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Search results - "lucania"
Jnt7nS9fBGy4Q8FabX76Yo3z2kBRfQ.jpg
24 viewsSouthern Lucania, Metapontion, c. 540-510 BC. AR Stater (28mm, 7.97g, 12h). Barley ear. R/ Incuse barley ear. HNItaly 1479; SNG ANS 209-16.2 commentspaul1888
Greek_Italy.jpg
Greek Italy, Magna Grecia.22 viewsApulia, Bruttium, Calabria, Campania, Lucania & Samnium.Christian T
coin194.JPG
106a. Crispina48 viewsCrispina married the sixteen year-old, Commodus in the summer of 178 and brought him, as a dowry, a large number of estates. These, when added to the Imperial holdings, gave him control of a substantial part of Lucanian territory. The actual ceremony was modest but was commemorated on coinage and largesse was distributed to the people. An epithalamium for the occasion was composed by the sophist Julius Pollux.

Upon her marriage, Crispina received the title of Augusta, and thus, became Empress of the Roman Empire as her husband was co-emperor with her father-in-law at the time. The previous empress and her mother-in-law, Faustina the Younger, having died three years prior to her arrival.

Like most marriages of young members of the nobiles, it was arranged by paters: in Crispina's case by her father and her father-in-law, Emperor Marcus Aurelius. Crispina probably meant little to her egocentric husband though she was a beautiful woman. The other possible reason being that Commodus was known to prefer the company of men. Crispina is described as being a graceful person with a susceptible heart, but there is no medal extant of her.

As Augusta, Crispina was extensively honoured with public images, during the last two years of her father-in-law's reign and the initial years of her husband's reign. She did not seem to have any significant political influence over her husband during his bizarre reign. However, she was not exempted from court politics either as her sister-in-law, Lucilla, was an ambitious woman and was reportedly jealous of Crispina, the reigning empress, due to her position and power.

Crispina's marriage failed to produce an heir due to her husband's inability, which led to a dynastic succession crisis. In fact, both Anistius Burrus (with whom Commodus had share his first consulate as sole ruler) and Gaius Arrius Antoninus, who were probably related to the imperial family, were allegedly put to death 'on the suspicion of pretending to the throne'.

After ten years of marriage, Crispina was falsely charged with adultery by her husband and was banished to the island of Capri in 188, where she was later executed. After her banishment, Commodus did not marry again but took on a mistress, a woman named Marcia, who was later said to have conspired in his murder.

Crispina, wife of Commodus, 177-192, AE Dupondius or As (24x25mm), aVF. Sear RCV 6018. Obv. CRISPINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right. Rev. IVNO LVCINA S C, Juno standing left holding patera and scepter. The coin is brown and green, on a squarish flan.
ecoli
MaxHercRIC5iiRome.jpg
1302a, Maximian, 285 - 305, 306 - 308, and 310 A.D.47 viewsMaximianus AE Antoninianus. RIC V Part II 506 Bust Type C. Cohen 355; VF; Minted in Rome A.D. 285-286. Obverse: IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right; Rverse: IOVI CONSERVAT AVGG, Jupiter standing left holding thunderbolt & scepter, XXIZ in exergue. Ex maridvnvm.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D.

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Perhaps born ca. 249/250 A.D. in Sirmium in the area of the Balkans, Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Maximianus Herculius (Maximian), had been a soldier before he put on the purple. A fellow soldier with the Emperor Diocletian, he had served in the military during the reigns of Aurelian and Probus.

When the Emperor Diocletian determined that the empire was too large for one man to govern on his own, he made Maximian his Caesar in 285/6 and elevated him to the rank of Augustus in perhaps the spring of 286. While Diocletian ruled in the East, Maximian ruled in the West. In 293, in order to maintain and to strengthen the stability of the empire, Diocletian appointed Constantius I Chlorus to serve Maximian as a Caesar in the West, while Galerius did the same job in the East. This arrangement, called the "Tetrarchy", was meant not only to provide a stronger foundation for the two emperors' rule, but also to end any possible fighting over the succession to the throne once the two senior Augusti had left the throne--a problem which had bedeviled the principate since the time of the Emperor Augustus. To cement the relationship between Maximian and his Caesar, Constantius married Maximian's elder daughter Theodora. A decade later, Constantius' son Constantine would marry Maximia's younger daughter Fausta.

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximian, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple. Their resignations seem largely due to the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian seems to have forced his colleague to abdicate. In any case, Herculius had sworn an oath at the temple of Capitoline Jupiter to carry out the terms of the abdication. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Diocletian's retirement was at Salonae in Dalmatia, while Herculius' retreat was either in Lucania or Campania.

Maximian's retirement, however, was of short duration because, a little more than a year later on 28 October 306, his son Maxentius was proclaimed emperor at Rome. To give his regime an aura of legitimacy, Maximian was forced to affirm his son's acclamation. When Galerius learned of Maxentius' rebellion, he sent Severus against him with an army that had formerly been under his father's command. Maxentius invested his father with the purple again to win over his enemy's troops, a ruse which succeeded. Perhaps to strengthen his own position, in 307 Maximian went to Gaul and married his daughter Fausta to Constantine. When Constantine refused to become embroiled in the civil war between Galerius and Maxentius, Maximian returned to Rome in 308 and attempted to depose his son; however, he did not succeed. When Maximian was unable to convince Diocletian to take up the purple again at a meeting in Carnuntum in late 308, he returned to his son-in-law's side in Gaul.

Although Maximian was treated with all of the respect due a former emperor, he still desired to be more than a figurehead. He decided to seize the purple from Constantine when his son-in-law least expected it. His opportunity came in the summer of 310 when the Franks revolted. When Constantine had taken a small part of his army into enemy territory, Maximian proclaimed himself again emperor and paid the soldiers under his command a donative to secure their loyalty. As soon as Constantine received news about Maximian's revolt in July 310, he went south and reached Arelate before his father-in-law could mount a defense of the city. Although Maximian fled to Massilia, his son-in-law seized the city and took Maximian prisoner. Although he was deprived of the purple, he was granted pardon for his crimes. Unable to endure the humiliation of his defeat, he attempted to have Constantine murdered in his bed. The plot failed because he tried to get his daughter Fausta's help in the matter; she chose to reveal the matter to her husband. Because of this attempt on his son-in-law's life Maximian was dead by the end of July either by his own hand or on the orders of his intended victim.

Eutropia was of Syrian extraction and her marriage to Maximian seems to have been her second. She bore him two children: Maxentius and Fausta. An older daughter, Theodora, may have been a product of her first marriage. Fausta became the wife of Constantine I , while her sister Theodora was the second spouse of his father Constantius I Chlorus . Eutropia apparently survived all her children, with the possible exception of her daughter Fausta who seems to have died in 326. Eutropia is also said to have become a Christian.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Max.jpg
1302b, Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D., commemorative issued by Constantine the Great (Siscia)55 viewsMaximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D., commemorative issued by Constantine the Great. Bronze AE3, RIC 41, VF, Siscia, 1.30g, 16.1mm, 0o, 317-318 A.D. Obverse: DIVO MAXIMIANO SEN FORT IMP, laureate and veiled head right; Reverse: REQVIES OPTIMO-RVM MERITORVM, Emperor seated left on curule chair, raising hand and holding scepter, SIS in exergue; scarce (R3).


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D.

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Perhaps born ca. 249/250 A.D. in Sirmium in the area of the Balkans, Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Maximianus Herculius (Maximian), had been a soldier before he put on the purple. A fellow soldier with the Emperor Diocletian, he had served in the military during the reigns of Aurelian and Probus.

When the Emperor Diocletian determined that the empire was too large for one man to govern on his own, he made Maximian his Caesar in 285/6 and elevated him to the rank of Augustus in perhaps the spring of 286. While Diocletian ruled in the East, Maximian ruled in the West. In 293, in order to maintain and to strengthen the stability of the empire, Diocletian appointed Constantius I Chlorus to serve Maximian as a Caesar in the West, while Galerius did the same job in the East. This arrangement, called the "Tetrarchy", was meant not only to provide a stronger foundation for the two emperors' rule, but also to end any possible fighting over the succession to the throne once the two senior Augusti had left the throne--a problem which had bedeviled the principate since the time of the Emperor Augustus. To cement the relationship between Maximian and his Caesar, Constantius married Maximian's elder daughter Theodora. A decade later, Constantius' son Constantine would marry Maximia's younger daughter Fausta.

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximian, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple. Their resignations seem largely due to the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian seems to have forced his colleague to abdicate. In any case, Herculius had sworn an oath at the temple of Capitoline Jupiter to carry out the terms of the abdication. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Diocletian's retirement was at Salonae in Dalmatia, while Herculius' retreat was either in Lucania or Campania.

Maximian's retirement, however, was of short duration because, a little more than a year later on 28 October 306, his son Maxentius was proclaimed emperor at Rome. To give his regime an aura of legitimacy, Maximian was forced to affirm his son's acclamation. When Galerius learned of Maxentius' rebellion, he sent Severus against him with an army that had formerly been under his father's command. Maxentius invested his father with the purple again to win over his enemy's troops, a ruse which succeeded. Perhaps to strengthen his own position, in 307 Maximian went to Gaul and married his daughter Fausta to Constantine. When Constantine refused to become embroiled in the civil war between Galerius and Maxentius, Maximian returned to Rome in 308 and attempted to depose his son; however, he did not succeed. When Maximian was unable to convince Diocletian to take up the purple again at a meeting in Carnuntum in late 308, he returned to his son-in-law's side in Gaul.

Although Maximian was treated with all of the respect due a former emperor, he still desired to be more than a figurehead. He decided to seize the purple from Constantine when his son-in-law least expected it. His opportunity came in the summer of 310 when the Franks revolted. When Constantine had taken a small part of his army into enemy territory, Maximian proclaimed himself again emperor and paid the soldiers under his command a donative to secure their loyalty. As soon as Constantine received news about Maximian's revolt in July 310, he went south and reached Arelate before his father-in-law could mount a defense of the city. Although Maximian fled to Massilia, his son-in-law seized the city and took Maximian prisoner. Although he was deprived of the purple, he was granted pardon for his crimes. Unable to endure the humiliation of his defeat, he attempted to have Constantine murdered in his bed. The plot failed because he tried to get his daughter Fausta's help in the matter; she chose to reveal the matter to her husband. Because of this attempt on his son-in-law's life Maximian was dead by the end of July either by his own hand or on the orders of his intended victim.

Eutropia was of Syrian extraction and her marriage to Maximian seems to have been her second. She bore him two children: Maxentius and Fausta. An older daughter, Theodora, may have been a product of her first marriage. Fausta became the wife of Constantine I , while her sister Theodora was the second spouse of his father Constantius I Chlorus . Eutropia apparently survived all her children, with the possible exception of her daughter Fausta who seems to have died in 326. Eutropia is also said to have become a Christian.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
TetricusAntVirtus.jpg
1dg Tetricus33 views270-273

AE antoninianus

Radiate draped bust, right, IMP C TETRICVS P F AVG
Virtus standing left with shield & spear, VIRTVS AVGG

RIC 148

According to the Historia Augusta: After Victorinus and his son were slain, his mother Victoria (or Vitruvia) urged Tetricus, a Roman senator then holding the governorship of Gaul, to take the imperial power, for the reason, many relate, that he was her kinsman; she then caused him to be entitled Augustus and bestowed on his son the name of Caesar. But after Tetricus had done many deeds with success and had ruled for a long time he was defeated by Aurelian, and, being unable to bear the impudence and shamelessness of his soldiers, he surrendered of his own free will to this prince most harsh and severe. . . . Aurelian, nevertheless, exceedingly stern though he was, overcome by a sense of shame, made Tetricus, whom lie had led in his triumph, supervisor over the whole of Italy,' that is, over Campania, Samnium, Lucania, Bruttium, Apulia, Calabria, Etruria and Umbria, Picenum and the Flaminian district, and the entire grain-bearing region, and suffered him not only to retain his life but also to remain in the highest position, calling him frequently colleague, sometimes fellow-soldier, and sometimes even emperor.
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DiocletianAntConcordMil.jpg
1ds Diocletian13 views284-305

AE antoninianus

Radiate, draped, cuirassed bust, right, IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG
Zeus and Diocletian, CONCORDIA MILITVM

RIC 284B

According to the Historia Augusta, after the death of Numerian: Then a huge assembly was held and a tribunal, too, was constructed. And when the question was asked who would be the most lawful avenger of Numerian and who could be given to the commonwealth as a good emperor, then all, with a heaven-sent unanimity, conferred the title of Augustus on Diocletian. . . . He was at this time in command of the household-troops, an outstanding man and wise, devoted to the commonwealth, devoted to his kindred, duly prepared to face whatever the occasion demanded, forming plans that were always deep though sometimes over-bold, and one who could by prudence and exceeding firmness hold in check the impulses of a restless spirit. This man, then, having ascended the tribunal was hailed as Augustus, and when someone asked how Numerian had been slain, he drew his sword and pointing to Aper, the prefect of the guard, he drove it through him, saying as he did so, "It is he who contrived Numerian's death.''

Eutropius summarized a long and important reign: DIOCLETIAN, a native of Dalmatia, [was] of such extremely obscure birth, that he is said by most writers to have been the son of a clerk, but by some to have been a freedman of a senator named Anulinus. . . . He soon after overthrew Carinus, who was living under the utmost hatred and detestation, in a great battle at Margum, Carinus being betrayed by his own troops, for though he had a greater number of men than the enemy, he was altogether abandoned by them between Viminacium and mount Aureus. He thus became master of the Roman empire; and when the peasants in Gaul made an insurrection, giving their faction the name of Bagaudae, and having for leaders Amandus and Aelianus, he despatched Maximian Herculius, with the authority of Caesar, to suppress them. Maximian, in a few battles of little importance, subdued the rustic multitude, and restored peace to Gaul. . . .

Diocletian promoted MAXIMIAN HERCULIUS from the dignity of Caesar to that of emperor, and created Constantius and Maximian Galerius Caesars, of whom Constantius is said to have been the grand-nephew of Claudius by a daughter, and Maximian Galerius to have been born in Dacia not far from Sardica. That he might also unite them by affinity, Constantius married Theodora the step-daughter of Herculius, by whom he had afterwards six children, brothers to Constantine; while Galerius married Valeria, the daughter of Diocletian; both being obliged to divorce the wives that they had before. . . .

Diocletian, meanwhile, besieging Achilleus in Alexandria, obliged him to surrender about eight months after, and put him to death. He used his victory, indeed, cruelly, and distressed all Egypt with severe proscriptions and massacres. Yet at the same time he made many judicious arrangements and regulations, which continue to our own days. . . .

Diocletian was of a crafty disposition, with much sagacity, and keen penetration. He was willing to gratify his own disposition to cruelty in such a way as to throw the odium upon others; he was however a very active and able prince. He was the first that introduced into the Roman empire a ceremony suited rather to royal usages than to Roman liberty, giving orders that he should be adored, whereas all emperors before him were only saluted. He put ornaments of precious stones on his dress and shoes, when the imperial distinction had previously been only in the purple robe, the rest of the habit being the same as that of other men. . . .

But when Diocletian, as age bore heavily upon him, felt himself unable to sustain the government of the empire, he suggested to Herculius that they should both retire into private life, and commit the duty of upholding the state to more vigorous and youthful hands. With this suggestion his colleague reluctantly complied. Both of them, in the same day, exchanged the robe of empire for an ordinary dress, Diocletian at Nicomedia, Herculius at Milan, soon after a magnificent triumph which they celebrated at Rome over several nations, with a noble succession of pictures, and in which the wives, sisters, and children of Narseus were led before their chariots. The one then retired to Salonae, and the other into Lucania.

Diocletian lived to an old age in a private station, at a villa which is not far from Salonae, in honourable retirement, exercising extraordinary philosophy, inasmuch as he alone of all men, since the foundation of the Roman empire, voluntarily returned from so high a dignity to the condition of private life, and to an equality with the other citizens. That happened to him, therefore, which had happened to no one since men were created, that, though he died in a private condition, he was enrolled among the gods.
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MaximianusFollisGenio.jpg
1dt Maximianus22 views286-305, 306-308, 310

Quarter Follis

Laureate head, right, IMP C M A MAXIMIANVS P F AVG
Genius standing left, with modius on head, cornucopia & patera, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, SIS in exergue

RIC 146

Eutropius records: [Diocletian] thus became master of the Roman empire; and when the peasants in Gaul made an insurrection, giving their faction the name of Bagaudae, and having for leaders Amandus and Aelianus, he despatched Maximian Herculius, with the authority of Caesar, to suppress them. Maximian, in a few battles of little importance, subdued the rustic multitude, and restored peace to Gaul. . . . While disorder thus prevailed throughout the world, while Carausius was taking arms in Britain and Achilleus in Egypt, while the Quinquegentiani were harassing Africa, and Narseus was making war upon the east, Diocletian promoted MAXIMIAN HERCULIUS from the dignity of Caesar to that "of emperor, and created Constantius and Maximian Galerius Caesars. . . .

Maximian the emperor, brought the war to an end in Africa, by subduing the Quinquegentiani, and compelling them to make peace. . . .

Herculius was undisguisedly cruel, and of a violent temper, and showed his severity of disposition in the sternness of his looks. Gratifying his own inclination, he joined with Diocletian in even the most cruel of his proceedings. But when Diocletian, as age bore heavily upon him, felt himself unable to sustain the government of the empire, he suggested to Herculius that they should both retire into private life, and commit the duty of upholding the state to more vigorous and youthful hands. With this suggestion his colleague reluctantly complied. Both of them, in the same day, exchanged the robe of empire for an ordinary dress, Diocletian at Nicomedia, Herculius at Milan, soon after a magnificent triumph which they celebrated at Rome over several nations, with a noble succession of pictures, and in which the wives, sisters, and children of Narseus were led before their chariots. The one then retired to Salonae, and the other into Lucania.

