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Julian-9.jpg
115 viewsJULIAN II - AR Siliqua - 361-363 AD - Mint of Lugdvnvm
Obv.: FL CL IVLIANVS P P AVG
Pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev.: VOTIS V MVLTIS X. In ex. PLVG
Legend in three lines within wreath
g. 1,9 mm. 17
Cohen 163, RIC 227
2 commentsMaxentius
DenarioAnonimobis.jpg
35 viewsAnonymous Denarius - After 211 BC
Obv.: Helmeted head of Roma right, with triple earring, spike above visor, X behind.
Rev.: The Dioscuri riding right, ROMA in linear frame below.
Gs. 3,2 mm. 18,2x19,5
Cr44/5, Sear RCV 38

1 commentsMaxentius
DenLMemmioGaleriabis.jpg
23 viewsSerrate Denarius - 106 BC
L. MEMMIVS GALERIA - Gens Memmia
Obv.: Laureate head of Saturn left; ROMA and harpa behind
Rev,; Venus in biga right, Cupid flying above with laurel wreath, L MEMMI (ME in monogram) GAL in two lines in ex.
Gs. 3,82 mm. 17,2x17,8
Cr313/1a, Sear RCV 190.

Maxentius
Julian-8.jpg
34 viewsJVLIAN II - AE3 - 361-363 AD. Constantinople mint
Obv.: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, diademed, helmeted, cuirassed bust left with sheild and spear
Rev.: VOT X MVLT XX, four lines in laurel wreath, (dot) CONSPB (branch) in ex.
Gs.: 3,3 mm. 20,6
RIC 167
Maxentius
JULIAN-3.JPG
33 viewsJVLIAN II AE3 - 361-363 AD. - Rome mint
Obv.: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, diademed, helmeted, cuirassed bust left with sheild and spear
Rev.: VOT X MVLT XX, four lines in laurel wreath, VRB ROMP in ex.
Gs. 2,9 mm. 22,5
RIC 329
Maxentius
coin411.jpg
34 viewsJustinian I AE Pentanummium. Sear #244
Antioch as Theoupolis. Diademed & draped bust right
/ Epsilon with cross for the center line, star to right.
Coin #411
cars100
VA10267LG.jpg
171 viewsCONSTANTINE II, as Caesar. 317-337 AD. Ć Follis (22mm - 3.19 g). Trier mint. Struck 321 AD.
obv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate and cuirassed bust left, holding Victory on a globe in right hand, mappa in left
rev: BEATA TRAN-QVILLITAS, globe set on altar inscribed VOT/IS/XX in three lines; PTR. RIC VII 312. EF, attractive brown patina.

ex VAuctions Sale : 213 Lot: 101, seller's picture
7 commentsareich
Thedosius.JPG
28 viewsTheodosius I. AE4. Antioch. DN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right / VOT X MV dot LT XX in four lines within wreath. Mintmark AN gamma. RIC IX Antioch 65b var (MV dot LT).

RIC 65b
Jon the Lecturer
TAMAR___DAVIT_Regular_Coinage.jpg
75 viewsGEORGIAN KINGDOM, QUEEN TAMAR, (1184-1213 AD) K'ORONIKON, 420 = 1200 AD; Obv.: Bagratid royal emblem in the form of a standard, to left and right: Initials for T'amar and David; in the corners, Georgian date formula, K'K Ví K (420 of the Paschal cycle = AD 1200). Two Counterstamps. Rev.: Christian inscriptions in arabic script, which reads: 1st line: Malekat al-Malekaat(s) / 2nd line Jellal Al-Dunya Wal Din / 3rd line : Tamar Ibnat Kurki / 4th line : Zahir Al-Massih. Translation: Queen of Queens Glory of the World and Faith T'amar daughter of Giorgi Champion of the Messiah. Reference: LANG # 11.

Reverse inscriptions read :
ملكة الملكات
جلال الدنيا و الدين
تمار ابنة كوركى
ظهير المسيح
dpaul7
Otacil_Sev.jpg
43 viewsOtacilia Severa, AR Antoninianus, 246-248, Rome
Obverse: MARCIA OTACIL-SEVERA AVG
Diademed, draped bust right on crescent, hair weaved in straight lines and rows with long plait carried up the back of head
Reverese: PVDICITIA AVG
Pudicitia, veiled, seated left, drawing veil with right hand, transverse scepter in left
RIC IV, Part III, 123c
Ex: Colosseum Coin Exchange Auction #6 Tuesday May 12, 2009
1 commentspaul1888
ACR-892.jpg
23 viewsGUPTA: Skandagupta, ca. 455-480, lead square unit (2.32g), cf. Pieper-892/893, facing Garuda standing on snake-line object / Brahmi legend, with extra Brahmi legend aboveSpongeBob
Denarius_206-195.jpg
16 viewsDenarius
Anonymous
Mint: Rome
206-195 BCE

Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma, right; behind, denominational mark (X); border of dots
Reverse: Dioscuri galloping, right; below, mark (eight-rayed star); Roma in exergue; line border

Crawford (RRC) 113/1
Sydenham 263
RSC I 20gg
BM 457
SRCV I 54
Shea B
100_2605.JPG
64 viewsA 15 tray cabinet with extra wide (15") trays lined with red felt. Each tray can hold an item up to 1/2 inch thick...perfect for medals or other over-sized items.

CabinetsByCraig.net
cmcdon0923
4170540A.jpg
9 viewsSRI LANKA (CEYLON), Native coinages. Kingdom of Ruhuna. Circa 3rd century BC–1st century AD. Lot of two (2) terracotta tokens. All coins: circular terracotta pieces incised with four lines at 90 degree angles on either side. (20mm, 2.43 g) and (16.5mm, 1.88 g). Ruhana N.13. Quant.Geek
4170540B.jpg
12 viewsSRI LANKA (CEYLON), Native coinages. Kingdom of Ruhuna. Circa 3rd century BC–1st century AD. Lot of two (2) terracotta tokens. All coins: circular terracotta pieces incised with four lines at 90 degree angles on either side. (20mm, 2.43 g) and (16.5mm, 1.88 g). Ruhana N.13. Quant.Geek
110895LG.jpg
9 viewsNortheast Gaul, Bellovaci. Ca. 50-20 B.C. Ć (15 mm, 2.25 g, 9 h). Stylized head left / Horizontal line with three lines extending below it; above, chevron-S. Delestrée & Tache 535; Scheers 711Quant.Geek
Augustus_REX_PTOL.jpg
2 Augustus and Ptolemy, King of Mauretania 28 viewsĆ Semis, Carthago Nova, Spain
C. Laetilius Apalus and Ptolemy, duoviri.

Bare head of Augustus right / Name and titles of the duoviri around diadem, REX PTOL inside

RPC 172; SNG Copenhagen 494

Ptolemy of Mauretania (Greek: Πτολεμαῖος, Latin: Ptolemaeus, 1 BC-40) was the son of Juba II and Cleopatra Selene and the grandson of Cleopatra VII and Mark Antony. He was the last Roman client King of Mauretania, and the last of the Ptolemy line.
1 commentsSosius
conI79.jpg
CONSTANTINE I, RIC VII 79 Lugdunum mint.29 viewsStruck 320 AD.
Obverse: CONS-TANTINVS AVG, cuirassed bust right, wearing high crested helmet
Reverse: VICTORIAE LAET PRINC PERP, two Victories holding shield inscribed VOT/PR in two lines over altar; P(two captives seated back to back)L.
RIC VII 79; Bastien 19. VF, well centered, Green patina.
Ć Follis (18mm – 3.1 g).
NORMAN K
ju167.jpg
Julian II, AE3 Constantinople RIC 167, 361-363 CE 16 viewsObverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, helmeted and cuirassed bust right, holding spear forward and shield.
Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines across field within wreath.
Dot CONSPB (palm) in ex. RIC VIII 167. 18.5 mm, 3.4 g.
NORMAN K
Ant_Pius_As_RIC_853a.jpg
17 Antoninus Pius As33 viewsANTONINUS PIUS
Rome Mint
AE As.
147-148 AD.
ANTONINVS PIVS P P TR P XI, Laureate head right / PRIMI DECEN NALES COS IIII S C, Legend in five lines within oak wreath.
RIC III, 853a; Cohen 676; BMC 817, RIC 853a
RI0075
1 commentsSosius
Constantius_II_RIC_60.jpg
73 Constantius II 11 viewsConstantius II. As Caesar, A.D. 324-337. AE 3 (17.98 mm, 2.16 g, 5 h). Arles, A.D. 324-325. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left / CONSTAN/TIVS/ CAESAR, in three lines; star above; SMANTA/• below. RIC 60; LRBC 1327. VF, red highlights. Ex Agora Auctions 74Sosius
2550341.jpg
76 Julian II39 viewsROMAN IMPERIAL
Julian II
AD 360-363. AR Siliqua (18mm, 1.87 g, 12h). Lugdunum (Lyon) mint. Struck AD 361.

O: Pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right R: Pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / VOTIS/ V/ MVLTIS/ X in four lines within wreath; LVG.

RIC VIII 218; RSC 163a. Sear (2014) 19130. VF, toned, flan crack, graffiti on reverse.

Ex CNG
2 commentsSosius
Licinius_RIC_Thess_33.jpg
8 Licinius31 viewsLICINIUS I
Silvered Follis, Thessalonica mint, 318-319 AD

O: LICI-NIVS AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust r.
R: VOT XX / MVLT / dot XXX dot / TS dot A dot in four lines within wreath.

RIC VII Thessalonica 33, VF, silvered, scarce.
Sosius
AUGUSTUS_Cistophorus_Pergamum.JPG
AUGUSTUS. AR Cistophorus (3 denarii) of Pergamum. Struck c.19 - 18 B.C.602 viewsObverse: IMP IX TR PO V. Bare head of Augustus facing right.
Reverse: Triumphal arch surmounted by Augustus in facing triumphal quadriga; IMP IX TR POT V on architrave; S P R SIGNIS RECEPTIS in three lines within arch opening, standards at either side.
RIC I : 510 | BMC : 703 | RSC : 298.

This coin commemorates Augustus' triumphant agreement with the Parthians in 20 B.C. under which they returned the legionary standards captured from Crassus who was defeated and killed at Carrhae thirty-three years earlier (53 B.C.) Augustus installed these standards in the Temple of Mars Ultor.
The reverse of the coin shows the triumphal arch which was awarded to Augustus on the occasion of his recovery of the standards. This was the second triumphal arch awarded to Augustus and, like the earlier arch which had been constructed in 29 BC to honour his victory over Cleopatra, this second arch, which archaeological evidence suggests may actually have incorporated the first arch, stood in close proximity to the Temple of Divus Julius at the southern entrance to the Roman Forum.

This is the rarest cistophorus struck during the reign of Augustus with the exception of the exceedingly rare issues featuring a sphinx.
6 commentsdivvsavgvstvs
aurred.jpg
Aurelian, Antoninianus, Siscia12 viewsObverse: IMP AVRELIANVS AVG, radiate & cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: REDVX, Fortuna Redux seated left on wheel, holding rudder and cornucopia.
star P in ex. Siscia mint, 21.6 mm., 2.5 g. RIC online 2043
NORMAN K
john.jpg
Basil II & Constantine VIII, (976-1028 A.D.)50 viewsĆ “Anonymous” Follis
Class A2
O: EMMANOVHΛ, Nimbate bust of Christ facing, wearing pallium and colobium and holding book of Gospels; IC – XC in fields to left and right.
R: + IhSЧS / [X]RISTЧ[S] / bASILЄЧ / bASILЄ / ·, legend in four lines.
8.68g
26mm
SBCV 1793
5 commentsMat
con415s.jpg
Constantine II, RIC 381 var. Trier21 viewsConstantine II, AE19, Trier. 322-323 CE
Obverse: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate and cuirassed bust right, holding spear over shoulder and horse by the bridle before.
Reverse: BEATA TRAN-QVILLITAS, large globe on an altar inscribed V dot O - TIS - XX in three lines, three stars above.
Mintmark: PTR dot., RIC VII Trier 381 var (mintmark) 18.9 mm, 2.7 g.
NORMAN K
1224vot2.jpg
Constantius II, RIC VIII 69 Constantinople, 347-348 CE.14 viewsObverse: DN CONSTAN-TIVS PF AVG, rosette-diademed head, right.
Reverse: VOT XX MVLT XXX in four lines within wreath.
Mintmark: CONS Constantinople, 14 mm., 1.1 g.
NORMAN K
st.jpg
ENGLAND, NORMAN, Stephen (1135-1154), Silver Penny, Watford type .32 viewsENGLAND, NORMAN, Stephen (1135-1154), Silver Penny, Watford type .
Mint and moneyer uncertain . 1.0 gr
Crowned and diademed bust of king right, holding sceptre in his right hand .
Cross moline, with a fleur each angle .
North 873; SCBC 1278
Vladislav D
Dyrrhachion_Dracma.jpg
ILIRIA - DIRRAQUIO/EPIDAMNOS20 viewsAR dracma 18X16 mm 2.4 gr.

Anv: "MENIΣ [KOΣ ]" (Nombre de la Autoridad Monetaria que la acuńa), sobre una Vaca a der. mirando a su ternero que se amanta a izq.
Rev: "AYP / ΔIO / [NY] / [ΣIOY]" – Doble Forma estrellada, dividida por dos líneas y rodeada por una doble línea formando un contorno cuadrado.
Los diseńos del reverso de Korkyra así como de sus colonias, Apollonia (Apolonia) y Dyrrhachion (Dirraquio), han sido objeto de mucha especulación numismática. Eckhel (Doctrina numorum veterum [Vienna, 1792/3], II:155) aceptó la opinión de Laurentius Beger (Observationes Et Conjecturae In Numismata Quaedam Antiqua [Brandenburg, 1691]), que argumentó que el diseńo del reverso representa el jardín de Alkinoos, el mítico rey de Phaiakia, descrito en detalle por el poeta Homero (Od. 7.112-133). Basado en el supuesto de que mítica Phaiakia era la isla de la antigua Korkyra (mod. Corfú), y sabiendo que Korkyrans colonizaron tanto Apollonia y Dyrrhachion, Beger (ya través de él, Eckhel) concluyeron que los elementos centrales eran flores y que el diseńo general debe representar tanto el diseńo del jardín, o las puertas que conducen a ella. Más tarde, la mayoría de los numismáticos, como Böckh, Müller, Friedlander, y von Sallet, argumentaron que los elementos centrales del diseńo eran más como la estrella, mientras que Gardner favoreciendo una interpretación floral, aunque sea como una referencia a Apolo Aristaios o Nomios, no el jardín de ALKINOOS. Más recientemente, Nicolet-Pierre volvió a examinar la cuestión del diseńo del reverso en su artículo sobre la moneda arcaica de Korkyra ("Ŕ props du monnayage archaďque de Corcyre," SNR 88 [2009], pp. 2-3) y ofreció una nueva interpretación. Tomando nota de un pasaje de Tucídides (3.70.4) en la que ese autor citó la existencia en la isla de un recinto sagrado (temenos) dedicado a Zeus y ALKINOOS, sugirió que el diseńo del reverso podría haber sido inspirada por esto, y no en el jardín de ALKINOOS que detalla Homero.

Acuńación: 200 - 30 A.C.
Ceca: Dyrrhachion - Illyria (Hoy Durré en Albania)

Referencias: Sear GCTV Vol.I #1900 var Pag.187 – BMC Vol.7 #62-64 Pag.69 – SNG Copenhagen #467 - Maier #201 - Ceka #320
mdelvalle
jv119b.jpg
Jovian , RIC VIII 119 Sirmium, 363-364 CE17 viewsJovian AE3
Obverse: DN IOVIA NVS PF AVG, rosette diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: VOT V, MVLT X within wreath on 4 lines.
BSIRM in ex. Sirmium mint, 20.7 mm, 2.8 g.
NORMAN K
jv119.jpg
Jovian , RIC VIII 119 Sirmium, 363-364 CE10 viewsJovian AE3
Obverse: DN IOVIA NVS PF AVG, rosette diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: VOT V, MVLT X within wreath on 4 lines.
BSIRM in ex. Sirmium mint, 19.2 mm, 3.1 g.
NORMAN K
tgtb.jpg
JULIAN II, RIC VIII 108 Sirmium 22 viewsJulian II, 361-363 CE. Ć 20.5 mm., 3.3 g. Sirmium mint.
Obverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, helmeted and cuirassed bust right, holding spear forward and shield.
Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines across field within wreath; ASIRM.; LRBC 1619. hard green patina
NORMAN K
julian210.jpg
Julian II, RIC VIII 210 Thessalonica25 viewsJulian II "the Apostate," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.
Bronze AE 2
Obverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS PF AVG, pearl diademed and cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield.
Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath.
SMTS in ex. Thessalonica mint, 20.6 mm, 3.0 g.
NORMAN K
leowi.jpg
Leo VI the Wise (870 - 912 A.D.)54 viewsĆ Follis
O: + LEOn bASILVS ROm, bust facing, with short beard, wearing crown with cross and chlamys, holding akakia in left hand.
R: + LEOn/En ΘEO bA/SILEVS R/OMEOn, inscription in four lines.
Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint
8.58g
26mm
SBCV 1729
1 commentsMat
ISL_MAMLUKS_Balog_910_Tumanbay_II.jpg
Mamluks (Bahri). `Ali II (al-Mansur `Ala al-Din Ali) (778-783 A.H. = 1377-1381 A.D.)12 viewsBalog 509 Plate XX 509a-b; SNAT Hamah 632-634; Album 963

AE fals, Hamah mint, undated; 1.63 g., 18.50 mm. max.

Obv.: Field divided by two horizontal lines of dots. الملك المنصور (al-Malik al-Manusr) / tentatively ضرب طرابلس (duriba Tripoli per Balog but Hamah mint per SNAT)

Rev. Six-petaled flower, resembling a lotus, petals forming a counter-clockwise whorl.

Ali was the son of Sha'ban II and the great-grandson of Muhammad I. He was installed as sultan at age nine upon the death of his father in a revolt. He died four years later.

Attribution courtesy of Mervin.
Stkp
coin2.jpg
Maroneia, Thrace. 400-350 BC.24 viewsAutonomous coinage of Maroneia, Thrace. 400-350 BC. Horse pracing right, PNK monogram below.
MAR-WNI-TWN around linear square containing vine, VE-monogram below. BMC 666; SNGCop 632.
Britanikus
normal_maurice_tiberius~0d.jpg
Maurice Tiberius Follis - Antioch Mint,582-602 AD13 views
Maurice Tiberius Follis - Antioch Mint,582-602 AD - AE Follis (40 Nummi)
Obv: PTINOC ~ ~ TIANTAPPIV Bust of Maurice Tiberius facing, wearing crown with trefoil ornament, consular robes; in right hand, mappa in left hand, eagle-tipped sceptre.
Rev: Large m; cross above; to left A/N/N/O in four lines; to right, II - 2nd regnal year - 586/7 AD; THEuP in exergue.
Britanikus
sb1874_20mm175g.jpg
Michael VII, Ducus Miliaresion12 viewsObverse: EN TOVTW NIKATE MIXAHL S MARIA, cross crosslet on globus resting on
three steps, x at center of cross, pellet within crescent on shaft;
in field to left, facing bust of Michael, bearded, wearing crown and
jeweled chlamys; to right, facing bust of Maria, wearing crown and
loros; triple border
Reverse: MIXAHL KAI MARIA PICTOI RACILEIC PWMAIWN in
five lines; -+- above and below; triple border.
Mint:Constantinople
Date: 1071-1078 CE
SB 1874, DO 6
20mm, 1.75g (clipped)
wileyc
phraatesIV.jpg
Phraates IV (38 -2 BC) AR Tetradrachm 286 SE /26 BC49 viewsObv: Phraates diademed and cuirassed bust left with long pointed beard - no royal wart on forehead.
Rev: The king enthroned r. being presented with a palm branch by Tyche, standing l. before him holding cornucopiae with pellet above arm. Seleucid date 286 (C Pi Sigma) above palm. Greek inscription in 7 lines BASILEOS/BASILEON; on r. ARSAKOY/EUERGETOY' below [DIKAOY]; on l. EPIPHANOUS/PHILELLANOS; month off flan below
Wt 14.1 gm, 26.3 mm, Sellwood type 55

The coin could be that of Tiridates I who also ruled for a few months in 26 BC. The features of the king on this coin are much closer to that of Phraates than of much rarer Tiridates I according to a reclassification of Sellwood types by deCallatay and this is the most believable. The lower lines of the inscription would also settle the issue but are lost on this coin.
Early coins of the Parthian empire showed strong Greek empahasis on classical Greek forms and humanism which is gradually lost as the empire matured and finally decayed. The coins become schematic and emphasize suface ornament rather than sculptural quality. One senses from the portrait of Phraates that brutality was a prerequisite for Parthian kings who routinely bumped off fathers and brothers in their rise to power. Like the Spartans, they had a powerful empire in their time but its contribution to civilization was limited in the long term.
1 commentsdaverino
ptolemyxiiTD.jpg
Ptolemy XII Auletes AR Tetradrachm, 72 BC71 viewsOBV: Diademed head right in aegis
REV: Eagle standing left on Thunderbolt; PTOLEMAIOY BASILEWS, [Pi A] in right field; Dated L.Theta (Year 9)

This coin was minted in the ninth year of Ptolemy XII Auletes. Svoronos originally ascribed this coin type to year 9 of Cleopatra VII (43 BC) but was reattributed by Regling to her father. This re-attribution is generally accepted. The coin is of relatively low-grade silver (ca 30%) and flat-struck on the obverse.
Svoronos 1856, Ref. Svoronos on-line
wt 13.8 gm
1 commentsdaverino
126.jpg
ΘEC in rectangular punch180 viewsMACEDON. Thessalonica. Nero. Ć 23. A.D. 54-68. Obv: NE(PΩNC)EBAΣΣ-TOΣKAIΣAP (sic.). Bare head left; countermark across neck. Rev: ΘECCAΛ-ONIKH-ΩN in three lines in oak-wreath, eagle at top. Ref: BMC -; RPC 1603 (5 pcs); Axis: 180°. Weight: 7.36 g. Note: The name and face of Nero have been erased (damnatio). CM: ΘEC in rectangular punch, 7 x 3 mm. Howgego 537 (7 pcs). Note: Howgego notes that the countermark was probably applied in A.D. 68/69, sanctioning coins of Nero. He also notes that the application of the countermark was not directly connected with the erasure of the name and face of Nero, since this was done to only one of the seven specimens he identified. Collection Automan.Automan
00029x00~0.jpg
94 viewsAugustus. 27 BC-AD 14
Ć Dupondius (25mm, 5.96 g, 1 h)
Balkans region. Imitating a Rome mint issue of an uncertain moneyer. Struck early 1st century AD.
Corrupt legend in two lines within wreath; two imitative countermarks
Large (retrograde S)C
Ardatirion
00023x00~1.jpg
32 viewsROME. M. Arrius Vestinus.
PB Tessera (22mm, 5.14 g, 12h)
Victory flying left, holding wreath and palm frond
M · AR/ VES
Rostovtsev 1135 = Kircheriano 527 var. (no horizontal line)

Ex Agora 34 (9 June 2015), lot 148
1 commentsArdatirion
00008x00~2.jpg
15 viewsTHESSALY, Uncertain. Mid-late 4th century BC?
PB Tessera. By the Eurymenai/Atrax engraver?
Bearded head right
Schematic line (horse's leg right?)
Cf. BCD Thessaly 1024 and 1038 (for similar bearded heads)

From the BCD Collection

BCD suggests that these two matching specimens are the products of an itinerant engraver, who would have used similar lead strickings as a portfolio to present to the various polities of the region. They are not related to the comparatively more common lead pieces of Pherai (Rogers 287; BCD Thessaly I 1305).
Ardatirion
00007x00~2.jpg
16 viewsTHESSALY, Uncertain. Mid-late 4th century BC?
PB Tessera. By the Eurymenai/Atrax engraver?
Bearded head right
Schematic line (horse's leg right?)
Cf. BCD Thessaly 1024 and 1038 (for similar bearded heads)

From the BCD Collection

BCD suggests that these two matching specimens are the products of an itinerant engraver, who would have used similar lead strickings as a portfolio to present to the various polities of the region. They are not related to the comparatively more common lead pieces of Pherai (Rogers 287; BCD Thessaly I 1305).
Ardatirion
00084x00.jpg
51 viewsUNITED STATES, Political campaign tokens. William Henry Harrison. President, March 4-April 4 1841.
Ć Political Medallet (23mm, 4.22 g, 12 h)
Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Dually dated 9 February 1773 and 1841
MAJ. GEN. W. H. HARRISON/ * BORN FEB. 9. 1773*
Bust of William Henry Harrison left in military uniform
STEAM BOAT VAN BUREN/ FOR SALT RIVER DIRECT.
Early steamboat sailing right with banner inscribed 1841; LOCO-FOCO/ LINE below. '
With attached contemporary ribbon.
Rulau HT 817; Low -
Ardatirion
00005x00~3.jpg
85 viewsUNITED STATES, Trade Tokens. Belleville, New Jersey. Tobias D. Seaman, butcher
CU Token. Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Dies by Gibbs. Struck 1837.
T. D. SEAMAN BUTCHER./ * BELLEVILLE *. Bouquet.
* A FRIEND */ TO THE CONSTITUTION, Bull standing right; c/m: minute D above.
Rulau HT 204B; Low 155

Ex Don Miller Collection; William Dunham Collection (B. Max Mehl, 3 August 1941), lot 2713


Tobias Seaman was apparently not primarily engaged as a butcher, finding more success as a hotelier. He was the proprietor of Mansion House in Belleville and, later, of the Mechanic's Hotel in Newark circa 1845-1851, and the South Ward Hotel thereafter. For a brief time he was also the owner of a stage line to New York and, "a horseman of great noteriety."(W. Shaw, History of Essex and Hudson Counties, New Jersey. New York, 1884. p. 890-a)
Ardatirion
islamic_2.jpg
63 viewsEAST AFRICA, Kilwa Sultanate. 'Ali bin al-Hasan. Late 5th century AH / 11th century AD
Ć Fals (21mm, 2.68 g, 3 h). Kilwa Kisiwani mint.
Inscription in two lines; star at center
Inscription in three lines
Album 1180; Walker, Kilwa 12; SICA 10, 589-91; Zeno 87054 (this coin)

Acquired in the 1960's, likely through circulation in Dar-es-Salaam.

Chittick ("On the Chronology of the sultans of Kilwa" in NC 13, 1973), the excavator of Kilwa Kisiwani, notes that these issues were found in the earliest stratigraphic layers and accordingly reassigns them to the first sultan of Kilwa. Walker and Freeman-Grenville gave them to an otherwise unattested 13th century ruler of the same name. However, the picture is muddled by finds from the excavations at Songo Mnara, occupied only between the 14th and 16th centuries, where this type was among the most numerous to be found. The type is unlikely to have remained in circulation for such a long period and may been reissued by subsequent rulers.
Ardatirion
ISLAMIC_3.jpg
83 viewsEAST AFRICA, Kilwa Sultanate. Suleyman bin al-Hasan. AH 702-717 / AD 1302-1316
Ć Fals (23mm, 2.06 g, 11 h). Kilwa Kisiwani mint.
Inscription in two lines; star at center
Inscription in three lines
Album 1183; Walker, Kilwa 3; SICA 10, 602-11; Zeno 87052 (this coin)

Acquired in the 1960's, likely through circulation in Dar-es-Salaam.

