he successfully prevented a Parthian attack on Armenia by sending the Parthian king a letter of warning.

Antoninus did continue his predecessor's interest in law and his imperial legislation is cited frequently in Justinian's Digest. Several lawyers served in the emperor's consilium and presumably advised him on legal matters. Antoninus' legislation included protections for slaves, freedmen, and for illegitimate children and further defined family and inheritance law, including consideration of a daughter's wishes in marriage arrangements.

In preparation for the succession, Antoninus' daughter Faustina married Marcus Aurelius in A.D. 145 and she soon became Augusta in place of her deceased mother. Marcus Aurelius was associated in imperial powers and he and L. Verus both held the consulship multiple times in preparation for their accession. Antoninus made sure that he would leave the Empire secure and in sound financial condition and his adopted sons inherited a large surplus (reportedly 675 million denarii) in the Treasury .

Antoninus Pius died in March of A.D. 161, after giving the appropriate imperial watchword which so typified his reign, "equanimity". He was soon afterward deified by the Senate. His adopted sons and successors, Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, erected a column of red granite in his honor in the Campus Martius. The marble base for this column, which is preserved in the Vatican, includes a sculpted image of the apotheosis of Antoninus and Faustina. In his Meditations, Marcus Aurelius expressed his enduring love and respect for his adoptive father: "Do all things as a disciple of Antoninus. Think of his constancy in every act rationally undertaken, his invariable equability, his piety, his serenity of countenance, his sweetness of disposition, his contempt for the bubble of fame, and his zeal for getting a true grasp of affairs." In many ways Antoninus Pius was a model emperor who justifiably earned comparison with his own model, Numa Pompilius, and provided the Empire with a period of fortune, religious piety, and security perhaps unmatched in imperial annals.

Copyright (C) 1998, Richard D. Weigel.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
AntoPiusDenar.jpg
[904z] Antoninus Pius, August 138 - 7 March 161 A.D.143 viewsAntoninus Pius, August 138 - 7 March 161 A.D. Silver denarius, RIC 232, RSC 271, F, Rome, 1.699g, 17.3mm, 0o, 153 - 154 A.D. Obverse: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XVII, laureate head right; Reverse: COS IIII, Fortuna standing right, cornucopia in left, long rudder on globe in right.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Antoninus Pius (A.D. 138-161)

Richard D. Weigel
Western Kentucky University

Introduction
The long reign of the emperor Antoninus Pius is often described as a period of peace and quiet before the storm which followed and plagued his successor, Marcus Aurelius. In addition to the relative peacefulness, this emperor set the tone for a low-keyed imperial administration which differed markedly from those of his two immediate predecessors, Trajan and Hadrian. Antoninus managed to govern the empire capably and yet with such a gentle hand that he earned the respect, acclaim, and love of his subjects.

Early Life
The future emperor was born T. Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus on September 19, A.D. 86 at Lanuvium, an old Latin city southeast of Rome. His father's family had originally migrated to Rome from Nemausus (Nîmes) in Narbonese Gaul, but his paternal grandfather, T. Aurelius Fulvus, had served twice as Roman consul and also as city prefect and his father, Aurelius Fulvus, also held the consulship. The future emperor's mother was Arria Fadilla and her father, Arrius Antoninus, had also been consul twice. Young Antoninus was raised at Lorium, on the via Aurelia, where he later built a palace.