But after the death of Constantius, CONSTANTINE, his son by a wife of obscure birth, was made emperor in Britain, and succeeded his father as a most desirable ruler. In the meantime the praetorian guards at Rome, having risen in insurrection, declared MAXENTIUS, the son of Maximian Herculius, who lived in the Villa Publica not far from the city, emperor. At the news of this proceeding, Maximian, filled with hopes of regaining the imperial dignity, which he had not willingly resigned, hurried to Rome from Lucania. . . , and stimulated Diocletian by letters to resume the authority that he had laid down, letters which Diocletian utterly disregarded. Severus Caesar, being despatched to Rome by Galerius to suppress the rising of the guards and Maxentius, arrived there with his army, but, as he was laying siege to the city, was deserted through the treachery of his soldiers.

The power of Maxentius was thus increased, and his government established. Severus, taking to flight, was killed at Ravenna. Maximian Herculius, attempting afterwards, in an assembly of the army, to divest his son Maxentius of his power, met with nothing but mutiny and reproaches from the soldiery. He then set out for Gaul, on a planned stratagem, as if he had been driven away by his son, that he might join his son-in-law Constantine, designing, however, if he could find an opportunity, to cut off Constantine, who was ruling in Gaul with great approbation both of the soldiers and the people of the province, having overthrown the Franks and Alemanni with great slaughter, and captured their kings, whom, on exhibiting a magnificent show of games, he exposed to wild beasts. But the plot being made known by Maximian's daughter Fausta, who communicated the design to her husband, Maximian was cut off at Marseilles, whence he was preparing to sail to join his son, and died a well-deserved death. . . .
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MaxentiusFollisRoma.jpg
1dz Maxentius22 views306-312

Follis

Laureate head, right, MAXENTIVS P F AVG
Roma in temple, CONSERVATORES VRB SVAE

RIC 194a

Eutropius reports: But after the death of Constantius, CONSTANTINE, his son by a wife of obscure birth, was made emperor in Britain, and succeeded his father as a most desirable ruler. In the meantime the praetorian guards at Rome, having risen in insurrection, declared MAXENTIUS, the son of Maximian Herculius, who lived in the Villa Publica not far from the city, emperor. At the news of this proceeding, Maximian, filled with hopes of regaining the imperial dignity, which he had not willingly resigned, hurried to Rome from Lucania. . . , and stimulated Diocletian by letters to resume the authority that he had laid down, letters which Diocletian utterly disregarded. Severus Caesar, being despatched to Rome by Galerius to suppress the rising of the guards and Maxentius, arrived there with his army, but, as he was laying siege to the city, was deserted through the treachery of his soldiers.

The power of Maxentius was thus increased, and his government established. Severus, taking to flight, was killed at Ravenna. Maximian Herculius, attempting afterwards, in an assembly of the army, to divest his son Maxentius of his power, met with nothing but mutiny and reproaches from the soldiery. . . .

At this time LICINIUS, a native of Dacia, was made emperor by Galerius, to whom he was known by old companionship, and recommended by his vigorous efforts and services in the war which he had conducted against Narseus. The death of Galerius followed immediately afterwards. The empire was then held by the four new emperors, Constantine and Maxentius, sons of emperors, Licinius and Maximian, sons of undistinguished men. Constantine, however, in the fifth year of his reign, commenced a civil war with Maxentius, routed his forces in several battles, and at last overthrew Maxentius himself (when he was spreading death among the nobility by every possible kind of cruelty,) at the Milvian bridge, and made himself master of Italy.
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2012.JPG
2012 Highlights87 views A few favorites from 2012

1: Lucania, Metapontum didrachm, c. 350 - 330 BC

2: Julius Caesar denarius, 44 BC

3: Publius Fonteius P.f. Capito denarius, c. 55 - 54 BC

4: Tiberius, denarius, 15 - 16 AD

5: Titus, Antioch denarius, 72 - 73 AD

6: Asia Minor, Carian Islands drachm, c. 88 - 84 BC

7: Tiberius, Olba, Cilicia Æ 24, c. 14 - 16 AD

8: Caius Fonteius denarius, 114 - 113 BC

9: Severus Alexander denarius, 231 AD

10: Maximinus I, Alexandria tetradrachm, 235 - 236 AD
4 commentsSPQR Coins
coin254.JPG
313. Tetricus I27 viewsCaius Pius Esuvius Tetricus was emperor of the Gallic Empire from 270/271 to 273, following the murder of Victorinus. Tetricus, who ruled with his son, Tetricus II, was the last of the Gallic Emperors.

Tetricus was born to a noble family and held the administrative rank of praeses provinciae (provincial governor) of Aquitania at the time of Victorinus' death. Victorinus' mother, Victoria, paid the army heavily to declare Tetricus emperor near Burdigalia (Bordeaux, France), which was approved in Gaul and Britain. Following his appointment, Tetricus repelled Germanic tribes that took advantage of the confusion following the death of Victorinus to invade.

Tetricus installed his capital at Augusta Treverorum (present Trier, Germany, near the vital Rhine border, hence later seat of a Tetrarch) and appointed his son, Tetricus II, Caesar, i.e. junior emperor (273). Tetricus made no attempts to expand the Gallic Empire, other than southward, regaining Aquitania (which had rejoined the Roman empire during the reign of Claudius Gothicus).

In 273, Emperor Aurelian set out to reconquer the western Roman empire, following his victories in the east. Tetricus took his army southward from Trier to meet Aurelian, who was advancing into northern Gaul. The decisive battle took place near Châlons-sur-Marne, where Tetricus and his son surrendered to Aurelian.

According to literary sources, after being displayed as trophies at Aurelian's triumph in Rome, the lives of Tetricus and his son were spared by Aurelian and Tetricus was even given the title of corrector Lucaniae et Bruttiorum, that is governor of a region of Italia. Tetricus died at an unknown date living in Italy; he is listed as one of Rome's Thirty Tyrants in the Historia Augusta.
ecoli
coin514.JPG
501. Constantine I Heraclea VOTA35 viewsHeraclea

Heraclea (Greek ‘Ηράκλεια), an ancient city of Lucania, situated near the modern Policoro, 3 m. from the coast of the Gulf of Taranto, between the rivers Aciris (Agri) and Sinis (Sinni) about 13 m. S.S.W. of Metapontum. It was a Greek colony founded by the Tarentines and Thurians in 432 BC, the former being predominant. It was chosen as the meeting-place of the general assembly of the Italiot Greeks, which Alexander of Epirus, after his alienation from Tarentum, tried to transfer to Thurii. Here Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, defeated the consul Laevinus in 280 BC, after he had crossed the river Sinis (see Battle of Heraclea). In 278 BC, or possibly in 282 BC, probably in order to detach it from Tarentum, the Romans made a special treaty with Heraclea, on such favourable terms that in 89 B.C. the Roman citizenship given to the inhabitants by the Lex Plautia Papiria was only accepted after considerable hesitation. We hear that Heraclea surrendered under compulsion to Hannibal in 212 BC and that in the Social War the public records were destroyed by fire. Cicero in his defence of the poet Archias, an adopted citizen of Heraclea, speaks of it as a flourishing town. As a consequence of its having accepted Roman citizenship, it became a municipium; part of a copy of the Lex Iulia Municipalis of 46 BC (engraved on the back of two bronze tablets, on the front of which is a Greek inscription of the 3rd century BC defining the boundaries of lands belonging to various temples), which was found between Heraclea and Metapontum, is of the highest importance for our knowledge of that law. It was still a place of some importance under the empire; a branch road from Venusia joined the coast road here. The circumstances of its destruction and abandonment was unknown; the site is now marked by a few heaps of ruins. Its medieval representative was Anglona, once a bishopric, but now itself a heap of ruins, among which are those of an 11th-century church.

Constantine I (AD 307-337)
AE3 - Vot XXX, .SMHB (Eyes to God)
AE-3 (AD 327-329)
OB: Plain-diademed head, right, looking upwards
CONSTANTINVS AVG.
REV: Wreath with VOT. /
XXX inscribed within
D. N. CONSTANTINI MAX. AVG.
. SMHB in exergue
Heraclea mint
RIC, Vol. VII, #92
Rated “Scarce” in RIC
ecoli
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Ancient Greek Coin Collection From Sixth to First Centuries B.C.307 viewsHere are the coins I started collecting from 2012 to present. As Aristotle wrote two millennia ago that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts, there is no better way to present a collection of Greeks than to put them all together in a single shot. (Please click on picture for bigger resolution and to show greater details on coins).

Top row from left to right: AEOLIS, MYRINA. AR "Stephanophoric" Tetradrachm. Circa 150 BC**ILLYRIA, DYRRHACHION. AR Stater. Circa 340-280 BC**IONIA, SMYRNA. AR “Stephanophoric” Tetradrachm. Circa 150-145 BC** PELOPONNESOS, SIKYON. AR Stater. Circa 335-330 BC**ATTICA, ATHENS. “New style” Tetradrachm. Circa 169 BC.

Fifth row: BACTRIA, Antialkidas. AR Drachm. Circa 145-135 BC**CAPPADOCIA. Ariobarzanes I AR Drachm. Circa 96-63 BC**THRACE, ABDERA. AR Tetrobol. Circa 360-350 BC**THRACE, CHERSONESSOS. AR Hemidrachm. Circa 386-338 BC.

Fourth row: LUCANIA, METAPONTION. AR Stater. Circa 510-480 BC**THESSALIAN LEAGUE. AR Stater. Circa 196-146 BC**MACEDONIA. Kassander AR Tetradrachm. Circa 317-315 BC**AKARNANIA, LEUKAS. AR Stater. Circa 320-280 BC**PAMPHYLIA, ASPENDOS. AR Stater. Circa 330-300 BC.

Third row: SELEUKID SYRIA. Antiochos VI AR Drachm. Circa 144-143 BC**LUCANIA, METAPONTION. AR Stater. Circa 340-330 BC**LUCANIA, VELIA. AR Stater. Circa 280 BC**PARTHIA. Mithradates II AR Drachm. Circa 121-91 BC.

Second row: MYSIA, PERGAMMON. Eumenes I AR Tetradrachm. Circa 263-241 BC**CILICIA, TARSOS. Mazaios AR Stater. Circa 361-334 BC**THRACE. Lysimachos AR Tetradrachm. Circa 297-281 BC**CILICIA, TARSOS. Pharnabazos AR Stater. Circa 380-374 BC**THRACE, MARONEIA. AR Tetradrachm. Mid 2nd cent. BC.

Bottom row: SELEUKID SYRIA. Antiochos Euergetes VII AR Tetradrachm. Circa 138-129 BC**MACEDON. Alexander III AR Tetradrachm. Circa 325-315 BC**CILICIA, AIGEAI. AR Tetradrachm. Circa 30 BC**PAIONIA. Patraos AR Tetradrachm. Circa 335-315 BC**PAMPHYLIA, SIDE. AR Tetradrachm. Circa 155-36 BC.
10 commentsJason T
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Bruttium, Laus.21 viewsBruttium, Laus. 480-460 BC. AR Stater (8.07 gm). Man-headed bull stdg l., looking back. ΛAΣ (retrograde) above. / Man-headed bull standing r. ΛAΣ (retrograde) above. VF. CICF06 138 #1422. SNG ANS 135 (Lucania); HN Italy 2275; SNG Cop. 1146; SNG Fitzwilliam 445; SNG München 920; Sternberg 9 (V8/R8); Weber 728.1 commentsChristian T
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Bruttium, The Brettii (Circa 211-208 BC)27 viewsÆ Double Unit (Didrachm)

26 mm, 16.19 g

Obverse: Head of Ares left, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with griffin

Reverse: BRET-TIWN, Hera Hoplosima (or Athena) advancing right, holding spear and shield; racing torch right.

Scheu 72; SNG ANS 82; HN Italy 1987

The Brettii were an indigenous Italian people who emerged in southern Italy in the mid-fourth century BC. Ancient authors describe them as a group of revolted slaves and miscellaneous fugitives who came together after seeking refuge in the rugged mountains of the area. Nonetheless, it is more likely that most of these people were native Oenotrians or Pelasgians who had escaped from domination by the Greek cities and other native groups to the north. By the mid-third century BC, this disparate congregation of people, now known as the Brettii, had become the predominant power over most of Italy south of the river Laos, including the important mints of Consentia, Medma, Hipponium, Terina, and Thurium (Diod. XVI.15; Strabo VI). Their rising power, however, was eventually checked by the expansion of Roman authority in their region. In the 280s BC, they united with their neighbors, the Lucanians, against Rome, an adventure that proved inconclusive. Soon thereafter, they aided Pyrrhos in his war against Rome, an unsuccessful endeavor that resulted in the Romans carrying on the conflict against the Brettians after defeating the Epiran leader. The Brettians submitted to the Romans, but in the face of Hannibal's successes against Rome, they again allied themselves with Rome's enemy during the Second Punic War (Livy XXII. 61). In this conflict, the Brettians were completely invested in the alliance with Carthage, such that the entire region of Bruttium became a veritable Punic fortress, and it was during this war that the entire series of Brettian coinage was struck. Once again, though, the Brettii had supported the losing side, and this time the Romans were determined to squash any further ability of the Brettians to threaten them. In the aftermath of Hannibal's defeat, the Romans subjugated Bruttium through annual military deployments and the establishment of three colonies, at Tempsa, Kroton, and Vibo Valentia (Livy XXXIV. 45 and XXXV. 40). Unlike other Italian populations that had been conquered by the Romans, the Brettii were also not admitted as Roman allies and could not serve in the Roman military (Appian, Annib. 61). Little is known of the Brettii thereafter.
1 commentsNathan P
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BRUTTIUM. The Brettii.21 viewsAR Drachm
215-2015 BC
18.5mm, 4.23 grams
Diademed bust of Nike r.; behind, harpa
BPETTIΩN, river-god standing, crowning himself, holding cloak and sceptre at r., snake and Σ.
Scheu 61. SNG Copenhagen 1624. Historia Numorum Italy 1963.
The Bretti (or Brutti) emerged from the rugged hills of southern Italy in the mid-4th century BC as an insurgent force of escaped slaves and other fugitives rebelling against the Lucanians, who had subjugated the area a generation earlier. Having thrown off the yoke of oppression, the Bretti retained their independence until 280 BC, when they helped the Greek king Pyrrhus of Epirus in his war against the Romans. After defeating Pyrrhus, the Romans invaded Bruttium and occupied most of the country. The Brettii remained pacified throughout the First Punic War (264-241 BC) but were among the first to declare in favor of the Carthaginian general Hannibal against Rome in the Second Punic War (218-201 BC), resulting in their final crushing as a separate people and absorption by Rome.
1 commentsJBGood
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Bull charging right, tunny-fish below. AR nomos Lucania, Thourioi174 viewsLucania, Thourioi
Silver didrachm. 385-360 B.C.
21.2mm, 7.00g

O: Head of Athena right, wearing crested Attic helmet decorated with Skylla holding trident
R: Bull charging right, ΘΟΥΡΙΩΝ above, tunny-fish right in exergue.
thomas s7
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CALABRIA, Taras. Campano-Tarentine series. Circa 281-272 BC. AR Nomos27 views20mm, 7.07 g, 4h
Diademed head of Satyra left / Nude youth on horseback right, crowning horse with wreath; TA to left, dolphin below. Vlasto 1012–4; HN Italy 1098. VF.

"The Campano-Tarentine series dates to around the middle of the 3rd century BC, and are usually said to have been struck somewhere in Campania or Lucania. The type displays not the usual horseman and dolphin rider combination, but instead the obverse is occupied by a nymph resembling those on the coinage of Neapolis. Furthermore, the coins are struck on the standard not of Tarentum, being 0.8 grams lighter on average, but of those cities on the west coast of Magna Graecia, hence the credence given to this theory. However, the question of where these coins were struck and which region they were intended for, was addressed by J.G. Milne (An Exchange-Currency of Magna Graecia), who convincingly argues that it was more likely they were produced in Tarentum for circulation in or trade with the Greek cities of Bruttium, and that they should therefore be properly referred to as Bruttio-Tarentine coinage."
Leo
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CALABRIA, Taras. Circa 333-331/0 BC. AR Nomos94 views19.5mm, 7.70 g, 2h
Warror, preparing to throw spear and holding shield and two more spears, on horse rearing right; [|- to left], Λ to right, KAΛ and Δ below / Phalanthos, holding crested Phrygian helmet, astride dolphin right; stars flanking, API below. Fischer-Bossert Group 60, 770–3 var. (V303/R– [unlisted rev. die]); Vlasto 543–4 (same obv. die); HN Italy 896. Good VF, toned, a little off center. From fine style dies.