The dating is adapted from Chittick ("On the Chronology of the sultans of Kilwa" in NC 13, 1973) - Bosworth (The New Islamic Dynasties) gives different dates. However, considering the uncertain nature of both the chronologies and how they relate to the coinage, particularly in light of the finds at Songo Mnara, all dates should be considered hypothetical.
Ardatirion
00074x00.jpg
30 viewsEAST AFRICA, Kilwa Sultanate. al-Hasan bin Sulayman. Circa AH 715 / AD 1315
Ć Fals (20 mm, 1.92 g, 9h)
Kilwa Kisiwani mint
Inscription in five lines
Inscription in three lines
Album 1183; Walker, Kilwa VIII; SICA 10, 613-21
Ardatirion
2740288.jpg
50 viewsEGYPT, Athribis
PB Tessera (24mm, 5.17 g, 12h).
Tyche reclining left on couch (hiera klinę, or lectisternium), holding rudder in outstretched right hand and resting head on raised left set on pillow; A[Θ]PI[B]IC/ [ΠOΛ]OI above
Nike standing right, holding palm frond and presenting wreath to Serapis standing left, holding long scepter in left hand and raising right
Milne -; Dattari (Savio) -; Köln -

Ex Classical Numismatic Group Electronic Auction 274, lot 288 (there as Memphis).
Ardatirion
00070x00.jpg
27 viewsEGYPT, Uncertain
PB Tessera (18mm, 2.83 , 1 h)
Tyche reclining left on couch (hiera klinę, or lectisternium), holding rudder in outstretched right hand and resting head on raised left set on pillow; all within distyle temple with pellet in pediment
Hercules standing left, holding club and small figure of Telesphorus
Milne -; Dattari (Savio) -; Köln -; Roma E-Live 3 (25 October 2018), lot 484 (same dies)
Ardatirion
00001x00~12.jpg
33 viewsLIBERIA, American Colonization Society. 1820-1847.
CU Cent. Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Dated 1833.
LIBERIA. Nude man standing before shore, cutting at tree to left; brush to right; in distance, ship under sail right; 1833 in exergue
AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY/ ONE CENT. FOUNDED/ A.D./ 1816
Snyder dies 2/B; Colver & Harley 2; KM Tn 1

Ex Westfälische Auktionsgesellschaft Online Auction 91 (4 November 2018), lot 259
Ardatirion
Licinius I AE3, Siscia, 319-320 AD.jpg
146 viewsROME. Licinius I. AD 308-324.
Ć Follis (20mm, 3.1 g)
Siscia mint, 1st officina. Struck AD 319-320.
IMP LICINIVS AVG, laureate bust right, slight drapery on far shoulder
VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, two Victories holding shield inscribed VOT/PR in two lines over altar; I on altar; ASIS*
RIC VII 96 var. (bust type)
Ardatirion
IMG_1361.JPG
64 viewsUNITED STATES, Native proto-currency. Seneca tribe.
Ganounata village (Honeoye Falls, NY). Circa AD 1625-1687
White wampum beads (apx. 5mm, 0.10g each)
Carved white shell beads with lateral hole for suspension in belt
Cf. William Martin Beauchamp, Wampum and Shell Articles Used by the New York Indians, p. 369

Found at the Dann Farm site in Honeoye Falls, NY.


In 1687 combined French and Huron forces, lead by the Marquis de Denonville, set out to undermine the strength of the Iriquois Confederacy. The main strike was made against Seneca villages in Western New York. Ganounata was burned during the campaign. This episode was only one in a long line of conflicts fought over control of the North American fur trade.

Wampum was used by Native Americans in woven belts of white and black beads. The white beads were crafted from the columella of the Channeled Whelk, the black from the quahog. Traditionally, wampum belts were used as a ceremonial object to initiate a trade contract. It was only with the coming of the Europeans that wampum began to function as coinage. In 1673, New York state officially set the value of wampum at six white beads to the Dutch stuiver, or three black until they fell out of use.
Ardatirion
louis1-denier-melle-lin.JPG
D.609 Louis the Pious (denier, Melle, class 2)49 viewsLouis the Pious, king of the Franks and Holy Roman emperor (813-840)
Denier (Melle, class 2, 819-822)

Silver, 1.48 g, 20 mm diameter, die axis 3 h

O/ +HLVDOVVICVS IMP; cross pattée
R/ META / . / LLVM

Louis' deniers correspond to his father's (Charles the Great) ``novus denarius'', whose weight is supposed to be near 1.7 g with a certain variability.

This denier is typical of Class 2 of Louis' coinage (819-822).
A circular inscription of the name of the ruler surrounds a cross pattée on the observe. The quite surprising Hlvdovvicvs initially comes from the germanic name Chlodowig ("Clovis"). This one was first transcribed to latin as Chlodowicvs. The initial C then disappeared, which explains the H at the beginning. The w(=vv) finally became a standard v, which gave Lvdovicvs (Louis). The imperial title imp is also given.

The reverse consists of the mint name, in field. The mint name may be split in 2 or 3 lines.
Droger
charles2-denier-melle3.JPG
D.621 Charles II the Bald (denier, class 1a, Melle)25 viewsCharles the Bald, king of the Franks (840-877)
Denier (Melle, class 1a, 840-864)

Silver, 1.70 g, 21 mm diameter, die axis 9h

O/ +CΛRLVS REX FR; cross pattée
R/ META / • / LLVM

Class 1 of Charles the Bald's coinage is made of totally different types of coins, which may reflect the state of the kingdom after 3 years of civil war and the division of the Empire.

Class 1a: mint in the field, with a linear legend
Class 1b: bust
Class 1c: city gate
Class 1d: KRLS monogram
Class 1e: temple

Coupland suggests that this particular scarce type (with META/LLVM on the reverse) had been minted from June 848, just after Charles the Bald finally defeated his nephew Pippin II for Aquitaine's control. The aim of minting a special type like this was to show a clear difference with the previsous coinage of Pippin II. A little later, Charles the Blad went on with the typical coinage of Melle (monogram ; circular mint name).
1 commentsDroger
louis7-denier-parisis-3eme.JPG
Dy.146 Louis VII (the Young): denier parisis (Paris), 3rd type11 viewsLouis VII, king of the Franks (1137-1180)
Denier parisis (Paris), 3rd type

Billon, 0.83 g, diameter 19 mm, die axis 3h
O: LVDOVICVS REX; FRA/OCN
R: PA[R]ISII CIVIS, cross pattée

The second line on the field of the obverse must be read form right to left, so that one can read : Lvdovicvs rex franco(rum).
Droger
louis7-denier-parisis-4t.JPG
Dy.148 Louis VII (the Young): denier parisis (Paris), 4th type22 viewsLouis VII, king of the Franks (1137-1180)
Denier parisis (Paris), 4th type

Billon, 0.90 g, diameter 18-20 mm, die axis 3h
O: +LVDOVICVS RE; FRA/OCN
R: PA[R]ISII CIVIS, cross pattée

The second line on the field of the obverse must be read form right to left, so that one can read : Lvdovicvs rex franco(rum).
Droger
charles4-maille-blanche-1ere.JPG
Dy.243 Charles IV (the Fair): maille blanche, 1st emission7 viewsCharles IV, king of France (1322-1328)
Maille blanche, 1st emission (03/02/1324)

Silver (798 ‰), 1.82 g, diameter 22 mm, die axis 2h
O: inner circle: +kAROLVS(diamond)REX; cross pattée; outer circle: BHDICTV⋮SIT#8942nOmЄ⋮DHI⋮nRI
R: inner circle: +FRANChORVm*; châtel tournois; outer circle: a circlet of 10 fleur-de-lis

The h of FRANChORVm is characteristic of the first emission.

Charles was the younger and third son of former king Philip the Fair. He was consequently not supposed to rule. However, as his two brothers successively died without any living son, he became king in 1322. Six years later, he also died without a male heir. So ended up the capetian senior line in 1328.
The legend began then... Jacques de Molay, last Grand Master of the Knights Templar, had cursed King Philip the Fair and his descendants from his execution pyr in 1314. Was the curse finally efficient ?
Charles'cousin, his nearest parent, became then king of France as Philip VI.
Droger
107-1a-NAC61.jpg
"C" Denarius, Crawford 107/1a - My favorite Coin25 viewsDenomination: Denarius
Era: c. 209-208 BC
Metal: AR
Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma r. with splayed visor; “X” behind; Border of dots
Reverse: Dioscuri r.; Above, “C”; in linear frame, “ROMA”.
Mint: Etruia(?)
Weight: 4.44 gm.
Reference: Crawford 107/1a
Provenance: NAC 61; 25-OCT-2011, Privately purchased by RBW from CNG in 1989


Comments: This is one of my favorite coins. It is not high grade, neither the obverse nor the reverse is well centered. The dioscuri are really just blobs, and this coin would be overlooked in any sale but the NAC 61 sale of RBW’s finest and rarest coins, perhaps the greatest Roman Republican auction of our generation. Nevertheless, the coin has a lovely tone and a style that is very characteristic of this issue which is quite rare.

Unique to this variety and the related staff issue, are the braided locks extending from the helmet to the hair binding. The stars are simple dots above the dioscuri, and ROMA is cut into the die with very large letters with a very fine line tool. There has been much speculation on the significance of the “C” insignia, but few with any real merit.
1 commentsSteve B5
107-1b-Naville-6-6-2015-wht.jpg
"C", larger head, Denarius, Crawford 107/1b17 viewsDenomination: Denarius
Era: c. 209-208 BC
Metal: AR
Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma r. with splayed visor; “X” behind; Border of dots
Reverse: Dioscuri r.; above, “C” symbol; in linear frame, “ROMA”.
Mint: Etruria(?)
Weight: 4.32 gm.
Reference: Crawford 107/1b
Provenance: Naville auction, 7-MAY-2017

Comments:
This type with a “C” symbol is of the same fundamental style as the staff symbol 106/3c. presumably both issues from the same mint. The type is somewhat scarce, but the most common of the three other “C” sub-varieties.
Near complete on a large flan, GVF.
Steve B5
149.jpg
"EVMENEΩN" and "ΦIΛΩNIΔOY" (monograms to be read as)181 viewsPHRYGIA. Eumeneia. Fulvia. Ć 19. Ca. 41-40 B.C. Obv: Draped bust of Fulvia as winged Nike r.; 2 cm’s, (1) on head, (2) above head. Rev: (ΦYΛOYIANΩN) to right, ΣMEPTOPIΓ(OΣ)/(ΦIΛΩNIΔOY) in 2 lines to l. Athena adv. l., hld. spear and shield. Ref: BMC 20-21 (?); RPC 3139 (7 pcs). Axis: 330°. Weight: 6.84 g. Magistrate: Zmertorigos Philopatris. Note: Eumeneia changed its name to Fulvia on the occasion of Mark Antony's journey to the east in 41 B.C., likely propmting the issue of coins. After Fulvia died the city took back its old name. On BMC 21 the ethnic "ΦYΛOVIANΩN" may be purposefully erased, which also seems to be the case on this specimen! Both coins are countermarked, and the cm's may be read "EVMENEΩN" and "ΦIΛΩNIΔOY". The purpose of countermarking in combination with the erasure of the city name, thus, seems to have been to make note of second name change. CM(1): Monogram of EVMNO (?), in circ. punch, 4 mm. CM(2): Monogram of ΦIΛNΔ (?), in circ. punch, 3.5 mm. Collection Automan.1 commentsAutoman
tiberius_denarius_res_trib.jpg
"Tribute Penny"--TIBERIUS95 views14 - 37 AD
minted 18 - 35 AD
AR Denarius ("Tribute Penny")
O: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG AVGVSTVS; laureate head right
R: PONTIF MAXIM; Livia as Pax, seated right on throne with ornate legs, holding long scepter and olive branch; single line below
Lugdunum mint
RIC 30, RSC 16a
laney
normal_tiberius_denarius_res_trib~0.jpg
(00040a) LIVIA (with Tiberius)34 views(wife of Augustus; mother of Tiberius; grandmother of Claudius)
b. 58 BC - d. 29 AD
minted 18 - 35 AD
AR Denarius ("Tribute Penny")
O: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG AVGVSTVS; laureate head right
R: PONTIF MAXIM; Livia as Pax, seated right on throne with ornate legs, holding long scepter and olive branch; single line below
Lugdunum mint
RIC 30, RSC 16a
laney
trajan_syria_res.jpg
(0098) TRAJAN23 views98 - 117 AD
struck 98 - 99 AD
AE 21 mm, 6.02 g
O: AYTOKR KAIC NEP TPAIA-NOC CEB ΓEPM; Laur. bust right
R: ΔHMAP / EΞ YΠAT B (barred) in two lines within wreath
BMC and Sydenaham 229 attribute to Caesarea; more recent attributions are "Struck in Rome for Circulation in Syria" (cf McAlee 499)
laney
a_pius_cyrrh_res.jpg
(0138) ANTONINUS PIUS25 views138 - 161 AD
AE 24 mm, 9.50 g
O ΑΥΤΟ ΚΑΙ ΤΙΤ ΑΙΛ Α∆ΡΙ − ΑΝΤΩΝΕΙΝΟC CΕΒ (or similar), laureate bust right;
R: ΘΕΑCCΥΡΙ / ΑC ΙΕΡΟΠΟ (or similar) /A or D, all within laurel wreath
Hieropolis, Cyrrhestica, Syria
cf. BMC Syria p. 141, 19; RPC online 6976; SNG Hunterian II 2674; Butcher 17; SNG Cop 53 var.
laney
a_pius_caly_blk.jpg
(0138) ANTONINUS PIUS23 views138 - 161 AD
25 mm, 8.29 g
O: ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙСΑΡ ΑΔΡΙ ΑΝΤΩΝΙΝοС СƐΒΑ laureate head of Antoninus Pius, r.
R: СƐΛƐVΚΩΝ Τ Π ΚΑΛΥ Τ ΙƐΡ ΑС ΑΥΤ Athena standing, l., holding Nike, resting arm on shield
Seleucia ad Calycadnum, Cilicia
Ref: RPC IV Online 4033 corr. (spear) (same die as pictured RPC 4033)
laney
a_pius_Seleucia_ad_Calycadnum.jpg
(0138) ANTONINUS PIUS--Seleucia ad Calycadnum16 views138 - 161 AD
25 mm, 8.29 g
O: ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙСΑΡ ΑΔΡΙ ΑΝΤΩΝΙΝοС СƐΒΑ laureate head of Antoninus Pius, r.
R: СƐΛƐVΚΩΝ Τ Π ΚΑΛΥ Τ ΙƐΡ ΑС ΑΥΤ Athena standing, l., holding Nike, resting arm on shield
Seleucia ad Calycadnum, Cilicia
Ref: RPC IV Online 4033 corr. (spear) (same die as pictured RPC 4033)
laney
COMMODUS_HERC.jpg
(0177) COMMODUS37 views177 - 192 AD
AE 24 mm 10.71 g
O: Commodus as Hercules, in lion skin headdress
R: HER-CVL/RO-MAN/AV-VG/S-C in 4 lines with Club in center, within laurel wreath
Rome; RIC III 644
laney
commodus_horse_anchial_b.jpg
(0177) COMMODUS--ANCHIALOS39 views177 - 192 AD
struck ca. 191 - 192 AD, issued by Caecilius Servilianus, Legatus Augusti pro praetore provinciae Thraciae
Ć 29.5 mm; 6.90 g
O: ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ Λ ΑΥΡ - ΚΟΜΟΔΟC , laureate-headed bust of Commodus wearing cuirass and paludamentum, facing right; two countermarks in ovals: helmeted head of Athena, and DX
R: ΗΓ ΚΑΙ CΕΡΟΥΙΛΙΑΝΟΥ ΑΓΧΙΑΛΕΩΝ , emperor (Commodus) on horseback, r., wearing military dress, holding spear.
Thrace, Anchialos
Ref. cf AMNG 441, pl. VI. 16 (rev.) ; RPC online coin type temporary № 4532 (2 pieces listed) but described as "galloping" ; Moushmov 2799; rare
1 commentslaney
commodus_aug_tria_b.jpg
(0177) COMMODUS--AUGUSTA TRAIANA37 views177 - 192 AD
struck 191-192 AD
AE 29.5 mm; 15.36 g
Magistrate: L. Aemilius Iustus (Legatus Augusti pro praetore provinciae Thraciae)
O: AV KAI [M] AV KOMOΔOC (or similar) Laureate bust right
R: ΗΓΕ Λ ΑΙΜ ΙΟVСΤ ΑVΓΟVСΤΗС ΤΡΑΙΑΝΗС City gate with 3 towers
Thrace, Augusta Traiana
cf RPC online 10823, citing a Freeman & Sear sale of 2005, without picture.
Note: (from C. Clay, 3.21.2015) "Governor Aem. Justus is rare at this mint, yours may be just the second specimen recorded. Not known to Varbanov, or to Stein in his 1926 monograph on Thracian officials. Apparently not in Schoenert-Geiss's Augusta Traiana corpus, or Varbanov would have known it from there."
d.s.
laney
septimius_heliopolis_eagles.jpg
(0193) SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS16 views193-211 AD
AE 20 mm; 7.17 g
O: Laureate head right
R: COL/HEL in two lines between two legionary eagles, all within wreath
SYRIA, Coele-Syria. Heliopolis; cf Lindgren III 1269; SNG Munich 1030
laney
caracalla_helio_res.jpg
(0198) CARACALLA28 views198 - 217 AD
Ć 23 mm max. 5.28 g
O: Radiate draped cuirassed bust right
R: COL/HEL in two lines between two legionary eagles, pellet between eagles, all within wreath
Coele-Syria, Heliopolis
(rare)
laney
AUGUSTUS_ARCHIERATIC_RESA.jpg
(02) AUGUSTUS34 views5 BC - 4 BC (YEAR 27 ACTIAN ERA)
AE 21.5 mm 7.88g
O: LAUR HEAD R
R: APXIEPATIKON ANTIOXEIS IN 4 LINES WITHIN ARCHIERATIC WREATH,
ALL WITHIN ARCHIERATIC CROWN
SYRIA, Seleucis and Pieria. Antioch
McAlee 202; RPC I 4251
laney
augustus_iulia_trad.jpg
(02) AUGUSTUS10 views27 BC- 14 AD,  AE 23 mm, 6.61 g O: PERM CAES AVG. around bare head of
Augustus, left R: IVLIA TRADUCTA in two lines within
wreath. Hispania Baetica (Spain), Julia Traducta mint
RPC I, 108, SNG Copenhagen 459.
laney
elagabal_nob_ruf_redb.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS29 views218 - 222 AD
AE 25 mm, 10.29 g
O: AVT K M AVP ANTΩNEINOC laureate bust right
R: VΠ NO / BIOV POV / ΦOV NIKO / ΠOΛITΩN / ΠPOC IC / TPΩ in six lines within laurel wreath.
Nicopolis ad Istrum, under governor Novius Rufus
Varbanov 3874 (3941?); AMNG 2008v
laney
vex_murex_ox_b_x_res.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS28 views218 - 222 AD
AE 19.5 mm, 7.1 g
O: Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
R: Bull standing right; in background, vexillum inscribed LEG/III]/GAL in three lines; murex shell to right
Phoenicia, Tyre
laney
elagabal_tripolis_res.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS41 views218 - 222 AD
AE 23.51 mm, 9.48 g
O: AVΩN, T KM AVP A[NTΩ NINOC] Laureate draped bust right
R: Three-part (decastyle temple) temple of Astarte, with center arch, two tetrastyle wings, curved roof line from wings to top of pediment, Astarte standing facing in doorway, ... ΓΛΦ (Seleukid year 532) in ex;
Phoenicia, Tripolis; BMC 223, 120.
1 commentslaney
gallien_heliop_blkres.jpg
(0253) GALLIENUS31 views253-268 AD
AE 26 X 29 mm, 12.30 g
O: IMP CAES P LIC GALLIENVS AVG, laureate cuirassed bust right
R: COL IVL AVG FEL HE, three agonistic urns containing palm branches, CERTSACR CAP OECV ISE HEL in three lines in exe
Coele-Syria, Heliopolis SNG COP. 441
laney
sever.jpg
(0270) SEVERINA26 views(wife of Aurelian)
270 - 275 AD
AE Antoninianus 21 X 24 mm, 3.97 g
O: SEVERI_NAE AVG Diademed draped bust right, on crescent, hair brushed back in straight lines and carried in long loop to front, then tucked under diadem
R: CONCOR_DIAE MILITVM Concordia standing facing, head left, standard in each hand; Q in right field, XXI in exe
Antioch in Pisidia
RIC V, Part I, 13.
laney
tiberius_denarius_res_c.jpg
(03) TIBERIUS63 views14 - 37 AD
minted 18 - 35 AD
AR Denarius ("Tribute Penny")
O: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG AVGVSTVS; laureate head right
R: PONTIF MAXIM; Livia as Pax, seated right on throne with ornate legs, holding long scepter and olive branch; single line below
Lugdunum mint
RIC 30, RSC 16a
1 commentslaney
tiberius_italica_res_1.jpg
(03) TIBERIUS22 views14 - 37 AD
AE DUPONDIUS 29 mm 13.22. g
O: [IMP TI CAE]SAR AVGVSTVS PON MA[X], Bust right
R: PERM DIVI AVG [MVNI]C [ITALIC] around altar inscrbed in 3 lines [P]ROVIDE[N]TIAE [A]VGVSTI
ITALICA, SPAIN
laney
tiberius_italica_2_res.jpg
(03) TIBERIUS22 views14 - 37 AD
AE DUPONDIUS 29 mm 12.13 g
O: [IM]P TI CAESAR AVGVST[VS PO[N MAX], Bust right
R: PERM DIVI AVG []NIC ITALIC around altar inscribed in 3 lines [P]ROVIDE/NTIAE /AVGVSTI
ITALICA, SPAIN
laney
constantine_i_vot_1~0.jpg
(0306) CONSTANTINE I (THE GREAT)77 viewsCaesar 306-307 AD; Filius Augustorum 307-309 AD; Augustus 309-337 AD
AE 19 mm 3.25 g
OBV: CONSTANTINVS AVG
LAUR HEAD R
REV: DN CONSTANTINI MAX AVG AROUND LAUREL WREATH, VOT DOT DOT XX WITHIN, IN 4 LINES
TSAVI IN EXE
THESSALONICA
2 commentslaney
licinius_vot.jpg
(0308) LICINIUS I14 views308 - 324 AD
AE 19 mm 2.33 g
O: IMP LICINIVS AVG, laur bust right
R: DN LICINI AVGVSTI surrounding wreath with VOT Dot XX in 2 lines within
laney
crispus_vot_2_res.jpg
(0317) CRISPUS19 views317 - 326 AD
Struck: 324 AD
AE 19 mm, 3.08 g
Obverse: FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, Laureate draped cuirssed bust left
Reverse: CAESARVM NOSTRORVM around votive wreath inscribed VOT pellet X in 3 lines, TSΔVI in exergue
Thessalonica, RIC VII 125
laney
csta_ii_vot_res.jpg
(0324) CONSTANTIUS II25 views324 - 337 AD (as Caesar)
337 - 361 AD (as Augustus)
Obv: DN CONSTAN-TIVS PF AVG, pearl-diademed head
Rev: VOT XX MVLT XXX in four lines within wreath; SMHB in exe
RIC VIII Heraclea 45, rated Scarce.
laney
constantius_ii_vot_res.jpg
(0324) CONSTANTIUS II20 views324 - 337 AD as Caesar
337 - 361 AD as Augustus
AE 15 mm, 2.31 g
O: D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG diademed head right
R: VOT XX MVLT XXX in 3 lines within wreath; SMANG in exe
Antioch mint.
laney
csts_2_vot.jpg
(0324) CONSTANTIUS II15 views324 - 337 AD as Caesar
337 - 361 AD as Augustus
AE 16mm, 2.10 g
O: D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG diademed head right
R: VOT XX dot MVLT XXX in 3 lines within wreath; CONSG star in exe.
Constantinople mint; RIC VIII 76 (Gamma) rated Scarce
laney
constans_vot_res.jpg
(0333) CONSTANS10 views333 - 337 (as Caesar)
337 - 350 AD (as Augustus)
AE 14 mm, 1.59 g
O: Bust right'
R: VOT XX MVLT XXX in 3 lines, within wreath
laney
jovian_vot_res.jpg
(0363) JOVIAN29 views363 - 364 AD
AE 19 mm 2.29 g
O: D N IOVIANVS P F AVG diademed draped cuirassed bust left
R: VOT V MVLT X in 3 lines within wreath; HERAC in exe.
Heraclea mint
laney
jovian_b.jpg
(0363) JOVIAN27 views363 - 364 AD
AE 19 mm 2.29 g
O: D N IOVIANVS P F AVG diademed draped cuirassed bust left
R: VOT V MVLT X in 3 lines within wreath; HERAC in exe.
Heraclea mint
laney
gratian_vot_res.jpg
(0367) GRATIAN16 views367 - 383 AD
struck 378 - 383 AD (2nd Officina)
AE nummus 13.5 mm; 0.96 g
O: DN GRATIANVS PF AVG diademed draped bust right
R: VOT XX MVLT XXX in three lines within wreath; SMNB in exe.
Nicomedia mint; RIC 39a; scarce
laney
arcadius_vot_v_1.jpg
(0383) ARCADIUS13 views383-408 AD
AE4 13 mm, 1.50 g
O: Diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
R: VOT V in two lines within wreath
laney
arcadius_vot_v_2.jpg
(0383) ARCADIUS12 views383-408 AD
AE4 13 mm, 1.12 g
O:DN ARCADIVS PF AVG Diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
R: VOT V in two lines within wreath, SMHA in exe.
Heraclea mint
laney
arcadius_vot_v_3.jpg
(0383) ARCADIUS12 views383-408 AD
AE4 13 mm, 1.38 g
O: DN ARCADIVS PF AVG Diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
R: VOT V in two lines within wreath
laney
arcadius_vot_v_4.jpg
(0383) ARCADIUS13 views383-408 AD
AE4 13 mm, 1.58 g
O: Diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
R: VOT V in two lines within wreath
laney
arcadius_vot_v_5.jpg
(0383) ARCADIUS14 views383-408 AD
AE4 14 mm max., 0.81 g
O: DN ARCADIVS PF AVG Diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
R: VOT V in two lines within wreath
laney
arcadius_vot_xx.jpg
(0383) ARCADIUS17 views383-408 AD
AE4 13 mm, 1.25 g
O: DN ARCADIVS PF AVG Diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
R: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath
laney
LEO_VI.jpg
(0886) LEO VI (The Wise)36 views886 - 912 AD
AE FOLLIS 25 mm 6.69 g
O: + LЄOn ЬAS ILЄ[V]S ROm
BUST FACING, WITH SHORT BEARD, WEARING CROWN & CHALMYS
R +LЄOn/Єn ӨЄO ЬA/SILЄVS R/OmЄOn IN FOUR LINES ( Leo by the grace of God king of the Romans )
CONSTANTINOPLE
SBV 1729 - DO8
laney
romanus_i_const_vii.jpg
(0920) CONSTANTINE VII and ROMANUS I LECAPENUS19 views920 - 944 AD
AE 23 mm, 4.99 g
O: Romanus I facing, bearded, wearing jewelled chlamys and crown with cross, globus cruciger in left, transverse labarum in right
R: Legend in four lines
laney
domitian_tomis_temple.jpg
(12) DOMITIAN19 views81 - 96 AD
AE 20 mm, 4.67 g
O: Laureate head right
R: TO-MI-TW-N in two lines to left and right of tetrastyle temple on podium; star (left) and cap of Dioscuri (right) at sides of gable
Moesia Inferior, Thrace, Tomis mint; RPC II 81, 404. AMNG I, 2, p. 679, 2595.
laney
P.Licinius Nerva voting.jpg
(500a113) Roman Republic, P. Licinius Nerva, 113-112 B.C.86 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC: P. Licinius Nerva. AR denarius (3.93 gm). Rome, ca. 113-112 BC. Helmeted bust of Roma left, holding spear over right shoulder and shield on left arm, crescent above, * before, ROMA behind / P. NERVA, voting scene showing two citizens casting their ballots in the Comitium, one receiving a ballot from an attendant, the other dropping his ballot into a vessel at right. Crawford 292/1. RSC Licinia 7. RCTV 169. Nearly very fine. Ex Freeman and Sear.

Here is a denarius whose reverse device is one that celebrates the privilege and responsibility that is the foundation of a democratic society; it is a forerunner to the L. Cassius Longinus denarius of 63 B.C. Granted, humanity had a long road ahead toward egalitarianism when this coin was struck, but isn't it an interesting testimony to civil liberty's heritage? "The voter on the left (reverse) receives his voting tablet from an election officer. Horizontal lines in the background indicate the barrier separating every voting division from the others. Both voters go across narrow raised walks (pontes); this is intended to ensure that the voter is seen to cast his vote without influence" (Meier, Christian. Caesar: A Biography. Berlin: Severin and Siedler, 1982. Plate 12). This significant coin precedes the Longinus denarius by 50 years.

J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
2 commentsCleisthenes
LPisoFrugiDenarius_S235.jpg
(502a) Roman Republic, L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi, 90 B.C.157 viewsSilver denarius, S 235, Calpurnia 11, Crawford 340/1, Syd 663a, VF, rainbow toning, Rome mint, 3.772g, 18.5mm, 180o, 90 B.C. obverse: laureate head of Apollo right, scorpion behind; Reverse naked horseman galloping right holding palm, L PISO FRVGI and control number CXI below; ex-CNA XV 6/5/91, #443. Ex FORVM.