Career Under Hadrian
Very little is known about Antoninus' life before he became emperor. The brief biography in the Scriptores Historiae Augustae credited to Julius Capitolinus refers to his services as quaestor, praetor, and consul and P. von Rohden's entry in Pauly-Wissowa dates his tenure of these offices to A.D. 112, 117, and 120 respectively. At some point between A.D. 110 and 115, Antoninus married Annia Galeria Faustina, the daughter of M. Annius Verus. Hadrian later appointed Antoninus as one of his consular administrators of Italy and between A.D. 130 and 135 Antoninus served as proconsul of Asia.
Antoninus had achieved a distinguished career under Hadrian. and could have retired from imperial service with great pride, but events in A.D. 138 changed Antoninus' future quite radically. Early in the year, the death of Aelius Verus, whom Hadrian had previously adopted and named Caesar, opened a new path. Hadrian met with the Senate and announced his decision to adopt Antoninus as his son and heir and to share both proconsular and tribunician power with him. After giving this offer careful thought, Antoninus accepted and agreed in return to adopt as his heirs his wife's nephew, M. Antoninus, the future Marcus Aurelius, and L. Verus, the son of Aelius Verus.

Imperial Reign
When Hadrian died in the following summer, Antoninus oversaw the conveyance of his body from Baiae to Rome for interment in the new imperial tomb (now Castel Sant' Angelo). To honor his adoptive father, Antoninus set up a magnificent shield, established a priesthood, and, against serious opposition in the Senate, requested and bargained for senatorial confirmation of Hadrian's deification. Antoninus' devotion to Hadrian's memory is one of the reasons cited for the Senate's bestowal upon the new emperor of the name "pius". After initially refusing the Senate's recognition of Antoninus as "pater patriae", the new emperor accepted the honor with thanks. He declined, however, the Senate's decree authorizing the renaming of the months of September and October after the new emperor and empress. The Senate did honor the new empress with the title of "Augusta". On her death only a few years later in A.D. 141, the Senate deified Faustina and voted her a temple and priestesses. In memory of his wife, Antoninus also instituted an alimentary program, similar to those of his immediate predecessors, which combined loans to Italian farmers with funds, generated by interest on those loans, set aside for the care of orphaned girls. On coins these orphans are designated as puellae Faustinianae.

Antoninus returned all of Italy's share of the aurum coronarium, the money raised in honor of his accession, and one-half of that contributed from the provinces. His economic policy in general was relatively conservative and avoided luxurious waste while supporting public works of practical application. His procurators were told to keep provincial tribute reasonable and they were held accountable for exceeding fixed bounds. The provinces in general prospered under his administration and the use of informers was ended. Julius Capitolinus summarizes the excellence of Antoninus' administration when he says: "With such care did he govern all peoples under him that he looked after all things and all men as if they were his own." In spite of his caution in raising imperial revenues, however, Antoninus provided regular gifts of money to the people and to the soldiers and produced spectacular public games with a great variety of animals on display. The emperor also used his own funds to distribute oil, grain, and wine free in a time of famine and helped relieve the devastation caused in Rome by fire, flood, and a collapse of stands in the Circus Maximus and by fires and earthquakes in the provinces.

Although the reigns of his two immediate predecessors, Trajan and Hadrian, had seen prolific building activity in Rome and throughout the empire, Antoninus chose to be less lavish in his public works projects. He felt an obligation to complete work begun or promised by Hadrian. Antoninus completed the Mausoleum of Hadrian along the Tiber and built the temples of the Divine Hadrian in the Campus Martius and of Faustina in the Forum. He also restored the oldest bridge in Rome, the Pons Sublicius, the Graecostadium, and the Colosseum. He may even have put some finishing touches on the Pantheon because Julius Capitolinus mentions restoration of a templum Agrippae, but the text may be corrupt and the temple of the Divine Augustus, the restoration of which is recorded on some of Antoninus' coins, may be the intended reference here. Outside Rome, Antoninus repaired several roads and renovated ports in Alexandria, Caieta, and Terracina, a bath at Ostia, an aqueduct at Antium, and the temples in his birthplace, Lanuvium.