On this coin we see the rider on horseback exercising his martial prowess, galloping forward and preparing to thrust a javelin into an object which the viewer does not see. On his far side he carries a round shield and two additional spears. The reverse depicts the dolphin rider facing to the right, holding a helmet of Phrygian design with cheek guards and a long, sweeping crest. Two stars in the fields flank the dolphin rider, and should perhaps be interpreted as alluding to the Dioskouroi and thus to Sparta. If so, then the design should be seen in light of the ill-fated expedition of the Spartan king Archidamos III. In 343/2 B.C. at the request of the city’s leading citizens, the Spartan king arrived with a fleet and soldiers in order to help the Tarentines to repel incursions by their Italic neighbors, notably the noisome Lucanians to Tarentum’s north and west. He was subsequently killed during the fighting, and the dolphin rider here may be thought of as mourning the slain Spartan king.
3 commentsLeo
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CALABRIA, Tarentum183 viewsTaranto was founded in 706 BC by Dorian immigrants as the only Spartan colony, and its origin is peculiar: the founders were Partheniae, sons of unmarried Spartan women and perioeci (free men, but not citizens of Sparta); these unions were decreed by the Spartans to increase the number of soldiers (only the citizens of Sparta could become soldiers) during the bloody Messenian Wars, but later they were nullified, and the sons were forced to leave. According to the legend Phalanthus, the Parthenian leader, went to Delphi to consult the oracle and received the puzzling answer that he should found a city where rain fell from a clear sky. After all attempts to capture a suitable place to found a colony failed, he became despondent, convinced that the oracle had told him something that was impossible, and was consoled by his wife. She laid his head in her lap and herself became disconsolate. When Phalanthus felt her tears splash onto his forehead he at last grasped the meaning of the oracle, for his wife's name meant clear sky. The harbour of Taranto in Apulia was nearby and he decided this must be the new home for the exiles. The Partheniae arrived and founded the city, naming it Taras after the son of the Greek sea god, Poseidon, and the local nymph Satyrion. A variation says Taras was founded in 707 BC by some Spartans, who, the sons of free women and enslaved fathers, were born during the Messenian War. According to other sources, Heracles founded the city. Another tradition indicates Taras himself as the founder of the city; the symbol of the Greek city (as well as of the modern city) is Taras riding a dolphin. Taranto increased its power, becoming a commercial power and a sovereign city of Magna Graecia, ruling over the Greek colonies in southern Italy.

In its beginning, Taranto was a monarchy, probably modelled on the one ruling over Sparta; according to Herodotus (iii 136), around 492 BC king Aristophilides ruled over the city. The expansion of Taranto was limited to the coast because of the resistance of the populations of inner Apulia. In 472 BC, Taranto signed an alliance with Rhegion, to counter the Messapii, Peuceti, and Lucanians (see Iapygian-Tarentine Wars), but the joint armies of the Tarentines and Rhegines were defeated near Kailìa (modern Ceglie), in what Herodotus claims to be the greatest slaughter of Greeks in his knowledge, with 3,000 Reggians and uncountable Tarentines killed. In 466 BC, Taranto was again defeated by the Iapyges; according to Aristotle, who praises its government, there were so many aristocrats killed that the democratic party was able to get the power, to remove the monarchy, inaugurate a democracy, and expel the Pythagoreans. Like Sparta, Tarentum was an aristocratic republic, but became democratic when the ancient nobility dwindled.

However, the rise of the democratic party did not weaken the bonds of Taranto and her mother-city Sparta. In fact, Taranto supported the Peloponnesian side against Athens in the Peloponnesian War, refused anchorage and water to Athens in 415 BC, and even sent ships to help the Peloponnesians, after the Athenian disaster in Sicily. On the other side, Athens supported the Messapians, in order to counter Taranto's power.

In 432 BC, after several years of war, Taranto signed a peace treaty with the Greek colony of Thurii; both cities contributed to the foundation of the colony of Heraclea, which rapidly fell under Taranto's control. In 367 BC Carthage and the Etruscans signed a pact to counter Taranto's power in southern Italy.

Under the rule of its greatest statesman, strategist and army commander-in-chief, the philosopher and mathematician Archytas, Taranto reached its peak power and wealth; it was the most important city of the Magna Graecia, the main commercial port of southern Italy, it produced and exported goods to and from motherland Greece and it had the biggest army and the largest fleet in southern Italy. However, with the death of Archytas in 347 BC, the city started a slow, but ineluctable decline; the first sign of the city's decreased power was its inability to field an army, since the Tarentines preferred to use their large wealth to hire mercenaries, rather than leave their lucrative trades.

In 343 BC Taranto appealed for aid against the barbarians to its mother city Sparta, in the face of aggression by the Brutian League. In 342 BC, Archidamus III, king of Sparta, arrived in Italy with an army and a fleet to fight the Lucanians and their allies. In 338 BC, during the Battle of Manduria, the Spartan and Tarentine armies were defeated in front of the walls of Manduria (nowadays in province of Taranto), and Archidamus was killed.

In 333 BC, still troubled by their Italic neighbours, the Tarentines called the Epirotic king Alexander Molossus to fight the Bruttii, Samnites, and Lucanians, but he was later (331 BC) defeated and killed in the battle of Pandosia (near Cosenza). In 320 BC, a peace treaty was signed between Taranto and the Samnites. In 304 BC, Taranto was attacked by the Lucanians and asked for the help of Agathocles tyrant of Syracuse, king of Sicily. Agathocles arrived in southern Italy and took control of Bruttium (present-day Calabria), but was later called back to Syracuse. In 303 BC-302 BC Cleonymus of Sparta established an alliance with Taranto against the Lucanians, and fought against them.

Arnold J. Toynbee, a classical scholar who taught at Oxford and other prestigious English universities and who did original and definitive work on Sparta (e.g. The Journal of Hellenic Studies, vol. xxxiii 1913 p. 246-275) seemed to have some doubts about Tarentum (Taranto) being of Spartan origin.

In his book The Study of History vol. iii p. 52 he wrote: "...Tarentum, which claimed a Spartan origin; but, even if this claim was in accordance with historical fact..." The tentative phrasing seems to imply that the evidence is neither conclusive or even establishes a high degree of probability of the truth that Tarentum (Taranto) was a Spartan colony.

CALABRIA, Tarentum. Circa 302-281 BC. AR Drachm (17mm, 2.91 gm). Helmeted head of Athena right, helmet decorated with Skylla hurling a stone / Owl standing right head facing, on olive branch; Vlasto 1058; SNG ANS 1312; HN Italy 1015. VF.

Ex-Cng eAuction 103 Lot 2 190/150
2 commentsecoli
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Demeter219 viewsMetapontum, Lucania
AR Didrachm (21mm, 7.8g)
330-300 BC
O: Head of Demeter right, wreathed in grain and wearing triple earring and necklace; ΔAI under chin.
R: Ear of barley with seven grains, leaf to right; plow above leaf, MAX below, META to left.
SNG ANS 470 / SNG Cop 1227 / HN Italy 1581 / Johnston C-1 / Sear 416v

2 commentsEnodia
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EB0011 Leukippos / Barley20 viewsMetapontum, LUCANIA (ITALY), AR Nomos, 350-330 BC.
Obverse: Helmeted head of Leukippos right; lion's head behind.
Reverse: Barley ear with seven grains; leaf to left, club on leaf, [AMI beneath leaf].
references: Johnston B2, SNG ANS 432ff.
Diameter: 19.5mm, Weight: 7.526g.
1 commentsEB
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EB0012 Poseidon / Bull13 viewsPoseidonia, LUCANIA, AR Stater, 470-400 BC.
Obverse: Poseidon wearing chlamys over shoulders, walking right, wielding trident, ΠOMEΣ (retrograde) in field before.
Reverse: Bull standing left, ΠOMEΣ (retrograde) above.
References: Cf. SNG ANS 661 (obverse legend forward), Weber 815.
Diameter: 18mm, Weight: 5.22g.
EB
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EB0164 Persephone / Boar4 viewsLucania, Paestum-Poseidonia. 218-201 BC. AE Sextans.
Obverse: Head of Persephone right, crowned with barley, two dots behind.
Reverse: PAIS, Boar running right; Q. VA and two dots below.
References: BMC 27: SNG ANS 760; HN Italy 1211.
Diameter: 15.5mm, Weight: 2.405g.
EB
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GREEK, Italia, Velia Lucania, AR Didrachm 109 viewsStruck 293 - 280 B.C.
The obverse with the head of Athena facing left, wearing crested Attic helmet decorated with griffin. Monogram behind neckpiece, Φ on neck.
The reverse with lion stalking right caduceus above. The legend reading: YEΛHTΩN = "Of Elea"
Williams 515

Elea was the ancient name of the town of Velia. According to Herodotus, in 545 B.C. a group of Ionian Greeks fled Phokaia in modern Turkey, after it was besieged by the Persians. They settled in Corsica until they were attacked by a force of Etruscans and Carthaginians. The surviving 6000 took to the sea once more before finally settling on the coast of Italy and founding the town of Hyele, later to be renamed Ele, and then, eventually, Elea.
Diameter: 22 mm. Weight: 7.20 g.
4 commentssuperflex
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Greek, Italy, Lucania, Thurium93 viewsAR Stater, 7.79g. 22mm. c.410-400 B.C.

Engraver, Phrygillos (?). Head of Athena to right wearing crested helmet decorated with Skylla; "phi" in field to right. Rv. Bull pawing ground with head down to right; fish in exergue. SNG Oxford 871. HN 1782; a few small marks and some small metal breaks in front of face. Toned and of fine style

Ex: Numismatica Ars Classica, Zurich, Auction O, 2004, lot 1157.
Ex: A.D.M. Collection
1 commentsLeo
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GREEK, Italy, Lucania, Velia188 views350-310 BC
AR Didrachm (21mm, 7.5g)
-Kleudoros Group-
O: Head of Athena right, wearing crested Attic helmet ornamented with griffin.
R: Lion prowling left; Φ above, engraver's monogram >E (Kleudoros) below, YEΛHTΩN in ex.
Williams 297 / SNG ANS 1312 / SNG Ashmolean 1233 / HN Italy 1289 / Sear 460v
ex Jack H. Beymer

"... cast earth upon my body
And seek haven in Velia once more..."
~ Vergil
2 commentsEnodia
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GREEK, ITALY, LUCANIA, Velia - AR nomos181 views334-300 BC
Head of Athena left, wearing a crested Phrygian helmet decorated with a centaur
(KE) monogram of Kleudoros
Lion standing left devouring prey
A / Φ
YEΛHTΩN (unreadable)
Williams 328 (O174/R244); HN Italy 1294; SNG ANS 1337
7,19g
2 commentsJohny SYSEL
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GREEK, ITALY, LUCANIA, Velia, 300-280 BC 204 viewsDidrachm, 7.51 g

O - Head of Athena to right, wearing Attic helmet adorned with a wing.
R - ΥΕΛΗΤΩΝ /Φ Ι / Π Lion walking to right; above, ear of wheat.

HN III 1309. Williams 470-489.

Provenance:
Ex Rauch 86, 2 May 2010, Lot 103
Ex Nomos, Auction 5, Lot 107, 25 October 2011
3 commentsrobertpe
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Greek, Italy, Lucania, Velia, Ca. 340-334 BC, Stater73 views23mm, 7.63 gm, 3h
Head of Athena right, wearing crested Athenian helmet decorated with griffin crouching right, Σ (engraver's signature?) on neck guard / Lion walking right, slightly crouching, Π below, YEΛHTΩN in exergue. Williams 251. HN Italy 1283. A surprisingly rare variety! Struck in high relief from dies of refined style.
1 commentsLeo
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Greek, Italy, LUCANIA, Velia. Circa 300-280 BC. AR Nomos41 views22mm, 7.46 g, 11h
Philistion Group. Helmeted head of Athena right, griffin on bowl / Lion standing right; die erasure below. Williams 394 (O197/R278); HN Italy 1301; SNG ANS 1397; SNG Ashmolean 1392; BMC 110; McClean 1470 (all from the same dies). VF, toned.
Ex Seaby Coin & Medal Bulletin 818 (March 1987), no. B34.
3 commentsLeo
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GREEK, Lucania, Metapontum, Stater85 viewsLucania, Metapontion
340 – 330 BCE
AR Nomos – 7.89 gms
Metapontum mint

Obv: Helmeted head of Leukippos right, dog seated behind, S below neck
Rev: META, barley ear, leaf to right, bird above [AMI] below

Johnston Class B, 3.2; SNG ANS 444; HN Italy 1576

ex. Sayles and Lavender (Thanks!)
7 commentsdlyumkis
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GREEK, LUCANIA, Paestum.27 viewsCirca 218-201 BC. AE Sextans (3.00 gm). Obv.: Head of Demeter right, two pellets behind. Rev.: leg. PAIS, wild boar right; spray of leaves and two pellets below.
seleukoy
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GREEK, Lucania, Sybaris, AR Stater circa 550-510 BC 29mm 8.13g 12 h71 viewsBull standing left looking back,on exergual line composed of pellets between two lines VM retrograde in exergue,border of lines and pellets similar to exergue line. Rev similar to Obverse but the type is incuse and reversed the legend is omitted,and the incuse border is composed of square segents.
Some numismatist believe that Pablo Picasos was influenced by this coin in his art work,and that Pythagoras the Greek mathematician was responsible for this relief-incuse design.Sybaris was the richest and most important of the Greek colonies in Italy until its destruction by Kroton in 510 BC.
1 commentsGrant H
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GREEK, Metapontion, Lucania, Italy, 334 - 330 B.C., Gold 1/3 stater20 viewsSH86428. Gold 1/3 stater, SNG Lockett 406; SNG ANS 395; HN Italy 1578; Noe-Johnston 3, G1 and pl. 18; SNG Lloyd -; SNG Cop -; Jameson -; Gulbenkian -; Pozzi -; Weber -, aVF+, fine style, marks, reverse double struck, weight 2.574 g, maximum diameter 13.6 mm, die axis 180o, Metapontion mint, c. 334 - 332 B.C.; obverse head of Demeter right, wearing stephane and pendant earring; reverse METAΠON, barley stalk, bird right on leaf to right; ex Forum (2007), ex Christie's Auction (1993) ; very rareJoe Sermarini
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GREEK, Metapontum, Lucania171 viewsAR Didrachm (21mm, 7.8g)
O: Head of Demeter right, wreathed in grain and wearing triple earring and necklace; ΔAI under chin.
R: Ear of barley with seven grains, leaf to right; plow above leaf, MAX below, META to left.
SNG ANS 470 / SNG Cop 1227 / HN Italy 1581 / Johnston C-1 / Sear 416

Founded around 700 BC by Achaean colonists, Metapontum was located at the north of the Gulf of Taras between the rivers Bradanus and Casuentus.
1 commentsEnodia
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Heracleia, Lucania 432-420 BC, Diobol14 viewsHead of Herakles right
Lion advancing right "HE"
HN Italy 1358
1.16g
Antonivs Protti
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Herakleia, Lucania101 views281-278 BC
AR Drachm (16.5mm, 3.82g)
O: Head of Athena, three-quarters facing right, wearing crested Attic helmet decorated with Scylla throwing stone; Φ behind.
R: Owl with wings closed, standing right on olive branch; club to right, |-HPAKΛEIΩN above, ΣΩΣI to left.
Van Keuren 114; HN Italy 1411
Scarce
ex NAC

The colony of Herakleia was a joint venture between the cities of Taras and Thurii, founded in 432 BC and intended to encourage peace between the two embattled polis’ and show a united front against the indigenous tribes of southern Italy. To this end Herakleia became the center of the newly formed Italiote League, probably around 380. This alliance consisted of emissaries from the Greek cities of Kroton, Metapontum, Velia, Thurii, and most notably Taras.
A century later, the period of this coin, Pyrrhus defeated the Roman Consul Laevinius near here, causing the Romans to try a different strategy. A political treaty was struck in 278, granting very favorable terms to the Greek city, and Herakleia became an ally of Rome. As a result the headquarters of the Italiote League was moved to Taras.
8 commentsEnodia
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Italy, Cosenza, Sibari (Thurium), Street204 viewsLucania, Thourioi.
Today Sibari (Cosenza), Italy
Taras
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Italy, Hyele (Velia), Lucania, SNG ANS 141323 viewsHyele (Velia), Lucania, 350-280 B.C. AE, 18mm 3.86g, SNG ANS 1413. SNG München 904. Lindgren II, 15, 320
O: Head of Herakles right wearing lionskin headdress
R: Owl standing right, head facing, all within laurel wreath
casata137ec
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Italy, Lucania, Metapontion, 310-280 BC20 viewsAR half-stater or drachm, 17mm, 3.12g, Nice VF
Owl standing 3/4 right on olive branch / META, six-grained barley ear with leaf to right; caduceus in field to right above leaf.
Sear -; Noe-Johnston 3, F1.1; HN Italy 1611
Lawrence Woolslayer
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Italy, Lucania, Metapontion, 330-300 BC29 viewsAR stater, 21.8mm, 7.71g, VF
Head of Demeter right, wearing corn wreath to bind hair, earring, and necklace / Earn of corn; [META] left; to right, leaf with plough above and M[AX] below
Sear 416v; Noe-Johnston 3, class C, #31v
Lawrence Woolslayer
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Italy, Lucania, Metapontion, HN Italy 168228 viewsItaly, Lucania, Metapontion mint, c. 300-250 B.C. AE, 17mm, 3.74 g, 11h, Johnston Bronze 46; HN Italy 1682
O: Three-quarter facing, head of Athena, slightly right, wearing triple-crested helmet
R: META, Barley ear with leaf stretching r., cross-torch to r.
(ex CNG auctions)
2 commentscasata137ec
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Italy, Lucania, Thurium52 viewsAR Stater, 7.79g. 22mm. c.410-400 B.C.

Engraver, Phrygillos (?). Head of Athena to right wearing crested helmet decorated with Skylla; "phi" in field to right. Rv. Bull pawing ground with head down to right; fish in exergue. SNG Oxford 871. HN 1782; a few small marks and some small metal breaks in front of face. Toned and of fine style

Ex: Numismatica Ars Classica, Zurich, Auction O, 2004, lot 1157.