A portion of the following text is a passage taken from the excellent article “The Calpurnii and Roman Family History: An Analysis of the Piso Frugi Coin in the Joel Handshu Collection at the College of Charleston,” by Chance W. Cook:

In the Roman world, particularly prior to the inception of the principate, moneyers were allotted a high degree of latitude to mint their coins as they saw fit. The tres viri monetales, the three men in charge of minting coins, who served one-year terms, often emblazoned their coins with an incredible variety of images and inscriptions reflecting the grandeur, history, and religion of Rome. Yet also prominent are references to personal or familial accomplishments; in this manner coins were also a means by which the tres viri monetales could honor their forbearers. Most obvious from an analysis of the Piso Frugi denarius is the respect and admiration that Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi, who minted the coin, had for his ancestors. For the images he selected for his dies relate directly to the lofty deeds performed by his Calpurnii forbearers in the century prior to his term as moneyer. The Calpurnii were present at many of the watershed events in the late Republic and had long distinguished themselves in serving the state, becoming an influential and well-respected family whose defense of traditional Roman values cannot be doubted.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi, who was moneyer in 90 B.C., depicted Apollo on the obverse and the galloping horseman on the reverse, as does his son Gaius. However, all of L. Piso Frugi’s coins have lettering similar to “L-PISO-FRVGI” on the reverse, quite disparate from his son Gaius’ derivations of “C-PISO-L-F-FRV.”

Moreover, C. Piso Frugi coins are noted as possessing “superior workmanship” to those produced by L. Piso Frugi.

The Frugi cognomen, which became hereditary, was first given to L. Calpurnius Piso, consul in 133 B.C., for his integrity and overall moral virtue. Cicero is noted as saying that frugal men possessed the three cardinal Stoic virtues of bravery, justice, and wisdom; indeed in the Thesaurus Linguae Latinae, a synonym of frugalitas is bonus, generically meaning “good” but also implying virtuous behavior. Gary Forsythe notes that Cicero would sometimes invoke L. Calpurnius Piso’s name at the beginning of speeches as “a paragon of moral rectitude” for his audience.

L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi’s inclusion of the laureled head of Apollo, essentially the same obverse die used by his son Gaius (c. 67 B.C.), was due to his family’s important role in the establishment of the Ludi Apollinares, the Games of Apollo, which were first instituted in 212 B.C. at the height of Hannibal’s invasion of Italy during the Second Punic War. By that time, Hannibal had crushed Roman armies at Cannae, seized Tarentum and was invading Campania.

Games had been used throughout Roman history as a means of allaying the fears
of the populace and distracting them from issues at hand; the Ludi Apollinares were no different. Forsythe follows the traditional interpretation that in 211 B.C., when C. Calpurnius Piso was praetor, he became the chief magistrate in Rome while both consuls were absent and the three other praetors were sent on military expeditions against Hannibal.

At this juncture, he put forth a motion in the Senate to make the Ludi Apollinares a yearly event, which was passed; the Ludi Apollinares did indeed become an important festival, eventually spanning eight days in the later Republic. However, this interpretation is debatable; H.H. Scullard suggests that the games were not made permanent until 208 B.C. after a severe plague prompted the Senate to make them a fixture on the calendar. The Senators believed Apollo would serve as a “healing god” for the people of Rome.

Nonetheless, the Calpurnii obviously believed their ancestor had played an integral role in the establishment of the Ludi Apollinares and thus prominently displayed
the head or bust of Apollo on the obverse of the coins they minted.

The meaning of the galloping horseman found on the reverse of the L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi coin is more complicated. It is possible that this is yet another reference to the Ludi Apollinares. Chariot races in the Circus Maximus were a major component of the games, along with animal hunts and theatrical performances.

A more intriguing possibility is that the horseman is a reference to C. Calpurnius Piso, son of the Calpurnius Piso who is said to have founded the Ludi Apollinares. This C. Calpurnius Piso was given a military command in 186 B.C. to quell a revolt in Spain. He was victorious, restoring order to the province and also gaining significant wealth in the process.

Upon his return to Rome in 184, he was granted a triumph by the Senate and eventually erected an arch on the Capitoline Hill celebrating his victory. Of course
the arch prominently displayed the Calpurnius name. Piso, however, was not an infantry commander; he led the cavalry.

The difficulty in accepting C. Calpurnius Piso’s victory in Spain as the impetus for the galloping horseman image is that not all of C. Piso Frugi’s coins depict the horseman or cavalryman carrying the palm, which is a symbol of victory. One is inclined to believe that the victory palm would be prominent in all of the coins minted by C. Piso Frugi (the son of L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi) if it indeed signified the great triumph of C. Calpurnius Piso in 186 B.C. Yet the palm’s appearance is clearly not a direct reference to military feats of C. Piso Frugi’s day. As noted, it is accepted that his coins were minted in 67 B.C.; in that year, the major victory by Roman forces was Pompey’s swift defeat of the pirates throughout the Mediterranean.

Chrestomathy: Annual Review of Undergraduate Research at the College of Charleston. Volume 1, 2002: pp. 1-10© 2002 by the College of Charleston, Charleston SC 29424, USA.All rights to be retained by the author.
http://www.cofc.edu/chrestomathy/vol1/cook.pdf


There are six (debatably seven) prominent Romans who have been known to posterity as Lucius Calpurnius Piso:

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi: (d. 261 A.D.) a Roman usurper, whose existence is
questionable, based on the unreliable Historia Augusta.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Licinianus: deputy Roman Emperor, 10 January 69 to15 January
69, appointed by Galba.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 27 A.D.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 1 B.C., augur

Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 15 B.C., pontifex

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus: Consul in 58 B.C. (the uncle of Julius Caesar)

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi: Moneyer in 90 B.C. (our man)


All but one (or two--if you believe in the existence of "Frugi the usurper" ca. 261 A.D.) of these gentlemen lack the Frugi cognomen, indicating they are not from the same direct lineage as our moneyer, though all are Calpurnii.

Calpurnius Piso Frugi's massive issue was intended to support the war against the Marsic Confederation. The type has numerous variations and control marks.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucius_Calpurnius_Piso
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/catalog/indexfrm.asp?vpar=55&pos=0

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


2 commentsCleisthenes
LonginusDenarius.jpg
(504c) Roman Republic, L. Cassius Longinus, 63 B.C.68 viewsSilver denarius, Crawford 413/1, RSC I Cassia 10, SRCV I 364, aVF, struck with worn dies, Rome mint, weight 3.867g, maximum diameter 20.3mm, die axis 0o, c. 63 B.C. Obverse: veiled bust of Vesta left, kylix behind, L before; Reverse: LONGIN III V, voter standing left, dropping tablet inscribed V into a cista.

The reverse of this Longinus denarius captures a fascinating moment when a Roman citizen casts his ballot. "The abbreviation III V [ir] indentifies Longinus as one of the three annually appointed mintmasters (officially called tres viri aere argento auro flando feriundo). A citizen is seen casting his vote into the urn. On the ballot is the letter 'U', short for uti rogas, a conventional formula indicating assent to a motion. The picture alludes to the law, requested by an ancestor of the mintmaster, which introduced the secret ballot in most proceedings of the popular court" (Meier, Christian. Caesar, a Biography. Berlin: Severin and Siedler, 1982. Plate 6).

The date that this denarius was struck possesses unique significance for another reason. Marcus Tullius Cicero (politician, philosopher, orator, humanist) was elected consul for the year 63 BC -- the first man elected consul who had no consular ancestors in more than 30 years. A "new man," Cicero was not the descendant of a "patrician" family, nor was his family wealthy (although Cicero married "well"). Cicero literally made himself the man he was by the power of the words he spoke and the way in which he spoke them. A witness to and major player during the decline of the Roman Republic, Cicero was murdered in 43 BC by thugs working for Marc Antony. But Cicero proved impossible to efface.

Cicero's words became part of the bed rock of later Roman education. As Peter Heather notes, every educated young man in the late Roman Empire studied "a small number of literary texts under the guidance of an expert in language and literary interpretation, the grammarian. This occupied the individual for seven or more years from about the age of eight, and concentrated on just four authors: Vergil, Cicero, Sallust and Terence" (Heather, Peter. The Fall of the Roman Empire: A New History of Rome and the Barbarians. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. 17).


Plutarch: Cicero's Death

But in the meantime the assassins were come with a band of soldiers, Herennius, a centurion, and Popillius, a tribune, whom Cicero had formerly defended when prosecuted for the murder of his father. Finding the doors shut, they broke them open, and Cicero not appearing, and those within saying they knew not where he was, it is stated that a youth, who had been educated by Cicero in the liberal arts and sciences, an emancipated slave of his brother Quintus, Philologus by name, informed the tribune that the litter was on its way to the sea through the close and shady walks. The tribune, taking a few with him, ran to the place where he was to come out. And Cicero, perceiving Herennius running in the walks, commanded his servants to set down the litter; and stroking his chin, as he used to do, with his left hand, he looked steadfastly upon his murderers, his person covered with dust, his beard and hair untrimmed, and his face worn with his troubles. So that the greatest part of those that stood by covered their faces whilst Herennius slew him. And thus was he murdered, stretching forth his neck out of the litter, being now in his sixty-fourth year. Herennius cut off his head, and, by Antony's command, his hands also, by which his Philippics were written; for so Cicero styled those orations he wrote against Antony, and so they are called to this day.

When these members of Cicero were brought to Rome, Antony was holding an assembly for the choice of public officers; and when he heard it, and saw them, he cried out, "Now let there be an end of our proscriptions." He commanded his head and hands to be fastened up over the rostra, where the orators spoke; a sight which the Roman people shuddered to behold, and they believed they saw there, not the face of Cicero, but the image of Antony's own soul. And yet amidst these actions he did justice in one thing, by delivering up Philologus to Pomponia, the wife of Quintus; who, having got his body into her power, besides other grievous punishments, made him cut off his own flesh by pieces, and roast and eat it; for so some writers have related. But Tiro, Cicero's emancipated slave, has not so much as mentioned the treachery of Philologus.

Translation by John Dryden: http://intranet.grundel.nl/thinkquest/moord_cicero_plu.html

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Tarsoscilicia.jpg
*CILICIA, Tarsos. Æ24 San- and Phili-, magistrates. Tyche enthroned/Zeus Nikephoros40 viewsCILICIA, Tarsos. 164-27 BC. Ć24 San- and Phili-, magistrates. Tyche, turreted and veiled, holding grain ears in extended right hand, seated right on throne, right foot on the shoulder of the river god Orontes, who swims right below / TARSEWN, Zeus Nikephoros seated left; SAN/FILI in two lines to left. Cf. SNG France 1374; SNG Levante 979-80 var. (magistrates); SNG Copenhagen -; SNG von Aulock -; BMC -. ancientone
trajanthessalonica.jpg
*Macedonia, Thessalonica. Trajan AE2146 viewsObv: [.....] TRAIANOC, radiate bust r.
Rev: ThES SALO NIKE WN, in four lines, surmounted by eagle within double ring of dots.
ancientone
Bar_Kochba.jpg
*SOLD*42 viewsBar Kokhba Revolt

Attribution: TJC 292., Hendin 1437 (prev. 736). Mildenberg 125; Palestina
Date: assumed AD 134-135
Obv: 7-branched palm tree, two clusters of fruit beneath; (ŠM'WN) beneath in 2 lines
Rev: Trifoliate vine leaf;(RWT YRWŠLM) around; Undated, assumed year 3 = AD 134-135
Size: 22.8 mm
Weight: 9.3 grams
Noah
Byzantine1.jpg
001 - Anonymus follis class A2 - Sear 181346 viewsObv: +EMMANOVHA, Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with two pellets in each limb of cross, pallium and colobium, and holding book of Gospels, the cover ornamented with central pellet in border of dots. To left IC and to right XC.
Rev: IhSYS / XRISTYS / bASILEY / bASILE in foyr lines. Dot above and below.
This type is attributed to the joint regin of Basil II and Constantine VIII 976-1025 AD.
30.0 mm. diameter.
pierre_p77
RI_001e_img.jpg
001 - Augustus Denarius - RIC 042a85 viewsObv:– CAESAR AVGVSTVS, Bare headed bust of Augustus right
Rev:– Round shield inscribed S • P • Q • R/CL • V in two lines
Minted in Spanish mint (Emerita?). 19-18 B.C..
Reference:– RIC I Augustus 42a. RSC 294.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
Augustus_AE-As_AVGVSTVS_TRIBVNIC_POTEST_CN-PISO--AAAFF_SdotC_RIC-382_C-_Rome_-AD-_Q-001_11h_24,5-25,5mm_6,45g-s.jpg
002 Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), RIC I 381, Rome, AE-Dupondius, Cn.Piso Cn.F, Large S•C,80 views002 Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), RIC I 381, Rome, AE-Dupondius, Cn.Piso Cn.F, Large S•C,
avers:- AVGVSTVS/TRIBVNIC/POTEST in three line, Legend in wreath.
revers:- CN-PISO-(CN-F-IIIVIR)-AAAFF around large S•C.
exe: S•C//--, diameter: 24,5-25,5 mm, weight: 6,45g, axis:11h,
mint: Rome, date: 15 B.C., ref: RIC-I-381, C
Q-001
quadrans
coin614.JPG
002. Augustus36 viewsAugustus. 27 BC-AD 14. Ć Dupondius (28mm, 12.15 g). Rome mint. Q. Aelius Lamia, moneyer. Struck 18 BC. Legend in three lines within wreath / Legend around large S C. RIC I 324; BMCRE 176; BN 236. Near VF, brown patina with tan high points, some scratches on obverse.1 commentsecoli
0024.jpg
0024 - Denarius Volteia 78 BC32 viewsObv/Laureate head of Jupiter r.
Rev/Capitoline temple, tetrastyle; M VOLTEI M F in ex.

Ag, 18.9mm, 3.94g
Moneyer: M. Volteius M.f.
Mint: Rome.
RRC 385/1 [dies o/r: 70/78] - Syd. 774 - RCV 312 - RSC Volteia 1 - Cohen Volteia 1
ex-Sayles & Lavender
dafnis
0025.jpg
0025 - Denarius Tiberius 14-37 AC37 viewsObv/TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, Tiberius laureate head r.
Rev/PONTIF MAXIM, female figure (Livia or Pax) seated r., r. holding long vertical sceptre, l. branch, on chair with plain legs above double line.

Ag, 19.0mm, 3.70g
Mint: Lugdunum.
RIC I/26 [C] - RCV 1763 - BMCRE 34 - CBN 16 - RSC 16
ex-Áureo, auction 25 apr 2007, lot 1019
1 commentsdafnis
Aigina_turtle.jpg
002a, Aigina, Islands off Attica, Greece, c. 510 - 490 B.C.84 viewsSilver stater, S 1849, SNG Cop 503, F, 12.231g, 22.3mm, Aigina (Aegina) mint, c. 510 - 490 B.C.; Obverse: sea turtle (with row of dots down the middle); Reverse: incuse square of “Union Jack” pattern; banker's mark obverse. Ex FORVM.


Greek Turtles, by Gary T. Anderson

Turtles, the archaic currency of Aegina, are among the most sought after of all ancient coins. Their early history is somewhat of a mystery. At one time historians debated whether they or the issuances of Lydia were the world's earliest coins. The source of this idea comes indirectly from the writings of Heracleides of Pontus, a fourth century BC Greek scholar. In the treatise Etymologicum, Orion quotes Heracleides as claiming that King Pheidon of Argos, who died no later than 650 BC, was the first to strike coins at Aegina. However, archeological investigations date the earliest turtles to about 550 BC, and historians now believe that this is when the first of these intriguing coins were stamped.

Aegina is a small, mountainous island in the Saronikon Gulf, about midway between Attica and the Peloponnese. In the sixth century BC it was perhaps the foremost of the Greek maritime powers, with trade routes throughout the eastern half of the Mediterranean. It is through contacts with Greeks in Asia Minor that the idea of coinage was probably introduced to Aegina. Either the Lydians or Greeks along the coast of present day Turkey were most likely the first to produce coins, back in the late seventh century. These consisted of lumps of a metal called electrum (a mixture of gold and silver) stamped with an official impression to guarantee the coin was of a certain weight. Aegina picked up on this idea and improved upon it by stamping coins of (relatively) pure silver instead electrum, which contained varying proportions of gold and silver. The image stamped on the coin of the mighty sea power was that of a sea turtle, an animal that was plentiful in the Aegean Sea. While rival cities of Athens and Corinth would soon begin limited manufacture of coins, it is the turtle that became the dominant currency of southern Greece. The reason for this is the shear number of coins produced, estimated to be ten thousand yearly for nearly seventy years. The source for the metal came from the rich silver mines of Siphnos, an island in the Aegean. Although Aegina was a formidable trading nation, the coins seemed to have meant for local use, as few have been found outside the Cyclades and Crete. So powerful was their lure, however, that an old proverb states, "Courage and wisdom are overcome by Turtles."

The Aeginean turtle bore a close likeness to that of its live counterpart, with a series of dots running down the center of its shell. The reverse of the coin bore the imprint of the punch used to force the face of the coin into the obverse turtle die. Originally this consisted of an eight-pronged punch that produced a pattern of eight triangles. Later, other variations on this were tried. In 480 BC, the coin received its first major redesign. Two extra pellets were added to the shell near the head of the turtle, a design not seen in nature. Also, the reverse punch mark was given a lopsided design.

Although turtles were produced in great quantities from 550 - 480 BC, after this time production dramatically declines. This may be due to the exhaustion of the silver mines on Siphnos, or it may be related to another historical event. In 480 BC, Aegina's archrival Athens defeated Xerxes and his Persian armies at Marathon. After this, it was Athens that became the predominant power in the region. Aegina and Athens fought a series of wars until 457 BC, when Aegina was conquered by its foe and stripped of its maritime rights. At this time the coin of Aegina changed its image from that of the sea turtle to that of the land tortoise, symbolizing its change in fortunes.

The Turtle was an object of desire in ancient times and has become so once again. It was the first coin produced in Europe, and was produced in such great quantities that thousands of Turtles still exist today. Their historical importance and ready availability make them one of the most desirable items in any ancient coin enthusiast's collection.

(Greek Turtles, by Gary T. Anderson .
1 commentsCleisthenes
141149.jpg
002c. Gaius and Lucius Caesars65 viewsJulia, daughter of Augustus, who has had no child by Marcellus (she is only sixteen when he dies), is married to Agrippa, a soldier who has long been the emperor's most trusted supporter. They have two sons, Gaius and Lucius, born in 20 and 17 BC. The boys are adopted by the emperor. The intention now, if Augustus dies, is that Agrippa should rule until one of these grandsons is of an age to take control. But Agrippa dies in 12 BC.

Julia has had a total of five children by Agrippa (the two sons adopted by the emperor, two daughters, and another posthumous son, Agrippa Posthumus). She now has one son by Tiberius, but the child dies in infancy.

By 6 BC it is evident that Tiberius is being set aside. Julia refuses to live with him, and her eldest son Gaius (at the age of fourteen) is given a nominal high appointment as consul. Gaius and Lucius Caesar, grandsons and adopted sons of the emperor, are now clearly the family members in line for the succession. But they die young, Lucius Caesar in AD 2 and then Gaius in AD 4.

LYDIA, Magnesia ad Sipylum. Augustus. 27 BC-AD 14. Ć 19mm (4.93 g). Jugate heads of Augustus and Livia right / Confronted heads of Gaius and Lucius Caesars. RPC 2449. Fair. Rare. Ex-Cng
ecoli
MYSIA,_Kyzikos,_002_Augustus_(27_BC-14_AD),AE-16_Bare_head_right_K-Y-Z-I,Torch_within_wreath,_RPC-I-2244,_BMC-210__Q-001_1h_15-16mm_2,59ga-s.jpg
002p Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), Mysia, Kyzikos, RPC I 2244, AE-16, K-Y/Z-I, Torch, all within wreath, Rare ! 126 views002p Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), Mysia, Kyzikos, RPC I 2244, AE-16, K-Y/Z-I, Torch, all within wreath, Rare !
avers:- No legend, bare head right, border of dots.
revers:- K-Y Z-I in two lines to left and right of torch, all within wreath of corn-ears.
exe: K-Y/Z-I//--, diameter: 15-16mm, weight: 2,59g, axis: 1h,
mint: Mysia, Kyzikos, 002 Augustus, date: 63 B.C.-14 A.D., ref: RPC I 2244, SNG Tübingen 2277, BMC 210, SNG France 621, SNG von Aulock 7368,
Q-001
quadrans
Byzag.jpg
003 - John I Tzimisces (969-976 AD), Millaresion - Sear 179241 viewsObv: +IhSyS XRISTyS NICA*, Cross crosslet on globus above two steps. at centre, circular medallion containing facing bust of John with short beard, wearing crown and loros and dividing the inscription I/W - A/N. Triple border ornamented with eight equally spaced glbules.
Rev: IWANN / EN XW AVTO / CRAT´EVESb´/ bASILEVS / RWMAIW´in five lines, -:- above and beneath, triple bordet as on obv.
1 commentspierre_p77
004.jpg
003 TIBERIUS 14 viewsEMPEROR:Tiberius
DENOMINATION: Denarius
OBVERSE: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right
REVERSE: PONTIF MAXIM, Livia, as Pax, holding long sceptre & olive branch, seated right on throne with ornate legs, single line below
DATE: Ad 14-37
MINT: Lugdunum
WEIGHT: 3.59 g
RIC: I.30 (C)
Barnaba6
4.jpg
004 Tiberius. AR denarius 3.7gm65 viewsobv: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS laur. head r.
rev: PONTIF MAXIM female fig. seated r. holding long vertical scepter.
l. branches, chair legs are ornamental with line below
4 commentshill132
coin345.JPG
004. Caligula 41 viewsGAIUS (CALIGULA). 37-41 AD.

Whatever damage Tiberius's later years had done to the carefully crafted political edifice created by Augustus, Gaius multiplied it a hundredfold. When he came to power in A.D. 37 Gaius had no administrative experience beyond his honorary quaestorship, and had spent an unhappy early life far from the public eye. He appears, once in power, to have realized the boundless scope of his authority and acted accordingly. His reign highlighted an inherent weakness in the Augustan Principate, raw monarchy in which only the self-discipline of the incumbent acted as a restraint on his behavior.

Ć As (28mm, 10.19 gm). Rome mint. Struck 37-38 AD. Bare head left / Vesta seated left, holding patera and sceptre. RIC I 38; Cohen 27. Near VF, dark brown surfaces. Ex-CNG
ecoli
coin319.JPG
005. Claudius28 viewsClaudius AE Sestertius, RIC 112, Cohen 38, BMC 185
TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P Laureate head right / EX S C - P P - OB CIVES - SERVATOS in four lines within oak wreath.
ecoli
5514.jpg
005d. Agrippina II89 viewsLYDIA, Hypaepa. Agrippina Jr., mother of Nero. Augusta, 50-59 AD. Ć 14mm (2.33 gm). Draped bust of Agrippina right / Cult statue of Artemis. RPC I 2541; SNG Copenhagen -.

Julia Vipsania Agrippina Minor or Agrippina Minor (Latin for "the younger") (November 7, AD 15 – March 59), often called "Agrippinilla" to distinguish her from her mother, was the daughter of Germanicus and Agrippina Major. She was sister of Caligula, granddaughter and great-niece to Tiberius, niece and wife of Claudius, and the mother of Nero. She was born at Oppidum Ubiorum on the Rhine, afterwards named in her honour Colonia Agrippinae (modern Cologne, Germany).

Agrippina was first married to (1st century AD) Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus. From this marriage she gave birth to Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, who would become Roman Emperor Nero. Her husband died in January, 40. While still married, Agrippina participated openly in her brother Caligula's decadent court, where, according to some sources, at his instigation she prostituted herself in a palace. While it was generally agreed that Agrippinilla, as well as her sisters, had ongoing sexual relationships with their brother Caligula, incest was an oft-used criminal accusation against the aristocracy, because it was impossible to refute successfully. As Agrippina and her sister became more problematic for their brother, Caligula sent them into exile for a time, where it is said she was forced to dive for sponges to make a living. In January, 41, Agrippina had a second marriage to the affluent Gaius Sallustius Crispus Passienus. He died between 44 and 47, leaving his estate to Agrippina.

As a widow, Agrippina was courted by the freedman Pallas as a possible marriage match to her own uncle, Emperor Claudius, and became his favourite councillor, even granted the honor of being called Augusta (a title which no other queen had ever received). They were married on New Year's Day of 49, after the death of Claudius's first wife Messalina. Agrippina then proceeded to persuade Claudius to adopt her son, thereby placing Nero in the line of succession to the Imperial throne over Claudius's own son, Brittanicus. A true Imperial politician, Agrippina did not reject murder as a way to win her battles. Many ancient sources credited her with poisoning Claudius in 54 with a plate of poisened mushrooms, hence enabling Nero to quickly take the throne as emperor.

For some time, Agrippina influenced Nero as he was relatively ill-equipped to rule on his own. But Nero eventually felt that she was taking on too much power relative to her position as a woman of Rome. He deprived her of her honours and exiled her from the palace, but that was not enough. Three times Nero tried to poison Agrippina, but she had been raised in the Imperial family and was accustomed to taking antidotes. Nero had a machine built and attached to the roof of her bedroom. The machine was designed to make the ceiling collapse — the plot failed with the machine. According to the historians Tacitus and Suetonius, Nero then plotted her death by sending for her in a boat constructed to collapse, intending to drown Agrippina. However, only some of the crew were in on the plot; their efforts were hampered by the rest of the crew trying to save the ship. As the ship sank, one of her handmaidens thought to save herself by crying that she was Agrippina, thinking they would take special care of her. Instead the maid was instantly beaten to death with oars and chains. The real Agrippina realised what was happening and in the confusion managed to swim away where a passing fisherman picked her up. Terrified that his cover had been blown, Nero instantly sent men to charge her with treason and summarily execute her. Legend states that when the Emperor's soldiers came to kill her, Agrippina pulled back her clothes and ordered them to stab her in the belly that had housed such a monstrous son.

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006 GALBA29 viewsEMPEROR: Galba
DENOMINATION: Denarius
OBVERSE: IMP SER GALBA AVG, bare head right
REVERSE: SPQR OB CS, legend in three lines within oak wreath
DATE: AD July 68 - January 69
MINT: Roma
WEIGHT: 3.45 g
RIC: I.167 (R)
Barnaba6
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006a. Claudia16 viewsEGYPT, Alexandria. Nero, with Claudia. AD 54-68. BI Tetradrachm (22mm, 10.74 g, 12h). Dated RY 3 (AD 56/57). Laureate head of Nero right / Draped bust of Claudia Octavia right; L Γ (date) below chin. Köln 122-4; Dattari (Savio) 190; K&G 14.7; RPC I 5202; Emmett 127.3. Near VF. Ex - CNG

Furthermore, the carefully contrived marriage between Octavia and Nero was a disaster on a personal level. Nero soon embarked on a serious relationship with a freedman named Acte, and more importantly developed an active dislike for his wife. "Quickly feeling aversion to intimacy with Octavia, he replied to his friends who were finding fault with him that she ought to be satisfied with the outward trappings of a wife." This antipthy was not likely to produce offspring who would unite the Julian and Claudian lines. By 58 Nero was becoming involved with a freeborn mistress, Poppaea, whom he would want to make his empress in exchange for Octavia. But the legitimacy of his principate derived from his relationship with his predecessor, and he was not so secure that he could do without the connection with Claudius provided through his mother and his wife. In 59 he was able to arrange for Agrippina's death, but it was not until 62 that he felt free to divorce Octavia and marry Poppaea. The initial grounds for putting Octavia aside was the charge that she was barren because she had had no children. But a more aggressive attack was needed when opposition arose from those who still challenged Nero's prncipate and remained loyal to Octavia as the last representative of her family. With the connivance of Poppaea, charges of adultery were added, Octavia was banished to Campania and then to the island of Pandataria off the coast, and finally killed. Her severed head was sent to Rome.
2 commentsecoli
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007. Galba (68 AD - 69 AD)154 viewsGALBA. 68-69 AD.