Although some sources suggest that Antoninus went in person to Egypt and Syria to put down a revolt of peoples along the Red Sea, Julius Capitolinus says that Antoninus made his home in Rome where he could receive messages from all parts of the empire equally quickly . He also states that to avoid burdening the provinces with the expenses of housing an emperor and his associates Antoninus took expeditions out of Rome only to his estates in Campania. If correct, these actions marked a decided break with the visibility of his two predecessors in the provinces and recreated a more Rome- and Italy-centered empire. Wilhelm Weber commented on this policy: "As if, perhaps, in criticism of Hadrian's conception of his task, he sat like a beneficent spider at the centre of his web, power radiating steadily from him to the farthest bounds of the empire and as steadily returning to him again. For the last time in Imperial history the Emperor was wholly one with Rome and its centralization."

During his third consulship (A.D. 140-144), Antoninus issued a series of unusual coins and medallions which featured entirely new or modified religious/mythological images. Jocelyn Toynbee correctly pointed out that these types were issued to prepare for the celebration of Rome's nine hundredth birthday in A.D. 147/148 and she also discussed two images which represent the emperor's reaction against Hadrian's "cosmopolitanism" and his attempt to restore Rome and Italy to a superior position over the provinces. This unusual series, issued especially in bronze, commemorated Rome's connection to her distant roots from Trojans, Latins, and Sabines and honored gods who had protected the city in the past. Themes associated with Aeneas, Romulus, Numa Pompilius, and Augustus by implication tied in Antoninus as successor to these four model Roman leaders. Although the death of Faustina may have motivated Antoninus' display of public piety to some degree on these coins and medallions, the series also set the tone for the games and rituals of the birthday celebration in 147/148, renewed religious values, and restored Rome's proper relationship with protective gods who had brought the city past success both in war and in peace. Another series of coins, the "anonymous quadrantes", combines a portrait of a god or goddess on the obverse with a reverse symbol of an animal associated with the same deity. The absence of an imperial portrait or any inscription aside from the S.C. authorization of the Senate makes it especially difficult to date this series. However, the similarity of the Jupiter and Venus portraits to images of Antoninus and Faustina and other links to Antoninus' coin-types make it probable that several of these types were issued in Antoninus' reign, perhaps again in connection with Rome's birthday celebration in A.D. 147/148.

Although Antoninus' reign was generally peaceful, Capitolinus says that he fought wars, through legates, against the Britons, Moors, Germans, Dacians, and the Alans and suppressed revolts in Achaea, in Egypt, and among the Jews. The war in Britain was fought around A.D. 142 against the Brigantes and led to the construction of the Antonine Wall across the island as a second line of defense north of Hadrian's Wall. In foreign relations, the emperor's authority was respected among peoples bordering on the empire. Antoninus approved the appointment of kings for the Armenians, for the Lazi, and for the Quadi and he successfully prevented a Parthian attack on Armenia by sending the Parthian king a letter of warning.

Antoninus did continue his predecessor's interest in law and his imperial legislation is cited frequently in Justinian's Digest. Several lawyers served in the emperor's consilium and presumably advised him on legal matters. Antoninus' legislation included protections for slaves, freedmen, and for illegitimate children and further defined family and inheritance law, including consideration of a daughter's wishes in marriage arrangements.

In preparation for the succession, Antoninus' daughter Faustina married Marcus Aurelius in A.D. 145 and she soon became Augusta in place of her deceased mother. Marcus Aurelius was associated in imperial powers and he and L. Verus both held the consulship multiple times in preparation for their accession. Antoninus made sure that he would leave the Empire secure and in sound financial condition and his adopted sons inherited a large surplus (reportedly 675 million denarii) in the Treasury .

Antoninus Pius died in March of A.D. 161, after giving the appropriate imperial watchword which so typified his reign, "equanimity". He was soon afterward deified by the Senate. His adopted sons and successors, Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, erected a column of red granite in his honor in the Campus Martius. The marble base for this column, which is preserved in the Vatican, includes a sculpted image of the apotheosis of Antoninus and Faustina. In his Meditations, Marcus Aurelius expressed his enduring love and respect for his adoptive father: "Do all things as a disciple of Antoninus. Think of his constancy in every act rationally undertaken, his invariable equability, his piety, his serenity of countenance, his sweetness of disposition, his contempt for the bubble of fame, and his zeal for getting a true grasp of affairs." In many ways Antoninus Pius was a model emperor who justifiably earned comparison with his own model, Numa Pompilius, and provided the Empire with a period of fortune, religious piety, and security perhaps unmatched in imperial annals.