Located on a fertile plain on the Gulf of Taranto near the site of Sybaris, Thurium was founded by Achaeans late in the 8th Century B.C. At the peak of its success, Sybaris had amassed a population nearly equal to that of Athens, had a six-mile defensive wall, and according to Strabo had as many as 25 cities and four native peoples under its authority. However, the thriving settlement was destroyed by Croton in 510 B.C. After two attempts to establish a new foundation on the ruined site that had been thwarted by Croton, a fresh attempt was made in the period 446 to 444/3 B.C. This remarkable undertaking was originally conceived by descendants of the Sybarites, but when the Crotonites opposed that enterprise as well, help was sought from Athens. Pericles came to their aid by sending colonists whom he had gathered from throughout Greece to participate in what he envisioned as a Panhellenic experiment in colonization. With financial and military support from Athens, the colonists set up their city, drawing on the talents of Protagoras of Abdera for its civil laws, Lampon of Athens for its sacred laws and Hippodamus of Miletus for its city-plan. Even the historian Herodotus is counted among the talented participants. As Thurium began to flourish its colonists from Greece soon ejected their co-founding Sybarites (who established another city on the river Traeis) and eventually distanced themselves even from their benefactor Athens. The city continued to prosper even after it came under Roman control following the defeat of Tarentum in 272. During the Second Punic War, Thurium was still a regional power and it held out as a Roman ally until the spring of 212, when resisting the Carthaginians became impossible. It was the last Greek city to fall to Hannibal, yet it also was the last city outside of Bruttium to remain in his camp. This was not appreciated by the Romans who consequently added its land to their ager publicus and, in 194 or 193, by which time the site was largely abandoned, founded in its place the Latin colony of Copia. Thurian coinage is substantial, and is renowned for the fine artistry of its dies. The head of Athena as an obverse type clearly is inspired by the coinage of Athens. The standing bull on the city’s early coins likely was derived from the old badge of Sybaris, yet the charging version of that animal may refer to the local spring Thuria, from which the new foundation took its name. On this example the bowl of Athena’s helmet is vividly decorated with Scylla, whose ribbed serpent-tail and dog foreparts are particularly well-engraved. Athena’s face retains the severe dignity of even the earliest issues of Thurium, making it a fine example of Attic-inspired art. The bull, as on all Thurian issues of this era, is fully animated with its tail lashing as it charges forth to engage some unseen foe.
Ex: A.D.M. Collection
2 commentsLeo
Sybaris.jpg
Italy, Sybaris, Planning assumptions of Sybaris (Lucania)181 viewsPlanning assumptions of Sybaris by Archaeological Museum of Sibaritide (Sibari, Cs, Italy)Taras
Thourioi.jpg
Italy, Thurium, Planning assumptions of Thurium (Lucania)254 viewsPlanning assumptions of Thurium, by Archaeological Museum of Sibaritide (Sibari, Cs, Italy).1 commentsTaras
_Velia200.JPG
Lion - Velia, Lucania228 viewsAR Didrachm (21mm, 7.5gm)
350-310 BC
O: Head of Athena right, wearing crested Attic helmet ornamented with griffin.
R: Lion prowling left; Φ above, engraver's monogram >K (Kleudoros) below, YEΛHTΩN in ex.
Williams 297 / SNG ANS 1312 / SNG Ashmolean 1233 / HN Italy 1289 / Sear 460v
3 commentsEnodia
rjb_2019_05_14.jpg
Lucania - Metapontion8 viewsAR obol
c.530-510 BC
O - Ear of barley
R - Incuse ear of barley
mauseus
rjb_2019_05_13.jpg
Lucania - Metapontion7 viewsAR obol
c.530-510 BC
O - Ear of barley
R - Incuse ear of barley
mauseus
rjb_2019_05_16.jpg
Lucania - Sybaris6 viewsAR hemiobol
c.530-510 BC
O - Bull left, head turned back
R - MV
mauseus
rjb_2019_05_15.jpg
Lucania - Sybaris21 viewsAR obol
c.530-510 BC
O - Bull left, head turned back
R - Incuse bull right, head turned back
1 commentsmauseus
Lucania_Herakleia_Athena_and_Herakles~0.JPG
Lucania Herakleia Athena and Herakles16 viewsLucania, Herakleia, AE 13, SNG Cop 1139, cf Mionnet 1 - 521, 13.35mm, 2g
OBV: Head of Athena right wearing crested Corinthian helmet, unclear symbol behind head
REV: HRA - KLEIWN, Herakles standing left, holding club in left arm, lion's skin draped over left arm and patera in right hand.

SCARCE
Romanorvm
FotorCreated~20.jpg
Lucania Metapontum AR Nomos circa 470-440 BC 20mm7.77g 12 h29 viewsFive grained ear of barley with small additional terminal grains,to left rams head upward.Rev six grained ear of barley incuse,die break.
small dumpy flan
Grant H
FotorCreated~114.jpg
Lucania Metapontum AR Nomos circa540-510 BC 26.5mm 8.06g 12h58 viewsBarley ear of eight grains,MET to left downwards.Rev incuse ear of barley with eight grains.
One of the early dies of this famous coinage.
1 commentsGrant H
FotorCreated~19.jpg
Lucania Metapontum AR Nomos circa540-510 BC 29mm 8.05g 12h35 viewsEar of barley with eight grains,MET downwards to left.Rev ear of barley with eight grains incuse.Of Pythagoras style.
Of thin spread fabric.
Grant H
PEw85oTZ63iDBtC79jCbRWj2Zz6d94.jpg
Lucania Metapontum AR Stater circa 470-440 BC 19mm 8.13g 6h30 viewsBarley ear of five grains,rams head to left,MET to right upwards.Rev incuse barley ear of six grains.
Overstruck on an uncertain type.
Grant H
FotorCreated~117.jpg
Lucania Metapontum AR Stater circa 470-440 BC 19mm 8.13g 6h29 viewsEar of barley with five grains,rams head to left.Rev incuse ear of barley with six grains.
Overstruck on an uncertain type?
Grant H
db_file_img_156483_544x262.jpg
Lucania Metapontum AR Stater circa 470-440 BC 21 mm 8.07g 12 h56 viewsEar of barley with six grains,shadow of rams head symbol in left field,META retrograde downwards to right.Rev incusr ear of barley with six grains.
Although not listed by Noe,the outline of the rams head seen on his No.221 die in class 10 can be clearly seen in the left field on this die.Perhaps being defaced from this die?
2 commentsGrant H
Poseidonia_stater.jpg
Lucania Poseidonia stater77 viewsΠΟΜΕΣ
Poseidon standing right, wearing chlamys around shoulders, brandishing trident

ΠΟΜΕΣ (retrograde)
Bull standing to left, above

Poseidonia, Lucania

470-445 BC

8.01g

SNG ANS 661; HN Italy 1114

Ex-Geoffrey Bell auction September 2017 lot 896
5 commentsJay GT4
Sybaris.jpg
Lucania Sybaris drachm97 viewsBull standing to left on dotted ground line, head turned back to right; all within border of dots VM in exergue

Bull standing to right, on dotted ground line; around, border of dots; all incuse.

LUCANIA, Sybaris

Circa 550-510 BC.

2.04g

HN III 1736. SNG ANS 847 ff.

Chipped. Old cabinet toning.

Ex-Londinium
4 commentsJay GT4
LUCANIA_THOURIOI.jpg
Lucania Thourioi Stater 385 - 360 BC.83 viewsObv ; Helmeted head of Athena, helmet decorated with Skylla holding trident.
Rev ; QOURIWN, bull butting; fish in exergue.
G/aVF , 20.8 mm, 7.44 gr.

EX THE COLIN E. PITCHFORK COLLECTION.
EX CNG.

Thourioi, was a city of Magna Graecia on the Gulf of Tarentum, near the site of the older Sybaris. It owed its origin to an attempt made in 452 BC by Sybarite exiles and their descendants to re-people their old home. The new settlement was crushed by Croton, but the Athenians lent aid to the fugitives and in 443 BC Pericles sent out to Thourioi a mixed body of colonists from various parts of Greece, among whom were Herodotus and the orator Lysias.
The pretensions of the Sybarite colonists led to dissensions and ultimately to their expulsion; peace was made with Croton, and also, after a period of war, with Tarentum, and Thourioi rose rapidly in power and drew settlers from all parts of Greece, especially from Peloponnesus, so that the tie to Athens was not always acknowledged. The oracle of Delphi determined that the city had no founder but Apollo, and in the Athenian Expedition in Sicily Thourioi was at first neutral, though it finally helped the Athenians.

Thourioi had a democratic constitution and good laws, and, though we hear little of its history till in 390 BC it received a severe defeat from the rising power of the Lucanians. Many beautiful coins testify to the wealth and splendor of its days of prosperity.

In the 4th century BC it continued to decline, and at length called in the help of the Romans against the Lucanians, and then in 282 BC against Tarentum. Thenceforward its position was dependent, and in the Second Punic War, after several vicissitudes, it was depopulated and plundered by Hannibal in 204 BC.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection.
3 commentsSam
G_005_magna.jpg
Lucania Thourioi, 385-360 B.C.42 viewsjimmynmu
lucania.jpg
Lucania, 1/6 Stater, Poseidon/ Bull3 viewsLucania, Poseidonia, 480-400 BC, 1/6 Stater, 1.21g. Grose-1090. Obv: Poseidon, Rx: Bull right. Fine; toned. Ex Glendenning October 9, 1993 & H.J.BerkPodiceps
ar_raw_600.jpg
Lucania, Athena / lion135 viewsHelmeted head of Athena right
Lion crouching right

ex Dr. Martina Dieterle
6 commentsareich
Lucania,_Heraclea,_276-250_BC_AE_.jpg
Lucania, Heraclea, ca. 276-250 BC, Æ 11 18 viewsLaureate male head (inferred to be young Herakles) right.
Club between a strung bow to the left and arrow quiver to the right.

Boutin, Collection Pozzi 453; Van Keuren 163; SNG ANS 114; SNG Copenhagen 1143; HN Italy 1445b; Sear 618.

(11 mm, 1.45 g, 12h).

Forestier & Lambert, January 2008; ex- CNG e-Auction 138, 26 April 2006, 15; ex- Athos Moretti Collection: Numismatica Ars Classica Auction O, 13 May 2004, 1099.

Rare: one of seven known (and counting!).
n.igma
HN_Italy_1384.jpg
Lucania, Heraclea. Circa 334-330 BC. AR Nomos48 views7.46 g, 7h
Obv: Helmeted head of Athena
Rx: Herakles standing facing holding lion skin and bow in left arm, club in right, being crowned by Nike
VF, struck with worn obverse die. beautiful style.
Van Keuren 83; HN Italy 1384v jug to rt.
Ex Frank Robinson 2012
2 commentsLeo
HerculesDiobol.jpg
Lucania, Heraclea: AR Diobol46 viewsHead of Athena right, wearing crested helmet decorated with Hippocamp

Herakles kneeling right, strangling the Nemean Lion.


Heraclea, Ca. 432-420 BC

0.73g

Van Keuren 38; HN Italy 1360

Ex-ANE

Beautiful glossy black patina
5 commentsJay GT4
herakleiacoll.jpg
Lucania, Herakleia42 viewsAR Nomos (20mm, 7.7g)
c. 281-278 BCE

O: ͰHPAKΛHIΩ[N], Head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with Scylla hurling stone; E left

R: Herakles standing facing, holding bow, lion’s skin, club, and two arrows; owl and APIΣ (magistrate) left

Van Keuren 87: HNItaly 1385 SNGCop -- ; SNG ANS 77
Salaethus
Lucania_Heraleia_1.PNG
Lucania, Herakleia AR Nomos, 340-330 BC2 viewsLucania, Herakleia AR Nomos, 340-330 BC.

Obverse: helmeted head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmeted decorated with Skylla
hurling stone.

Reverse: HRAKLHIWN, Herakles standing half left, head right, naked,
holding bow and resting on club, lionskin over left arm,owl in left field.

22mm
Macedonian Warrior
Herakleia_01_.jpg
Lucania, Herakleia, Athena, marin divinity 10 viewsLucania, Herakleia
Æ14, 3rd century BC
Obv.: Draped bust of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet.
Rev.: HPAKΛEIΩN, Female(?) marin divinity with human upper part of the body right, round shield in left hand, spear over shoulder; in field left, thunderbolt.
Æ, 2.45g, 13.6mm
Ref.: SNG Cop. 1142, Weber Coll. 724 var. (star on rev.).
shanxi
Lucania_Herakleia_SNG-ANS74.jpg
Lucania, Herakleia.15 viewsLucania, Herakleia. 330-325 BC. AR Nomos (7.77 gm). Head of Athena r., wearing crested Corinthian helmet ornamented with Scylla. K in l. field. / Herakles stdg, holding club, bow, and arrow, lion skin draped over arm; oinoechoe & AΘA to l., ͰHPAKΛHIΩN to r., a type alluding to defeat of barbarians by Alexander the Molossian. nEF. CNG 102 #38. SNG ANS 74-76; HN Italy 1384; HGC 1 981 var (Corinthian helmet, obv. legend). F.Work 84; SNG Cop 1106; SNG Lewis 159-161; Van Keuren 83-86.Christian T
Lucania_Herakleia_SNG-ANS55.jpg
Lucania, Herakleia.17 viewsLucania, Herakleia. 420-390 BC. AR Nomos (7.34 gm). Head of Athena r., wearing crested Attic helmet ornamented with Scylla, A behind. APIΣΤΟΞΕNOΣ in minute letters at base of crest. Light circular bankers mark to r. / Herakles strangling the Nemean lion, club to l. A and minute sideways Σ at ankle, HPAKΛEIΩN to r., APIΣΤΟΞΕ on exergue line (remnant visible). VF. Pegasi 136 #17. SNG ANS 55; HN Italy 1374; HGC 1 977. Jameson 234; SNG Lloyd 271; E.Work 20/Rᵪ15.Christian T
Lucania_Herakleia_SNG-ANS85.jpg
Lucania, Herakleia.15 viewsLucania, Herakleia. 281-278 BC. Time of Pyrrhos ⚔ 280. AR Didrachm (6.16 gm). Head of Athena r., wearing unadorned crested Corinthian helmet. / Herakles stdg., resting on club and holding lionskin over l. arm, crowning himself w/ r. Asplustre, ͰΑ, and ͰHPAKΛHIΩN to l., ΦΙΛΩ r. VF. SNG ANS 85; HN Italy 1398; HGC 1 995; Jameson 252; SNG Cop 1107; cf Van Keuren 100-101. Pyrrhos: "One more such victory and I must return to Epeiros alone!".Christian T
DSCN4750.JPG
Lucania, Herakleia. 330-280 BC. AE 18mm.6 viewsLucania, Herakleia. 330-280 BC.
Obv. Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmeted.
Rev. Herakles standing left, naked, holding bow and resting on club, lionskin over left arm
Lee S
82000214.jpg
LUCANIA, Metapontion28 viewsLUCANIA, Metapontion. Circa 400-340 BC. AR Nomos (7.76 g, 9h). Head of Demeter left / Barley ear of seven grains with leaf to right; ivy leaf above leaf. Noe 521; HN Italy 1545. Near VF, lightly toned, struck from worn obverse die, a few scratches. Rare, Noe records only 2 examples.

From the Colin E. Pitchfork Collection.

Ex-CNG(120)

ecoli
2190077.jpg
LUCANIA, Metapontion49 viewsLUCANIA, Metapontion. Circa 300-250 BC. Æ 12mm (1.71 g). Radiate head of Helios facing / Three barley grains radiating from center; race-torch between two grains. Johnston Bronze 53; HN Italy 1689. Near VF, brown patina.

Ex-CNG(62)
2 commentsecoli
2190002.jpg
LUCANIA, Metapontion24 viewsLUCANIA, Metapontion. Circa 470-440 BC. AR Nomos (19mm, 7.33 g, 12h). Barley ear; to left, ram’s head upward; cable border / Incuse barley ear. Noe 220 (same dies); HN Italy 1485. Fine, a bit porous and rough.

From the Colin E. Pitchfork Collection. Ex Malter 76 (15 April 2000), lot 17.

Ex-CNG
ecoli
metapont1.jpg
Lucania, Metapontion24 viewsAR Nomos (21mm, 7.7g)
c. 330-290 BC

O: Head of Demeter left, wreathed with barley

R: [ME]TA, Barley ear with leaf to left; amphora [?] left
Salaethus
00013v00.jpg
Lucania, Metapontion (400-340 BC)24 viewsAR Nomos

19mm, 7.48g

Obverse: Head of Leucippus with Corinthian helmet, behind grape

Reverse: Barley ear with side leaf and META to right.

Johnston A4.3 (av., Stgl.), HN Italy 1553.

Metapontion traced its founding to the 7th century BC, when an Achaean adventurer named Leucippus and his followers put down roots on a fertile plain on the instep of the Italian boot. The city so flourished that its people were said to have dedicated a "golden harvest," probably a golden sheaf of barley, at the great temple of Delphi.

Metapontion was among the first cities of Magna Graecia to issue coinage, and indeed long preceded its later rival Tarentum in this respect. The choice of the barley ear as the civic emblem is unusual in that the other cities of Magna Graecia all struck coinage displaying types relating to their foundation myths or principal cults. Metapontion's choice may well reflect a significant economic reliance on its major export.
Nathan P
237997_l.jpg
Lucania, Metapontion (Circa 330-290 BC)35 viewsAR Nomos

7.85g, 19mm

Obv: Head of Demeter left, wearing grain wreath.

Rev: META. Barley grain, with ear to left; above leaf, griffin springing right; ΛY below leaf.

Johnston Class C6; HN Italy 1589.

Throughout the extensive series of staters that Metapontum issued, the ear of barley, to which the city-state owed its wealth, features prominently. Perhaps of most interest however, is the head of Demeter, the goddess of corn, which usually appears on the obverse of the staters. The head of Demeter is consistently represented as a young woman, often engraved in exquisite beauty to a very high degree of artistry.
1 commentsNathan P
549120.jpg
Lucania, Metapontion (Circa 540-510 BC).38 viewsAR Nomos

28 mm, 7.82 g

Obv: META.
Barley ear.
Rev: Incuse barley ear.

Noe Class VI; HN Italy 1479.