Galba had displayed talent and ambition during his lengthy career. He enjoyed distinguished ancestry, moved easily among the Julio-Claudian emperors (with the exception of Nero towards the end of his principate), and had been awarded the highest military and religious honors of ancient Rome. His qualifications for the principate cannot be questioned. Even so, history has been unkind to him. Tacitus characterized Galba as "weak and old," a man "equal to the imperial office, if he had never held it." To be sure, Galba's greatest mistake lay in his general handling of the military. His treatment of the army in Upper Germany was heedless, his policy towards the praetorians short sighted. Given the climate in 68-69, Galba was unrealistic in expecting disciplina without paying the promised rewards.

AR Denarius (18mm, 2.97 gm). Rome mint. Bare head right / Legend in three lines within oak wreath. RIC I 167; RSC 287. Ex-CNG
2 commentsecoli73
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008. Otho 69 AD316 viewsOTHO. 69 AD.

Otho remains an enigma - part profligate Neronian wastrel and part conscientious military commander willing to give his life for the good of the state. Our sources are at a loss to explain the paradox. Neither Otho's person nor his bearing suggested such great courage. He is said to have been of moderate height, splay-footed and bandy-legged, but almost feminine in his care of his person. He had the hair of his body plucked out, and because of the thinness of his locks wore a wig so carefully fashioned and fitted to his head, that no one suspected it. Moreover, they say that he used to shave every day and smear his face with moist bread, beginning the practice with the appearance of the first down, so as never to have a beard; also that he used to celebrate the rites of Isis publicly in the linen garment prescribed by the cult.

AR Denarius (18mm, 3.20 gm). Bare head left / Securitas standing left, holding wreath and sceptre. RIC I 12; RSC 19. Fine. Ex-CNG
2 commentsecoli73
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0083 - Republic, Didrachm (Quadrigatus)53 viewsRome or other italian mint, c 215-211 BC
Laureate janiform head of Dioscuri
ROMA in relief in linear frame at exergue, Jupiter, holding thunderbolt in right hand and scepter in left, in fast quadriga driven right by Victory.
6,69 gr - 20-21 mm
Ref : RCV #33, RSC # 24
3 commentsPotator II
coin214.JPG
010. Vespasian 69 AD - 79 AD36 viewsVespasian

The character of this emperor showed very little, if anything, of the pagan tyrant. Though himself a man of no literary culture, he became the protector of his prisoner of war, the Jewish historian Josephus, a worshipper of the One God, and even permitted him the use of his own family name (Flavius). While this generosity may have been in some degree prompted by Josephus's shrewd prophecy of Vespasian's elevation to the purple, there are other instances of his disposition to reward merit in those with whom he was by no means personally sympathetic. Vespasian has the distinction of being the first Roman Emperor to transmit the purple to his own son; he is also noteworthy in Roman imperial history as having very nearly completed his seventieth year and died a natural death: being in feeble health, he had withdrawn to benefit by the purer air of his native Reate, in the "dewy fields" (rosei campi) of the Sabine country. By his wife, Flavia Domitilla, he left two sons, Titus and Domitian, and a daughter, Domitilla, through whom the name of Vespasian's empress was passed on to a granddaughter who is revered as a confessor of the Faith.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century. In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!"

Denarius. IMP CAES VESP AVG P M COS IIII, laureate head right / VES-TA to either side of Vesta standing left, holding simpulum & scepter. RSC 574
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011 - Constantine I (307-337 AD), AE 3 - RIC 34172 viewsObv: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, helmeted, cuirassed bust right.
Rev: BEATA TRAN-QVILLITAS, altar inscribed VO-TIS XX, surmounted by globe decorated with two diagonal lines, dot in upper and lower field and a horizontal row of dots. Three stars above
Minted in Trier (STR. in exe) 322 AD
4 commentspierre_p77
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0110 - Republic, Quartuncia66 viewsRome mint, circa 217-215 BC
Head of Roma right, wearing a crested helmet
Prow of galey right, ROMA above
3,41 gr - 15 mm
Ref :RCV # 624
According to RCV, "the quartuncia is the smallest denomination of the Roman bronze coinage, and has been briefly produced during the semilibral weight standard. With the further decline in the weight of the bronze coinage after 215 BC, issue of the experimental quartuncia ceased."
4 commentsPotator II
014_Nero_(54-68_A_D_),_AE22,_Thessalonika,_Macedon,_RPC_I__1603,_Moushmov_Online_6707b,_Q-001,_7h,_23mm,_6,68g-s~0.jpg
014p Nero (54-68 A.D.), Macedonia, Thessalonica, RPC-1603, AE-23, ΘEΣΣA/ΛONIKE/ΩN, in oak wreath, #163 views014p Nero (54-68 A.D.), Macedonia, Thessalonica, RPC-1603, AE-23, ΘEΣΣA/ΛONIKE/ΩN, in oak wreath, #1
avers: NEΡΩN ΣEBAΣTOΣ KAIΣAΡ, Bare head of Nero left.
reverse: ΘEΣΣA/ΛONIKE/ΩN in three lines, surrounded by an oak wreath, eagle with wings spread above.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 23,0mm, weight: 6,68g, axis: 7h,
mint: Macedonia, Thessalonica, date: 54-68 A.D., ref: RPC-1603, Moushmov Online 6707b,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
0150.jpg
0150 - Nummus Crispus 323-4 AC20 viewsObv/ CRISPVS NOBIL C, laureate and cuirassed bust of C. l., spear on r. shoulder and shield on r.h.
Rev/ BEATA TRA-NQLITAS, globe set on altar inscribed VOT/IS/XX in three lines; above, three stars; PLON in ex.

AE, 19.8 mm, 2.50 g
Mint: Londinium.
RIC VII/278 [R3]
ex-Numismatica Tintinna, auction e11, lot 2122
dafnis
Galba_AR-Den_IMP-SER-GALBA-AVG_SPQR-OB-CS_RIC-167_p-241_C-287_Rome_68-69-AD_Rare_Q-001_axis-5h_17,5-18,5mm_3,33g-s.jpg
017 Galba (68-69 A.D.), RIC I 0167, Rome, AR-Denarius, SPQR/OB/CS in wreath,141 views017 Galba (68-69 A.D.), RIC I 0167, Rome, AR-Denarius, SPQR/OB/CS in wreath,
avers: IMP-SER-GALBA-AVG, bare head right.
revers: No legends, SPQR/OB/CS legend in three lines within oak wreath.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5-18,5mm, weight: 3,33g, axes: 5h,
mint: Rome, date: 68-69 A.D., ref: RIC-167, p-241, C-287,
Q-001
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0176 - Drachm Alexander III the Great 328-23 BC29 viewsObv/ Head of Heracles r. wearing lion-skin headdress.
Rev/ Zeus Aëtophoros seated on backless throne l., holding eagle on outstretched r.h. and scepter in l.h.; before, Demeter with two torches; behind, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ; under throne, monogram with circle, line and triangle.

Ag, 17.5 mm, 4.32 g
Mint: Lampsacus.
Price 1356
ex-Gitbud & Naumann, auction Pecunem 12, lot 119
dafnis
Augustus_RIC_359.jpg
02 Augustus RIC I 035960 viewsAugustus 27 B.C.-14 A.D. Moneyer L. Vinicius. Rome Mint. 16 B.C. (3.72g, 18.8m, 5h). Obv: Anepigraphic, bare head right. Rev: L Vinicivs in ex., Triumphal arch inscribed SPQR IMP CAE in two lines sur. by Quadriga bearing Augustus, r. holding laurel-branch, l. scepter; smaller arch on sides w archer on l. and slinger on r. RIC I 359 (R2). RSC 544.

This coin depicts Augustus’ triple arch, perhaps the first in Rome. Beginning as a double arch to commemorate his victory at Actium, the third arch was probably added to commemorate the return of the lost standards from Parthia. For a scarce type, this example is well centered and has good details on the reverse including complete legends.
3 commentsLucas H
Peter_(1038-1041,_1044-1046_AD)_U-002_C1-008_H-006_Q-001_h_17,5mm_g-s.jpg
02.2.1. Orseolo Péter, King of Hungary, (1038-1041,1044-1046 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 02.2.1., H-006, U-002, CNH I.-008, #1127 views02.2.1. Orseolo Péter, King of Hungary, (1038-1041,1044-1046 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 02.2.1., H-006, U-002, CNH I.-008, #1
avers: + PETRVS REX, Cross in the circle of dots with wedges in the angles, border of dots.
reverse: + PANNONIA, Cross in the circle with wedges in the angles, line border.
exergue:-/-//--, diameter: 16,5-17,0 mm, weight: 0,50g, axis: 9h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-006, Unger-002, CNH I.-008,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 02.2.1.,
Q-001
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Peter_(1038-1041,_1044-1046_AD)_U-002_C1-008_H-006_Q-003_8h_17,0-17,5mm_0,7g-s.jpg
02.2.2. Orseolo Péter, King of Hungary, (1038-1041,1044-1046 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 02.2.2., H-006, U-002, CNH I.-008, #1160 views02.2.2. Orseolo Péter, King of Hungary, (1038-1041,1044-1046 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 02.2.2., H-006, U-002, CNH I.-008, #1
avers: + PETRVS REX, Cross in the circle of dots with wedges in the angles, the border of dots.
reverse: + PANNONIA, Cross in the circle with wedges in the angles, line border.
exergue:-/-//--, diameter: 17,0-17,5 mm, weight: 0,7g, axis: 8h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-006, Unger-002, CNH I.-008,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 02.2.2.,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Peter_(1038-1041,_1044-1046_AD)_U-002_C1-008_H-006_Q-004_2h_17,5mm_0,50g-s.jpg
02.2.2. Orseolo Péter, King of Hungary, (1038-1041,1044-1046 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 02.2.2., H-006, U-002, CNH I.-008, #2127 views02.2.2. Orseolo Péter, King of Hungary, (1038-1041,1044-1046 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 02.2.2., H-006, U-002, CNH I.-008, #2
avers: + PETRVS REX, Cross in the circle of dots with wedges in the angles, the border of dots.
reverse: + PANNONIA, Cross in the circle with wedges in the angles, line border.
exergue:-/-//--, diameter: 17,0-17,5 mm, weight: 0,5g, axis: 2h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-006, Unger-002, CNH I.-008,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 02.2.2.,
Q-002
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Peter_(1038-1041,_1044-1046_AD),_CÁC_I__2_2_2_,_H-006,_C1-008,_U-002,_Q-001,_4h,_16,5-17,0mm,_0,51g-s.jpg
02.2.2. Orseolo Péter, King of Hungary, (1038-1041,1044-1046 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 02.2v.2., H-006, U-002, CNH I.-008, #165 views02.2.2. Orseolo Péter, King of Hungary, (1038-1041,1044-1046 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 02.2v.2., H-006, U-002, CNH I.-008, #1
avers: + PETRV•S REX, Cross in the circle of dots with wedges in the angles, the border of dots. (dot (•) in the legend, variation !)
reverse: + PANNONIA, Cross in the circle with wedges in the angles, line border.
exergue:-/-//--, diameter: 16,5-17,0 mm, weight: 0,51g, axis: 4h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-006, Unger-002, CNH I.-008,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 02.2v.2.,(dot (•) in the avers legend, variation !)
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
0206_RICII_100.jpg
0206 - Denarius Trajan 103-11 AC19 viewsObv/ IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PM TR P, laureate and draped bust of T. r.
Rev/ COS V PP SPQR OPTIMO PRINC, Danubius l. reclined on rocks; above, floating cape; arm resting on urn and hand on bow of boat; DANUVIVS in ex.

Ag, 20.5 mm, 3.60 g
Mint: Roma.
RIC II/100 [S] – BMCRE III/395
ex-Naville Numismatics, auction 16, lot 502.
1 commentsdafnis
Andras_II_,_(1205-1235_AD),_AR-Denar,_H-215,_C1-179,_U-165,_Q-001,_2h,_17mm,_0,84g-s.jpg
021. H-248 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-215, CNH I.-179, U-165, AR-Denarius, #0174 views021. H-248 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-215, CNH I.-179, U-165, AR-Denarius, #01
avers: Trellised rectangle between two columns, patriarchal cross between two circles, amongst six dots between the columns, the border of dots.
reverse: Patriarchal cross, between two circles, amongst six dots, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17,0 mm, weight: 0,84 g, axis: 2h,
mint: Esztergom , date: A.D., ref: Huszár-215, CNH I.-179, Unger-165,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
Andras_II_,_(1205-1235_AD),_AR-Obulus,_H-216,_C1-180,_U-166,_Q-001,_1h,_14mm,_0,37g-s.jpg
021. H-248 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-216, CNH I.-180, U-166, AR-Obulus, #0167 views021. H-248 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-216, CNH I.-180, U-166, AR-Obulus, #01
avers: Trellised rectangle between two columns, patriarchal cross between two circles, amongst six dots between the columns, the border of dots.
reverse: Patriarchal cross, amongst six dots, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 14,0 mm, weight: 0,37 g, axis: 1h,
mint: Esztergom , date: A.D., ref: Huszár-216, CNH I.-180, Unger-166,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
András_II_,_(1205-1235_A_D_),_H-223,_CNH_I_-187,_U-199,_AR-Obulus,_Q-001,_0h,_13mm,_0,27g-s.jpg
021. H-248 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-223, CNH I.-187, U-199, AR-Obulus, Very Rare! #0187 views021. H-248 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-223, CNH I.-187, U-199, AR-Obulus, Very Rare! #01
avers: Crowned bust facing between two columns on wedges with circles on the top, rosette/star between two crescents above, the border of dots.
reverse: Castle with three towers, on a triangle, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 13,0 mm, weight: 0,27 g, axis: 0h,
mint: Esztergom , date: A.D., ref: Huszár-223, CNH I.-187, Unger-199, Very Rare!
Q-001
quadrans
Andras-II_(1205-1235_AD)_U-158_C1-210_H-248_Q-001_0h_10-10,5mm_0,30g-s.jpg
021. H-248 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-248, CNH I.-210, U-158, AR-Obulus, #01109 views021. H-248 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-248, CNH I.-210, U-158, AR-Obulus, #01
avers: Crown, cross between two wings below, the border of dots.
reverse: Cross amongst four lilies in a pattern of eight crescents, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 10,0-10,5 mm, weight: 0,30 g, axis: 0h,
mint: Esztergom , date: A.D., ref: Huszár-248, CNH I.-210, Unger-158,
Q-001
quadrans
Andras-II_(1205-1235_AD)_U-158_C1-210_H-248_Q-002_1h_11,3mm_0,34g-s.jpg
021. H-248 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-248, CNH I.-210, U-158, AR-Obulus, #0293 views021. H-248 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-248, CNH I.-210, U-158, AR-Obulus, #02
avers: Crown, cross between two wings below, the border of dots.
reverse: Cross amongst four lilies in a pattern of eight crescents, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 11,3 mm, weight: 0,34g, axis: 1h,
mint: Esztergom , date: A.D., ref: Huszár-248, CNH I.-210, Unger-158,
Q-002
quadrans
Andras-II_U-191_C1-213_H-251_Q-001_8h_11,2mm_0,38g-s.jpg
021. H-251 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-251, CNH I.-213, U-191, AR-Obulus, #01230 views021. H-251 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-251, CNH I.-213, U-191, AR-Obulus, #01
avers: Patriarchal cross, leopard to right, star between them at down, the border of dots.
reverse: Winged griffin advancing left, star over the head, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 11,2 mm, weight: 0,38 g, axis: 8h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-251, CNH I.-213, Unger-191,
Q-001
quadrans
Andras-II__U-161_C1-227_H-267_Q-001_10,5mm_0,36ga-s.jpg
021. H-267 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-267, CNH I.-227, U-161, AR-Obulus, #0178 views021. H-267 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-267, CNH I.-227, U-161, AR-Obulus, #01
avers: Crescent between two heads with their back to each other, tower between two dots above, Hebrew letter (???) below; line border.
reverse: Leopard advancing left, the tree above, rosette to left, Hebrew letter (teth) to right, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 10,5 mm, weight: 0,36 g, axis: -h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-267, CNH I.-227, Unger-161,
Q-001
quadrans
II_Andras_U-161_C1-227_H-267_Q-002_10,5mm_0,24ga-s.jpg
021. H-267 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-267, CNH I.-227, U-161, AR-Obulus, #0289 views021. H-267 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-267, CNH I.-227, U-161, AR-Obulus, #02
avers: Crescent between two heads with their back to each other, tower between two dots above, Hebrew letter (???) below; line border.
reverse: Leopard advancing left, the tree above, rosette to left, Hebrew letter (teth) to right, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 10,5 mm, weight: 0,24 g, axis: -h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-267, CNH I.-227, Unger-161,
Q-002
quadrans
II_Andras_U-161_C1-227_H-267_Q-003_10,5mm_0,29ga-s.jpg
021. H-267 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-267, CNH I.-227, U-161, AR-Obulus, #0369 views021. H-267 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-267, CNH I.-227, U-161, AR-Obulus, #03
avers: Crescent between two heads with their back to each other, tower between two dots above, Hebrew letter (???) below; line border.
reverse: Leopard advancing left, the tree above, rosette to left, Hebrew letter (teth) to right, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 10,5 mm, weight: 0,29 g, axis: -h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-267, CNH I.-227, Unger-161,
Q-003
quadrans
II_Andras_U-163_C1-300_H-270_Q-001_10,2mm_0,31ga-s.jpg
021. H-270 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-270, CNH I.-300, U-163, AR-Obulus, #0181 views021. H-270 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-270, CNH I.-300, U-163, AR-Obulus, #01
avers: Crowned head facing, between two swords, line border.
reverse: Star between two lions standing with their back to each other, looking backwards, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 10,2 mm, weight: 0,31g, axis: -h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-270, CNH I.-300, Unger-163,
Q-001
quadrans
Andras_II__(1205-1235_AD),_H-275,_C1-305,_U-144,_Q-001,_7h,_14-14,5mm,_0,49g-s.jpg
021. H-276 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-275, CNH I.-305, U-144, AR-Denarius, #0165 views021. H-276 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-275, CNH I.-305, U-144, AR-Denarius, #01
avers: Crowned bust facing, between two towers, star within crescent above, line border.
reverse: Bastion between two towers on an arch of dots, branch between two circles above, leaf below, the border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 14,0-14,5 mm, weight: 0,49 g, axis: 7h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-275, CNH I.-305, Unger-144,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Andras-II_(1205-1235_AD)_U-145_C1-306_H-276_Q-001_4h_12-12,5mm_0,28ga-s.jpg
021. H-276 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-276, CNH I.-306, U-145, AR-Obulus, #0169 views021. H-276 András II., (Andreas II.), King of Hungary, (1205-1235 A.D.), H-276, CNH I.-306, U-145, AR-Obulus, #01
avers: Crowned bust facing, between two towers, star within crescent above, border of dots.
reverse: Bastion between two towers on an arch of dots, branch between two circles above, leaf below, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 12-12,5 mm, weight: 0,28 g, axis: 4h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-276, CNH I.-306, Unger-145,
Q-001
quadrans
0215_Pr2562.jpg
0215 - Drachm Alexander III the Great 328-23 BC17 viewsObv/ Head of Heracles r. wearing lion-skin headdress.
Rev/ Zeus Aëtophoros seated on backless throne l., holding eagle on outstretched r.h. and scepter in l.h.; behind, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ, club on field r.; under throne, monogram with circle, lines and dot.

Ag, 15.9 mm, 4.29 g
Mint: Sardes.
Price 2562
ex-vAuctions (Triskeles), auction 320, lot 75
dafnis
0218_RICVII_292.jpg
0218 - Nummus Constantine II c.324 AC16 viewsObv/ CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate bust of C. II r.
Rev/ Laurel wreath with VOT X inscribed on two lines inside; around, CAESARVM NOSTRORVM; in ex., PLON and symbol.

AE, 20.1 mm, 4.18 g
Mint: Londinium.
RIC VII/292 [C3] - CT 10.01.007 [CC]
ex-Roma Numismatics, auction e35, lot 1586
dafnis
Bela-IV__U-222_C1-234_H-299_1235-1270-AD_Q-001_3h_12,3mm_0,58ga-s.jpg
022. H-299 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-299, CNH I.-234, U-222, AR-Denar, #0186 views022. H-299 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-299, CNH I.-234, U-222, AR-Denar, #01
avers: Emperor facing, draped with Crown, long hair, line border.
reverse: Cross and circle within R, B-E-L-A, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 12,3 mm, weight: 0,58g, axis: 3h,
mint: , date: 1235-1270 A.D., ref: Huszár-299, CNH I.-234, Unger-222,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Bela-IV__U-226_C1-238_H-302_1235-1270-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
022. H-302 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-302, CNH I.-238, U-226, AR-Obulus, #0184 views022. H-302 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-302, CNH I.-238, U-226, AR-Obulus, #01
avers: King enthroned facing, holding sceptre and orb, a border of dots.
reverse: B Є/L A R/Є X, In three lines divided into five parts by horizontal and vertical lines, a border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: , date: 1235-1270 A.D., ref: Huszár-302, CNH I.-238, Unger-226,
Q-001
quadrans
Bela-IV,_(1235-1270_AD),_H-309,_C1-245,_U-232,_Q-001,_6h,_9-10,2mm,_0,26g-s.jpg
022. H-310 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-309, CNH I.-245, U-232, AR-Obulus, #0193 views022. H-310 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-309, CNH I.-245, U-232, AR-Obulus, #01
avers: BЄLA RЭX, Cross, line border.
reverse: Angel stabbing dragon, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 9,0-10,2 mm, weight: 0,26g, axis: 6h,
mint: , date: 1235-1270 A.D., ref: Huszár-309, CNH I.-245, Unger-232,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Bela-IV_(1235-1270_AD)_U-233_C1-244_H-310_Q-001_11h_12,2mm_0,69g-s.jpg
022. H-310 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-310, CNH I.-244, U-233, AR-Denarius, #0170 views022. H-310 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-310, CNH I.-244, U-233, AR-Denarius, #01
avers: RЄX BЄLAЄ, Hebrew letter (teth), line border.
reverse: Angel stabbing dragon, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 12,2 mm, weight: 0,69g, axis: 11h,
mint: , date: 1235-1270 A.D., ref: Huszár-310, CNH I.-244, Unger-233,
Q-001
quadrans
H-314_Béla_IV_,_King_of_Hungary,_(1235-1270_A_D_),_H-314,_CNH_I_-247,_U-236,_AR-Obulus,_Q-001,_0h,_9,4mm,_0,17g-s.jpg
022. H-314 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-314, CNH I.-247, U-236, AR-Obulus, Eagle winged, head turning right, #01146 views022. H-314 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-314, CNH I.-247, U-236, AR-Obulus, Eagle winged, head turning right, #01
avers: +RЄX BЄLA, Crowned head of King Béla IV. facing, line border.
reverse: Eagle winged, head turning right, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 9,4 mm, weight: 0,17g, axis: 0h,
mint: , date: 1235-1270 A.D., ref: Huszár-314, CNH I.-247, Unger-236,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Bela-IV_(1235-1270_AD)_AR-Denar_U-253_C1-251_H-318_Q-001_h_mm_gx-s.jpg
022. H-318 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-318, CNH I.-251, U-253, AR-Denar, #01 66 views022. H-318 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-318, CNH I.-251, U-253, AR-Denar, #01
avers: +MONT GARIЄ, the bust of Christ facing, with nimbus, a border of dots.
reverse: Patriarchal cross amongst two stars, two dots, and two facing heads, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 11,5mm, weight: 0,38g, axis: 10h,
mint: , date: 1235-1270 A.D., ref: Huszár-318, CNH I.-251, Unger-253,
Q-001
quadrans
Bela-IV_(1235-1270_AD)_AR-Denar_U-253_C1-251_H-318_Q-002_6,5h_12,5mm_0,45g-s.jpg
022. H-318 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-318, CNH I.-251, U-253, AR-Denar, #02114 views022. H-318 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-318, CNH I.-251, U-253, AR-Denar, #02
avers: +MONT GARIЄ, the bust of Christ facing, with nimbus, a border of dots.
reverse: Patriarchal cross amongst two stars, two dots, and two facing heads, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 12,5mm, weight: 0,45g, axis: 6,5h,
mint: , date: 1235-1270 A.D., ref: Huszár-318, CNH I.-251, Unger-253,
Q-002
1 commentsquadrans
Bela-IV_(1235-1270_AD)_AR-Denar_U-242_C1-262_H-330_Q-001_5h_10mm_0,28ga-s.jpg
022. H-330 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-330, CNH I.-262, U-242, AR-Obulus, #0171 views022. H-330 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-330, CNH I.-262, U-242, AR-Obulus, #01
avers: G Є, Crowned bust left, holding a cross, pellet both side of the crown, a border of dots.
reverse: Falcon swooping on a rabbit, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 10mm, weight: 0,28g, axis: 5h,
mint: , date: 1235-1270 A.D., ref: Huszár-330, CNH I.-262, Unger-242,
Q-001
quadrans
Bela_IV__(1235-1270_AD),_H-330,_C1-262,_U-242,_AR-Obulus,_Q-001,_6h,_9,5mm,_0,16g-s.jpg
022. H-330 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-330, CNH I.-262, U-242, AR-Obulus, #0258 views022. H-330 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-330, CNH I.-262, U-242, AR-Obulus, #02
avers: G Є, Crowned bust left, holding a cross, pellet both side of the crown, a border of dots.
reverse: Falcon swooping on a rabbit, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 9,5mm, weight: 0,16g, axis: 6h,
mint: , date: 1235-1270 A.D., ref: Huszár-330, CNH I.-262, Unger-242,
Q-002
1 commentsquadrans
Bela-IV_(1235-1270_AD)_U-246_C1-344_H-336_Q-001_9h_11mm_0,34g-s.jpg
022. H-336 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-336, CNH I.-344, U-246, AR-Denarius, #01146 views022. H-336 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-336, CNH I.-344, U-246, AR-Denarius, #01
avers: The Patriarchal cross between two towers; crowned head facing above, line border.
reverse: Crowned, winged lion standing left, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 11mm, weight: 0,34g, axis: 9h,
mint: , date: 1235-1270 A.D., ref: Huszár-336, CNH I.-344, Unger-246, ,
Q-001
quadrans
Bela-IV_(1235-1270_AD)_U-247_C1-345_H-337_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
022. H-337 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-337, CNH I.-345, U-247, AR-Obulus, #0182 views022. H-337 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-337, CNH I.-345, U-247, AR-Obulus, #01
avers: The Patriarchal cross between two towers; crowned head facing above, line border.
reverse: Crowned, winged lion standing left, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: , date: 1235-1270 A.D., ref: Huszár-337, CNH I.-345, Unger-247,
Q-001
quadrans
Béla_IV__(1235-1270_AD),_AR-Obulus,_H-417,_C1-367,_U-252,_RR,_Q-001,_7h,_9-9,3mm,_0,18g-s.jpg
022. H-417 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-417, CNH I.-367, U-252, AR-Obulus, Rare! #0179 views022. H-417 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-417, CNH I.-367, U-252, AR-Obulus, Rare! #01
avers: Crowned bust facing, holding orb and scepter with lily, circle on left, Line border.
reverse: Agnus Dei advancing left, with a cross with a flag, line border.
exergue/mintmark: -/-//--, diameter: 9,0-9,3mm, weight: 0,18g, axis: 7h,
mint: , date: 1235-1270 A.D., ref: Huszár-417, CNH I.-367, Unger-252, Rare!
Q-001
quadrans
0225_CAST_EnrII_Cy1313.jpg
0225 - 1 real Enrique II 1369-79 AC6 viewsObv/ Crowned monogram, around in two lines DOMINVS : MICHI : AIDVTOR : EDEGO : DIS + / PICIAM : INIMICOS : MEOS
Rev/ Castles and lions divided by cross, around roses and S below; around ENRICVS : DEI : GRACIA : REX : CASTEL +

Ag, 26.9 mm, 3.46 g
Mint: Sevilla
AB406 - Cy 98/1247 - Cy/1313
ex-Cayón, speed auction 55, lot 9131
dafnis
V_Istvan_((1245)1270-1272_A_D_)_U-262_C1-290_H-350_Q-001_3h_11mm_0,34g-s.jpg
024. H-350 István V., (Stephen V.), King of Hungary, ((1245)1270-1272 A.D.), H-350, CNH I.-290, U-262, AR-Denarius, #01156 views024. H-350 István V., (Stephen V.), King of Hungary, ((1245)1270-1272 A.D.), H-350, CNH I.-290, U-262, AR-Denarius, #01
avers: Crowned bust facing, holding Lily, the border of dots.
reverse: +R•ЄX•STЄ•P•AN•VS, Lily between two branches, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 11,0mm, weight: 0,34g, axis: 3h,
mint: , date: A.D., ref: Huszár-350, CNH I.-290, Unger-262,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
H-382_László_IV_,_(Ladislaus_IV_),_King_of_Hungary,_(1272-1290_A_D_),_H-382,_CNH_I_-328,_U-290,_AR-Denarius,_Q-001,_10h,_12mm,_0,42g-s.jpg
025. H-382 László IV., (Ladislaus IV.), King of Hungary, (1272-1290 A.D.), H-382, CNH I.-328, U-290, AR-Denarius, Castle with two towers, B-C, #01165 views025. H-382 László IV., (Ladislaus IV.), King of Hungary, (1272-1290 A.D.), H-382, CNH I.-328, U-290, AR-Denarius, Castle with two towers, B-C, #01
avers: Emperor facing holding cross and scepter, B in the left field, line border.
reverse: Castle with two towers cross between towers, circles above and below, B and C on both sides, line border.
exergue: B/C//--, diameter: 12,0mm, weight: 0,42g, axis: 10h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-382, CNH I.-328, Unger-290,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
025_Domitia,_Lydia,_Philadelphia,__SNG_Cop__378,__RPC_1340,_BMC-63_,Q-001_18mm,_5,61g-s.jpg
025p Domitia (82-96 A.D. Augusta), Lydia, Philadelphia, RPC 1340, AE-18, ΦIΛA/ΔЄΛ/ΦЄω/N, in wreath, 125 views025p Domitia (82-96 A.D. Augusta), Lydia, Philadelphia, RPC 1340, AE-18, ΦIΛA/ΔЄΛ/ΦЄω/N, in wreath,
avers: ΔOMITIA AYΓOYCTA, draped bust right.
reverse: ΦIΛA ΔЄΛ ΦЄω N, in four lines within laurel-wreath.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 18,0mm, weight: 5,61g, axis: h,
mint: Lydia, Philadelphia, date: 82-96 A.D., ref: SNG Cop. 378, RPC 1340, SNG von Aulock 3075, BMC 63,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Andras-III_(1290-1301_AD)_U-341_C1-_H-432_Homan-Num-Kozl_-XV_1_Q-001_8h_8-8,5mm_0,16g-s.jpg
026. H-432 András III., (Andreas III.), King of Hungary, (1290-11301 A.D.), H-432, CNH I.--, U-341, AR-Denarius, #0191 views026. H-432 András III., (Andreas III.), King of Hungary, (1290-11301 A.D.), H-432, CNH I.--, U-341, AR-Denarius, #01
avers: +RЄX ANDRЄAS, in a circle, crowned head facing in the center.
reverse: Eagle standing left, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 8-8,5mm, weight: 0,16g, axis:8h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-432, CNH I.--, Unger-341, Very Rare !!!
Q-001
quadrans
didrachm.jpg
028/3 Didrachm/Quadrigatus 37 viewsAnonymous. AR Didrachm-Quadrigatus. Uncertain or Rome Mint c. 225-214 B.C. (6.26g, 20.9m, 9h). Obv: Laureate head of Janus. Rev: Jupiter, hurling Thunderbolt and holding scepter in Quadriga right driven by Victory. Roma in relief in linear frame. Craw. 28/3, Syd. 65, RSC 24. CNG276/320.