Copyright (C) 1998, Richard D. Weigel.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
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CommodusRSC190.jpg
[906a]Commodus, March or April 177 - 31 Dec 192 A.D.168 viewsCOMMODUS AR silver denarius. RSC 190. RCV 5644. 16.5mm, 2.3g. F. Obverse: L AEL AVREL COMM AVG P FEL, bust of Commodus wearing lion skin in imitation of Hercules and Alexander the Great, facing right; Reverse: HER-CVL RO-MAN AV-GV either side of club of Hercules, all in wreath. RARE. Ex Incitatus.

This coin refers to Commodus' belief that he was Hercules reincarnated. According to the historian Herodian, "he issued orders that he was to be called not Commodus, son of Marcus, but Hercules, son of Jupiter. Abandoning the Roman and imperial mode of dress, he donned the lion-skin, and carried the club of Hercules..." (Joseph Sermarini).

De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Commodus (A.D. 180-192)

Dennis Quinn

Marcus Aurelius Commodus Antoninus, the son of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius and his wife-cousin Faustina, was born in Lanuvium in 161 AD. Commodus was named Caesar at the age of 5, and co-Augustus at the age of 17, spending most of his early life accompanying his father on his campaigns against the Quadi and the Marcomanni along the Danubian frontier. His father died, possibly of the plague, at a military encampment at Bononia on the Danube on 17 March 180, leaving the Roman Empire to his nineteen-year-old son.[[1]] Upon hearing of his father's death, Commodus made preparations for Marcus' funeral, made concessions to the northern tribes, and made haste to return back to Rome in order to enjoy peace after nearly two decades of war. Commodus, and much of the Roman army behind him, entered the capital on 22 October, 180 in a triumphal procession, receiving a hero's welcome. Indeed, the youthful Commodus must have appeared in the parade as an icon of new, happier days to come; his arrival sparked the highest hopes in the Roman people, who believed he would rule as his father had ruled.[[2]]

The coins issued in his first year all display the triumphant general, a warrior in action who brought the spoils of victory to the citizens of Rome.[[3]] There is a great deal of evidence to support the fact that Commodus was popular among many of the people, at least for a majority of his reign. He seems to have been quite generous.[[4]]. Coin types from around 183 onward often contain the legend, Munificentia Augusta[[5]], indicating that generosity was indeed a part of his imperial program. Coins show nine occasions on which Commodus gave largesses, seven when he was sole emperor.[[6]] According to Dio, the emperor obtained some of this funding by taxing members of the senatorial class.[[7]] This policy of munificence certainly caused tensions between Commodus and the Senate. In 191 it was noted in the official Actus Urbis that the gods had given Commodus to Populus Senatusque Romanus. Normally the phrase Senatus Populusque Romanus was used. [[8]] While the Senate hated Commodus, the army and the lower classes loved him.[[9]] Because of the bad relationship between the Senate and Commodus as well as a senatorial conspiracy,[[10]] Rome "...was virtually governed by the praetorian prefects Perennis (182-185) and Cleander (186-9)."[[11]]

Commodus began to dress like the god Hercules, wearing lion skins and carrying a club.[[12]] Thus he appropriated the Antonines' traditional identification with Hercules, but even more aggressively. Commodus' complete identification with Hercules can be seen as an attempt to solidify his claim as new founder of Rome, which he now called the Colonia Lucia Annia Commodiana. This was legitimized by his direct link to Hercules, son of Father Jupiter.[[13]] He probably took the title of Hercules officially some time before mid-September 192.[[14]]