Metaponion's neighbor, Sybaris, given its preeminence in the region, was most likely the originator of the incuse fabric. It seems to have been a spontaneous invention and to have been evolved without any evolutionary development. Of interest is that these coins have seldom or never been found in hoards unearthed outside Italy. This carries the suggestion that the consideration of preventing the export of money and, consequently, of restricting its circulation to South Italy must have been prominent in the minds of those responsible for originating the form. These incuse pieces are also rarely found overstruck and are significantly more difficult to counterfeit.
4 commentsNathan P
LarryW2259.jpg
Lucania, Metapontion c. 500 BC83 viewsAR nomos, 20mm, 7.97g, gVF, 15 deg
META (retrograde), barley ear / incused barley ear
Ex: ADM Collection
Noe-Johnston 235 (this coin), HN 1484
Consigned to Freeman and Sear
1 commentsLawrence Woolslayer
Lucania,_Metapontio,_AR_Stater.jpg
Lucania, Metapontion, ca. 510-470 BC, AR Didrachm33 viewsBarley ear of six grains, META upwards on left, all within cable border.
Incuse barley ear of seven grains.

HN Italy 1482; SNG ANS 237; SNG Copenhagen 1166; Noe 205.

(20 mm, 8.08 g, 12h).
Kirk Davis Classical Numismatics Catalogue 50, Fall 2006, 3.
3 commentsn.igma
metapontion_lukania_HNitaly1700.jpg
Lucania, Metapontion, HN Italy 17009 viewsAE 11, 1.59g, 11.2mm, 0°
obv. Horned head of Apollo Karneios r.
rev. META (l. field upward)
Barley ear with leaf to r.
Above leaf fly (control symbol)
ref. Johnston Bronze 64; HN Italy 1700; cf. SNG ANS 587 (control); SNG Copenhagen 156 (same); SNG Morcom 257
(same); Macdonald Hunter 67 (same)
VF, small flan

From Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!

For more information please take a look at "Mythological interesting coins", article coming soon
Jochen
Lucania_Metapontum_SNG-ANS599ff.jpg
Lucania, Metapontion.14 viewsLucania, Metapontion. 330-300 BC. AE17 (4.68 gm). Head of Demeter r., wreathed in grain, earrings and necklace. / Two ears of grain, META to l. nVF. Bt. Bill Davison 1999. SNG ANS 599-600; BMC 96; HN Italy 1715; HGC 1 1098; Johnston 79; SNG Cop 1257.Christian T
Lucania_Metapontion_SNG-ANS467ff.jpg
Lucania, Metapontion.36 viewsLucania, Metapontion. 330-290 BC. AR Nomos (7.89 gm). Head of Demeter r., with long heair, wearing wreath of grain, earrings and necklace, ΔΑΙ under chin. / Ear of grain, leaf to r. w/ plow above, META to l. MAX to r. gVF. CNG 45 #49. SNG ANS 467ff; SNG Cop 1227; HN Italy 1581; Johnson Class 1. 62 (same dies "unusual reverse signature"); SNG GB I Newnham Davis 22, III Lockett 425, VI Fitzwilliam 187, VII Manchester 210-211.1 commentsChristian T
Lucania_Metapontion_SNG-ANS191.jpg
Lucania, Metapontion.15 viewsLucania, Metapontion. 540-510 BC. AR Nomos (7.84 gm). Ear of wheat with 6 grains, ME[TA] r. / Incuse ear of wheat with 9 grains. VF. Bt. Coral Gables, 2000. SNG ANS 190–191; Noe Class III #74; HN Italy 1480; HGC 1 1027; SNG Cop 1161, 1163.Christian T
metapontion.jpg
Lucania, Metapontion; Demeter/ Barley ear; poppy-head; AE 209 viewsLucania, Metapontion. Circa 450-350 B.C. AE 20mm, 8.53g. Obv.: head of Demeter right, wearing barley wreath; ME before. Rev.: [OBOΛOΣ], barley ear; poppy-head to right. Johnston, "The Bronze Coinage of Metapontum" in Kraay-Mørkholm Essays, p. 122, 4; SNG ANS 554. Slightly double struck. Ex Tom VossenPodiceps
meta.jpg
Lucania, Metapontom stater85 viewsRaised barley corn

Incuse barley corn

Metapontom, 440-510 BC

7.72g

Tight flan series NOE 243-256; HN Italy 1485

Ex-DM collection, Ex-HJB, Ex-Calgary coin

An Achaean colony of great antiquity, Metapontion was destroyed and refounded early in the 6th century by colonists from Sybaris under the leadership of Leukippos. The city occupied an exceptionally fertile plain on the Gulf of Tarentum, which explains the use of the barley ear as its civic badge. Metapontion, along with Sybaris and Kroton produced the earliest coinage in Magna Graecia. The coins of these cities share three features: weight standard, broad and thin flans, and incuse reverses. These features were then adopted by neighboring mints at Kaulonia and elsewhere in southern Italy. While the reasoning behind the choice of these shared features is not clear, the common weight and style facilitated circulation between the cities of south Italy. The mixed contents of the earliest hoards from the region support this idea of free circulation of currency. It is interesting that these common features, indigenous to south Italy, also tended to keep the coins in south Italy. They are rarely found elsewhere in Italy, not even in Sicily. After approximately 510 B.C., the date of the destruction of Sybaris by Kroton, the fabric of the coins throughout south Italy became smaller and thicker, though still with incuse reverses. In the years between 480 and 430 B.C., sooner in Tarentum and later in Metapontion, the incuse issues were replaced by a two sided coinage.
6 commentsJay GT4
Lucania_Metapontum_GCV_415~0.JPG
Lucania, Metapontum 121 viewsObv: Bearded head of Leukippos facing right, wearing a Corinthian helmet, lion's head behind.

Rev: Barley ear with seven grains, leaf to left supporting a club, AMI below, META in field to right.

Silver Didrachm, Lucania, Metapontum, 350 - 330 BC

7.9 grams, 18.5 mm, 270°

GCV 415, Johnston B2.1, SNG Munchen 985
3 commentsSPQR Coins
Lucania,_Metapontum.png
Lucania, Metapontum12 viewsLucania, Metapontum, 510 - 470 BC
Silver Stater, 25mm, 7.71 grams
Obverse: Ear of barley with six grains either side.
Reverse: Incuse of obverse.
Noe202 // HN Italy1482
Rob D
Lucania,_Metapontion.jpg
Lucania, Metapontum AR Nomos53 viewsStruck circa 340-330 BC. AR Nomos, 7.83g. Johnston Class B2. HN Italy-1575. SNG ANS 432-440. Obverse bearded head of hero Leukippos wearing unadorned Corinthian helmet right; behind lion head right; monogram below chin. Reverse barley ear of seven grains with leaf to left; club above leaf, AMI below; META in right field.

Ex Joseph Melchione collection. Ex Ira and Larry Goldberg Pre-Long Beach Sept. 4-5, 2012 Auction 70th Sale, lot 3021. Ex CNG. VF, toned.

The head of the hero Leukippos on this coin is particularly elegant. He was a mythical king of Messene whom the Metapontines claimed as the founder of their city. His appearance on the coins almost certainly serves as an allusion to the help given to Metapontum by Alexander the Molossian, another king from across the sea. The mythological hero Leukippos (his name means owner of a white horse, i.e., a wealthy man) was particularly popular in Metapontum, appearing on the obverse of many of the city's nomoi, or staters, starting c. 350 BC. This helmeted and bearded head also served as a prototype for Rome's early didrachms with a similar head of Mars. (Commentary courtesy Classical Numismatic Group).
1 commentsJason T
Historia_Numorum_Italy_1575.jpg
Lucania, Metapontum Nomos28 viewsCirca 340-330, AR 21.5mm., 7.91g. Helmeted head of Leukippos r.; in l. field, lion head r. Rev. Barley ear of seven grains, leaf to l.; club above leaf, AMI below. Johnston class B, 2.3. Historia Numorum Italy 1575.

Finally, I got such a big flan Metapontion Leukippos Nomos~
1 commentsLeo
HNItaly_1197.jpg
Lucania, Paestum, c. 218-201 BC. Æ Quadrans10 views16mm, 3.65g, 9h
Head of Poseidon r.; three pellets behind. R/ Dolphin r.; three pellets above, palm below. Crawford 6/2; HNItaly 1197. Green patina, VF
Leo
Lucania,_Paestum,_17mm,_4,89g_-s.jpg
Lucania, Paestum, Second Punic War, (220-205 B.C.), AE-17, Triens, SNG ANS 737, ΠAIS to the right of cornucopiae, #1108 viewsLucania, Paestum, Second Punic War, (220-205 B.C.), AE-17, Triens, SNG ANS 737, ΠAIS to the right of cornucopiae, #1
avers: Female head (or Dionysos?) right, wearing ivy-wreath; four dots behind.
reverse: ΠAIS to the right of cornucopiae, four dots to left.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17,0mm, weight: 4,89g, axes: h,
mint: Lucania, Paestum, date: Second Punic War, 220-205 B.C., ref: SNG ANS 737, HN Italy 1191, Crawford, Paestum 6/1,
Q-001
quadrans
greek13.jpg
Lucania, Poseidonia Ar Nomos36 views(470-445 BC)
Obv.: Poseidon, naked but for the chlamys over shoulders, walking r., brandishing trident in r. hand and extending l. arm. POMEM right.
Rev.: Bull walking right. POMES retrograde.
SNG ANS 646.
1 commentsMinos
LucaniaPoseidon.jpg
Lucania, Poseidonia Silver Nomos c. 445-420 B.C.18 viewsLUCANIA, Poseidonia
Silver Nomos (20mm, 7.15 gm.). c. 445-420 BC.
Obv: Poseidon standing right, preparing to cast trident.
Rev: Bull standing left.
Ref: HN Italy 1116; SNG ANS 655.
mjabrial
Lucania_Poseidonia_SNG-ANS654.jpg
Lucania, Poseidonia.16 viewsLucania, Poseidonia. 470-445 BC. AR Nomos (7.66 gm). Poseidon advancing r., with chlamys over shoulders, brandishing trident. 𐌲ΟM r. (epichoric ΠOΣ). / Bull standing r. 𐌲ΟΜΕ above (retrograde, epichoric ΠΟΣΕ). VF. Pegasi 126 #41. SNG ANS 646v (abbreviated legends); HN Italy 1114; HGC 1 1151; SNG Cop 1277v (same).Christian T
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Lucania, Poseidonia. ca 410-350 BC. AR Nomos.24 viewsLucania, Poseidonia. ca 410-350 BC. AR Nomos. POSEIDAN, Poseidon walking right, wielding trident, chlamys draped over both arms; dolphin downwards behind / POSEIDANI, bull standing left; dolphin in ex. SNGANS 682 ancientone
lucania_poseidonia.jpg
Lucania, Poseidonia; 1/6 stater (diobol) Poseidon/ Bull left9 viewsLucania, Poseidonia, 480-400 B.C. 1/6 Stater (Diobol), AR 10mm, 1.3g. Obv: Poseidon, Rev: Bull left. SNG ANS 635. Podiceps
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Lucania, Sybaris (Circa 550-510 BC)35 viewsAR Stater

29 mm, 8.14 g

Obverse: VM in exergue; bull standing left, head reverted.

Reverse : Incuse bull standing right, head reverted.

HN Italy 1729; SNG ANS 828-844

An Achaean colony dating from about 720 BC, Sybaris rapidly grew to be the wealthiest city in the area. The luxury enjoyed by its population was proverbial, hence the modern words sybarite and sybaritic. The bull may symbolize the local river god Krathis. The archaic coinage of Sybaris was brought to an abrupt end in 510 BC when the city was destroyed by the rival state of Kroton. The waters of the Krathis were diverted to flow over the site of the sacked city, thus obliterating all trace of its former splendor.
2 commentsNathan P
HN_Italy_1729.jpg
LUCANIA, Sybaris. Circa 550-510 BC. AR Nomos43 views28.5mm, 7.97 g, 12h
Bull standing left, head right; ¨µ in exergue / Incuse bull standing right, head left. S&S Class B, pl. 48, 4–8; Gorini 2; HN Italy 1729; SNG ANS 828-44; SNG Lloyd 449–50; Basel 168–9; Dewing 406–7. VF, lightly toned. Good metal.
1 commentsLeo
103007.jpg
LUCANIA, Thourioi152 viewsGR7

Thurii was one of the latest of all the Greek colonies in this part of Italy, not having been founded until nearly 70 years after the fall of Sybaris. The site of that city had remained desolate for a period of 58 years after its destruction by the Crotoniats; when at length, in 452 BC, a number of the Sybarite exiles and their descendants made an attempt to establish themselves again on the spot, under the guidance of some leaders of Thessalian origin; and the new colony rose so rapidly to prosperity that it excited the jealousy of the Crotoniats, who, in consequence, expelled the new settlers a little more than 5 years after the establishment of the colony. The fugitive Sybarites first appealed for support to Sparta, but without success: their application to the Athenians was more successful, and that people determined to send out a fresh colony, at the same time that they reinstated the settlers who had been lately expelled from thence. A body of Athenian colonists was accordingly sent out by Pericles, under the command of Lampon and Xenocritus; but the number of Athenian citizens was small, the greater part of those who took part in the colony being collected from various parts of Greece. Among them were two celebrated names – Herodotus the historian, and the orator Lysias, both of whom appear to have formed part of the original colony. The laws of the new colony were established by the sophist Protagoras at the request of Pericles

LUCANIA, Thourioi. Circa 400-350 BC. AR Triobol (11mm, 1.18 gm). Helmeted head of Athena right, helmeted decorated with Skylla / Bull butting left; fish in exergue. SNG ANS 1138-47; HN Italy 1806. VF. Ex-CNG BB0VFA
3 commentsecoli
Thourioicoll1.jpg
Lucania, Thourioi44 viewsAR Nomos (20mm, 7.85g)
c. 350-330 BC

O: Head of Athena right, wearing crested Attic helmet decorated with Scylla hurling stone; Φ on neckguard

R: ΘOΥΡIΩN, Bull butting right; ΘE above, two tunny-fish in exergue

SNG ANS 1078, SNG München 1199
Salaethus
thourioicoll2.jpg
Lucania, Thourioi33 viewsAR Nomos (22.2mm, 7.60g)
c. 385- 360 BCE
Colin E. Pitchfork collection

O: Head of Athena right, wearing crested Attic helmet decorated with Scylla scanning horizon

R: ΘOΥΡIΩN, Bull butting right; tunny-fish in exergue

SNG ANS 1028
Salaethus
Thourioi_didrachm.jpg
LUCANIA, Thourioi75 viewsHead of Athena right, wearing helmet decorated with Skylla holding rudder over shoulder

Bull butting right; below, dolphin right in waves.

Lucania, Thourioi

Circa 400-350 BC

7.35g

HN Italy 1794b; SNG ANS 1048.

Ex CNG 385, Lot: 48, Ex-Steve P collection
2 commentsJay GT4
Thourioi_SNGcop1514cf.jpg
Lucania, Thourioi SNG Copenhagen 1514 cf.55 viewsAE 18 (Hemiobol), 4.47g
struck c. 260 BC
obv. Head of Persephone/Kore, wearing necklace and wreathed with corn-ears, l.
THOVRIA behind
rev. Bull with head down butting l.
[PARME? above]
in ex. fish
SNG Copenhagen 1514 cf.; Laffaille 62 var. (ISTI on rev.)
rare, about VF
From Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!

This rev. was the paradigm of the Augustus denarius RIC I, 169!
1 commentsJochen
Thourioistater.jpg
Lucania, Thourioi Stater114 viewsHead of Athena right wearing Attic helmet decorated with Skylla holding trident

ΘΟΥΡΙΩΝ
Bull butting right, solid exurgal line below HR monogram above

c. 420-400 BC

6.74g

SNG ANS-1041-2 var


Ex Superior, 30 May 1995, lot 7072 (Lewis Egnew Collection), ex-HJB
4 commentsJay GT4
Lucania_Thourioi_SNG-Cop1463.jpg
Lucania, Thourioi.36 viewsLucania, Thourioi. 350-281 BC. AR Stater (7.79 gm). Head of Athena, r., wearing Attic helmet decorated with Scylla brandishing stone. / Bull butting r., Nike above, Σ-Ι-M below. ex: ΦΟΥΡΙΩΝ (remnant). EF. Ponterio 145 #118. SNG Cop 1463; HN Italy 1845; HGC 1 1262; Santangelo Coll. (MN Napoli) 4943; SNG ANS -; BMC1 296, 96.1 commentsChristian T
Lucania_Thourioi_HN-IT1823.jpg
Lucania, Thourioi.22 viewsLucania, Thourioi. 350-300 BC. AR Distater (25mm, 15.09 gm). Head of Athena r., wearing helmet decorated with Skylla throwing stone. / Bull butting r., ΘΟΡΙΩΝ & EYΦA above; in exergue, two fish r. gVF. CNG 102 #64. ex-Tom Cederlind. HN Italy 1823; SNG ANS 977v (ex.); Noe, Thurian J2 (same dies); HGC 1 1257.1 commentsChristian T
Lucania_1a_img.jpg
Lucania, Thurium, Ar Nomos, 4th C. B.C.90 viewsObv:- Head of Athena in Attic helmet decorated with Skylla
Rev:- ΘOYPIΩN above, Bull butting right, tunny fish in exe.
Minted in Thurium. 4th Century B.C.
3 commentsmaridvnvm
Lucania_Thurium.jpg
Lucania, Thurium, diobol28 views13mm, 1.13g
obv: head of Athena right, wearing crested Attic helmet decorated with Skylla hurling rock
rev: bull butting right
1 commentsareich
103008.jpg
LUCANIA, Velia217 viewsLUCANIA, Velia. Circa 365-340 BC. AR Nomos (23mm, 7.57 gm). Head of Athena left, wearing Attic helmet decorated with a griffin; O behind neck / Lion walking right;  above. Williams 263 II (O151'/R203); SNG ANS 1296-7 (same dies); HN Italy 1284. VF, struck with deteriorating dies. Ex-Cng B10DV15E2 commentsecoli
Lucania,_Velia.jpg
Lucania, Velia20 viewsAE11
390-100 B.C.
11mm, 1.46g

Obverse:
Corinthian helmeted head of Athena right.