One of Rome’s pre-denarius silver coins issued before the Second Punic War, and the introduction of the denarius circa 214-211 B.C.

I wanted to trace the evolution of Roman coinage, so I couldn’t pass this one up when I saw it. More information on the type can be found here: andrewmccabe.ancients.info.

2 commentsLucas H
Anjou_Károly-Robert_(1307-1342_AD),_Denar,_H-473,_C2-029,_U-374b,_Pohl_31-2,__M_REGIS_KARVLI,_Lily_L-I,_Lippa,_1330-AD,_Q-001,_6h,_14,5-14,8mm,_0,63g-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, H-473, CNH-2-029, U-374.b, #01128 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, H-473, CNH-2-029, U-374.b, #01
avers: ✠•M•REGIS KARVLI, King, facing, helmeted; border of dots.
reverse: Large Lily, L-I, line border.
exergue, mint mark: L/I//--, diameter: 14,5-14,8mm, weight: 0,63g, axis:6h,
mint: Hungary, Lipa, (today Lipova, Romania), date: 1330 (by Pohl) A.D., ref: Huszár-473, CNH-2-029, Unger-374.b, Pohl-31-03,
Q-001


Charles Robert of Anjou
2 commentsquadrans
Karoly-Robert_(1307-1342_AD)_Denar_U-374_C2-029_H-473_M-REGIS-KARVLI_Lily_S-E_Schemnitz_1330-AD_Q-001_9h_13,5mm_0,63g-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, H-473, CNH-2-029, U-374.e, #0197 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, H-473, CNH-2-029, U-374.e, #01
avers: ✠ M REGIS•KARVLI, King, facing, helmeted; border of dots.
reverse: Large Lily, S-E, line border.
exergue, mint mark: S/E//--, diameter: 13,5mm, weight: 0,63g, axis:9h,
mint: Hungary, Selmecbánya, (Schemnitz, today Banská Štiavnica), date: 1330 (by Pohl) A.D., ref: Huszár-473, CNH-2-029, Unger-374.e, Pohl-31-03,
Q-001
quadrans
Anjou_Károly-Robert_(1307-1342_AD),_Denar,_H-488,_C2-044,_U-385,_Pohl_45,__M_REGIS_KAROLI,_Dragon,_1335_AD,_Q-001,_2h,_11mm,_0,33g-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, H-488, CNH-2-044, U-385, P-45, #0173 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, H-488, CNH-2-044, U-385, P-45, #01
avers: ✠ M REGIS KARVLI, Inside of the line circle, a shield with Angevin fleur-de-lis and Árpádian stripes, annulets flanking and above, line border.
reverse: Winged dragon advancing right the cross above, the border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//--, diameter: 11,0mm, weight: 0,33g, axis:2h,
mint: Hungary, date: 1335 (by Pohl) A.D., ref: Huszár-488, CNH-2-044, Unger-385, Pohl-45,
Q-001


Charles Robert of Anjou
2 commentsquadrans
Karoly-Robert_(1308_AD)_Denar_U-356_C2-033_H-449_S-C_Q-001_3h_11,5mm_0,38g-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-356, #01104 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-356, #01
avers: Emperor faceing, crowned head with curly hair, facing, small circle both side of the crown, mint-mark on each side (S-C), circle of dots.
reverse: Four-part Anjou-Hungarian shield, two dots both side, line border.
exergue, mint mark: S/C//--, diameter: 11,5mm, weight: 0,38g, axis: 3h,
mint: Hungary, Zagreb (by Pohl), date: before 1308 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Unger-356, CNH-2-033, Huszár-449, Pohl-06,
Q-001
quadrans
Karoly-Robert_(1307-1342_AD)_AR-Denar_U-361_C1-381_H-451_C-R-V-X_helmet-left_1319-22-AD_Q-001_6h_11,5mm_0,34g-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-361, #0198 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-361, #01
avers: Cross, lily of each end, C-R-V-X of each corner, line border.
reverse: Helmet left, line border.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//--, diameter: 11,5mm, weight: 0,34g, axis: 6h,
mint: Hungary, , date: 1320 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Unger-361, CNH-1-381, Huszár-451, Pohl-08,
Q-001
quadrans
Karoly-Robert_Den_U-376_C2-021_H-476_REX_KAROLVS_-_Q-001_h_15mm_0,92g-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-376, Stilized Anjou lily, #0198 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-376, Stilized Anjou lily, #01
avers: REX•KAROLVS, Crowned bust facing; border of dots.
reverse: Lily; line border.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//--, diameter: 15mm, weight: 0,92g,
mint: Hungary, Pécs ? (Pohl), date: 1332 A.D., ref: Unger-376, CNH-2-021, Huszár-476, Pohl-33,
Q-001
quadrans
Karoly-Robert_(1307-1342_AD)_Denar_U-378_C2-008_H-479_lily-patriarchalcross_KAROLVS_REX_hVNGhARIE_Nicolaus-Szatmari1333-AD_Q-001_7h_15mm_1,08g-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-378a, #0182 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-378a, #01
avers: King enthroned, facing, holding sceptre and orb; Lily-Patriarchal Cross, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ KAROLVS:RЄX:hVnGARIЄ, Shield with Árpádian stripes and Anjevin lilies; line border.
exergue, mint mark: lily/Patriarchal Cross//-- were srucked by Nicolaus Szatmari (by Pohl), diameter: 15mm, weight: 1,08g, axis: 7h,
mint: Hungary, Esztergom, date: 1334 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Unger-378a, CNH-2-008, Huszár-479, Pohl-36-02,
Q-001
quadrans
Karoly-Robert_(1307-1342_AD)_AR-Denar_U-394f_C2-015_H-497_m_REGIS_hVnGARIE_Q-001_6h_14,5mm_0,48g-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-394.f, #0181 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-394.f, #01
avers: King enthroned, facing, holding sceptre and orb; border of dots.
reverse: ✠ m•RЄGIS•hVnGARIЄ, Head of ostrich holding horse-shoe on helmet, mint-mark on each side; line border.
exergue, mint mark: D/R//-- were struck by Leopoldus (Hypolit?) (by Pohl), diameter: 14,5mm, weight: 0,70g, axis: 6h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya, (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica), date: 1339-1342 A.D., ref: Unger-394.f, CNH-2-015, Huszár-497, Pohl-54-07,
Q-001
quadrans
Karoly-Robert_(1307-1342_AD)_AR-Denar_U-394n_C2-015_H-497_m-REGIS-hVnGARIE_Q-001_7h_14,5mm_0,70g-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-394.n, #0175 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-394.n, #01
avers: King enthroned, facing, holding sceptre and orb; border of dots.
reverse: ✠ m•RЄGIS•hVnGARIЄ, Head of ostrich holding horse-shoe on helmet, mint-mark on each side; line border.
exergue, mint mark: lily/lily/lily/lily//-- were struck by Martinus (by Pohl), diameter: 14,5mm, weight: 0,70g, axis: 7h,
mint: Hungary, Szomolnok, (Scmöllnitz, today Slovakia: Smolník), date: 1339-1342 A.D., ref: Unger-394.n, CNH-2-015, Huszár-497, Pohl-54-03,
Q-001
quadrans
Karoly-Robert_Obulus_U-401_C2-009_H-477_REX_KAROLVS_-_Q-001_6h_11,5mm_0,47g-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Obulus, U-377, Stilized Anjou lily, #0191 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Obulus, U-377, Stilized Anjou lily, #01
avers: REX•KAROLVS, Crowned bust facing, border of dots.
reverse: Lily, line border.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//--, diameter:11,5mm, weight:0,47g, axis:6h,
mint: Hungary, Pécs ? (Pohl), date: 1332 A.D., ref: Unger-401, CNH-2-009, Huszár-477, Pohl-34,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Karoly-Robert_(1307-1342_AD)_Denar_U-390_C2-034_H-493_x-x_1336AD_Q-001_4h_10,0mm_0,22ga-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Parvus, U-390, #0199 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Parvus, U-390, #01
avers: Emperor faceing, Crowned head with curly hair, facing, mint-mark on each side (crown on top of "A"-crown on top of "A"); line border.
reverse: Wings, six-pointed star below, line border.
exergue, mint mark: crown on top of "A"/crown on top of "A"//--, diameter: 10,0mm, weight: 0,22g, axis: 4h,
mint: Hungary, Székesfehérvár (by Pohl), date: 1336 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Unger-390, CNH-2-034, Huszár-493, Pohl-50,
Q-001
quadrans
Karoly-Robert_(1307-1342_AD)_Denar_U-390_C2-034_H-493_x-x_1336AD_Q-002_h_mm_0,20ga-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Parvus, U-390, #0295 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Parvus, U-390, #02
avers: Emperor faceing, Crowned head with curly hair, facing, mint-mark on each side (crown on top of "A"-crown on top of "A"); line border.
reverse: Wings, six-pointed star below, line border.
exergue, mint mark: crown on top of "A"/crown on top of "A"//--, diameter: mm, weight: 0,20g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Székesfehérvár (by Pohl), date: 1336 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Unger-390, CNH-2-034, Huszár-493, Pohl-50,
Q-002
quadrans
Karoly-Robert_(1307-1342_AD)_Denar_U-390_C2-034_H-493_x-x_1336AD_Q-003_h_mm_0,13ga-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Parvus, U-390, #0376 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Parvus, U-390, #03
avers: Emperor faceing, Crowned head with curly hair, facing, mint-mark on each side (crown on top of "A"-crown on top of "A"); line border.
reverse: Wings, six-pointed star below, line border.
exergue, mint mark: crown on top of "A"/crown on top of "A"//--, diameter: mm, weight: 0,13g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Székesfehérvár (by Pohl), date: 1336 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Unger-390, CNH-2-034, Huszár-493, Pohl-50,
Q-003
quadrans
Mac_Plus_Ultra__Potosi__1_R_1704_Y.jpg
03 - 04 - Virreynato FELIPE V (1700-1746) 79 views"Macuquina con PLVS VLTRA y Columnas sobre ondas de Mar"

1 Real de Plata Ley 917
20x18 mm

Anv: PHILIPPVS V D G HISPANIARVM REX (Felipe V por la gracia de Dios rey de las Espańas) la leyenda, al tratarse de una macuquina, no es visible, alrededor de la cruz de Jerusalén con castillos y leones, con I (valor) encima, P (ceca) en campo izq., Y (Ensayador) en campo der. y 704 (fecha) debajo.
Rev: POTOSI EL PERV 1704 La leyenda, al tratarse de una macuquina, no es visible, alrededor de las 2 columnas y entre ellas en 3 líneas valor I entre P (marca de la ceca) e Y (ensayador), 2Ş línea PLVS VLTRA, 3Ş línea 704 entre Y (ensayador) y P (ceca).

Acuńada: 1704
Ensayador: Y - Diego de Ybarbouro
Ceca: Potosí - Hoy ubicada en Bolivia

Referencias: Maravedis.net #B-042-4
mdelvalle
Mac_Plus_Ultra__Potosi__2_R_1745.jpg
03 - 06 - Virreynato FELIPE V (1700-1746) 87 views"Macuquina con PLVS VLTRA y Columnas sobre ondas de Mar"

2 Reales de Plata Ley 917
22x25 mm

Anv: PHILIPPVS V D G HISPANIARVM REX (Felipe V por la gracia de Dios rey de las Espańas) la leyenda, al tratarse de una macuquina, no es visible, alrededor de la cruz de Jerusalén con castillos y leones, con 2 (valor) encima, P (ceca) en campo izq., Q (Ensayador) en campo der. y 745 (fecha) debajo.
Rev: POTOSI AŃO 1745 EL PERV La leyenda, al tratarse de una macuquina, no es visible, alrededor de las 2 columnas y entre ellas en 3 líneas valor 2 entre P (marca de la ceca) e Q (ensayador), 2Ş línea PLVS VLTRA, 3Ş línea 745 entre Q (ensayador) y P (ceca).

Acuńada: 1745
Ensayador: Q - Luis de Quintanilla
Ceca: Potosí - Hoy ubicada en Bolivia

Referencias: Krause SCWC KM#29a Pag.112 - Maravedis.net #B-055-52
mdelvalle
03_Tiberius,_RIC_I_30.jpg
03 02 Tiberius RIC 30149 viewsTiberius. 14-37 A.D. AR Denarius. Lugdunum (Lyon) Mint. 3.78 g., 19 mm. Obv: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right. Rev: PONTIF MAXIM, Livia as Pax, seated right, holding scepter and olive branch. Feet on footstool. Ornate chair legs. One line below throne. RIC I 30, RSC 16a.

The well known "tribute penny." When brought a coin as requested, Jesus asked, "Whose is this image and superscription?" When told it was Caesar, He said, ''Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's and unto God the things that are God's" (Matthew 22:20-21). Since Tiberius was Caesar at the time, this denarius type is attributed by scholars as the "penny" referred to in the Bible.
8 commentsLucas H
IMG_2368.JPG
03 Constantius II104 viewsConstantius II, 22 May 337 - 3 November 361 A.D.
Bronze AE 2, Antioch 24 mm 5.65g
obverse D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right;
reverse FEL TEMP RE-PARATIO, Gamma in left, soldier spearing Horseman,hair in braids, bearded, reaching back towards soldier,horses hoof over exerg. line

ANS in ex Antioch 132
4 commentsRandygeki(h2)
IMG_2909.JPG
03 Constantius II95 viewsConstantius II
Antioch
25 mm, 5.67 g, 12 h)
obverse D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right;
reverse FEL TEMP RE-PARATIO, Gamma in left, soldier spearing Horseman,hair in braids, bearded, reaching back towards soldier,horses hoof over exerg. line

ANB Antioch 122
4 commentsRandygeki(h2)
VHC03-coin.jpg
03- BRITISH HONDURAS (BELIZE), 25 CENTS, KM923 viewsSize: 27.5 mm. Composition: .925 Silver/.1728 oz. Mintage: 20,000.
Grade: Raw F+ (borderline VF).
Comments: Ex-Dan Lewis, Black Mountain Coins.
lordmarcovan
521280_(1).jpg
03.- Pontos AE18 (125-100 BC)9 viewsPontos. Amisos. Time of Mithradates VI Eupator, circa 125-100 BC. (Bronze, 20.33-18.67 mm., 8.36 g). Diademed head of Artemis to right; at her shoulder, bow and quiver. Rev. ΑΜΙ - ΣΟΥ Tripod. Black patina. VF.
Purchased at Jesus Vico online auction in 2019.
Oscar D
Lodovicus-I_U-432-a_C2-89A_H-547_MOnETA-LODOVICI_REGIS-hVnGARIE_Q-001_15mm_0,49g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432a, #0176 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432a, #01
avers: ✠ mOnЄTA LODOVICI, Saracen's head left, no internal (line) border, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ RЄGIS hVnGARIЄ, Patriarchal cross with dots each corner, amongst emission-marks (---), border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//-- Without mint mark was struck by Johannes Saracenus (by Pohl), diameter: 15,0mm, weight: 0,49g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Pécs (by Pohl), date: 1373-1382A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-432a, CNH-2-089A, Huszár-547, Pohl-89-01,
Q-001
quadrans
Lodovicus-I__U-432-a_C2-89A_H-547_MOnETA-LODOVICI_REGIS-hVnGARIE_Q-003_15mm_0,53g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432a, #0362 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432a, #03
avers: ✠ mOnЄTA LODOVICI, Saracen's head left, no internal (line) border, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ RЄGIS hVnGARIЄ, Patriarchal cross with dots each corner, amongst emission-marks (---), border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//-- Without mint mark was struck by Johannes Saracenus (by Pohl), diameter: 15,0mm, weight: 0,53g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Pécs (by Pohl), date: 1373-1382A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-432a, CNH-2-089A, Huszár-547, Pohl-89-01,
Q-003
quadrans
Lodovicus-I__U-432-a-var_C2-89A_H-547_MOnETA-LODOVICI_REGIS-hVnGARIE_Q-001_14,5mm_0,54g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432a-var1., #0174 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432a-var1., #01
avers: ✠ MOnЄTA LODOVICI, Saracen's head left, no internal (line) border, border of dots. Dot middle on the face.
reverse: ✠ RЄGIS hVnGARIЄ, Patriarchal cross, amongst emission-marks (---), border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//-- Without mint mark was struck by Johannes Saracenus (by Pohl), diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Pécs (by Pohl), date: 1373-1382A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-432a-var1., CNH-2-089A, Huszár-547, Pohl-89-01,
Q-001
quadrans
Lodovicus-I__U-432-a-var-2_C2-89A_H-547_MOnETA-LODOVICI_REGIS-hVnGARIE_Q-001_14mm_0,41g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432a.var2, #0173 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432a.var2, #01
avers: ✠ MOnЄTA LODOVICI, Saracen's head left, no internal (line) border, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ RЄGIS hVnGARIЄ, Patriarchal cross, amongst emission-marks (---), border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//-- Without mint mark was struck by Johannes Saracenus (by Pohl), diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Pécs (by Pohl), date: 1373-1382A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-432a-var2., CNH-2-089A, Huszár-547, Pohl-89-01,
Q-001
quadrans
Lodovicus-I__U-432-a-var3_C2-89A_H-547_MOnETA-LODOVICI_REGIS-hVnGARIE_Q-001_15mm_0,56g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432a.var3, #0168 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432a.var3, #01
avers: ✠ MOnЄTA LODOVICI, Saracen's head left, no internal (line) border, border of dots. Polka dot pattern in headscarves and neck.
reverse: ✠ RЄGIS hVnGARIЄ, Patriarchal cross with dots each corner, amongst emission-marks (---), border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//-- Without mint mark was struck by Johannes Saracenus (by Pohl), diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Pécs (by Pohl), date: 1373-1382A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-432a-var3., CNH-2-089A, Huszár-547, Pohl-89-01,
Q-001
quadrans
Lodovicus-I__U-432-b_C2-89A_H-547_MOnETA-LODOVICI_REGIS-hVnGARIE_Q-001_14mm_0,52g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432b, #0180 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432b, #01
avers: ✠ mOnЄTA LODOVICI, Saracen's head left, no internal (line) border, border of dots. Dot in the middle of the face.
reverse: ✠ RЄGIS hVnGARIЄ, Patriarchal cross with dots each corner, amongst emission-marks (L-S), border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: L/S//--, diameter: 14,0mm, weight: 0,52g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Unknown mint (by Pohl), date: 1373-1382A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-432k, CNH-2-089A, Huszár-547, Pohl-89-10,
Q-001
quadrans
Lodovicus-I__U-432-c_C2-89A_H-547_MOnETA-LODOVICI_REGIS-hVnGARIE_Q-001_15mm_0,51g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432c, #0178 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432c, #01
avers: ✠ mOnЄTA LODOVICI, Saracen's head left, no internal (line) border, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ RЄGIS hVnGARIЄ, Patriarchal cross with dots each corner, amongst emission-marks (--P), border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/P//-- This mint mark was struck 1373-1375 by Peter Chimle (by Pohl), diameter: 14,0mm, weight: 0,52g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Unknown mint (by Pohl), date: 1373-1382A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-432c, CNH-2-089A, Huszár-547, Pohl-89-08,
Q-001
quadrans
Lodovicus-I__U-432-c_C2-89A_H-547_MOnETA-LODOVICI_REGIS-hVnGARIE_Q-002_14mm_0,54g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432c, #0267 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432c, #02
avers: ✠ mOnЄTA LODOVICI, Saracen's head left, no internal (line) border, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ RЄGIS hVnGARIЄ, Patriarchal cross with dots each corner, amongst emission-marks (--P), border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/P//-- This mint mark was struck 1373-1375 by Peter Chimle (by Pohl), diameter: 14,0mm, weight: 0,54g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Unknown mint (by Pohl), date: 1373-1382A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-432c, CNH-2-089A, Huszár-547, Pohl-89-08,
Q-002
quadrans
Lodovicus-I__U-432-c-var_C2-89A_H-547_MOnETA-LODOVICI_REGIS-hVnGARIE_Q-001_13,5mm_0,42g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432c.var., #01117 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432-c.-var., #01
avers: ✠ mOnЄTA LODOVICI, Saracen's head left, no internal (line) border, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ RЄGIS hVnGARIЄ, Patriarchal cross with dots each corner, amongst emission-marks (P--), border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: P/-//-- This mint mark was struck by Peter Chimle (by Pohl), diameter: 13,5mm, weight: 0,42g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Unknown mint (by Pohl), date: 1373-1375 A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-432-c-var., CNH-2-089A, Huszár-547, Pohl-89-08-var,
Q-001
quadrans
Lodovicus-I__U-432-d_C2-89A_H-547_MOnETA-LODOVICI_REGIS-hVnGARIE_Q-001_14mm_0,46g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432d, #0175 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432d, #01
avers: ✠ mOnЄTA LODOVICI, Saracen's head left, no internal (line) border, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ RЄGIS hVnGARIЄ, Patriarchal cross with dots each corner, amongst emission-marks (Lily-S), border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: Lily/S//--, diameter: 14,0mm, weight: 0,46g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Szomolnok (Schmöllnitz, now Smolnik Slovakia by Pohl), date: 1373-1382A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-432d, CNH-2-089A, Huszár-547, Pohl-89-09,
Q-001
quadrans
Lodovicus-I__U-432-fvar_C2-89A_H-547_MOnETA-LODOVICI_REGIS-hVnGARIE_Q-001_14mm_0,46g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432f.-var, #0166 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432f.-var, #01
avers: ✠ mOnЄTA LODOVICI, Saracen's head left, no internal (line) border, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ RЄGIS hVnGARIЄ, Patriarchal cross with dots each corner, amongst emission-marks (Lily-Lily in middle), border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: Lily/Lily//--, diameter: 14,0mm, weight: 0,46g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Kassa (Kaschau, nowadays Kosice by Pohl), date: 1373-1382A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-432f, CNH-2-089A, Huszár-547, Pohl-89-03,
Q-001
quadrans
Lodovicus-I__U-432-g_C2-89A_H-547_MOnETA-LODOVICI_REGIS-hVnGARIE_Q-001_14mm_0,49g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432g, #0182 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432g, #01
avers: ✠ mOnЄTA LODOVICI, Saracen's head left, no internal (line) border, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ RЄGIS hVnGARIЄ, Patriarchal cross with dots each corner, amongst emission-marks (*-* in middle), border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: */*//--, diameter: 14,0mm, weight: 0,49g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Nagybánya (now Baia Mare, Romania by Pohl), date: 1373-1382A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-432g, CNH-2-089A, Huszár-547, Pohl-89-04,
Q-001
quadrans
Lodovicus-I__U-432-g_C2-89A_H-547_MOnETA-LODOVICI_REGIS-hVnGARIE_Q-002_13mm_0,45g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432g, #0297 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432g, #02
avers: ✠ mOnЄTA LODOVICI, Saracen's head left, no internal (line) border, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ RЄGIS hVnGARIЄ, Patriarchal cross with dots each corner, amongst emission-marks (*-* in middle), border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: */*//--, diameter: 13,0mm, weight: 0,45g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Nagybánya (now Baia Mare, Romania by Pohl), date: 1373-1382A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-432g, CNH-2-089A, Huszár-547, Pohl-89-04,
Q-002
quadrans
Lodovicus-I__U-432-i_C2-89A_H-547_MOnETA-LODOVICI_REGIS-hVnGARIE_Q-001_14mm_0,46g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432i, #0173 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432i, #01
avers: ✠ MOnЄTA LODOVICI, Saracen's head left, no internal (line) border, border of dots. One-one dot beside of the neck.
reverse: ✠ RЄGIS hVnGARIЄ, Patriarchal cross with dots each corner, amongst emission-marks (---), border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: •/•//-- (in avers !), diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Pécs (by Pohl), date: 1373-1382A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-432i, CNH-2-089A, Huszár-547, Pohl-89-07,
Q-001
quadrans
Lodovicus-I__U-432-j_C2-89A_H-547_MOnETA-LODOVICI_REGIS-hVnGARIE_Q-001_14mm_0,47g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432j, #0166 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432j, #01
avers: ✠ MOnЄTA LODOVICI, Saracen's head left, no internal (line) border, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ RЄGIS hVnGARIЄ, Patriarchal cross with dots each corner, amongst emission-marks (leaf-leaf below), border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: leaf/leaf//--(below), diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, , date: 1373-1382A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-432j, CNH-2-089A, Huszár-547, Pohl-89-11,
Q-001
quadrans
Lodovicus-I__U-433_C2-89B_H-548_MOnETA-LODOVICI_REGIS-hVnGARIE_Q-001_14mm_0,46g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-433, #0164 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-433, #01
avers: ✠ MOnЄTA LODOVICI, Saracen's head left, no internal (line) border, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ RЄGIS hVnGARIЄ, Patriarchal cross - with dots each corner - rising from crown at its base, border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Buda (by Pohl), date: 1373-1382A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-433, CNH-2-089B, Huszár-548, Pohl-90,
Q-001
quadrans
LarryW2407.jpg
030 Zeugitana, Carthage, 310-290 BC83 viewsElectrum shekel-didrachm, 18.5mm, 7.43g, nice VF
Head of Tanit left, wreathed with corn; she wears necklace and triple-drop earring; dot before neck / Horse standing right on exergal line; three pellets under exergual line.
Certificate of Authenticity by David R. Sear, ACCS
Ex: Apollo Numismatics
Jenkins V, 282-2; Müller p. 84, 52
3 commentsLawrence Woolslayer
032_Hadrianus,_Syria,_Chalcidice,_Chalcis_ad_Belum,_AE-24,_Hadrian_r_,_Laurel_wreath,_Delta,_RPC_III_3470,_Q-001,_0h,_21-24mm,_11,56g-s~0.jpg
032p Hadrianus (117-138 A.D.), Syria, Chalcidice, Chalcis ad Belum, RPC III 3470, AE-24, ΦΛ ΧΑΛ/ΚΙΔЄωΝ/Δ in wreath,62 views032p Hadrianus (117-138 A.D.), Syria, Chalcidice, Chalcis ad Belum, RPC III 3470, AE-24, ΦΛ ΧΑΛ/ΚΙΔЄωΝ and Δ in three lines within the laurel-wreath,
avers: ΑΥΤΟΚΡ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑ ΝΟС ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС, Laureate head of Hadrian right, with drapery on far shoulder.
reverse: ΦΛ ΧΑΛ/ΚΙΔЄωΝ and Δ in three lines within the laurel-wreath.
exergue: -/-//Δ, diameter: 21,0-24,0mm, weight: 11,56g, axis: 0h,
mint: Syria, Chalcidice, Chalcis ad Belum, date: 117-138 A.D., ref: RPC III 3470,
Q-001
quadrans
032_Albert_(1437-1439_AD),_AR-Den,_H-592,_C2-135B,_U-461_h_,_P-127-7,_m_ALBERTI_R_VnGARIE,_K-R_over_cross,_1440_AD,_Q-001,_1h,_14-14,5mm,_0,47g-s.jpg
033 Albert., King of Hungary, (1437-1439 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-592, C2-135B, U-461.h., P-127-07, #0149 views033 Albert., King of Hungary, (1437-1439 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-592, C2-135B, U-461.h., P-127-07, #01
avers: ✠ m•ALBЄRTI•R•VnGARIЄ••, Patriarchal Cross, K-R over +, in a circle, line border.
reverse: Four-part shield (Hungarian stripes in the middle, Czech lion, Austrian band, Moravian eagle around), the border of dots,
exergue, mint mark: K/R over +//-- , diameter: 14,0-14,5mm, weight: 0,47g, axis: 1h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica, Konrad Rudel by Pohl), date:1439 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Huszár-592, CNH-2-135B, Unger-461.h., Pohl-127-07,
Q-001
This coin was struck under the Interregnum I. (1439-1440 A.D.) with the name of Abert!
2 commentsquadrans
033_Albert_(1437-1439_AD)_Den_U-461-i_C2-135B_H-592_m_ALBERTI_R_VnGARIE_-_n-S_1438-40_AD,_Q-001_6h_13,5-14,2mm_0,44g-s.jpg
033 Albert., King of Hungary, (1437-1439 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-592, C2-135B, U-461.i., P-127-08, #01110 views033 Albert., King of Hungary, (1437-1439 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-592, C2-135B, U-461.i., P-127-08, #01
avers: ✠ m•ALBERTI•R•VnGARIЄ, Patriarchal Cross, n-S, in a circle, line border.
reverse: Four-part shield (Hungarian stripes in the middle, Czech lion, Austrian band, Moravian eagle around), a border of dots,
exergue, mint mark: n/S//-- , diameter: 13,5-14,2mm, weight: 0,44g, axis:6h,
mint: Hungary, Nagybánya (today Romania: Baia Mare, Stephanus Remetei by Pohl), date:1439 A.D. (by Pohl),
ref: Unger-461-i., CNH-2-135B, Huszár-592, Pohl-127-08,
Q-001
quadrans
032_Albert_(1437-1439_AD),_AR-Den,_H-592,_C2-135B,_U-461_i_,_P-127-8,_m_ALBERTI_R_VnGARIE,_n-S,_1440_AD,_Q-002,_11h,_14-14,5mm,_0,39g-s.jpg
033 Albert., King of Hungary, (1437-1439 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-592, C2-135B, U-461.i., P-127-08, #0250 views033 Albert., King of Hungary, (1437-1439 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-592, C2-135B, U-461.i., P-127-08, #02
avers: ✠ m•ALBERTI•R•VnGARIЄ, Patriarchal Cross, n-S, in a circle, line border.
reverse: Four-part shield (Hungarian stripes in the middle, Czech lion, Austrian band, Moravian eagle around), a border of dots,
exergue, mint mark: n/S//-- , diameter: 14,0-14,5mm, weight: 0,39g, axis:11h,
mint: Hungary, Nagybánya (today Romania: Baia Mare, Stephanus Remetei by Pohl), date:1439 A.D. (by Pohl),
ref: Unger-461-i., CNH-2-135B, Huszár-592, Pohl-127-08,
Q-002
1 commentsquadrans
033_Albert_(1437-1439_AD),_AR-Den,_H-592,_C2-135B,_U-461_q_,_P-127-9,_m_ALBERTI_R_VnGARIE,_C-Lily,_1440_AD,_Q-001,_7h,_13,5-14,5mm,_0,39g-s~0.jpg
033 Albert., King of Hungary, (1437-1439 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-592, C2-135B, U-461.q., P-127-09, #0166 views033 Albert., King of Hungary, (1437-1439 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-592, C2-135B, U-461.q., P-127-09, #01
avers: ✠ m•ALBЄRTI•R•VnGARIЄ••, Patriarchal Cross, C-⚜, in a circle, line border.
reverse: Four-part shield (Hungarian stripes in the middle, Czech lion, Austrian band, Moravian eagle around), the border of dots,
exergue, mint mark: C/⚜//-- , diameter: 13,5-14,5mm, weight: 0,39g, axis: 7h,
mint: Hungary, Kassa (today Slovakia: Kosice, City coin by Pohl), date:1440 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Huszár-592, CNH-2-135B, Unger-461.q., Pohl-127-09,
Q-001
This coin was struck under the Interregnum I. (1439-1440 A.D.) with the name of Abert!
1 commentsquadrans
033_Albert_(1437-1439_AD),_AR-Den,_H-592,_C2-135B,_U-461_s_,_P-127-11,_m_ALBERTI_R_VnGARIE,_K-P,_1440_AD,_Q-001,_4h,_13,5-14,0mm,_0,48g-s.jpg
033 Albert., King of Hungary, (1437-1439 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-592, C2-135B, U-461.s., P-127-11, #0167 views033 Albert., King of Hungary, (1437-1439 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-592, C2-135B, U-461.s., P-127-11, #01
avers: ✠ m•ALBЄRTI•R•VnGARIЄ••, Patriarchal Cross, K-P, in a circle, line border.
reverse: Four-part shield (Hungarian stripes in the middle, Czech lion, Austrian band, Moravian eagle around), the border of dots,
exergue, mint mark: K/P//-- , diameter: 13,5-14,0mm, weight: 0,48g, axis: 4h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica, Konrad Polner by Pohl), date:1440 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Huszár-592, CNH-2-135B, Unger-461.s., Pohl-127-11,
Q-001
This coin was struck under the Interregnum I. (1439-1440 A.D.) with the name of Abert!
1 commentsquadrans
035_Antoninus_Pius_(138-161_A_D_),_AE-23,_AYTO_KAI_TIT_AIL_ADRI_ANTWNEINOC_CEB,_QEAC_CYR-IAC_IEROPO,_Delta,_Syria,Hieropolis,_BMC-19_Q-001_0h_22mm_ga-s~0.jpg
035p Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.), Syria, Hieropolis, BMC 19, AE-22, ΘEAC CYR/IAC IEROΠO and Δ in three lines within wreath,130 views035p Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.), Syria, Hieropolis, BMC 19, AE-22, ΘEAC CYR/IAC IEROΠO and Δ in three lines within wreath,
avers:- AYTO KAI TIT AIΛ AΔRI ANTωNEINOC CEB, Laureate head right.
revers:- ΘEAC CYR/IAC IEROΠO and Δ in three lines within wreath.
exe: -/-//Δ, diameter: 22mm, weight: 9,52g, axis: 0h,
mint: Syria, Hieropolis, date: 138-161 A.D., ref: BMC 19, Paris F986, Butcher 17,
Q-001
quadrans
037_Janos_Hunyadi,_AR-Obol,_Lion,_Patriarchal_cross,_B-I,_U-490b,_C2-158A,_H-622,_1447-1450_Q-001_h,_12,5mm,_g-s.jpg
037 János (Johannes or John) Hunyadi., Gubernator of Hungary, (1446-1453 A.D.) AR-Obulus, Huszár-622, Patriarchal cross, B-I, #01163 views037 János (Johannes or John) Hunyadi., Gubernator of Hungary, (1446-1453 A.D.) AR-Obulus, Huszár-622, Patriarchal cross, B-I, #01
avers: Bohemian Lion with crown advancing left in circle, line border.
reverse: Patriarchal cross, in circle, mint-mark on each side (B-I), border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: B/I//-- were strucked by Iohannes Münczer (by Pohl), diameter: 12,0mm, weight: 0,27g, axis: 0h,
mint: Hungary, Buda, date: 1447-1450 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Huszár-622, CNH-2-158A, Pohl-178-1, Unger-490b,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
037_Janos_Hunyadi_,_Gubernator_of_Hungary,_(1446-1453_A_D_),_Huszar-622,_AR-Obulus,_Q-002,_h,_13,5mm,_g-s.jpg
037 János (Johannes or John) Hunyadi., Gubernator of Hungary, (1446-1453 A.D.) AR-Obulus, Huszár-622, Patriarchal cross, B-I, #02192 views037 János (Johannes or John) Hunyadi., Gubernator of Hungary, (1446-1453 A.D.) AR-Obulus, Huszár-622, Patriarchal cross, B-I, #02
avers: Bohemian Lion with crown advancing left in circle, line border.
reverse: Patriarchal cross, in circle, mint-mark on each side (B-I), border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: B/I//-- were strucked by Iohannes Münczer (by Pohl), diameter: 13,5mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Buda, date: 1447-1450 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Huszár-622, CNH-2-158A, Pohl-178-1, Unger-490b,
Q-002
1 commentsquadrans
Mac_Plus_Ultra__Potosi__2_R_1767.jpg
04 - 06 - Virreynato CARLOS III (1759-1788) 69 views"Macuquina con PLVS VLTRA y Columnas sobre ondas de Mar"