While the literary sources, especially Dio, Herodian, and the Historia Augusta, all ridicule the antics of his later career, they also give important insight into Commodus' relationship to the people.[[15]] His most important maneuver to solidify his claims as Hercules Romanus was to show himself as the god to the Roman people by taking part in spectacles in the amphitheater. Not only would Commodus fight and defeat the most skilled gladiators, he would also test his talents by encountering the most ferocious of the beasts.[[16]]

Commodus won all of his bouts against the gladiators.[[17]] The slayer of wild beasts, Hercules, was the mythical symbol of Commodus' rule, as protector of the Empire.[[18]]

During his final years he declared that his age should be called the "Golden Age."[[19]] He wanted all to revel in peace and happiness in his age of glory, praise the felicitas Commodi, the glorious libertas, his pietas, providential, his victoria and virtus aeterna.[[20]] Commodus wanted there to be no doubt that this "Golden Age" had been achieved through his munificence as Nobilissimus Princeps. He had declared a brand new day in Rome, founding it anew in 190, declaring himself the new Romulus.[[21]] Rome was now to be called Colonia Lucia Annia Commodiana, as noted above, and deemed "the Immortal," "the Fortunate," "the Universal Colony of the Earth."[[22]] Coins represent the archaic rituals of city-[re]foundation, identifying Commodus as a new founder and his age as new days.[[23]]

Also in 190 he renamed all the months to correspond exactly with his titles. From January, they run as follows: Lucius, Aelius, Aurelius, Commodus, Augustus, Herculeus, Romanus, Exsuperatorius, Amazonius, Invictus, Felix, Pius.[[24]] According to Dio Cassius, the changing of the names of the months was all part of Commodus' megalomania.[[25]] Commodus was the first and last in the Antonine dynasty to change the names of the months.


The legions were renamed Commodianae, the fleet which imported grain from Africa was called Alexandria Commodiana Togata, the Senate was deemed the Commodian Fortunate Senate, his palace and the Roman people were all given the name Commodianus.[[26]] The day that these new names were announced was also given a new title: Dies Commodianus.[[27]] Indeed, the emperor presented himself with growing vigor as the center of Roman life and the fountainhead of religion. New expressions of old religious thought and new cults previously restricted to private worship invade the highest level of imperial power.[[28]]

If Eusebius of Caesarea [[29]] is to be believed, the reign of Commodus inaugurated a period of numerous conversions to Christianity. Commodus did not pursue his father's prohibitions against the Christians, although he did not actually change their legal position. Rather, he relaxed persecutions, after minor efforts early in his reign.[[30]] Tradition credits Commodus's policy to the influence of his concubine Marcia; she was probably his favorite,[[31]] but it is not clear that she was a Christian.[[32]] More likely, Commodus preferred to neglect the sect, so that persecutions would not detract from his claims to be leading the Empire through a "Golden Age."[[33]]

During his reign several attempts were made on Commodus' life.[[34]] After a few botched efforts, an orchestrated plot was carried out early in December 192, apparently including his mistress Marcia. On 31 December an athlete named Narcissus strangled him in his bath,[[35]] and the emperor's memory was cursed. This brought an end to the Antonine Dynasty.


SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY
Alföldy, G. "Der Friedesschluss des Kaisers Commodus mit den Germanen," Historia 20 (1971): 84-109.

Aymard, J. "Commode-Hercule foundateur de Rome," Revue des études latines 14 (1936): 340-64.

Birley, A. R. The African Emperor: Septimius Severus. -- rev. ed.-- London, 1988.
________. Marcus Aurelius: A Biography. London, 1987.

Breckenridge, J. D. "Roman Imperial Portraiture from Augustus to Gallienus," ANRW 2.17. 1 (1981): 477-512.

Chantraine, H. "Zur Religionspolitik des Commodus im Spiegel seiner Münzen," Römische Quartalschrift für christliche Altertumskunde und für Kirchengeschichte 70 (1975): 1-31.

Ferguson, J. The Religions of the Roman Empire. Ithaca, 1970.