Reverse:
YEΛH
Owl standing left, wings closed.
rubadub
Velia1.jpg
Lucania, Velia42 viewsAR Drachm (18mm, 3.63g)
c. 430-420 BC

O: Head of nymph right

R: Owl standing right on olive branch; YEΛH behind, Δ before

BMC 9; Williams 187d
1 commentsSalaethus
3395122.jpg
Lucania, Velia23 viewsAR Nomos (19mm, 7.38g)
c. 334-300 B.C.E.
Kleudoros Group

O: Head of Athena left, wearing crested Phrygian helmet, decorated with centauress; monogram behind

R: Lion standing left, feeding; A below; YEΛHTΩN in ex.

Williams 359; HNItaly 1296
Salaethus
3395121.jpg
Lucania, Velia45 viewsAR Nomos (20mm, 7.34g)
334-300 B.C.E.
Kleudoros Group

O: Head of Athena left, wearing crested Phrygian helmet decorated with centauress; monogram behind

R: Lion standing left, feeding; A above, monogram below; YEΛHTΩN in ex.

Williams 331
2 commentsSalaethus
Velia2.jpg
Lucania, Velia (Circa 440-400 BC)22 viewsAR Didrachm

20 mm, 7.68 g

Obverse: Head of Athena l., wearing crested Attic helmet decorated with griffin and laurel wreath; Φ to r.

Reverse: Lion attacking stag; [Y]EL-HT-EW-N

Williams 159; HNItaly 1270; SNG ANS 1261. VF

The type of lion and its prey goes back to the earliest Velian drachms brought by its original Phocaean settlers from Asia Minor; in various forms the type is common in the East Greek and Persian world and may have originally represented the triumph of light over darkness or of the king over his enemies.
2 commentsNathan P
Velia.jpg
Lucania, Velia AR Didrachm133 viewsHelmeted head of Athena left, wearing Phrygian helmet decorated with centauress, KE monogram behind

Lion left, tearing prey, A above, KE monogram below, ΥΕΛΗΤΩΝ in ex.

Circa 334-300 BC

7.22g

Williams 327 (O.174/R.243)
BMC 74; HN Italy 1294.

Ex-Calgary coin

The KE obverse monogram is the signature of Kleudoros, the artist or mint master of Velia.
5 commentsJay GT4
lucania_velia.jpg
Lucania, Velia AR Nomos69 viewsCirca 280 BC. AR Nomos (22mm, 7.47 g, 10h). Williams 572 (O284/R399); HN Italy 1318; SNG ANS 1403 (same rev. die). Obverse Head of Athena left, wearing crested Attic helmet decorated with gryphon; A above, [Φ before], IE on outlined tablet behind neck guard. Reverse Lion attacking stag left; [ΥΕΛΗΤΩΝ] above. VF, toned, minor scratches under tone. Well struck.

Ex Classical Numismatic Review XXXIX No. 2 Summer 2014, lot 980957.

Velia, situated on the Tyrrhenian coast of southern Italy south of Poseidonia, was founded circa 540 BC by Ionian Greek colonists from Phokaia in western Asia Minor who had fled their homeland following the Persian conquest in 545 B.C. Its coinage commenced soon after the city’s foundation and its types (forepart of lion devouring prey / incuse square) and denomination (Phokaian silver drachm) reflect the Asian origin of the early citizenry of Velia. Later, in the 5th century, the weight standard of the Velian coinage was assimilated to that of the Achaean cities of Magna Graecia producing a nomos of about 8 grams. The type of a lion, or a lion attacking or feeding on its prey, remained popular at Velia throughout the two and a half centuries of its silver coinage, which ceased just prior to the city’s alliance with Rome, negotiated circa 275 BC.
3 commentsJason T
Velia_(Hyele,_Elea).jpg
Lucania, Velia Stater40 viewsCirca. 340-334 BC, Didrachm, 7.62g.
Williams-251, HN Italy-1283. Obv: Head of Athena r., helmet decorated with griffin. Rx: Lion walking r., Π below, YEΛHTΩN in exergue.A wonderfully centered and very beautifully struck specimen. Minor scratches on face. Choice EF
1 commentsLeo
NM5L107.jpg
LUCANIA, Velia, 300-280 BC134 viewsDidrachm, 7.51 g

O - Head of Athena to right, wearing Attic helmet adorned with a wing.
R - ΥΕΛΗΤΩΝ /Φ Ι / Π Lion walking to right; above, ear of wheat.

HN III 1309. Williams 470-489.

Ex Rauch 86, 2 May 2010, Lot 103
Ex Nomos, Auction 5, Lot 107, 25 October 2011
7 commentsrobertpe
LarryW2347.jpg
Lucania, Velia, 350-281 BC45 viewsSilver didrachm, 22.9mm, 7.32g, VF
Head of Athena left, wearing earring, necklace, and crested Athenian helmet; on helmet, dolphin, on flap, Φ, and on crest carrier, a row of pellets / YEΛHTΩN, lion walking right; above, Φ and I either side of ornamented trident head right; border of dots.
Ex: Glenn W. Woods
BMC Italy, pg 314, #100; Sear 460v; SNG Cop 1585
Lawrence Woolslayer
Williams_139.jpg
Lucania, Velia, c. 440/35-400 BC. AR Didrachm17 views20mm, 7.58g, 11h
Head of Athena l., wearing crested Attic helmet decorated with griffin, palmette on neck guard. R/ Lion attacking stag r. Williams 139; HNItaly 1270. VF
Leo
Lucania-Velia-didrachm-Athena-Lion-from-Pecunem.jpg
LUCANIA, Velia. didrachm28 viewsLUCANIA. Velia. Didrachm
305-290 BC
Obv: Head of Athena right, wearing crested helmet, decorated with griffin; at left, A.
Rev: YEΛHTΩN.
lion standing on exergual line; above dolphin between I and Φ.
SNG ANS 1375-6.
Weight: 7.3 g.
Diameter: 17.5 mm.

Athena, a griffin, a lion, a dolphin... what's not to love?
TIF
110968.jpg
Lucania, Velia. (Circa 340-334 B.C.)34 viewsAR nomos (22 mm, 7.24 g, 2 h).

Obverse: Head of Athena left, wearing crested Attic helmet decorated with a griffin; between neck guard and crest, Θ

Reverse: YEΛHTΩN (of Elea), lion prowling right; below, X.

Williams 262 (O151/R207); SNG ANS 1293 (same dies); HN Italy 1284.

Velia was the Roman name of an ancient city of Magna Graecia on the coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea. It was founded by Greeks from Phocaea as Hyele around 538–535 BC. According to Herodotus, in 545 BC Ionian Greeks fled Phocaea, in modern Turkey, which was being besieged by the Persians under Cyrus the Great. They settled in Corsica until they were attacked by a force of Etruscans and Carthaginians. The surviving 6000 took to the sea once more, first stopping in Reggio Calabria, where they were probably joined by the poet/philosopher Xenophanes, who was at the time at Messina, and then moved north along the coast and founded the town of Hyele, later renamed Ele and then, eventually, Elea.

Elea was not conquered by the Lucanians, but eventually joined Rome in 273 BC and was included in ancient Lucania.
1 commentsNathan P
Williams_543.jpg
LUCANIA, Velia. Circa 280 BC. Didrachm or Nomos15 views21mm, 6.84 g 1
Head of Athena to left, wearing crested Attic helmet adorned with Pegasus; behind neck, IE in shallow incuse square. Rev. [ΥEΛHTΩN] Lion attacking stag to left. HN III 1318. Williams 543 (same dies). Minor cleaning scratches, otherwise, good fine.


From a collection in Ticino, formed over 20 years ago.
Leo
Williams_419.jpg
LUCANIA, Velia. Circa 300-280 BC. AR Nomos21 views22mm, 7.54 g, 2h
Philistion group. Head of Athena left, wearing crested Attic helmet, decorated with gryphon; Ө between crest and neck guard / Lion standing right, head facing, tearing at ram’s head with jaws and forepaws; above, cicada left between Ф and I. Williams 419 (same dies); HN Italy 1305. VF, toned.
Leo
Williams_394.jpg
LUCANIA, Velia. Circa 300-280 BC. AR Nomos45 views22mm, 7.46 g, 11h

Philistion Group. Helmeted head of Athena right, griffin on bowl / Lion standing right; die erasure below. Williams 394 (O197/R278); HN Italy 1301; SNG ANS 1397; SNG Ashmolean 1392; BMC 110; McClean 1470 (all from the same dies). VF, toned.

Ex Seaby Coin & Medal Bulletin 818 (March 1987), no. B34.
2 commentsLeo
F7B99948-A602-46AF-A885-000024EB94CB.jpeg
Lucania. Metapontum AR Nomos / Barley Ear27 viewsAttribution: HN Italy 1589
Date: 340-330 BC
Obverse: Wreathed head of Demeter left
Reverse: META, Ear of barley with leaf to left, Griffin above leaf
Size: 18.72 mm
Weight: 7.16 grams
Description: VF.
1 commentsMark R1
meta_k.jpg
LUCANIA. Metapontum. 5 viewsÆ15, 2.4g; c. 300-250 BC
Obv.: Head of Athena left, wearing crested Corinthian helmet.
Rev.: M-E, three barley grains arranged in a circle; cross-torch.
Reference: SNG ANS 581; SNG Cop. 1265.
1 commentsJohn Anthony
lucania_paestum.jpg
Lucania. Paestum. Semis. Head of Neptune/ rudder & anchor10 viewsLucania. Paestum. Semis. Head of Neptune right, S and trident behind/ ΠΑΕ, rudder and anchor crossed?, Crawford 20. Ex Sayles & Lavender.Podiceps
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LUCANIA. Sybaris. AR Stater50 viewsCirca 550-510 B.C. (28mm, 8.43 g, 12h). Obverse: bull standing left, head reverted; VM in exergue. Reverse: incuse bull standing right, head reverted. S & S Class B, pl. XLVIII, 4-8 Gorini 2; HN Italy 1729. VF, toned.

Ex. Volteia Collection

This coin was minted before the destruction of Sybaris by its neighboring city state Kroton in 510 B.C. We do not know the exact nature why Kroton destroyed this prosperous city. Ancient sources provided us several accounts of Sybaris being a place of hedonism and excess to the point that the very name Sybaris became a byword for opulent luxury, and its destruction was a result of some divine punishment (Diodorus Siculus, Strabo, Aelianus, Athenaeus). Modern revisionist view of the possible demise of Sybaris might be the result of its vast natural wealth and successful trade with its neighbors, which gave Kroton the economic reason to subjugate it. The Sybarites established a new city called Thourioi (Thurii/Thurium) with the help of Athenian settlers. However, the Sybarites were again expelled by the Athenians in 445 B.C. and founded another city for the last time called Sybaris on the Traeis.
Sybaris might be the first to mint coins with an incuse reverse and this practice spread to other Greek city states like Kroton, Metapontion, and Poseidonia. The similar weight and technique in producing these incuse-type coins facilitated trade between the cities mentioned. The bull might represent the river god Crathis or Sybaris, or both: each deity could represent either the obverse or reverse of the coin. The ethnic VM (or YM) in exergue are the first two Greek letters of Sybaris spelled retrogradely. A curious placement of the letter sigma sideways made it appear as letter M on most coins of Sybaris.
5 commentsJason T
Lucania_Velia_Williams-192.jpg
Lucania. Velia.18 viewsLucania. Velia. 400-350 BC. AR Nomos (7.52 gm). Head of Athena l., wearing Phrygian helmet decorated w. draped female centaur. Monogram ˃Ε behind. / Lion standing l., devouring prey. Λ above, ˃Ε below. ex: VEΛHTΩN. gVF. Bt. Stack's Bowers 2011. CG #931. Williams 359; HN Italy 1296; SNG ANS 1325v (Λ monogram); SNG Cop 1563; HGC 1 1314.Christian T
Paestum1.jpg
MAGNA GRECIA LUCANIA PAESTUM7 viewsMAGNA GRECIA
LUCANIA
PAESTUM (Poseidonia)
Bronze semis. Circa 90-44 BC.
15mm, 3.41gm.
Obv: Female head right; MINEIA • M • F behind.
Rev: Two-story building; P-S flanking upper floor, S-C flanking lower.
Crawford, Paestum 38b; HN Italy 1258.
Rare.
Ancient Aussie
1.jpg
MAGNA GRECIA, Metaponto, 420-400 a.C.43 viewsGrecia, Metaponto (Lucania), AE11 bronzo. (420-400 a.C.)
AE, 11-12 mm, gr. 1,06. B+
D/ Testa di Demetra, dea delle messi (Cerere), a dx
R/ META, spiga d'orzo
SNG Cop. 1261, SNG ANS 574
Nota: patina verde con punti rossi
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (13 dicembre 2007, numero catalogo 58), ex Martina Dieterle collection (Schenkenzell Germany, via Vauctions lotto 57856, fino al 2007).
paolo
J01N-Murex.jpg
Metapontion, Lucania Phoenicia, AR Plated (fourreé) Stater, c. 400 - 350 BCE68 viewsSilver plated (fourreé) stater of Metapontion, Lucania (Phoenicia / Italy), c. 400 - 350 BCE, 5.32 grams, 18 mm

Obverse: Head of young female, left.
Reverse: Barley ear with murex shell in left field.

Reference: SNG ANS-334, Noe-437, Jameson 289; HN Italy 1521, cf S 404.

Added to collection: January 1, 2006
Daniel Friedman
metapontum.jpg
Metapontion, Lucania, Italy, c. 330 - 290 B.C.90 viewsSilver stater, HN Italy 1581; SGCV I 416 var; Noe-Johnston 3, class C 1.2-72, VF, obverse off center, weight 7.851g, maximum diameter 20.2mm, die axis 150o, c. 330 - 290 B.C.; obverse head of Demeter right; reverse head of grain, META on left, plough above leaf on right, M[AX] lower right; ex CNG; ex FORVM

Demeter in Greek mythology is the goddess of grain and fertility, the pure; nourisher of the youth and the green earth, the health-giving cycle of life and death; and preserver of marriage and the sacred law. In the Homeric Hymn to Demeter, dated to about the seventh century B.C. she is invoked as the "bringer of seasons," a subtle sign that she was worshipped long before she was made one of the Olympians. She and her daughter Persephone were the central figures of the Eleusinian Mysteries that also predated the Olympian pantheon.
3 commentsAdrian S
Copy_of_Metapontum_AE_2.JPG
Metapontum, Lucania15 views300-250 BC
AE16 (16mm, 3.09g)
O: Veiled head of Demeter right, wearing stephane.
R: Ear of barley; long leaf to left with VE monogram above, MET[A] to right.
Johnston 57; SNG ANS 573; SNG Cop 1259; HN Italy 1693.
ex Praefectus Coins
Enodia
Metapontum_fraction.JPG
Metapontum, Lucania45 views430-400 BC
AR Obol (7.6mm, 0.38g)
O: Beardless head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress.
R: Barley ear of five grains.
Noe 365.1; HN Italy 1506
Scarce
ex Forvm Ancient Coins

About 480 BC the city magistrates of Metapontum desired to make a change to their coinage, which up until that time depicted only the ear of grain.
This coin symbolizes the legend of Herakles and the Oxen of Geryon which, according to Diodorus Siculus (circa 1st century AD), were brought by the Hero to Metapontum from the west.