2 Reales de Plata Ley 917
20x22 mm

Anv: CAROLUS III D G HISPANIARVM REX (Carlos III por la gracia de Dios rey de las Espańas) la leyenda, al tratarse de una macuquina, no es visible, alrededor de la cruz de Jerusalén con castillos y leones, con 2 (valor) encima, P (ceca) en campo izq., V (Ensayador) en campo der. y 767 (fecha) debajo.
Rev: POTOSI 1767 EL PERV La leyenda, al tratarse de una macuquina, no es visible, alrededor de las 2 columnas y entre ellas en 3 líneas valor 2 entre P (marca de la ceca) e V (ensayador), 2Ş línea PLVS VLTRA, 3Ş línea 767 entre V (ensayador) y P (ceca).

Acuńada: 1767
Ensayador: V - José de Vargas y Flores
Ceca: Potosí - Hoy ubicada en Bolivia

Referencias: Krause SCWC KM#43 Pag.112 - Maravedis.net #B-302-8
mdelvalle
RIC_26_Denario_Tiberio.jpg
04-01- TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)34 viewsAR Denario 20 mm 3.7 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas sin ornamentos apoyadas en una plataforma (doble-linea), portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda.

Este denario es el comúnmente llamado “el Penique del Tributo” de la muy conocida historia relatada en el Evangelio de San Mateo (22,17-21) del Nuevo Testamento.

Acuńada 16 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum - Hoy Lyon Francia
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #26 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE Vol.1 #34 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8 Pag.75 - CBN #16 - RSC Vol. II #16 Pag.1 - Hendin #916 Pag.418
mdelvalle
RIC_26_Denario_Tiberio_1.jpg
04-02 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)24 viewsAR Denario 19x18 mm 3.3 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas sin ornamentos apoyadas en una plataforma (doble-linea), portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda.

Este denario es el comúnmente llamado “el Penique del Tributo” de la muy conocida historia relatada en el Evangelio de San Mateo (22,17-21) del Nuevo Testamento.

Acuńada 16 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum - Hoy Lyon Francia
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #26 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE Vol.1 #34 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8 Pag.75 - CBN #16 - RSC Vol. II #16 Pag.1 - Hendin #916 Pag.418
mdelvalle
RIC_28_Denario_Tiberio.jpg
04-06 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)26 viewsAR Denario 19 mm 3.7 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas ornamentadas apoyadas en una plataforma (triple-linea), portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda.

Este denario es el comúnmente llamado “el Penique del Tributo” de la muy conocida historia relatada en el Evangelio de San Mateo (22,17-21) del Nuevo Testamento.

Acuńada 16 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum - Hoy Lyon Francia
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #28 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE Vol.1 #45 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8b Pag.75 - CBN #16 - RSC Vol. II #16b Pag.1 - Hendin #916 Pag.418
mdelvalle
Denario_Tiberio_RIC_26_anterior.jpg
04-10 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)69 viewsAnv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas sin ornamentos apoyadas en una plataforma (doble-linea), portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda.

Este denario es el comúnmente llamado “el Penique del Tributo” de la muy conocida historia relatada en el Evangelio de San Mateo (22,17-21) del Nuevo Testamento.

Acuńada 16 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum - Hoy Lyon Francia
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #26 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE Vol.1 #34 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8 Pag.75 - CBN #16 - RSC Vol. II #16 Pag.1 - Hendin #916 Pag.418
mdelvalle
Denario_Tiberio_RIC_26_1.jpg
04-11 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)70 viewsAR Denario 19x18 mm 3.3 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas sin ornamentos apoyadas en una plataforma (doble-linea), portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda.

Este denario es el comúnmente llamado “el Penique del Tributo” de la muy conocida historia relatada en el Evangelio de San Mateo (22,17-21) del Nuevo Testamento.

Acuńada 16 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum - Hoy Lyon Francia
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #26 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE Vol.1 #34 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8 Pag.75 - CBN #16 - RSC Vol. II #16 Pag.1 - Hendin #916 Pag.418
mdelvalle
foto8.jpg
04-12 - Aretas IV (9 A.C. - 40 D.C.)21 viewsEste tipo fue acuńado en nombre de Aretas IV y su esposa/hermana? Shuqailat.
AE 17 x 14 mm 3.0 gr.

Anv: Bustos conjugados laureados y vestidos de Aretas IV y su Reina Shaquilath viendo a derecha."Letras arameas en el campo".
Rev: Dos cornucopias cruzadas. Entre ellas leyenda en arameo "ARETAS, SHUQAILAT" (En 2 líneas entre los cuernos HRTT/SQY y una debajo LT).

Acuńada: 39 - 40 D.C.
Ceca: Petra

Referencias: Sear GICTV #5699 Pag.560 - B.M.C. Vol.28 #15-20 Pag 8 - SNG ANS #6.1438-43 - Meshorer #114 - SNG Copenhagen #127-131
mdelvalle
Denario_Tiberio_RIC_29_2.jpg
04-12 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)86 viewsAR Denario 19 mm 3.7 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas ornamentadas apoyadas en una plataforma (triple-linea), portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda.

Este denario es el comúnmente llamado “el Penique del Tributo” de la muy conocida historia relatada en el Evangelio de San Mateo (22,17-21) del Nuevo Testamento.

Acuńada 16 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum - Hoy Lyon Francia
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #28 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE Vol.1 #45 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8b Pag.75 - CBN #16 - RSC Vol. II #16b Pag.1 - Hendin #916 Pag.418
mdelvalle
foto7.jpg
04-14 - Aretas IV (9 A.C. - 40 D.C.)18 viewsEste tipo fue acuńado en nombre de Aretas IV y su esposa/hermana? Shuqailat.
AE 17 x 16 mm 3.8 gr.

Anv: Bustos conjugados laureados y vestidos de Aretas IV y su Reina Shaquilath viendo a derecha."Letras arameas en el campo".
Rev: Dos cornucopias cruzadas. Entre ellas leyenda en arameo "ARETAS, SHUQAILAT" (En 2 líneas entre los cuernos HRTT/SQY y una debajo LT).

Acuńada: 39 - 40 D.C.
Ceca: Petra

Referencias: Sear GICTV #5699 Pag.560 - B.M.C. Vol.28 #15-20 Pag 8 - SNG ANS #6.1438-43 - Meshorer #114 - SNG Copenhagen #127-131
mdelvalle
foto9.jpg
04-16 - Aretas IV (9 A.C. - 40 D.C.)24 viewsEste tipo fue acuńado en nombre de Aretas IV y su esposa/hermana? Shuqailat.
AE 15 x 13 mm 2.4 gr.

Anv: Bustos conjugados laureados y vestidos de Aretas IV y su Reina Shaquilath viendo a derecha."Letras arameas en el campo".
Rev: Dos cornucopias cruzadas. Entre ellas leyenda en arameo "ARETAS, SHUQAILAT" (En 2 líneas entre los cuernos HRTT/SQY y una debajo LT).

Acuńada: 39 - 40 D.C.
Ceca: Petra

Referencias: Sear GICTV #5699 Pag.560 - B.M.C. Vol.28 #15-20 Pag 8 - SNG ANS #6.1438-43 - Meshorer #114 - SNG Copenhagen #127-131
mdelvalle
foto11.jpg
04-20 - Malichus II (40 - 70 D.C.)24 viewsEste tipo fue acuńado en nombre de Malichus II y su esposa/hermana? Shuqailat II.
AE 12 x 14 mm 3.1 gr.

Anv: Bustos conjugados laureados y vestidos de Malichus II y su Reina (y hermana?) Shaquilath II viendo a derecha. Gráfila de puntos.
Rev: Dos cornucopias cruzadas y fileteadas. Entre ellas leyenda en arameo "MALICHUS / SHUQAI / LAT" (En 2 líneas entre los cuernos y una debajo). Grafila de puntos.

Ceca: Petra

Referencias: Sear GCTV Vol.2 #5703 Pag.560 - B.M.C. Vol.28 #4-5 Pag 11 - SNG ANS #6.1444 - Meshorer #140A
mdelvalle
foto12.jpg
04-22 - Malichus II (40 - 70 D.C.)23 viewsEste tipo fue acuńado en nombre de Malichus II y su esposa/hermana? Shuqailat II.
AE 13 x 14 mm 3.2 gr.

Anv: Bustos conjugados laureados y vestidos de Malichus II y su Reina (y hermana?) Shaquilath II viendo a derecha. Gráfila de puntos.
Rev: Dos cornucopias cruzadas y fileteadas. Entre ellas leyenda en arameo "MALICHUS / SHUQAI / LAT" (En 2 líneas entre los cuernos y una debajo). Grafila de puntos.

Ceca: Petra

Referencias: Sear GCTV Vol.2 #5703 Pag.560 - B.M.C. Vol.28 #4-5 Pag 11 - SNG ANS #6.1444 - Meshorer #140A
mdelvalle
foto10.jpg
04-24 - Malichus II (40 - 70 D.C.)21 viewsEste tipo fue acuńado en nombre de Malichus II y su esposa/hermana? Shuqailat II.
AE 14 x 15 mm 2.4 gr.

Anv: Bustos conjugados laureados y vestidos de Malichus II y su Reina (y hermana?) Shaquilath II viendo a derecha. Gráfila de puntos.
Rev: Dos cornucopias cruzadas y fileteadas. Entre ellas leyenda en arameo "MALICHUS / SHUQAI / LAT" (En 2 líneas entre los cuernos y una debajo). Grafila de puntos.

Ceca: Petra

Referencias: Sear GCTV Vol.2 #5703 Pag.560 - B.M.C. Vol.28 #4-5 Pag 11 - SNG ANS #6.1444 - Meshorer #140A
mdelvalle
foto13.jpg
04-30 - Rabbel II (70 - 106 D.C.)28 viewsEste tipo fue acuńado en nombre de Rabbel II y su esposa/hermana? Gamilath.
AE 16 mm 3.0 gr.

Anv: Cabezas conjugadas laureadas de Rabbel II y su Reina (y hermana?) Gamilath viendo a derecha. Él con pelo largo y ornamentos sobre su cabeza.
Rev: Dos cornucopias cruzadas y fileteadas. Entre ellas leyenda en arameo "RABBEL / GAMILATH" (En 2 líneas entre los cuernos).

Acuńada: 76 - 102 D.C.
Ceca: Petra

Referencias: Sear GCTV Vol.2 #5706 Pag.560 - B.M.C. Vol.28 #3-7 Pag 13 - SNG ANS #6.1447-50 - Meshorer #163a
mdelvalle
foto14.jpg
04-32 - Rabbel II (70 - 106 D.C.)25 viewsEste tipo fue acuńado en nombre de Rabbel II y su esposa/hermana? Gamilath.
AE 17 x 15 mm 3.1 gr.

Anv: Cabezas conjugadas laureadas de Rabbel II y su Reina (y hermana?) Gamilath viendo a derecha. Él con pelo largo y ornamentos sobre su cabeza.
Rev: Dos cornucopias cruzadas y fileteadas. Entre ellas leyenda en arameo "RABBEL / GAMILATH" (En 2 líneas entre los cuernos).

Acuńada: 76 - 102 D.C.
Ceca: Petra

Referencias: Sear GCTV Vol.2 #5706 Pag.560 - B.M.C. Vol.28 #3-7 Pag 13 - SNG ANS #6.1447-50 - Meshorer #163a
1 commentsmdelvalle
RPC_65_AS_ITALICA_Tiberio.jpg
04-40 - Cnia. Itálica - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)18 viewsAE AS 27/29 mm 13.85 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR AVGVSTVS PONT MAX IMP" (Leyenda anti-horaria), Cabeza desnuda viendo a derecha.
Rev: "MVNIC ITALIC PERM DIVI AVG" (Leyenda anti-horaria), Altar en el que se inscribe en tres líneas "PROVIDE / NTIAE / AVGVSTI".

Acuńada 14 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: Cnia. Municipium Itálica, Hispania (Hoy Saltipontes, Sevilla, Espańa)

Referencias: RPC #65, SNG Cop #417, ACIP #3333, Vives Pl.CLXVIII #9, ABH #1593, Burgos #1250, Chaves #115-263, GMI #A1049-1051, FAB #1683 P.205, Sear GICV #253 P.24, Cohen I #89 P.197, Heiss #8 P.380, Mionnet Vol.I #131 P.17/18
mdelvalle
Andras-I_(1047-1060)_U-005_C1-012_H-009_Q-003_9h_12,5-13,3mm_0,42g-s.jpg
04.4. András I., (Andreas I.), King of Hungary, (1047-1060 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 04.4./a1b4.01./121., H-009, U-005, CNH I.-012, + PANONEIA, #0188 views04.4. András I., (Andreas I.), King of Hungary, (1047-1060 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 04.4./a1b4.01./121., H-009, U-005, CNH I.-012, + PANONEIA, #01
avers: + REX•ANDREAS in a double circle; cross in a circle with a circle in the center, (hands of three lines?); border of dots with three lines at each quarter.
reverse: + PANONEIA, Cross in a circle with a circle in the center and wedges in the angles; line border.
exergue:-/-//--, diameter: 12,5-13.3mm, weight: 0,42 g, axis: 9h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-009, Unger-005, CNH I.-012,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 04.4./a1b4.01./121.,
Q-001
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Andras-I_(1047-1060)_U-005_C1-012_H-009_Q-002_5h_15,5mm_0,64g-s.jpg
04.4. András I., (Andreas I.), King of Hungary, (1047-1060 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 04.4./a2d2.03./164., H-009, U-005, CNH I.-012, + PANONEIA, #0199 views04.4. András I., (Andreas I.), King of Hungary, (1047-1060 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 04.4./a2d2.03./164., H-009, U-005, CNH I.-012, + PANONEIA, #01
avers: + REX•ANDREAS in a double circle; cross in a circle with a circle in the center, (hands of three lines?); border of dots with three lines at each quarter.
reverse: + PANONEIA, Cross in a circle with a circle in the center and wedges in the angles; line border.
exergue:-/-//--, diameter: 15,5mm, weight: 0,64 g, axis: 5h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-009, Unger-005, CNH I.-012,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 04.4./a2d2.03./164.,
Q-001
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Andras-I_(1047-1060)_U-005_C1-012_H-009_Q-001_11h_17mm_0,60g-s.jpg
04.4. András I., (Andreas I.), King of Hungary, (1047-1060 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 04.4./a5.01./053., H-009, U-005, CNH I.-012, + PANONEIA, #01113 views04.4. András I., (Andreas I.), King of Hungary, (1047-1060 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 04.4./a5.01./053., H-009, U-005, CNH I.-012, + PANONEIA, #01
avers: + REX•ANDREAS in a double circle; cross in a circle with a circle in the center, (hands of three lines?); border of dots with three lines at each quarter.
reverse: + PANONEIA, Cross in a circle with a circle in the center and wedges in the angles; line border.
exergue:-/-//--, diameter: 17mm, weight: 0,60 g, axis: 11h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-009, Unger-005, CNH I.-012,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 04.4./a5.01./053.,
Q-001
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Matyas-Hunyadi_Denar_U_567b_C2-232_H-722_M_MATHIE_R_VNGARIE__PATRONA-VNGARIE__K_PonRozette_1489AD_Q-001_9h_15,5mm_0,49g-s.jpg
040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-567.b., Madonna and child, #01174 views040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-567.b., Madonna and child, #01
avers: ✠M•MATHIE•R•VNGARIE, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion). Inside of the central shield, the raven standing and turning left. The ring in its beak. One dots both side of the shield. (Legend variation!)
reverse: PATRON VNGARIE, Nimbate and Crowned Madonna seated facing, holding nimbate infant Jesus in her right arm, mint-mark (K-P/Rozette) on each side; line border, (Legend variation!).
exergue, mint mark: K/ P/Rozette//--, were struck by Peter Schaider, (by Pohl), diameter: 15,5mm, weight: 0,49g, axis: 9h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica) by Pohl,
date: 1488 A.D. (Pohl), ref: Unger-567.b., CNH-2-232, Huszár-722, Pohl-223-01,
Q-001

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Hunyadi-Matyas_(Mathias-Corvinus)_(1458-1490_A_D_)_U-561c_C2-214_H-714_Q-001_6h_18mm_1,02g-s.jpg
040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-561-c., #01390 views040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-561-c., #01
avers: ✠MOnЄTA•MAThIЄ•DЄ,
reverse: rosette RЄGIS•h VnGARIAЄ•, Patriarchal cross in circle of line, mint-mark on each side (K-I); border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: K/I//-- were struck by Iohannes Constofer (by Pohl), diameter: 18mm, weight: 1,02, axis: 6h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica), date: 1467 A.D., ref: Unger-561-c., CNH-2-214, Huszár-714, Pohl 214-03,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
II_Ulaszlo_Den_U-638-d_C2-276_H-803_M_WLADISLAI_R_VNGARIE__PATRON-_---_-VNGARIE_1495-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
041 Ulászló II. (Wladislas II., Jagellion)., King of Hungary, (1490-1516 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-638.d., #0187 views041 Ulászló II. (Wladislas II., Jagellion)., King of Hungary, (1490-1516 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-638.d., #01
avers: M•WLADISLAI•R•VNGARIЄ•, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian (Hungarian) stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Bohemian lion in the inner shield.
reverse: PATRON VNGARIЄ, Nimbate and Crowned Madonna seated facing, holding nimbate infant Jesus in her right arm, mint-mark (K - B/AF/M) on each side; line border.
exergue, mint mark: K /B/AF/M//-- were struck by Andreas Hellebrand and Franz Körnidl (by Pohl), diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica) by Pohl,
date: 1496 A.D., ref: Unger-638.d., CNH-2-276, Huszár-803, Pohl-238-03,
Q-001
quadrans
Wladislai-II-4a-s.jpg
041 Ulászló II. (Wladislas II., Jagellion)., King of Hungary, (1490-1516 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-638.e., #01161 views041 Ulászló II. (Wladislas II., Jagellion)., King of Hungary, (1490-1516 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-638.e., #01
avers: M•WLADISLAI•R•VNGARIЄ•, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian (Hungarian) stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Bohemian lion in the inner shield.
reverse: PATRON VNGARI•Є, Nimbate and Crowned Madonna seated facing, holding nimbate infant Jesus in her right arm, mint-mark (K-S/Є) on each side; line border.
exergue, mint mark: K/S/Є//-- were struck by Stephanus Ryzmegl and Erasmus Rezl (by Pohl), diameter: 16 mm, weight: 0,52g, axis: 5h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica) by Pohl,
date: 1497 A.D., ref: Unger-638.e., CNH-2-276, Huszár-803, Pohl-238-04,
Q-001

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040_Ulászló_II__(Wladislas_II_,_Jagellion)_,_King_of_Hungary,_(1490-1516_A_D_)_AR_Obulus,_H-813,_P-240-3,_U-647d,_1497AD,_Q-001,_11h,_11,5-12mm,_0,31g-s.jpg
041 Ulászló II. (Wladislas II., Jagellion)., King of Hungary, (1490-1516 A.D.) AR Obulus, H-813, U-647.d., #01183 views041 Ulászló II. (Wladislas II., Jagellion)., King of Hungary, (1490-1516 A.D.) AR Obulus, H-813, U-647.d., #01
avers: No legend, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian (Hungarian) stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), a Bohemian lion in the central shield.
reverse: No legend, Nimbate, and Crowned Madonna seated facing, holding Nimbate infant Jesus in her right arm, mint-mark (K-S/Є) on each side, line border.
exergue, mint mark: K/S/Є//-- were struck by Stephanus Ryzmegl and Erasmus Rezl (by Pohl), diameter: 11,5-12,0 mm, weight: 0,31g, axis: 11h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica) by Pohl,
date: 1497 A.D., (by Pohl), ref: Huszár-813, CNH 2 284, Pohl 240-03, Unger 647.d.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
041b-Commodus_AE-22_AY-KO-MODOS__YATEIPHN_N-eagle_Lydia,_Thyateira_SNG_Cop_602_188-92-AD_Q-001_6h_22mm_5,10g-s.jpg
041bp Commodus (166-180 A.D. as Caesar, 180-192 A.D. as Augustus), Lydia, Thyateira, AE-22, SNG Cop 602, ΘYATEIPH/NΩN, Eagle standing on line,84 views041bp Commodus (166-180 A.D. as Caesar, 180-192 A.D. as Augustus), Lydia, Thyateira, AE-22, SNG Cop 602, ΘYATEIPH/NΩN, Eagle standing on line,
avers: AY-KO-MODOS, Laureate-headed bust of Commodus wearing cuirass and paludamentum, right.
revers: ΘYATEIPH/NΩN, Eagle standing on line, facing, head, left, spreading wings.
exe: -/-//NΩN, diameter: 22mm, weight: 5,10g, axis: 6h,
mint: Lydia, Thyateira, date: 188-192 A.D., ref: SNG von Aulock 3220; SNG Tübingen 3855; SNG Copenhagen 602; BMC 87.
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
RI_044m_img.jpg
044 - Hadrian Ae Sestertius - RIC 0541a var.50 viewsObv:- IMP CAES DIVI TRA PARTH F DIVI NER NEP TRAIANO HADRIANO AVG, Laureate bust right with drapery on far shoulder, strap across chest from right to left shoulder
Rev:- PONT MAX TR POT COS, FORT RED/S C in two lines in exergue, Fortuna seated left holding rudder and cornucopiae
Minted in Rome. A.D. 117
Reference:– BMCRE 1111. Cohen 751 var. (cuirassed). RIC II 541a var. (cuirassed).