Fishwick, D. The Imperial Cult in the Latin West. Leiden, 1987.

Gagé, J. "La mystique imperiale et l'épreuve des jeux. Commode-Hercule et l'anthropologie hercaléenne," ANRW 2.17.2 (1981), 663-83.

Garzetti, A. From Tiberius to the Antonines. A History of the Roman Empire A. D. 14-192. London, 1974.

Grosso F. La lotta politica al tempo di Commodo. Turin, 1964.

Hammond, M. The Antonine Monarchy. Rome, 1956.

Helgeland, J. "Roman Army Religion," ANRW II.16.2 (1978): 1470-1505.

Howe, L. L. The Praetorian Prefect from Commodus to Diocletian (A. D. 180-305). Chicago, 1942.

Keresztes, P. "A Favorable Aspect of Commodus' Rule," in Hommages à Marcel Renard 2. Bruxelles, 1969.

Mattingly, R. The Roman Imperial Coinage. Volume III: Antoninus Pius to Commodus. London, 1930.

Nock, A. D. "The Emperor's Divine Comes," Journal of Roman Studies 37 (1947): 102-116.

Parker, H. M. D. A History of the Roman World from A. D. 138 to 337. London, 1935.
________. and B.H. Warmington. "Commodus." OCD2, col. 276.

Raubitschek, A. E. "Commodus and Athens." Studies in Honor of Theodore Leslie Shear. Hesperia, Supp. 8, 1948.

Rostovtzeff, M. I. "Commodus-Hercules in Britain," Journal of Roman Studies 13 (1923): 91-105.

Sordi, M. "Un senatore cristano dell'éta di Commodo." Epigraphica 17 (1959): 104-112.

Speidel, M. P. "Commodus the God-Emperor and the Army," Journal of Roman Studies 83 (1993): 109-114.

Stanton, G. R. "Marcus Aurelius, Lucius Verus, and Commodus: 1962-1972." ANRW II.2 (1975): 478-549.

Notes
[[1]] For a discussion of the circumstances surrounding the death of Marcus Aurelius, see A. R. Birley, Marcus Aurelius: A Biography -- rev. ed. -- (London, 1987), 210.
Aurelius Victor, De Caes. 16.4, writing around the year 360, claimed Aurelius died at Vindobona, modern Vienna. However, Tertullian, Apol. 25, who wrote some seventeen years after Marcus' death, fixed his place of death at Sirmium, twenty miles south of Bononia. A. R. Birley (Marcus Aurelius, 209-10) cogently argues Tertullian is much more accurate in his general description of where Marcus was campaigning during his last days.
For the dating of Marcus Aurelius' death and the accession of Commodus, see M. Hammond, The Antonine Monarchy (Rome, 1956), 179-80.

[[2]] For the army's attitude toward peace, the attitude of the city toward the peace, and the reception of the emperor and his forces into Rome, see Herodian, 1.7.1-4; for Commodus' subsequent political policies concerning the northern tribes, see G. Alföldy, "Der Friedesschluss des Kaisers Commodus mit den Germanen," Historia 20 (1971): 84-109.
For a commentary on the early years of Commodus in the public perception as days of optimism, see A. Garzetti, From Tiberius to the Antonines. A History of the Roman Empire A. D. 14-192 (London, 1974), 530. For a more critical, and much more negative portrayal, see the first chapter of F. Grosso, La lotta politica al tempo di Commodo (Turin, 1964).