Ένα πολύ ιδιαίτερο ευχαριστώ για την καλή Νίκο μου φίλο.
Enodia
Metapontum_AE_2.JPG
Metapontum, Lucania58 views300-250 BC
AE16 (16mm, 3.09g)
O: Veiled head of Demeter right, wearing stephane.
R: Ear of barley; long leaf with VE monogram above to left, MET[A] to right.
Johnston 57; SNG ANS 573; SNG Cop 1259; HN Italy 1693
ex Praefectus Coins

“They found the illustrious goddess sitting near the road, just the way
they had left her. Then they led her to the palace of their father.
She was walking behind them, sad in her heart.
She was wearing a veil on her head, and a long dark robe
trailed around the delicate feet of the goddess.”
~ Homeric Hymn to Demeter
1 commentsEnodia
Metapontum.JPG
Metapontum, Lucania119 views330-300 BC
AR Didrachm (21mm, 7.76g)
O: Head of Demeter right, wreathed in grain and wearing triple earring and necklace; ΔAI under chin.
R: Ear of barley with seven grains, leaf to right; plow above leaf, MAX below, META to left.
Johnston C-1; SNG ANS 470; SNG Cop 1227; HN Italy 1581; Sear 416
ex Windsor Antiquities

Founded around 700 BC by Achaean colonists, Metapontum strived to remain neutral through the many wars common in Magna Graecia. They took no active role in the struggle between fellow Achaean colonies of Kroton and Sybaris, although they did give sanctuary to Pythagoras and his followers after they were banished from Kroton. Here he taught until his retirement, and here he died (c. 500 BC).
Metapontum joined Taras in an alliance with Alexander of Epirus during his wars against the Lucanians and Bruttians (332 BC). However when Metapontum declined a similar offer to ally with Kleonymus of Sparta in 303 BC, Taras became hostile and attacked, eventually extorting a large sum of gold from the Metapontines. The animosity between them subsided by 281 BC, when Metapontum once again sided with the Tarentines in an alliance with Pyrrhus, King of Epirus, in the war against Rome.
By this time their influence in the region had waned, and we hear less and less of the city until the Second Punic War (216 BC), at which time Metapontum declared in favor of Hannibal. By 212 BC Hannibal occupied the city, and it seems to have been a major base for his forces. However, after his military reversal Hannibal was forced to give up possession of the region, departing Italy from Metapontum in 207 BC and evacuating the population at the same time. Metapontum would never again play a major role in Magna Graecia, and although Cicero mentions visiting the city, Pausanias tells us that the site was a complete ruin by his time.
3 commentsEnodia
Meta_AE.JPG
Metapontum, Lucania41 views350-300 BC
AE15 (15mm, 2.80g)
O: Head of Demeter right, wreathed in grain.
R: Ear of grain.
Johnston 62; HN Italy 1698; Sear 621v

1 commentsEnodia
Metapontum_Diobol.JPG
Metapontum, Lucania37 views470-440 BC
AR Diobol (11mm, 0.82g).
O: Ear of barley with six grains.
R: Incuse barley grain; annulet to left.
Noe 304; HN Italy 1488 
ex Agora Auctions; ex Artifact Man

Metapontum was located on the Gulf of Taras between the rivers Bradanus and Casuentus.
This ideal location, lying on a richly fertile plain, would provide the Metapontines with the abundant grain harvests from which they became both wealthy and influential. By the fifth century Metapontum had grown so prosperous that she paid an annual tribute to Delphi in the form of a "golden harvest" (Strabo), thought to be a sheaf of grain fashioned from gold.
1 commentsEnodia
Clipboard~4.jpg
Paestum(Poseidonia), Lucania. Second Punic War 218-201 BC. AE Triens.27 viewsObv: Head of Dionysos right, wreathed with vine / PAIS to right.
Rev: Cornucopiae, spray of leaves on left, four dots vertically to left.
Second Punic War. 218-201 BC.
Crawford 6/1; SNG ANS 15-18.
ancientone
SNG_ANS_651_Nomos_POSEIDONIA_Lucania.jpg
POSEIDONIA - Lucania - Italia14 viewsAR Nomos (Estátera) 20.6 mm 7.37 gr

Anv: "POΣEI"(posiblemente retrógrada en campo derecho, en este caso ilegible), Poseidón avanzando a derecha, Clámide (Chlamys) flotando sobre sus hombros, portando un tridente horizontal en mano derecha y con su brazo izquierdo extendido.
Rev: "POΣEI" (Retrógrada con Σ acostada como M), Toro avanzando a izquierda con "Σ" (Recostada que parece M = Número de control de cuño ??).

Poseidonia fue fundada a finales del siglo séptimo A.C. por colonos griegos de Sybaris. En el quinto siglo A.C., Poseidonia fue conquistada por los lucanos. La evidencia arqueológica muestra sucesivas culturas griegas y oscas, que incluso prosperaron juntas. Después los Poseidonianos se unieron con Pirro de Epiro contra Roma, siendo vencidos por el Cónsul Publio Valerio Levino.
Poseidonia fue refundada como ciudad romana con el nuevo nombre de Paestum en el 273 A.C.

Acuñada: 420 - 410 A.C.
Ceca: Poseidonia - Lucania - Italia

Referencias: SNG Cop #1278 ss - SNG ANS #651 ss - SNG Lockett #442 - cf. HN Italy #1127 - MI AMG.#2534 (R2) - Delepierre #353
mdelvalle
poseidonia.JPG
Poseidonia Drachm (1/3 Stater)73 viewsLucania, Poseidonia 530-500 av. J.C. , Drachme 2.75g
D:/ΡΟΣ, Poséidon debout à droite, brandissant le trident.
R:/Même type incus à g. dans un cercle strillé
HN Italy 1108, SNG ANS 622 (same dies)
Brennos
Poseidonia.jpg
Poseidonia, Lucania33 views350-290 BC
AE 16 (16x13mm, 3.80g)
O: Poseidon, nude, advancing left, Brandishing trident over head.
R: Bull butting right, waves below; dolphin right in ex.
HN Italy 1167; SNG IV Fitzwilliam 566
Rare
ex Colosseum Coin Exchange; ex Forvm Ancient Coins

Poseidonia was founded shortly before 600 BC by colonists from Sybaris, and archeological evidence shows that they, like the Sybarites, enjoyed fine living.
The archaic style of the obverse remained even into the classical era, however this coin is quite rare in that Poseidon is facing left, rather than to the right as on almost all other examples from this city. The bull on the reverse, typical of the coins of Sybaris, honored the mother colony.
Poseidonia came under Roman control in 273 after the defeat of Pyrrhus, at which time the name was changed to Paestum.
1 commentsEnodia
Sybaris.jpg
Sybaris, Lucania63 views550-510 BC
AR Obol (10mm, 0.44g)
O: Bull (Ox?) standing left, head turned back to right; VM in exergue.
R: Large MV monogram; four pellets around.
SNG ANS 853; HN Italy 1739; Hands Type I, IV
ex Tom Vossen

This coin dates from the original Greek colony, Sybaris I, before its destruction by the Krotones in 511-510 BC.
The MV monogram on the reverse actually reads 'SY' for Sybaris, and I believe the VM in exergue on the obverse is 'MV' retrograde.
The bull device seen on all early types from Sybaris, and later on the coins of her colonies at Poseidonia and Thurii, may in fact be a white ox at the mother city.
4 commentsEnodia
Vlasto_594.JPG
Taras, Calabria198 views330-302 BC (Period V)
AR Didrachm (20mm, 7.98g)
O: Naked warrior in crested helmet on horse prancing right, spearing downward with right hand, shield and two extra spears in left; ΔΑΙ below.
R: Taras riding dolphin left, holding trident over shoulder with right hand and shield decorated with hippocamp in left; ΦΙ to left, ΤΑΡΑΣ to right, murex shell below.
Vlasto 594; Cote 239; Evans V, B5; Fischer-Bossert 1022a; McGill II, 52; HN Italy 935; SNG ANS 991
ex Heidelberger Munzhandlung

Vlasto dates this coin to the time of Alexander the Molossian, but I believe it may be safely placed after the King’s death in 331, as the typical Epirote symbols are no longer seen (especially, as Evans points out, the eagle’s head). Alexander, uncle to Alexander the Great, arrived at Taras in 334 as defender, the leader of a mercenary army from Epirus hired to help defend Taras from the indigenous Italian tribes. However he was quickly seen to have something more in the way of conquest in mind. Having ignored the warning of the Oracle at the Temple of Zeus Dodona, Alexander pushed west and fulfilled prophecy, being killed while fighting the Lucanians at Pandosia, near the River Acheron.

The murex shell played a very large part in the Tarentine economy, producing a rich purple dye. In fact the early reference books simply describe it as “a purple shell”. Purple cloth from Taras was considered a great luxury throughout the Mediterranean.
5 commentsEnodia
V1236.JPG
Taras, Calabria45 views334-302 BC
AR Diobol (12mm, 1.06g)
O: Head of Athena left, wearing crested Attic helmet decorated with Skylla.
R: Herakles standing right, strangling the Nemean lion.
Vlasto 1236; Cote 248; SNG Cop 994; McGill II, 148; SNG ANS 1359; HN Italy 914
From the Colin E. Pitchfork collection. ex CNG

The image of Herakles wrestling the Nemean lion on this series was inspired by the coinage of Herakleia, a Tarentine colony in Lucania and the headquarters of the Italiote League during the first half of the 4th century BC.
After the conquest of Herakleia by the Massapians in 356 leadership of the League was transferred to Taras, who began minting these diobols as a federal issue. It became almost as ubiquitous as the dolphin rider type, circulating as small change throughout southern Italy.
1 commentsEnodia
Vlasto_545.JPG
Taras, Calabria56 views344-334 BC (Period IV)
AR Didrachm (20mm, 7.54g)
Signed by the Kal... engraver. 
O: Nude horseman right, wearing shield on left arm and holding two spears in left hand, preparing to thrust third spear held in right hand; |- behind, Δ before, ΚΑΛ and Δ below.
R: Phalanthos astride dolphin right, holding crested helmet; stars flanking, ΤΑΡΑΣ to left, ΚΑΛ below.
Vlasto 545; Cote 215; McGill II, 41; Evans IV, H3; HN Italy 896; SNG ANS 971; Sear 345
ex Monarch Beach

Archidamos III reigned as King of Sparta from 360 BC until his death in 338. Summoned by the Tarentines to assist them in the first Lucanian war, he lead a mercenary army to Manduria in Calabria, where he fell in battle against the combined forces of the Messapians and Lucanians.
The historian Diodorus suggests that the death of Archidamos and the massacre of his army was divine vengeance for his plundering of the Temple of Apollo at Delphi.

The 4th century artist known to us only as the KAL engraver was arguably the finest die engraver in Magna Graecia. Specializing in common everyday scenes and eschewing the more aristocratic themes, his work had a certain elegance and sensitivity rarely seen in numismatic art.
The dolphin rider on this coin is bowing his head slightly and looking very pensively at the helmet in his hands. Is Phalanthos mourning for King Archidamos here? Sir Arthur Evans thought so, and the two stars on this reverse (one off flan), representing the Dioskouri and therefore Sparta the Mother City, lends credence to this idea. If so, then no other engraver could have captured this moment and this emotion quite like KAL…
1 commentsEnodia
Tetricus II- SPES AVGG.jpg
Tetricus II- SPES AVGG42 viewsTetricus II, Caesar mid 271 - spring 274 A.D.

Obverse:
Radiate draped and cuirassed bust right

C PIV ESV TETRICVS CAES

C: Caius
PIV: Pius
ESV: Esuvius
TETRICVS: Tetricus
CAES: Ceasar

Reverse:
SPES AVGG

SPES: Hope
AVGG: More than one emperor

Spes advancing left holding flower and raising drapery

Domination: Antoninianus, Bronze, size 18 mm

Mint: Treveri (Trier), RIC 270.

Comment:
Gallic, if the bust is radiate, draped and cuirassed then the mint is probably Trier. If the bust is radiate and cuirassed only then the mint is probably Cologne.

Caius Pius Esuvius Tetricus II was the son of the Governor of Aquitaine, in the breakaway Gallo-Roman Empire (Gaul, Spain, and Britain) established by Postumus. After Victorinus, the successor to Postumus, was murdered, Tetricus' father was acclaimed Tetricus I, Augustus. His father later elevated the young Caius to Caesar, but their reign was cut short, peacefully, when Tetricus deserted his own troops to surrender to Aurelian. In gratitude, Aurelian later restored Tetricus I as a Senator, and even installed him as Governor of Lucania, and Tetricus II returned to normal life, as a private citizen.

John Schou
Tetricus II-  Spes Publica.jpg
Tetricus II- Spes Publica46 viewsTetricus II, Caesar mid 271 - spring 274 A.D.

Obverse:
Radiate draped and cuirassed bust right

The words CVS CAES being visible in front of the radiate bust of the youthful, unbearded male.


C PIV ESV TETRICVS CAES IMP
C: Caius
PIV: Pius
ESV: Esuvius
TETRICVS: Tetricus
Caes: Caes
IMP: Imperator

Reverse:
SPES PVBLICA

SPES: Hope
PVBLICA: Republic

Showing: Spes advancing left, holding flower in right and raising skirt with left.


Domination: Antoninianus, Bronze, size 18 mm
Mint: Trier mint, struck 251-253 AD. RIC 272, Cohen 97.

Caius Pius Esuvius Tetricus II was the son of the Governor of Aquitaine, in the breakaway Gallo-Roman Empire (Gaul, Spain, and Britain) established by Postumus. After Victorinus, the successor to Postumus, was murdered, Tetricus' father was acclaimed Tetricus I, Augustus. His father later elevated the young Caius to Caesar, but their reign was cut short, peacefully, when Tetricus deserted his own troops to surrender to Aurelian. In gratitude, Aurelian later restored Tetricus I as a Senator, and even installed him as Governor of Lucania, and Tetricus II returned to normal life, as a private citizen.
John Schou
Tetricus II- SPES PVBLICA.jpg
Tetricus II- SPES PVBLICA55 viewsTetricus II, Caesar mid 271 - spring 274 A.D.

Obverse:Radiate draped and cuirassed bust right



The words CVS CAES being visible in front of the radiate bust of the youthful, unbearded male.

CVS CAES

CVS: C. Pivs Esuvius
CAES: Caes

C PIV ESV TETRICVS CAES IMP
C: Caius
PIV: Pius
ESV: Esuvius
TETRICVS: Tetricus
Caes: Caes
IMP: Imperator

Reverse:
SPES PVBLICA

SPES: Hope
PVBLICA: Repulic

Showing: Spes advancing left, holding flower in right and raising skirt with left.


Domination: Antoninianus, Bronze, size 18 mm
Mint: Gallic???

Caius Pius Esuvius Tetricus II was the son of the Governor of Aquitaine, in the breakaway Gallo-Roman Empire (Gaul, Spain, and Britain) established by Postumus. After Victorinus, the successor to Postumus, was murdered, Tetricus' father was acclaimed Tetricus I, Augustus. His father later elevated the young Caius to Caesar, but their reign was cut short, peacefully, when Tetricus deserted his own troops to surrender to Aurelian. In gratitude, Aurelian later restored Tetricus I as a Senator, and even installed him as Governor of Lucania, and Tetricus II returned to normal life, as a private citizen.
John Schou
Tetricus II- SPES PVBLICA 1.jpg
Tetricus II- SPES REBVPLICA44 viewsTetricus II, Caesar mid 271 - spring 274 A.D.

Obverse:
Radiate draped and cuirassed bust right

The words CVS CAES being visible in front of the radiate bust of the youthful, unbearded male.


C PIV ESV TETRICVS CAES IMP
C: Caius
PIV: Pius
ESV: Esuvius
TETRICVS: Tetricus
Caes: Caes
IMP: Imperator

Reverse:
SPES PVBLICA

SPES: Hope
PVBLICA: Republic

Showing: Spes advancing left, holding flower in right and raising skirt with left.


Domination: Antoninianus, Bronze, size 18 mm
Mint: Gallic???

Caius Pius Esuvius Tetricus II was the son of the Governor of Aquitaine, in the breakaway Gallo-Roman Empire (Gaul, Spain, and Britain) established by Postumus. After Victorinus, the successor to Postumus, was murdered, Tetricus' father was acclaimed Tetricus I, Augustus. His father later elevated the young Caius to Caesar, but their reign was cut short, peacefully, when Tetricus deserted his own troops to surrender to Aurelian. In gratitude, Aurelian later restored Tetricus I as a Senator, and even installed him as Governor of Lucania, and Tetricus II returned to normal life, as a private citizen.
John Schou
003~7.JPG
Thourioi, Lucania43 views400 – 350 B.C.
Silver Triobol (1/6 stater)
1.08 gm, 12 mm
Obv.: Head of Athena, wearing crested Attic helmet with Skylla throwing a rock
Rev. Bull butting right, fish in exergue, ΘOYPIΩN above
BMC 1 p.297, 102; Sear 444 var.
1 commentsJaimelai
Thourioi.jpg
Thourioi, Lucania15 views400 – 350 B.C.
Silver Diobol
1.09 gm, 12 mm
Obv.: Head of Athena, wearing crested Attic helmet with Skylla throwing a rock
Rev.: Bull butting right with ΔA above,
caduceus in exergue,
ΘOYPIΩN above
BMC 1 p. 297, 104;
Sear 444 var.
Jaimelai
Thourioi_Sixth.JPG
Thurii, Lucania 27 views425-400 BC
AR Diobol (11mm, 1.02g)
O: Head of Athena right, wearing crested Attic helmet.
R: Bull butting right; ΘOYPIΩN above; [tunny fish right] in ex.
Sear 438; BMC 1 21

The coinage of Thurii depicts its’ origins, with Athena adorning the obverse, and the bull reverse, although more dynamic here, is reminiscent of the ealier coins of Sybaris.
Enodia
Thourioi.JPG
Thurii, Lucania56 views300-280 BC
AR Didrachm (21mm, 7.67g)
O: Head of Athena right, wearing crested Attic helmet ornamented with Skylla hurling a stone.
R: Bull butting right; ΘOYPIΩN and ΘE above, tunny fish in ex.
SNG ANS 1081; HN Italy 1870; Sear 443v (no inscription on exergual line)
From the Frederick H. Rindge collection; ex Jack H. Beymer

Rising from the ruins of New Sybaris, Thurii was originally planned by Perikles of Athens as a Greek utopia. Scientists, artists, poets and philosophers from all over the Greek mainland were encouraged to immigrate to southern Italy around 443 BC to help establish this new city tucked against the mountains between two rivers on the west coast of the Tarentine Gulf. Among those accepting the challenge was Herodotus, who finished his ‘Histories’ here before his death in 420. The sophist Protagoras of Abdera also came, and was commissioned to write the new city’s democratic constitution.
However this idea of a peaceful colony of free-thinkers was destined to be short-lived. By 413 BC the colony was at war with mother-city Athens, and in 390 Thourii suffered a significant defeat by the Lucanians. In response the Thurians called in help from Rome to deal with this threat, and then again in 282 for its’ war with Taras. The city was plundered by Hannibal of Carthage during the second Punic war, who left it in ruin.
2 commentsEnodia
00030v00.jpg
Thurium, Lucania (Circa 400-350 BC)44 viewsAR Nomos

20 mm, 7.45g

Obverse: Head of Athena with Attic helmet, on the helmet boiler Scylla

Reverse: Bull, in section fish.

SNG ANS 1034 (av., Stgl.), HN Italy 1787.