Quite a scarce coin.
2 commentsmaridvnvm
anon_quinarius.jpg
044/6 Anonymous Quinarius49 viewsAnonymous Quinarius, from 211 B.C., 1.92 g., Cr 44/6, Obv: Helmeted head of Roma, V behind. Rev: Dioscuri riding right, ROMA in linear frame below. Ex HBJ.2 commentsLucas H
Claudius_RIC_I_64.jpg
05 Claudius RIC I 6465 viewsClaudius. 41-54 A.D. Rome Mint 51-2 A.D. (3.32g, 18.4m, 0h). Obv: [TI CLA]VD CAESAR AVG PM TR P XI IMP P P C[OS V], laureate head right. Rev: SPQR/PP/OBCS in three lines in oak wreath. RIC I 64. RSC 96.

Claudius was put on the throne by the Praetorian Guard after the murder of Caligula, and was eventually murdered by Nero’s mother. This is a worn coin and common reverse during Claudius’ reign, but I wanted to obtain it as denarii of Claudius seem few and far between, second only to Gaius in the 12 Caesar series it seems.
4 commentsLucas H
RI_051n_img.jpg
051 - Marcus Aurelius Sestertius - RIC III 100623 viewsObv:– IMP M ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXV, Laureate head right
Rev:– PRIMI/DECEN/NALES/COS III/S C in five lines within laurel wreath
Minted in Rome mint. A.D. 170-171
Reference:– Cohen 497. RIC III 1006.
maridvnvm
Karolus-III(VI)_POLTURA_1715_U2-1202_H-1631_J_N__P-H_Q-001_0h_18-19,5mm_0,90ga-s.jpg
053 Károly III., (Carolus VI. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1711-1740 A.D.), AR-Poltura, U2-1202, /1715, #01100 views053 Károly III., (Carolus VI. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1711-1740 A.D.), AR-Poltura, U2-1202, /1715, #01
avers: CAROLUS•VI•D:G:R:I:S:A:G:H:H:B:R•, Emperor bust right in circle, border of dots.
revers: P-H//POLTURA/*1715*/*, Madonna seated facing, holding infant Jesus in her left arm, P - H (Patrona - Hungariae) on each side, POLTURA / date below, border of line and border of dots.
diameter: 18-19,5mm, weight: 0,90g, axis: 0h,
mint: Hungary, mint mark: P-H//POLTURA/*1715*/*,,
date: 1715 A.D., ref: Unger-2 1202/1715, Huszar 1631,
Q-001
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055_Diadumenian_(217-218_A_D__Caesar,_218_A_D__Augustus),_Nicopolis_ad_Istrum,_HHJ-08_25_54_02,_Moesia_Inferior-Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
055p Diadumenian (217-218 A.D. Caesar, 218 A.D. Augustus), Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, HrHJ (2012) 08.25.54.02, AE-16, NIKO/POΛITΩ/N-ΠROC/ICTRΩ/*,69 views055p Diadumenian (217-218 A.D. Caesar, 218 A.D. Augustus), Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, HrHJ (2012) 08.25.54.02, AE-16, NIKO/POΛITΩ/N-ΠROC/ICTRΩ/*,
avers:- K-M-OΠΠΕΛ_ANTONINOC, Bare head right.
revers:- NIKO/POΛITΩ/N-ΠROC/ICTRΩ/*, Legend 5 line, star below.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 15-16mm, weight: 2,50g, axis: 6 h,
mint: Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, date: 218 A.D., ref: Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov 8.25.54.2,
Q-001
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055_Diadumenian_(217-218_A_D__Caesar,_218_A_D__Augustus),_Nicopolis_ad_Istrum,_HHJ-08_25_54_07,_Moesia_Inferior-Q-001_1h_17-17,7mm_3,50ga-s~0.jpg
055p Diadumenian (217-218 A.D. Caesar, 218 A.D. Augustus), Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, HrHJ (2012) 08.25.54.07, AE-17, NIKO/•POΛI•/TΩN-ΠR/C-ICTR, Legend in 4 line,114 views055p Diadumenian (217-218 A.D. Caesar, 218 A.D. Augustus), Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, HrHJ (2012) 08.25.54.07, AE-17, NIKO/•POΛI•/TΩN-ΠR/C-ICTR, Legend in 4 line,
avers:- K-M-OΠΠΕΛ-ANTONINOC, Bare head right.
revers:- NIKO/•POΛI•/TΩN-ΠR/C-ICTR, Legend in 4 line.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 17-17,7mm, weight: 3,50g, axis:1h,
mint: Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, date: 218 A.D., ref: Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2012) 8.25.54.07,
Q-001
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055_Diadumenianus_AE-18_KM_OPEL_DIA_-_DOVMENIA_-_NOC_NIKO__O_IT__N-_POC_ICTP__Nikopolis_Q-001_axis-0h_18-18,5mm_3,99g-s~0.jpg
055p Diadumenian (217-218 A.D. Caesar, 218 A.D. Augustus), Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, HrHJ (2012) 08.25.54.??, (2012) Not in, Moesia Inferior, NIKO/POΛIT/ΩN-ΠROC/ICTRΩ/, Legend 4 line, New variation!!!,62 views055p Diadumenian (217-218 A.D. Caesar, 218 A.D. Augustus), Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, HrHJ (2012) 08.25.54.??, (2012) Not in, Moesia Inferior, NIKO/POΛIT/ΩN-ΠROC/ICTRΩ/, Legend 4 line, New variation!!!,
avers:- K-M-OΠΕΛ-ΔIAΔOVMENIA-NOC, Bare head right. (like HHJ-8.25.16.1)
revers:- NIKO/POΛIT/ΩN-ΠROC/ICTRΩ/, Legend 4 line. (like HHJ 8.25.54.05)
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 18-18,5mm, weight: 3,99g, axis: 0 h,
mint: Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, date: 218 A.D., ref: Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov Not in, new variation!!!
Q-001
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56_4_PanoramaBlack1.jpg
056/4 Subgroup 85 & 86A AE Triens60 viewsAnonymous. Ae Triens. Apulia. 212-208 BC. (9.08 g, 23.72 g) Obv: Helmeted head of Minerva right, four pellets above. Rev: ROMA, prow right, four pellets below.

Originally defined as Crawford 56/4, this type of Triens have been assigned to subgroup 85 & 86A. This is a Q or H triens, that is missing the Q or H. Andrew McCabe gives the subgroup the number F1 which has the following characteristics:

"Mint: Apulia. Second Punic war. Related to RRC 85 H, and RRC 86 anchor and Q. Obverses are in high relief. The general style, for examples Janus, or Hercules’ truncation, or the regular reverse prow, is like RRC 86 anchor and Q. Reverses of Sextans and Quadrans have either regular, or Luceria style, prows with a club in an elevated fighting platform. On regular reverses, the top and central keel lines join half way across prow. Flans are thin and broad akin to late issues of Luceria. All denominations As through Sextans are known."

"The regular reverse prow is tall (height/width) with a fighting platform and deck structure elevated more than usual, and there is always a line extending either side of the deck structure. The keel-lines are also distinctive, with the middle of the three lines always converging with the top line half way across the prow... These specific design features – especially the middle keel line converging with the upper line half way across the prow – are identical with and typical of the RRC 86A Q series from Apulia58... The obverses of all denominations are in high relief, and show high quality engraving."

"So a close geographic and timing link between the Anchor Q, H, L, L-T, CA and P coins can be posited. These coins are certainly a second Punic war issue from Apulia. It remains open for discussion which city minted these group F1 coins, presumably alongside the RRC 85 and RRC 86 issues."

This is one out of six specimens: "F1 Triens: 6 coins, mean 9.4 grams, heaviest 10.5 grams".

All quotes are from the work of Andrew McCabe.

Link to thread at Forvm Ancient Coins: http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=90604.0

On this topic at Andrew McCabe's homepage: http://andrewmccabe.ancients.info/RRC056.html

I would strongly recommend anyone who wants to learn more about Roman Republican coins to give Andrew McCabe's homepage a visit.


1 commentsPaddy
056_Elagabalus_(218-222_A_D_),_AE-18,_Markianopolis-Moesia-AYT-K-M-AVP-ANT_NINOC_MAP-KIANO-_OLEIT-_N_H-J-6_26_54_2_Q-001_7h_17,5-18mm_3,13g-s~0.jpg
056p Elagabalus (218-222 A.D.), Moesia, Markianopolis, Hristova-Jekov 06.26.54.02., AE-18, MAP/KIANO/ΠOLEI/TΩN,179 views056p Elagabalus (218-222 A.D.), Moesia, Markianopolis, Hristova-Jekov 06.26.54.02., AE-18, MAP/KIANO/ΠOLEI/TΩN,
avers: AVT K M AVP ANTΩNINOC, Laureate head right.
revers: MAP/KIANO/ΠOLEI/TΩN, in four line.
exe: -/-//TΩN, diameter: 17,5-18mm, weight: 3,13g, axis: 7h,
mint: Moesia, Markianopolis, date: 217-218 A.D., ref: Hristova/Jekov (2014): No. 06.26.54.02,
Q-001
quadrans
Galba.jpg
06 Galba51 viewsGalba Denarius. IMP SER GALBA AVG, bare head right / SPQR OB CS, legend in three lines within oak wreath. BMC 34, RSC 287, RIC 167. Weight 3.29 g. Die Axis 6 hr.

2 commentsmix_val
I_Bela_(1060-1063_AD)_U-007_C1-016_H-012_Q-001_3h_16mm_0,37g-s.jpg
06.1. Béla I., King of Hungary, (1060-1063 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 06.1./a1j1.01./29., H-012, U-007, CNH I.-016, + PANONIA, #0173 views06.1. Béla I., King of Hungary, (1060-1063 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 06.1./a1j1.01./29., H-012, U-007, CNH I.-016, + PANONIA, #01
avers: + BELA REX, Cross in a circle of dots; border of dots.
reverse: + PANONIA, Cross in a circle with wedges in the angles; line border.
exergue:-/-//--, diameter: 16mm, weight: 0,37 g, axis: 3h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-012, Unger-007, CNH I.-016,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 06.1./a1j1.01./29.,
Q-001
quadrans
4~0.jpg
061a CRISPUS RIC TRIER 394 R317 views EMPEROR: Crispus
DENOMINATION: AE reduced follis
OBVERSE: IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES; laureate & cuirassed bust left, holding spear over shoulder & shield on left arm
REVERSE: BEATA TRAN-QVILLITAS, large globe on an altar inscribed VO-TIS- XX in three lines, three stars above
EXERGUE: ●STR●
MINT: Trier
WEIGHT:
RIC VII Trier 394 (R3)
Barnaba6
RI_064be_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 453 var20 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV P-ERTE AVG IMP - II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT R-DVC, Fortuna (Hilaritas), standing front, head left, holding long palm and cornucopiae
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare, A.D. 194
References:– RIC 453 var. (Scarce), RSC 157

This coin varies from the standard RIC 453 in a couple of ways. The obverse legend carries the PERTE instead of PERET. The reverse legend is missing the E from REDVC.

The lines visible on the field of the coin may signify some filing applied to a possibly rusty die or even smotthing down burrs from a freshly made die.
maridvnvm
RI 064be img~0.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 453 var76 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV P-ERTE AVG IMP - II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT R-DVC, Fortuna (Hilaritas), standing front, head left, holding long palm and cornucopiae
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare, A.D. 194
References:– RIC 453 var. (Scarce), RSC 157

This coin varies from the standard RIC 453 in a couple of ways. The obverse legend carries the PERTE instead of PERET. The reverse legend is missing the E from REDVC.

The lines visible on the field of the coin may signify some filing applied to the freshly prepaired die. A circle is also visible which is probably a guide line for the engraving of the legend.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_064sq_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus limes Denarius - copies RIC 520a 14 viewsLimes Denarius
Obv:– L SEPT SEV AVG IMP XI PART MAX. Laureate head right
Rev:– VOTIS / DECEN / NALI / BVS. Legend in 4 lines, all within wreath
Copies a coin minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 194
Reference(s) – Copies RIC IV 520a
maridvnvm
Rep_AR-Den-Ser_L_Roscius-Fabatus_Head-Juno-Sospita-r_-lizard-behind-L_ROSCI-below_Girl-Snake-in-ex-FABATI_Crawford-412-1_Syd-915_Rome_64-BC_Q-001_axis-1h_17,5-19,5mm_3,00g-s.jpg
064 B.C., L. Roscius Fabatus, Rebublic AR-Denarius Serratus, Crawford 412/1, Rome, Maiden and Snake, FABATI,85 views064 B.C., L. Roscius Fabatus, Rebublic AR-Denarius Serratus, Crawford 412/1, Rome, Maiden and Snake, FABATI,
avers:- Juno Sospita right, wearing goat-skin headdress; L ROSC below; behind, lizard,
revers: - Maiden standing right, feeding snake holding itself erect before her, control symbol tortoise walking right on own ground line in left field, FABATI in exergue.
exerg: -/-//FABATI, diameter: 17,5-19,5 mm, weight: 3,00g, axis: 1h,
mint: Rome, date: 64 B.C., ref: Crawford 412/1,,
Q-001
quadrans
070.jpg
069 Julian II7 viewsEMPEROR: Julian II
DENOMINATION: AE3
OBVERSE: DN FL CL IVLI-ANVS PF AVG, helmeted, pearl-diademed, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield
REVERSE: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within a wreath with a fancy bow
EXERGUE: BSIRM
DATE: 361-363 AD
MINT: Sirmium
WEIGHT:
RIC VIII Sirmium 108
Barnaba6
Galba_RIC_I_168_Clashed_Dies.jpg
07 Galba RIC I 168 Clashed dies25 viewsGalba. AR Denarius. Rome Mint July 68- Jan. 69 A.D. (3.29g, 19.6m, 11h). Obv: IMP SER GALBA AVG, laureate head right. Rev: [SPQR/OB]/CS in three lines in oak-wreath. Reverse clashed dies. RIC I 168 (R). RSC 287a.

With complete obverse legends and a high relief portrait, the obverse is worn and the coin is on an oblong flan. The reason I added this to my collection is the reverse. I initially thought the reverse was an obverse brockage, which had been restruck. A more experienced collector pointed out it was produced by clashed dies. An interesting oddity.
Lucas H
galba,_RIC_I_167.jpg
07 Galba, RIC I 16749 viewsGalba July, 68-Jan., 69. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. Aug-Oct 68 A.D. (3.07g, 17.8mm, 6h). Obv: IMP SER GALBA AVG, bare head right. Rev: SPQR OB CS in 3 lines within oak wreath. RIC I 167, RSC 287, Sear 2109.

Upon the death of Nero, Galba’s troops proclaimed him emperor on April 3, 68 A.D. Governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, he marched on Rome and assumed the throne, but was assassinated in a plot by Otho on January 15, 69 beginning the year of 4 emperors.
1 commentsLucas H
Salamon_(1063-1074_AD)_AR-Denar_U-009_C1-020_H-015_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
07.3. Salamon., (Solomon ), King of Hungary, (1063-1074 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 07.3./a1.04./05., H-015, CNH I.-020, U-009, + PANONIA TERA, #01134 views07.3. Salamon., (Solomon ), King of Hungary, (1063-1074 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 07.3./a1.04./05., H-015, CNH I.-020, U-009, + PANONIA TERA, #01
avers: + S ALOM ONI RE X, King standing to face, raising both hands, line border.
reverse: + PANONIA TERA, Cross in a circle with wedges in the angles, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-015, CNH I.-020, Unger-009,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 07.3./a1.04./05.,
Q-001
quadrans
Salamon_U-10_C1-22_H-17_Q-001_10h_17,0mm_0,56ga-s.jpg
07.5. Salamon., (Solomon ), King of Hungary, (1063-1074 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 07.5./b3f1.01/71., H-017, CNH I.-022, U-010, + PA/NON/IA, #01110 views07.5. Salamon., (Solomon ), King of Hungary, (1063-1074 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 07.5./b3f1.01/71., H-017, CNH I.-022, U-010, + PA/NON/IA, #01
avers: + REX SALOMONI, Crowned bust facing, holding a cross, in a circle of dots, the border of dots.
reverse: + PA/NON/IA in three lines, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17,0 mm, weight: 0,56 g, axis: 10 h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-017, CNH I.-022, Unger-010,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 07.5./b3f1.01/71.,
Q-001
quadrans
071.jpg
070 JULIAN II 15 viewsEMPEROR: Julian II
DENOMINATION:Siliqua
OBVERSE: FL CL IVLIA-NVS PF AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
REVERSE: / VOTIS V MVLTIS X in four lines within wreath
EXERGUE: LVG
DATE:
MINT: Lugdunum
WEIGHT: 1.78 g
RIC VIII Lyons 218
Barnaba6
072.jpg
070a VALENS9 viewsEMPEROR: Valens
DENOMINATION: Siliqua
OBVERSE: DN VALEN-S PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
REVERSE: / VOT V MV dot LT X in four lines within wreath.
EXERGUE RB
DATE: 364-378 AD
MINT: Roma
WEIGHT: 1.82 g
RIC IX Rome 10c
Barnaba6
662_P_Hadrian_RPC732.jpg
0732 THRACE, Bizya, Hadrian Banquet scene31 viewsReference.
RPC III 732; Jurukova 8

Obv: ΑΥΤ ΤΡΑΙΑΝ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС ΚΑΙ СΕΒ.
Laureate bust right, with slight drapery, on shoulder, strap across chest

Rev: ΒΙΖΥΗΝΩΝ.
banquet scene: symposiast reclining l. on klinč; woman seated at his feet; on r., forepart of horse, l., right foreleg raised; on l., a boy.

10.30 gr
25 mm
6h
2 commentsokidoki
A-11_Rep_AR-Den_M_Volteius-M_f_-Laur-Head-Jupiter-r__Capitolin-Temple-M_VOLTEI_M_F_-below_Crawford-385-1_Syd-774_Rome_78-BC_Q-001_axis-10h_16,5-17,5mm_3,69g-s.jpg
078 B.C., M.Volteius M.f., Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 385/1, Rome, Capitoline temple, M•VOLTEI•M•F, 115 views078 B.C., M.Volteius M.f., Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 385/1, Rome, Capitoline temple, M•VOLTEI•M•F,
avers: Laureate head of Jupiter right, border of dots.
reverse: M•VOLTEI•M•F, Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus with closed doors, thunderbolt on the pediment.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17mm, weight: 3,69g, axis: 4h,
mint: Rome, date: 78 B.C., ref: Crawford 385/1, Sydenham 774,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Géza_Dux,_(1064-1074),_08_01_-b4f1_06-42_,_H-18,_C1-23,_U-12,_Q-001,_1h,_18,8mm,_0,71g-s.jpg
08.1. Géza Dux, Dux of Hungary, (1064-1074 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 08.1./b4f1.06./42., H-018, CNH I.-023, U-012, + PANONAI, #0161 views08.1. Géza Dux, Dux of Hungary, (1064-1074 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 08.1./b4f1.06./42., H-018, CNH I.-023, U-012, + PANONAI, #01
avers: + DVX MVONAꙄ, Cross in a circle of dots, the border of dots.
reverse: + PANONAI, Cross in a circle with wedges in the angles, line border.
exergue:-/-//--, diameter: 18,8mm, weight: 0,71 g, axis: 1h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-018, Unger-012, CNH I.-023,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 08.1./b4f1.06./42.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
TheopSB1667.jpg
0829-0842 AD - Theophilus - Sear 1667 - Follis39 viewsEmperor: Theophilus (r. 829-842 AD)
Date: 829-842 AD
Condition: VF
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: ΘEOFIL' bASIL'
Three-quarter length figure facing, wearing loros and crown surmounted by tufa (which is ornamented with pellets); he holds labarum in right hand and globus cruciger in left hand.

Reverse: +ΘEO / FILE AV / OVSE SV/ ICAS in four lines.

Constantinople mint
Sear 1667
6.49g; 27.0mm; 195°
Pep
084_B_C_,_C_Licinius_L_f_Macer,_AR-den,_C_LICINIVS_L_F_MACER,_Cr354-1,_Syd_732,_Babelon_Licinia_16,_Q-001,_9h,_18,5-20,5mm,_g-s.jpg
084 B.C., C.Licinius.L.f Macer, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 354/1, Rome, C•LNIVS•L•F/MACER in two line, Minerva in quadriga right, #1153 views084 B.C., C.Licinius.L.f Macer, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 354/1, Rome, C•LNIVS•L•F/MACER in two line, Minerva in quadriga right, #1
avers: Diademed bust of Vejovis left, seen from behind, hurling the thunderbolt.
reverse: C•LNIVS•L•F/MACER in two line, Minerva in quadriga right with javelin and shield.
exergue: -/-//C•LNIVS•L•F/MACER, diameter: 18,5-20,5mm, weight: 3,91g, axis: 9h,
mint: Rome, date: 84 B.C., ref: Crawford 354/1, Sydenham 732, Licinia 16,
Q-001
4 commentsquadrans
Elagabalus-RIC-52.jpg
09. Elagabalus year V.11 views Denarius, Jan. 1 - Mar. 11, 222 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG / Laureate bust of Elagabalus.
Reverse: PM TR P V COS IIII P P / Elagabalus standing, sacrificing over an altar, holding a patera and club. Star in field.
3.49 gm., 19 mm.
RIC #52.

This coin is from the last two and a half months of Elagabalus' reign. The reverse die shows damage due to "die clashing." An outline of the back of Elagabalus' head can be seen under COS IIII.
Callimachus
BasIISear1813.jpg
0976-1025 AD - Basil II (Bulgaroktonos) - Anonymous Follis, Class A213 viewsEmperor: Basil II (Bulgaroktonos) (r. 976-1025 AD)
Date: 976-1025 AD
Condition: Fair
Denomination: Anonymous Follis, Class A2

Obverse: -
Bust of Christ facing, bearded, with nimbus cross having in each arm, wearing tunic and himation; right hand raised in blessing in sling of cloak, left holds book with probable in jeweled border. In field, - .

Reverse: ///
above and beneath.

Sear 1813; probable DO A2.25
15.47g; 35.3mm; 30°
Pep
BasIIDOA2_24.jpg
0976-1025 AD - Basil II (Bulgaroktonos) - Anonymous Follis, Class A2.2420 viewsEmperor: Basil II (Bulgaroktonos) (r. 976-1025 AD)
Date: 976-1025 AD
Condition: aVF
Denomination: Anonymous Follis, Class A2

Obverse: -
Bust of Christ facing, bearded, with nimbus cross having in each arm, wearing tunic and himation; right hand raised in blessing in sling of cloak, left holds book with in jeweled border. In field, - .

Reverse: ///
above and beneath.

DO A2.24; Sear 1813
13.40g; 29.0mm; 180°
Pep
987_P_Hadrian_RPC986.jpg
0986 BITHYNIA Koinon of Bithynia Hadrian Ae 33 Distyle temple13 viewsReference
RPC III, 986var (bust);

Issue Bronze; I. 1

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, right.

Rev. ΚΟΙ-ΝΟΝ ΒΕΙΘΥΝΙΑС
Distyle temple on podium of two steps; within, Capitoline triad: in the centre, Zeus stands facing, resting with r. hand on long sceptre, between Hera, l. standing r. and Athena, r., standing l. Hera rests with l. hand on long sceptre. Athena crowns Zeus and holds an aphlaston in her l. hand; sacrificing Genius over altar with patera in hand, in pediment; Victories on raking cornices and on apex (?)

23.26 gr
33 mm
6h

Note.
New bust
Temple like RPC III, 986
Figures like RPC III, 985
okidoki
MariusFundania1Denarius.jpg
0aa Caius Marius40 viewsC. Fundanius, moneyer
101-91 BC

Denarius

Helmeted head of Roma right, control-mark C behind

"Triumphator" (Marius) in quadriga right, holding laurel-branch and staff; a rider sits on near horse, holding laurel-branch, Q above, C FVNDAN in exergue

The reverse shows Marius as triumphator in the quadriga. He holds sceptre and laurel branch. On one of the horses rides his son. The children of the triumphator were - according to tradition - allowed to share the triumph of their father. The Q above refers to the office as quaestor the mintmaster held while minting these coins. FORVM Ancient Coins says of a similar piece, "The reverse refers to Marius triumph after victories over the Cimbri and Teutones. The rider on the near horse is Marius's son, at that time eight years old." Andrew McCabe comments, "The Triumphator on the Fundania denarius is usually taken to be Marius, with his young son on horseback. This would make it the first Roman coin to explicitly portray a living Roman politician. "

Seaby Fundania 1

Marius rose from common origins to become the First Man in Rome. Plutarch in his Life writes: There is a likeness of Marius in stone at Ravenna, in Gaul, which I myself saw quite corresponding with that roughness of character that is ascribed to him. Being naturally valiant and warlike, and more acquainted also with the discipline of the camp than of the city, he could not moderate his passion when in authority. . . . He was born of parents altogether obscure and indigent, who supported themselves by their daily labour; his father of the same name with himself, his mother called Fulcinia. He had spent a considerable part of his life before he saw and tasted the pleasures of the city; having passed previously in Cirrhaeaton, a village of the territory of Arpinum, a life, compared with city delicacies, rude and unrefined, yet temperate, and conformable to the ancient Roman severity. He first served as a soldier in the war against the Celtiberians, when Scipio Africanus besieged Numantia; where he signalized himself to his general by courage far above his comrades, and particularly by his cheerfully complying with Scipio's reformation of his army, being almost ruined by pleasures and luxury. It is stated, too, that he encountered and vanquished an enemy in single combat, in his general's sight. In consequence of all this he had several honours conferred upon him; and once when at an entertainment a question arose about commanders, and one of the company (whether really desirous to know, or only in complaisance) asked Scipio where the Romans, after him, should obtain such another general, Scipio, gently clapping Marius on the shoulder as he sat next him, replied, "Here, perhaps. . . ."