[[3]]The gods Minerva and Jupiter Victor are invoked on the currency as harbingers of victory; Jupiter Conservator on his coins watches over Commodus and his Empire, and thanks is given to divine Providence (H. Mattingly, The Roman Imperial Coinage. Volume III: Antoninus Pius to Commodus, [London, 1930] 356-7, 366-7). In 181, new coin types appear defining the new reign of Commodus. Victory and peace are stressed. Coins extol Securitas Publica, Felicitas, Libertas, Annona, and Aequitas (ibid., 357).
By 186 Commodus is depicted as the victorious princes, the most noble of all born to the purple. Herodian (1.5.5) describes how Commodus boasted to his soldiers that he was born to be emperor. See also H. Chantraine, "Zur Religionspolitik des Commodus im Spiegel seiner Münzen," Römische Quatralschrift für christliche Altertumskunde und für Kirchengeschichte 70 (1975), 26. He is called Triumphator and Rector Orbis, and associated with the Nobilitas of Trojan descent (Mattingly, RIC III.359; idem, Coins of the Roman Empire in the British Museum. Volume IV: Antoninus Pius to Commodus, [Oxford, 1940], clxii).

[[4]] Dio tells us that Commodus liked giving gifts and often gave members of the populace 140 denarii apiece (Cass. Dio, 73.16), whereas the Historia Augusta reports that he gave each man 725 denarii (SHA, Comm., 16.3).

[[5]]Mattingly, RIC, III.358.

[[6]] Idem., CBM, IV.clxxiv.

[[7]]Cass. Dio, 73.16.

[[8]]M. P. Speidel, "Commodus the God-Emperor and the Army," Journal of Roman Studies 83 (1993), 113.

[[9]]Mattingly, CBM, IV.xii. Commodus was also popular amongst the northern divisions of the army because he allowed them to wield axes in battle, a practice banned by all preceding emperors. See, Speidel, JRS 83 (1993), 114.

[[10]]Infra, n. 34.

[[11]] H. Parker and B.H. Warmington, OCD2, s.v. "Commodus," col. 276; after 189, he was influenced by his mistress Marcia, Eclectus his chamberlain, and Laetus (who became praetorian prefect in 191 (Idem.).

[[12]]Herodian, 1.14.8. Hadrian appears on medallions in lion skins; but as far as the sources tell us, he never appeared in public in them. See J. Toynbee, Roman Medallions,(New York, 1986), 208.
He would often appear at public festivals and shows dressed in purple robes embroidered with gold. He would wear a crown made of gold, inlaid with the finest gems of India. He often carried a herald's staff as if imitating the god Mercury. According to Dio Cassius, Commodus' lion's skin and club were carried before him in the procession, and at the theaters these vestiges of Hercules were placed on a gilded chair for all to see (Cass. Dio, 73.17). For the implications of the golden chair carried in procession in relation to the imperial cult, see D. Fishwick, The Imperial Cult in the Latin West, (Leiden, 1987-91 ), 555.

[[13]] H. M. D. Parker, A History of the Roman World from A. D. 138 to 337, (London, 1935), 34; For medallions that express the relationship between Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius, and Lucius Verus extolling Hercules as a symbol of civic virtue, see Toynbee, Roman Medallions, 208. For a general statement on the symbolism of Hercules in the Antonine age, see M. Hammond, The Antonine Monarchy, 238.
For a discussion of Commodus' association with Hercules, see
Rostovtzeff, "Commodus-Hercules," 104-6.
Herodian spells out the emperor's metamorphosis in detail (1.14.8).

[[14]]See Speidel, "Commodus the God-Emperor," 114. He argues this general date because a papyrus from Egypt's Fayum records Hercules in Commodus' title on 11 October 192.

[[15]]For a preliminary example, Herodian writes (1.13.8), "people in general responded well to him."

[[16]]As Dio reports, Commodus, with his own hands, gave the finishing stroke to five hippopotami at one time. Commodus also killed two elephants, several rhinoceroses, and a giraffe with the greatest of ease. (Cass. Dio, 73.10), and with his left hand (ibid., 73.19). Herodian maintains that from his specially constructed terrace which encircled the arena (enabling Commodus to avoid risking his life by fighting these animals at close quarters), the emperor also killed deer, roebuck, various horned animals, lions, and leopards, always killing them painlessly with a single blow. He purportedly killed one hundred leopards with one hundred javelins, and he cleanly shot the heads off countless ostriches with crescent-headed arrows. The crowd cheered as these headless birds continued to run around the amphitheater (1.15-4-6; for Commodus' popularity at these brutal spectacles, see Birley, The African Emperor, 86) (and Dio tells his readers that in public Commodus was less brutal than he was in private [73.17ff]).