Located on a fertile plain on the Gulf of Taranto near the site of Sybaris, Thurium was founded by Achaeans late in the 8th Century B.C. At its peak, Sybaris had amassed a population nearly equal to that of Athens, had a six-mile defensive wall, and according to Strabo had as many as 25 cities and four native peoples under its authority. However, the thriving settlement was destroyed by Croton in 510 B.C.

After two attempts to establish a new foundation on the ruined site that had been thwarted by Croton, a fresh attempt was made in the period 446 to 444/3 B.C. This remarkable undertaking was originally conceived by descendants of the Sybarites, but when the Crotonites opposed that enterprise as well, help was sought from Athens. Pericles came to their aid by sending colonists whom he had gathered from throughout Greece to participate in what he envisioned as a Panhellenic experiment in colonization. With financial and military support from Athens, the colonists set up their city, drawing on the talents of Protagoras of Abdera for its civil laws, Lampon of Athens for its sacred laws and Hippodamus of Miletus for its city-plan. Even the historian Herodotus is counted among the talented participants.

As Thurium began to flourish its colonists from Greece soon ejected their co-founding Sybarites (who established another city on the river Traeis) and eventually distanced themselves even from their benefactor Athens. The city continued to prosper even after it came under Roman control following the defeat of Tarentum in 272. During the Second Punic War, Thurium was still a regional power and it held out as a Roman ally until the spring of 212, when resisting the Carthaginians became impossible. It was the last Greek city to fall to Hannibal, yet it also was the last city outside of Bruttium to remain in his camp. This was not appreciated by the Romans who consequently added its land to their ager publicus and, in 194 or 193, by which time the site was largely abandoned, founded in its place the Latin colony of Copia.

Thurian coinage is substantial, and is renowned for the fine artistry of its dies. The head of Athena as an obverse type clearly is inspired by the coinage of Athens. The standing bull on the city’s early coins likely was derived from the old badge of Sybaris, yet the charging version of that animal may refer to the local spring Thuria, from which the new foundation took its name. On this example the bowl of Athena’s helmet is decorated with Scylla, whose serpent-tail is visible. The bull, as on all Thurian issues of this era, is fully animated with its tail lashing as it charges forth to engage some unseen foe.
1 commentsNathan P
Capture_00042_wt.JPG
Velia, Lucania157 views350 – 300 B.C.
Bronze Æ 14
1.91 gm, 14 mm
Obv.: Head of young Herakles right,
wearing lion's skin
Rev.: Owl standing right on olive branch,
head facing, olive leaves right, ΥEΛH to left
BMC 1 p.317, 124; Sear 647
1 commentsJaimelai
Velia_Kleudoros.jpg
Velia, Lucania104 views350-310 BC (Period VI: Kleudoros Group)
AR Didrachm (21mm, 7.50g)
O: Head of Athena right, wearing crested Attic helmet ornamented with griffin, swan's head at front of visor.
R: Lion prowling left; Φ above, >E monogram (Kleudoros) below, YEΛHTΩN in ex, all within linear circle.
Williams 297; SNG ANS 1312; SNG Ashmolean 1233; HN Italy 1289; Sear 460v
ex Jack H. Beymer

In 545 BC the Persian King Cyrus the Great conquered the Ionian colony of Phocaea in Asia Minor. The survivors fled by sea, and after a settlement on Corsica was destroyed by the Carthaginians the Phocaean refugees finally reached the south-west coast of Lucania between 538 and 535 BC, where they founded Velia on a promontory between two rivers.
Its’ natural harbor and fortunate situation on the road between Rome and Rhegion made Velia a prime center of commerce, and it soon became known throughout the Mediterranean as a profitable destination and a safe shelter from the harsh winds of the Tyrrhenian Sea. This allowed the colony to thrive, and by the middle of the 5th century BC the Eleatic school of philosophy took form here under Xenophanes and Parmenides, the latter also writing the city's constitution.
4 commentsEnodia
Velia_Philistion.JPG
Velia, Lucania99 views305-290 BC (Period VII: Philistion Group)
AR Didrachm (22mm, 7.33g)
O: Head of Athena left, wearing crested Phrygian helmet decorated with griffin; palmette on neck-guard, Θ (Philistion) behind.
R: Lion standing right with head facing, devouring ram‘s head; grasshopper between Φ-I above, YEΛHTΩN in ex.
William 415; HN Italy 1305; SNG ANS 1361; SNG Ashmolean 1322-4
ex Praefectus Coins

Velia was never conquered by the Lucanians, and in 275 BC signed an alliance with Rome. However over the centuries the mouths of the two rivers between which the city was built silted up the harbor, resulting in a ruined trade. In time the city became surrounded by marshlands, malaria ensued, and its inhabitants moved away.
Velia had managed to withstand centuries of regional hostility, but withered before the forces of nature.
5 commentsEnodia
Velia_Owl.JPG
Velia, Lucania45 views465-440 BC (Period II: Pre-Athena Group)
AR Drachm (15mm, 3.52g)
O: Head of nymph right, wearing beaded necklace.
R: Owl with closed wing perched right on olive branch, head facing; YEΛH behind.
Williams 79; Hands Class VI; HN Italy 1265; Sear 251
ex Munzen & Medaillen GmbH

The first coins minted at Velia in the late 6th century BC were archaic drachms featuring a feeding lion on the obverse and a simple incuse square on the reverse.
The nymph head drachms such as this example, which Williams designates as ‘pre-Athena types‘, can be dated fairly accurately to the period immediately following the Battle of Cumae in 474 BC.
The combined fleet of Cyme and Syracuse defeated the Etruscans in a great naval battle off the coast of southern Italy, greatly weakening Etruscan influence in the region and thereby empowering Rome. The resulting economic boost allowed Poseidonia to begin coining again circa 470, followed by Terina in Bruttium and finally Velia. It was also around this time that Velia’s famous lion series of didrachms first appeared, and would continue for the next two centuries.
3 commentsEnodia
4068_4069.jpg
Velia, Lucania, AE, Owl, left, head facing.9 viewsAE
Velia, Lucania?
Greece
15.0mm
O: NO LEGEND; Head of Apollo, right, wearing helmet.
R: NO LEGEND: Owl standing left, facing.
Harlan Berk
Chicago Coin Expo 4/6/17 4/17/17

Not sure about this attribution. The problem seems to be that there is some chatter in the reverse left field that is hard to distinguish. I believe it could be VELH but I am not sure. So here this coin sits until I figure it out for sure.
Nicholas Z
velia_green_owl.jpg
Velia, Lucania; AE10; Zeus right/ owl with open wings13 viewsVelia, Lucania, 4th - 2nd century B.C. AE 10mm, 1.25g; Obv: Zeus right. Rev: Owl facing with open wings. SNG ANS 1417. Ex Colin E. Pitchfork, Jason FaillaPodiceps
velia_tripod.jpg
Velia, Lucania; AE12; Athena right/ Tripod68 viewsVelia, Lucania, 2nd - 1st century B.C. AE 12mm, 1.77g; Obv: Helmeted Athena right, in crude style. Rev: Tripod. Ex Colin E. Pitchfork, Jason FaillaPodiceps
velia_owl.jpg
Velia, Lucania; AE12; Zeus right/ owl with open wings61 viewsVelia, Lucania, 4th - 2nd century B.C. AE 12mm, 1.69g; Obv: Zeus right. Rev: Owl facing with open wings. SNG ANS 1417. Ex Colin E. Pitchfork, Jason FaillaPodiceps
lucania_velia.jpg
Velia, Lucania; AE15; Head of Herakles left/ owl r. with open wings68 viewsVelia, Lucania, 4th - 2nd century B.C. AE 15mm, 4.1g; Obv: Head of Hercules left, wearing lion skin. Rev: Owl standing right, facing; open wings. Cf Mangieri 186 var; Sallusto 1104 var. (both Heracles facing right); Wildwinds has similar specimen with Herakles left as Mangieri 186 var. Podiceps
011.JPG
YEAR-END REVIEW OF GREEK COLLECTION (OBVERSE)108 viewsClick on picture for bigger resolution.

Top row from left to right: MYSIA, PERGAMMON. Eumenes I AR Tetradrachm. Circa 263-241 BC **ILLYRIA, DYRRHACHION. AR Stater. Circa 340-280 BC**IONIA, SMYRNA. AR “Stephanophoric” Tetradrachm. Circa 150-145 BC** PELOPONNESOS, SIKYON. AR Stater. Circa 335-330 BC**ATTICA, ATHENS. “New style” Tetradrachm. Circa 169 BC.

Sixth row: BACTRIA, Antialkidas. AR Drachm. Circa 145-135 BC**CAPPADOCIA. Ariobarzanes I AR Drachm. Circa 96-63 BC**THRACE, ABDERA. AR Tetrobol. Circa 360-350 BC**THRACE, CHERSONESSOS. AR Hemidrachm. Circa 386-338 BC.

Fifth row: IONIA, EPHESOS. AR Tetradrachm. Circa 405-390 BC**CILICIA, TARSOS. Mazaios AR Stater. Circa 361-334 BC **MACEDONIA. Kassander AR Tetradrachm. Circa 317-315 BC**AKARNANIA, LEUKAS. AR Stater. Circa 320-280 BC**PAMPHYLIA, ASPENDOS. AR Stater. Circa 330-300 BC.

Fourth row: SELEUKID SYRIA. Antiochos VI AR Drachm. Circa 144-143 BC**LUCANIA, METAPONTION. AR Stater. Circa 340-330 BC**LUCANIA, VELIA. AR Stater. Circa 280 BC**PARTHIA. Mithradates II AR Drachm. Circa 121-91 BC.

Third row: AEOLIS, MYRINA. AR "Stephanophoric" Tetradrachm. Circa 150 BC**CARIA. Pixodaros AR Didrachm. Circa 341-335 BC**THRACE. Lysimachos AR Tetradrachm. Circa 297-281 BC**CILICIA, TARSOS. Pharnabazos AR Stater. Circa 380-374 BC**THRACE, MARONEIA. AR Tetradrachm. Mid 2nd cent. BC.

Second Row: LUCANIA, METAPONTION. AR Stater. Circa 510-480 BC** THESSALIAN LEAGUE. AR Stater. Circa 196-146 BC**CAMPANIA, NEAPOLIS. AR Nomos. Circa 275-250 BC**LYCIA, PRE-DYNASTIC. AR Stater. Circa 520-460 BC.

Bottom row: SELEUKID SYRIA. Antiochos Euergetes VII AR Tetradrachm. Circa 138-129 BC**MACEDON. Alexander III AR Tetradrachm. Circa 325-315 BC**CILICIA, AIGEAI. AR Tetradrachm. Circa 30 BC**PAIONIA. Patraos AR Tetradrachm. Circa 335-315 BC**PAMPHYLIA, SIDE. AR Tetradrachm. Circa 155-36 BC.
1 commentsJason T
012.JPG
YEAR-END REVIEW OF GREEK COLLECTION (REVERSE)115 viewsTHE LESS OFTEN DISPLAYED SIDE OF MY COINS.
Please click on picture for bigger resolution.

Top row from left to right: MYSIA, PERGAMMON. Eumenes I AR Tetradrachm. Circa 263-241 BC **ILLYRIA, DYRRHACHION. AR Stater. Circa 340-280 BC**IONIA, SMYRNA. AR “Stephanophoric” Tetradrachm. Circa 150-145 BC** PELOPONNESOS, SIKYON. AR Stater. Circa 335-330 BC**ATTICA, ATHENS. “New style” Tetradrachm. Circa 169 BC.

Sixth row: BACTRIA, Antialkidas. AR Drachm. Circa 145-135 BC**CAPPADOCIA. Ariobarzanes I AR Drachm. Circa 96-63 BC**THRACE, ABDERA. AR Tetrobol. Circa 360-350 BC**THRACE, CHERSONESSOS. AR Hemidrachm. Circa 386-338 BC.

Fifth row: IONIA, EPHESOS. AR Tetradrachm. Circa 405-390 BC**CILICIA, TARSOS. Mazaios AR Stater. Circa 361-334 BC **MACEDONIA. Kassander AR Tetradrachm. Circa 317-315 BC**AKARNANIA, LEUKAS. AR Stater. Circa 320-280 BC**PAMPHYLIA, ASPENDOS. AR Stater. Circa 330-300 BC.

Fourth row: SELEUKID SYRIA. Antiochos VI AR Drachm. Circa 144-143 BC**LUCANIA, METAPONTION. AR Stater. Circa 340-330 BC**LUCANIA, VELIA. AR Stater. Circa 280 BC**PARTHIA. Mithradates II AR Drachm. Circa 121-91 BC.

Third row: AEOLIS, MYRINA. AR "Stephanophoric" Tetradrachm. Circa 150 BC**CARIA. Pixodaros AR Didrachm. Circa 341-335 BC**THRACE. Lysimachos AR Tetradrachm. Circa 297-281 BC**CILICIA, TARSOS. Pharnabazos AR Stater. Circa 380-374 BC**THRACE, MARONEIA. AR Tetradrachm. Mid 2nd cent. BC.

Second Row: LUCANIA, METAPONTION. AR Stater. Circa 510-480 BC** THESSALIAN LEAGUE. AR Stater. Circa 196-146 BC**CAMPANIA, NEAPOLIS. AR Nomos. Circa 275-250 BC**LYCIA, PRE-DYNASTIC. AR Stater. Circa 520-460 BC.

Bottom row: SELEUKID SYRIA. Antiochos Euergetes VII AR Tetradrachm. Circa 138-129 BC**MACEDON. Alexander III AR Tetradrachm. Circa 325-315 BC**CILICIA, AIGEAI. AR Tetradrachm. Circa 30 BC**PAIONIA. Patraos AR Tetradrachm. Circa 335-315 BC**PAMPHYLIA, SIDE. AR Tetradrachm. Circa 155-36 BC.
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Tetri.jpg
[1206] Tetricus I, mid 271 - spring 274 A.D. (Mainz or Trier)45 viewsBronze antoninianus, RIC 88, S 11239, aVF, Mainz or Trier, 2.151g, 18.0mm, 0o, 273 - 274 A.D.; obverse IMP TETRICVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse LAETITIA AVGG, Laetitia standing left, wreath in right, anchor in left.


De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Tetricus (271-274 AD)

Michel Polfer
Centre Universitaire de Luxembourg

Of noble origin, C. Pius Esuvius Tetricus was the last emperor of the so-called imperium Galliarum. According to Eutropius (Eutrop. 9.10), he had senatorial rank and occupied the post of praeses provinciae Aquitaniae at the time when Victorinus was murdered at Cologne in early 271 AD. Through the influence of Victoria, the mother of Victorinus, who bribed the troops in his favour, Tetricus, although absent, was proclaimed emperor and took the purple near Burdigalia (Bordeaux) (Eutrop. 9.10) in spring of the same year.

Tetricus I was recognised as legitimate emperor in Gaul and Britain, but not in Spain. On his way from Burdigalia to Augusta Treverorum (Trier), he fought a successful campaign against Germanic hordes which had taken the opportunity offered by the murder of Victorinus to cross the Rhine frontier and to plunder. Installed in his capital only at the end of 271 AD, Tetricus I again had to engage the Germans early in the following year. At the end of this campaign, in late 272 AD, he returned to establish himself in Trier, which remained his capital until his overthrow by the emperor Aurelian. It was in Trier that he celebrated his entry into his second consulship on 1 January 273 and that he elevated, probably in late spring or early summer of the same year, his son Tetricus II to the rank of Caesar.

Tetricus I took no steps to extend the authority of his Gallic Empire beyond Gaul and Britain, thus leaving the initiative to the legitimate emperor Aurelian. While Aurelian was still campaigning in the East, Tetricus I was, however, able to restore the authority of the Gallic Empire in south-eastern Aquitania and western Narbonensis, which had since the reign of Claudius Gothicus been controlled by the Empire.

On his victorious return from the eastern part of the empire in 273 AD, Aurelian immediately set out for the reconquest of the western part of the Empire. Tetricus I and his son - who had spent late 273 and early 274 AD in Trier and had entered there upon their first joint consulship on 1 January 274 AD - had to move southwards to meet Aurelian and his army advancing into northern Gaul. The decisive battle took place in February or March 274 AD, near Châlons-sur-Marne. During the battle, Tetricus I and his son Tetricus II surrendered to Aurelian, while their troops, left to fend for themselves, continued to fight in despair, thus causing heavy losses on both sides.

According to some literary sources (SHA Tyr. Trig. 24. 3; Eutrop. 9.13.2; Aurel. Vict. 35.4), Tetricus I, wearied by the insubordination of his soldiers and facing the revolt of Faustinus, had previously offered to betray his army if Aurelian would come to his rescue, quoting Vergil in his letter to Aurelian: "eripe me his, invicte, malis" (Vergil, Aen. VI, 365). The victorious Aurelian spared the life of both Tetricus I and his son Tetricus II.

In spring of 274 AD, both Tetrici were put on display in Rome during Aurelian's triumph, but Aurelian kept his side of the bargain and pardoned them. Tetricus I was even given the office of corrector Lucaniae (Aurel. Vict. 35.5; Eutrop 9.13) and quietly ended his life in Italy, where he died at an advanced age at an unknown date (Eutrop. 9.13).

It is, however, likely that this account of the end of the Gallic Empire only reflects the position of the Aurelianic propaganda and it is therefore open to suspicion. There is good evidence to suggest that Tetricus I remained resolute and confident in his political and military strength to the last and did not betray his troops. After his military defeat at Châlons-sur-Marne and his subsequent humiliation, he would thus have owed his life not to his own previous treachery, but rather to Aurelian's need to establish and stabilise his own administration in the western part of the empire.

Copyright by Michel Polfer, Centre Universitaire de Luxembourg; published on De ImperatoribusRomanis, An Online Encyclopedia of the Roman Emperors and their Families; http://www.roman-emperors.org/tetrici.htm.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
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