[[17]] According to Herodian (1.15-17), "In his gladiatorial combats, he defeated his opponents with ease, and he did no more than wound them, since they all submitted to him, but only because they knew he was the emperor, not because he was truly a gladiator."

[[18]]Webber, "The Antonines," CAH, XI.360.

[[19]]Cass. Dio, 73.15.

[[20]] Mattingly, RIC, III.361. For Commodus' propaganda of peace, see W. Webber, "The Antonines," CAH, XI.392.

[[21]] W. Webber, "The Antonines," CAH, XI.392-3. In 189 a coin type was issued with the legend Romulus Conditor, perhaps indicating he began the official renaming process during that year. For a discussion on Commodus as Romulus, see A. D. Nock, "The Emperor's Divine Comes," Journal of Roman Studies 37 (1947), 103.

[[22]] HA, Comm. 7.1; Cass. Dio, 73.15.

[[23]]Mattingly, RIC, III.361. See also, Webber, "The Antonines," CAH, XI.386.

[[24]]The title Felix is first used by the emperor Commodus, and is used in the titles of almost all successive emperors to the fifth century. See, D. Fishwick, The Imperial Cult in the Latin West (Leiden, 1987-91), 473.
HA, Comm., 12.315; Cass. Dio, 73.15; Herodian, I.14.9. These new names for the months seem to have actually been used, at least by the army, as confirmed by Tittianus' Altar. See M. P. Speidel, "Commodus the God-Emperor and the Army," Journal of Roman Studies 83 (1993), 112.

[[25]] Cass. Dio, 73.15.

[[26]]Legions:Idem.; the Grain fleet: SHA, Comm., 12.7. For a further discussion of Commodus' newly named fleet, see, A. Garzetti, From Tiberius to the Antonines, 547. For coins issued extolling the fleet, see Mattingly, CBM, IV.clxix; RIC, III.359; the Senate: Cass. Dio, 73.15; the Imperial Palace: SHA, Comm., 12.7; the Roman People: Ibid., 15.5.

[[27]]Cass. Dio, 73.15.

[[28]]Mattingly, CBM, IV.clxxxiv.

[[29]]Eusebius, Hist.Ecc., 5.21.1.

[[30]]For a discussion of the treatment of Christianity during the reigns of Marcus Aurelius and Commodus as well as persecutions during the reign of Commodus, see Keresztes, "A Favorable Aspect," 374, 376-377.

[[31]]Herodian, 1.16.4; Dio, 73.4. A Medallion from early 192 shows Commodus juxtaposed with the goddess Roma, which some scholars have argued incorporates the features of Marcia. See, Roman Medallions, "Introduction." Commodus was married, however, to a woman named Crispina. He commissioned several coins early in his rule to honor her.

[[32]]The Christian apologist Hippolytus tells that she was a Christian (Philos. 9.2.12), Dio tells that she simply favored the Christians (73.4). Herodian does not take a stand on the matter either way (1.16.4).

[[33]]Cass. Dio, 73.15. He pronounces Commodus' edict that his rule should be henceforth called the "Golden Age."

[[34]]H. Parker and B.H. Warmington note that Commodus..."resorted to government by means of favorites...which was exacerbated by an abortive conspiracy promoted by Lucilla and Ummidius Quadratus (182)." (OCD2, col. 276).

[[35]]Herodian, 1.17.2-11; Dio Cass., 73.22; SHA, Comm.,17.1-2.

Copyright (C) 1998, Dennis Quinn. This file may be copied on the condition that the entire contents, including the header and this copyright notice, remain intact. Used by Permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


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