The consul Caecilius Metellus, being declared general in the war against Jugurtha in Africa took with him Marius for lieutenant; where, eager himself to do great deeds and services that would get him distinction, he did not, like others, consult Metellus's glory and the serving his interest, and attributing his honour of lieutenancy not to Metellus, but to fortune, which had presented him with a proper opportunity and theatre of great actions, he exerted his utmost courage. . . . Marius thus employed, and thus winning the affections of the soldiers, before long filled both Africa and Rome with his fame, and some, too, wrote home from the army that the war with Africa would never be brought to a conclusion unless they chose Caius Marius consul. . . .He was elected triumphantly, and at once proceeded to levy soldiers contrary both to law and custom, enlisting slaves and poor people; whereas former commanders never accepted of such, but bestowed arms, like other favours, as a matter of distinction, on persons who had the proper qualification, a man's property being thus a sort of security for his good behavior. . . .

[In Marius' fourth consulship,] The enemy dividing themselves into two parts, the Cimbri arranged to go against Catulus higher up through the country of the Norici, and to force that passage; the Teutones and Ambrones to march against Marius by the seaside through Liguria. . . . The Romans, pursuing them, slew and took prisoners above one hundred thousand, and possessing themselves of their spoil, tents, and carriages, voted all that was not purloined to Marius's share, which, though so magnificent a present, yet was generally thought less than his conduct deserved in so great a danger. . . . After the battle, Marius chose out from amongst the barbarians' spoils and arms those that were whole and handsome, and that would make the greatest show in his triumph; the rest he heaped upon a large pile, and offered a very splendid sacrifice. Whilst the army stood round about with their arms and garlands, himself attired (as the fashion is on such occasions) in the purple-bordered robe, and taking a lighted torch, and with both hands lifting it up towards heaven, he was then going to put it to the pile, when some friends were espied with all haste coming towards him on horseback. Upon which every one remained in silence and expectation. They, upon their coming up, leapt off and saluted Marius, bringing him the news of his fifth consulship, and delivered him letters to that effect. This gave the addition of no small joy to the solemnity; and while the soldiers clashed their arms and shouted, the officers again crowned Marius with a laurel wreath, and he thus set fire to the pile, and finished his sacrifice.
Blindado
bull-horseman.jpg
1 jital - Kabul Shahi16 viewsUnknown

850 - 970 CE ???????

Obverse : Horseman holding spear, riding horse to right.

Reverse : Reclined bull. Samanta Deva in nagari.
Pericles J2
Augusto_COLONIA_PATRICIA.jpg
1-2-4 - AUGUSTUS (27 A.C. - 14 D.C.)51 viewsColonia Patricia
Hispania Ulterior Bética

AE AS 26 mm 10.9 gr

Anv: ”PERM CAES AVG” – Cabeza desnuda, viendo a izquierda.
Rev: ”COLONIA PATRICIA” – Leyenda en dos lineas, dentro de una corona de hojas de roble.

Acuńada: aproximadamente 18 A.C. - 14 D.C.

Referencias: RPC #129 – SNG Cop #466 - Alvarez Burgos #1563 - Sear GICV I #16, Pag.3 - Sear '88 #537 - Cohen #607, Pag.150 - Lindgren #87 - Vives #165.3 - Heiss #6, Pag.298
mdelvalle
Augusto_JULIA_TRADUCTA.jpg
1-3-4 - AUGUSTUS (27 A.C. - 14 D.C.)48 viewsColonia Julia Traducta
Hispania

AE AS 25 mm 13.3 gr

Anv: ”PERM CAES AVG” – Cabeza desnuda, viendo a izquierda.
Rev: ”IVLIA TRAD” – Leyenda en dos lineas, dentro de una corona de hojas de roble.

Acuńada: aproximadamente 15 A.C. - 14 D.C.

Referencias: RPC #108 – SNG Cop #459 - Sear GICV I #18, Pag.3 - Sear '88 #538 - Cohen #623, Pag.151 - Vives #164.13 - Heiss #2, Pag.336
mdelvalle
imgonline-com-ua-2to1-p1a9bWSjPGkmi.jpg
1.3 Bavaria. Ludwig II. Taler. 1867, KM877.15 viewsRuslan K
Laszlo-I_(1077-1095_AD)_U-019_C1-027_H-023_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
10.03. László I., "St. Ladislaus !", King of Hungary, (1077-1095 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 10.03./a2.01./04., H-023, CNH I.-027, U-019, #01141 views10.03. László I., "St. Ladislaus !", King of Hungary, (1077-1095 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 10.03./a2.01./04., H-023, CNH I.-027, U-019, #01
avers: +LADIꙄLAVꙄ RE, Crowned bust facing in a circle of dots.
reverse: +LADISLAVS RE, Cross in a circle, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-023, CNH I.-027, Unger-019,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 10.03./a2.01./04.,
Q-001
quadrans
Laszlo-I_(1077-1095_AD)_U-019_C1-027_H-023_Q-002_10h_20mm_0,66g-s.jpg
10.03. László I., "St. Ladislaus !", King of Hungary, (1077-1095 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 10.03./b1.02./11., H-023, CNH I.-027, U-019, #01280 views10.03. László I., "St. Ladislaus !", King of Hungary, (1077-1095 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 10.03./b1.02./11., H-023, CNH I.-027, U-019, #01
avers: +LADIꙄLAVꙄ RE, Crowned bust facing in a circle of dots.
reverse: +LADISLAVS RE, Cross in a circle, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 20,0mm, weight: 0,66g, axis: 10h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-023, CNH I.-027, Unger-019,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 10.03./b1.02./11.,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
László_I__(1077-1095_AD),_CÁC_I__10_03_-b1_02_-07,_H-023,_C1-027,_U-019,_Q-002,_5h,_17mm,_0,54g-s.jpg
10.03. László I., "St. Ladislaus !", King of Hungary, (1077-1095 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 10.03./b1.02./11., H-023, CNH I.-027, U-019, #0264 views10.03. László I., "St. Ladislaus !", King of Hungary, (1077-1095 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 10.03./b1.02./11., H-023, CNH I.-027, U-019, #02
slightly circled !
avers: +LADIꙄLAVꙄ RE, Crowned bust facing in a circle of dots.
reverse: +LADISLAVS RE, Cross in a circle, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17,0mm, weight: 0,54g, axis: 5h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-023, CNH I.-027, Unger-019,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 10.03./b1.02./11.,
Q-002
1 commentsquadrans
Laszlo-I_(1077-1095_AD)_U-017_C1-028_H-024_Q-001_9h_19,5mm_0,80g.jpg
10.04. László I., "St. Ladislaus !", King of Hungary, (1077-1095 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 10.04./a4.01./08., H-024, CNH I.-028, U-017, #0172 views10.04. László I., "St. Ladislaus !", King of Hungary, (1077-1095 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 10.04./a4.01./08., H-024, CNH I.-028, U-017, #01
avers: +LADIꙄLAVꙄ RE, Crowned bust facing in a circle of dots; border of crescents.
reverse: +LADISLAVS RE +, Cross in a circle; line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 19,5mm, weight: 0,80 g, axis: 9h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-024, CNH I.-028, Unger-017,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 10.04./a4.01./08.,
Q-001
quadrans
Laszlo-I,_(1077-1095_AD),_CÁC_I__10_05_-f3_03_-52_,_H-025,_C1-031,_U-020,_Q-001,_11h,_19,5mm,_0,75g-s.jpg
10.05. László I., "St. Ladislaus !", King of Hungary, (1077-1095 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 10.05./f3.03./52., H-025, CNH I.-031, U-020, #0164 views10.05. László I., "St. Ladislaus !", King of Hungary, (1077-1095 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 10.05./f3.03./52., H-025, CNH I.-031, U-020, #01
avers: LAD IꙄL AVꙄ REX, Four crosses in each corner in a circle and in the ends, the circle of dots.
reverse: +LADISCLAVS RE, Cross with wedges in a circle, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 19,5mm, weight: 0,75g, axis: 11h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-025, CNH I.-031, Unger-020,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 10.05./f3.03./52.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
010_Laszlo-I_,_King_of_Hungary,_(1077-1095_A_D_),_AR-Denarius,_U-021,_C1-32,_H-26,_Q-001_h,_21mm,_g-s.jpg
10.06. László I., "St. Ladislaus !", King of Hungary, (1077-1095 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 10.06./h1.01./32., H-026, CNH I.-032, U-021, #01200 views10.06. László I., "St. Ladislaus !", King of Hungary, (1077-1095 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 10.06./h1.01./32., H-026, CNH I.-032, U-021, #01
avers: LAD IꙄL AVꙄ REX, Four crosses in each corner in a circle, the circle of dots.
reverse: +LADISLAVS RE, Cross in a circle, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 21mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-026, CNH I.-032, Unger-021,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 10.06./h1.01./32.,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Laszlo-I_(1077-1095_AD)_U-022_C1-033_H-027_Q-001_1h_19,5mm_0,82g-s.jpg
10.08. László I., "St. Ladislaus !", King of Hungary, (1077-1095 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 10.08./a1c1.01./27., H-027, CNH I.-033, U-022, #01224 views10.08. László I., "St. Ladislaus !", King of Hungary, (1077-1095 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 10.08./a1c1.01./27., H-027, CNH I.-033, U-022, #01
avers: LADIꙄLAVꙄ REX, Three long crosses in a circle of dots with dots in the middle and at the bottom, the border of dots.
reverse: LADISLAVS REX, Cross in a circle; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 19,5mm, weight: 0,80 g, axis: 11h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-027, CNH I.-033, Unger-022,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 10.08./a1c1.01./27.,
Q-001
quadrans
Laszlo-I,_(1077-1095_AD),_CÁC_I__10_08_-a3_02_-08_,_H-027,_C1-033,_U-022,_Q-001,_0h,_19mm,_0,79g-s.jpg
10.08. László I., "St. Ladislaus !", King of Hungary, (1077-1095 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 10.08./a3.02./08., H-027, CNH I.-033, U-022, #0165 views10.08. László I., "St. Ladislaus !", King of Hungary, (1077-1095 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 10.08./a3.02./08., H-027, CNH I.-033, U-022, #01
avers: LADIꙄLAVꙄ REX, Three long crosses in a circle of dots with dots in the middle and at the bottom, the border of dots.
reverse: LADISLAVS REX, Cross in a circle; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 19,0mm, weight: 0,79 g, axis: 0h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-027, CNH I.-033, Unger-022,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 10.08./a3.02./08.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Laszlo-I_(1077-1095_AD)_U-023_C1-034_H-028_Q-001_1h_16,5mm_0,51g-s.jpg
10.09. László I., "St. Ladislaus !", King of Hungary, (1077-1095 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 10.09./a1.02./03., H-028, CNH I.-034, U-023, #0199 views10.09. László I., "St. Ladislaus !", King of Hungary, (1077-1095 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 10.09./a1.02./03., H-028, CNH I.-034, U-023, #01
avers: +LADIꙄLAVꙄ RE, Long cross between two smaller ones with dots in the middle and at the bottom, small circles on each side of the large cross; border of dots.
reverse: +LADISLAVS RE, Cross in a circle; line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 16,5mm, weight: 0,51 g, axis: 1h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-028, CNH I.-034, Unger-023,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 10.09./a1.02./03.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Laszlo-I_(1077-1095_AD)_U-023_C1-034_H-028_Q-002_h_16,2mm_g-s.jpg
10.09. László I., "St. Ladislaus !", King of Hungary, (1077-1095 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 10.09./a2.04./09., H-028, CNH I.-034, U-023, #01156 views10.09. László I., "St. Ladislaus !", King of Hungary, (1077-1095 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 10.09./a2.04./09., H-028, CNH I.-034, U-023, #01
avers: +LADIꙄLAVꙄ RE, Long cross between two smaller ones with dots in the middle and at the bottom, small circles on each side of the large cross; border of dots.
reverse: +LADISLAVS RE, Cross in a circle; line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 16,2mm, weight: 0,60 g, axis: 10h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-028, CNH I.-034, Unger-023,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 10.09./a2.04./09.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Laszlo-I,_(1077-1095_AD),_10_10_-b1_08_-11_,_H-029,_CNH_I_-036,_U-018,_Q-001,_11h,_19,5mm,_0,80g-s.jpg
10.10. László I., "St. Ladislaus !", King of Hungary, (1077-1095 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 10.10./b1.08./11., H-029, CNH I.-036, U-018, #0161 views10.10. László I., "St. Ladislaus !", King of Hungary, (1077-1095 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 10.10./b1.08./11., H-029, CNH I.-036, U-018, #01
avers: LADIꙄLAVꙄ REX, Wheel with six spokes in a circle of dots, a small cross in the center; border of dots.
reverse: LADISLAVS REX, Cross in a circle; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 19,5mm, weight: 0,80 g, axis: 11h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-029, CNH I.-036, Unger-018,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 10.10./b1.08./11.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Laszlo-I,_(1077-1095_AD),_10_10_-b2_01_-12_,_H-029,_CNH_I_-036,_U-018,_Q-001,_10h,_18mm,_0,75g-s.jpg
10.10. László I., "St. Ladislaus !", King of Hungary, (1077-1095 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 10.10./b2.01./12., H-029, CNH I.-036, U-018, #0164 views10.10. László I., "St. Ladislaus !", King of Hungary, (1077-1095 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 10.10./b2.01./12., H-029, CNH I.-036, U-018, #01
avers: LADIꙄLAVꙄ REX, Wheel with six spokes in a circle of dots, a small cross in the center; border of dots.
reverse: LADISLAVS REX, Cross in a circle; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 18,0mm, weight: 0,75g, axis: 10h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-029, CNH I.-036, Unger-018,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 10.10./b2.01./12.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
LarryW1853.jpg
100 Constantius II, AD 337-36172 viewsGold solidus, 20mm, 4.00g, gF
Struck AD 355-360 at Arles
FL IVL CONSTAN-TIVS PERP AVG, helmeted, diademed and cuirassed facing bust, spear across shoulder in right, shield on left arm / GLORIA REI-PVBLICAE, Roma and Constantinopolis enthroned, holding wreath with VOT XXX MVLT XXXX in four lines, */KONSTAN in ex (TAN in monogram). Graffiti on obverse fields
Ex: Forum Ancient Coins
RIC 238
Lawrence Woolslayer
105_B_C_,_L_Thorius_Balbus,_AR-den,_ISMR,_Head_of_Juno_Sospita_r_,_L_THORIVS_BALBVS,_Bull_r_,_K,_Cr_316-1,_Syd-598,_Thoria_1,_Sear_192,_Q-001,_6h,_18,5-20,5mm,_3,74g-s.jpg
105 B.C., L.Thorius Balbus, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 316/1, Rome, L•THORIVS/BALBVS in two line, Bull charging right, #1131 views105 B.C., L.Thorius Balbus, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 316/1, Rome, L•THORIVS/BALBVS in two line, Bull charging right, #1
avers: ISMR abbreviated legend behind the head of Juno Sospita right, wearing a goat-skin headdress.
reverse: L•THORIVS/BALBVS in two line, Bull charging right, control letter "K" above.
exergue: -/-//L•THORIVS/BALBVS, diameter: 18,5-20,5mm, weight: 3,83g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 105 B.C., ref: Crawford 316/1, Sydenham 598, Sear 192, Thoria 1,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
NicIIIDOI.jpg
1078-1081 AD - Nicephorus III (Botaniates) - Anonymous Follis, Class I11 viewsEmperor: Nicephorus III (Botaniates) (r. 1078-1081 AD)
Date: 1078-1081 AD
Condition: Fine
Denomination: Anonymous Follis, Class I

Obverse: No legend
Bust of Christ facing, having long, slightly forked beard and cross nimbus with one pellet in each arm, wearing tunic and himation; right hand blessing inwards in sling of cloak, left holds book, with on cover, from beneath. In field, - .

Reverse: No legend
Latin cross with one large and two small pellets at each extremity, small cross at intersection, and pellet with floral ornaments to left and right at base. Above, crescents to left and right.

DO I; Sear 1889
5.13g; 22.9mm; 195°
Pep
NiceIIISB1889.jpg
1078-1081 AD - Nicephorus III - Sear 1889 - Anonymous Follis39 viewsEmperor: Nicephorus III (r. 1078-1081 AD)
Date: 1078-1081 AD
Condition: Fair
Denomination: Anonymous Follis (Class I)

Obverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium, and raising right hand in benediction; in left hand, book of Gospels; to left, ; to right, ; normal border.

Reverse: Latin cross, with X at centre, and globule and two pellets at each extremity; in lower field, on either side, floral ornament; in upper field, on either side, crescent.

Constantinople mint
Sear 1889
3.35g; 25.6mm; 180°
Pep
AlexISear1909.jpg
1081-1118 AD - Alexius I Comnenus - Follis - Thessalonica mint17 viewsEmperor: Alexius I Comnenus (r. 1081-1118 AD)
Date: 1081-1092 AD
Condition: aFair
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: No legend
Bust of the Virgin facing, nimbate and wearing pallium and maphorium; She holds before Her the infant Christ whose nimbate head facing is represented; to left, ; to right, ; on either side of Virgin's head, uncertain wedge-shaped object.

Reverse: - ]
Alexius standing facing, wearing crown and loros, and holding labarum and globus cruciger.

Thessalonica mint
Sear 1909
4.27g; 26.1mm; 165°
Pep
0010-055.jpg
1093 - L. Flaminius Chilo, Denarius 65 viewsRome mint, 109 or 108 BC
Helmeted head of Roma right, ROMA behind head and X below chin
L·FLAMINI/CILO in two lines at exergue. Victory in prancing biga right
19 mm, 3,83 gr
Ref : RCV # 179, RSC Flaminia # 1, Sydenham #540, RBW # 1144, Crawford # 302/1.
From the E.E. Clain-Stefanelli collection
3 commentsPotator II
11_01_-b1_01-15,_Kalman_(1095-1116),_H-031,_C1-038,_U-025,_Q-001,_5h,_18,3mm,_0,42g-s.jpg
11.01. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.01./b1.01./15., H-031, CNH I.-038, U-025, Rare! #0166 views11.01. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.01./b1.01./15., H-031, CNH I.-038, U-025, Rare! #01
avers: CALMAN RE+, Cross with wedges at the ends of the arms and in the angles, in a circle of dots, the border of dots.
reverse: LADISLAVS RE+ (sometimes, Illegible legend), cross in a circle with wedges in the angles, a border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 18,3mm, weight: 0,42g, axis: 5h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-031, CNH I.-038, Unger-025, Rare!
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 11.01./b1.01./15.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Kalman_(1095-1116)_U-033_C1-040_H-032_Q-002_3h_11,6mm_0,38g-s.jpg
11.02. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.02./a1c2.01./after 62 before 63. (New Sigla!), H-032, CNH I.-040, U-033, #0169 views11.02. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.02./a1c2.01./after 62 before 63. (New Sigla!), H-032, CNH I.-040, U-033, #01
avers: +CALMAN RE, Crowned head facing, the border of dots.
reverse: +LADISLAVS RE or illegible legend, cross in a circle with wedges in the angles, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 11,6 mm, weight: 0,38 g, axis: 3h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-032, CNH I.-040, Unger-033,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 11.02./a1c2.01./after 62 before 63. (New Sigla!),
Q-001
quadrans
Kalman_(1095-1116)_U-033_C1-040_H-032_Q-001_0h_11,2mm_0,46g-s.jpg
11.02. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.02./b1.02./29., H-032, CNH I.-040, U-033, #0177 views11.02. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.02./b1.02./29., H-032, CNH I.-040, U-033, #01
avers: +CALMAN RE, Crowned head facing, the border of dots.
reverse: +LADISLAVS RE or illegible legend, cross in a circle with wedges in the angles, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 11,2 mm, weight: 0,46 g, axis: 0h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-032, CNH I.-040, Unger-033,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 11.02./b1.02./29.,
Q-001
quadrans
Kalman_(1095-1116)_U-027_C1-041_H-033_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
11.03. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.03./a2.01./08., H-033, CNH I.-041, U-027, #01101 views11.03. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.03./a2.01./08., H-033, CNH I.-041, U-027, #01
avers: CALMAN RE+, Four crosses in, a circle of dots, the border of dots.
reverse: LADISLAVS REX (sometimes, Illegible legend), cross in a circle with wedges in the angles; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 14mm, weight: 0,45g, axis: 5h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-033, CNH I.-041, Unger-027,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 11.03./a2.01./08.,
Q-001
quadrans
Kalman_(1095-1116)_U-030_C1-042_H-034_Q-005_9h_10,2mm_0,32g-s.jpg
11.05. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.05./a1b1.03./76., H-034, CNH I.-042, U-030, #01242 views11.05. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.05./a1b1.03./76., H-034, CNH I.-042, U-030, #01
avers: +CAL MAN, Three long crosses with dots in the middle and at the bottom; border of dots.
reverse: +LADISLAVS RE, Cross in a circle with wedges in the angles; line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 10,2 mm, weight: 0,32 g, axis: 9h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-034, CNH I.-042, Unger-030,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 11.05./a1b1.03./76.,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Kalman_(1095-1116)_U-030_C1-042_H-034_Q-001_7h_10,2mm_0,32g-s.jpg
11.05. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.05./a3.03./23., H-034, CNH I.-042, U-030, #0184 views11.05. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.05./a3.03./23., H-034, CNH I.-042, U-030, #01
avers: +CAL MAN, Three long crosses with dots in the middle and at the bottom; border of dots.
reverse: +LADISLAVS RE, Cross in a circle with wedges in the angles; line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 10,2 mm, weight: 0,32 g, axis: 7h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-034, CNH I.-042, Unger-030,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 11.05./a3.03./23.,
Q-001
quadrans
Kalman_(1095-1116)_U-030_C1-042_H-034_Q-002_1h_10,4mm_0,37g-s.jpg
11.05. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.05./b1.07./34., H-034, CNH I.-042, U-030, #0172 views11.05. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.05./b1.07./34., H-034, CNH I.-042, U-030, #01
avers: +CAL MAN, Three long crosses with dots in the middle and at the bottom; border of dots.
reverse: +LADISLAVS RE, Cross in a circle with wedges in the angles; line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 10,4 mm, weight: 0,36 g, axis: 1h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-034, CNH I.-042, Unger-030,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 11.05./b1.07./34.,
Q-001
quadrans
Kalman_(1095-1116)_U-030_C1-042_H-034_Q-003_0h_10,7mm_0,39g-s.jpg
11.05. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.05./b1.07./34., H-034, CNH I.-042, U-030, #02201 views11.05. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.05./b1.07./34., H-034, CNH I.-042, U-030, #02
avers: +CAL MAN, Three long crosses with dots in the middle and at the bottom; border of dots.
reverse: +LADISLAVS RE, Cross in a circle with wedges in the angles; line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 10,7 mm, weight: 0,39 g, axis: 0h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-034, CNH I.-042, Unger-030,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 11.05./b1.07./34.,
Q-002
quadrans
Kalman_(1095-1116)_U-030_C1-042_H-034_Q-004_0h_10,5mm_0,31g-s.jpg
11.05. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.05./b2.04./40., H-034, CNH I.-042, U-030, #01178 views11.05. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.05./b2.04./40., H-034, CNH I.-042, U-030, #01
avers: +CAL MAN, Three long crosses with dots in the middle and at the bottom; border of dots.
reverse: +LADISLAVS RE, Cross in a circle with wedges in the angles; line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 10,2 mm, weight: 0,32 g, axis: 7h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-034, CNH I.-042, Unger-030,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 11.05./b2.04./40.,
Q-001
quadrans
Kalman_(1095-1116),__CÁC_I__11_5_-c1_3-51,_H-034,_C1-042,_U-030,_Q-001,_7h,_10,5mm,_0,46g-s.jpg
11.05. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.05./c1.03./51., H-034, CNH I.-042, U-030, #0193 views11.05. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.05./c1.03./51., H-034, CNH I.-042, U-030, #01
avers: +CAL MAN, Three long crosses with dots in the middle and at the bottom; border of dots.
reverse: +LADISLAVS RE, Cross in a circle with wedges in the angles; line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 10,5 mm, weight: 0,46 g, axis: 7h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-034, CNH I.-042, Unger-030,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 11.05./c1.03./51.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
11_6_-b2_04-37_,_Kalman_(1095-1116),_H-035,_C1-043,_U-026,_Q-001,_10h,_11,5mm,_0,55g-s.jpg
11.06. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.06./b2.04./37., H-035, CNH I.-043, U-026, #0169 views11.06. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.06./b2.04./37., H-035, CNH I.-043, U-026, #01
avers: LA BV HA RE, Cross in a circle of dots, with two lines crossing the arms and wedges on the ends, the border of dots.
reverse: +LADISLAVS RE (sometimes, Illegible legend), cross in a circle with wedges in the angles, border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 11,5 mm, weight: 0,55 g, axis: 10h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-035, CNH I.-043, Unger-026,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 11.06./b2.04./37.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Kalman_(1095-1116)_U-028_C1-045_H-037_Q-001_2h_11,6mm_0,47g-s.jpg
11.07. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.07./a1.07./08., H-037, CNH I.-045, U-028, #01312 views11.07. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.07./a1.07./08., H-037, CNH I.-045, U-028, #01
avers: COLVMBANVS REX, Cross, the border of dots.
reverse: LADISLAVS REX (sometimes, Illegible legend), cross in a circle with wedges in the angles; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 11,6 mm, weight: 0,47g, axis: 2h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-037, CNH I.-045, Unger-028,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 11.07./a1.07./08.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
11_07__Kálmán_,_(1095-1116_A_D_),_AR-Den_,_11_07_-b1_06_-35_,_H-037,_CNH_I_-045,_U-028,_Q-001,_7h,_12,5-12,9mm,_0,65g-s.jpg
11.07. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.07./b1.06./35., H-037, CNH I.-045, U-028, #0160 views11.07. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.07./b1.06./35., H-037, CNH I.-045, U-028, #01
avers: COLVMBANVS REX, Cross, the border of dots.
reverse: LADISLAVS REX (sometimes, Illegible legend), cross in a circle with wedges in the angles; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 12,5-12,9 mm, weight: 0,65g, axis: 7h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-037, CNH I.-045, Unger-028,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 11.07./b1.06./35.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
11_07__Kálmán_,_(1095-1116_A_D_),_AR-Den_,_11_07_-h1_01_-67_,_H-037,_CNH_I_-045,_U-028,_Q-001,_3h,_12,8mm,_0,54g-s.jpg
11.07. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.07./h1.01./67., H-037, CNH I.-045, U-028, #0162 views11.07. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.07./h1.01./67., H-037, CNH I.-045, U-028, #01
avers: COLVMBANVS REX, Cross, the border of dots.
reverse: LADISLAVS REX (sometimes, Illegible legend), cross in a circle with wedges in the angles; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 12,8 mm, weight: 0,54g, axis: 3h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-037, CNH I.-045, Unger-028,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 11.07./h1.01./67.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Kalman,_(1095-1116_AD),_CÁC_I__11_8_-a1b1_1-49,_H-038,_C1-046,_U-029,_Q-001,_6h,_12-13mm,_0,56g-s.jpg
11.08. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.08./a1b1.01./49., H-038, CNH I.-046, U-029, #0164 views11.08. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.08./a1b1.01./49., H-038, CNH I.-046, U-029, #01
avers: ✠ CALMAN RE, Crossleted cross in the circle of dots with lines in the angles; border of dots.
reverse: ✠ LA(D)I(S)LAVS RE (sometimes, Illegible legend), cross in a circle with wedges in the angles; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 12,0-13,0 mm, weight: 0,56 g, axis: 6h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-038, CNH I.-046, Unger-029,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 11.08./a1b1.01./49.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Kalman_U-029_C1-046_H-037_Q-003_h_13mm_0,45g-s.jpg
11.08. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.08./a2.02./09., H-038, CNH I.-046, U-029, #01233 views11.08. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.08./a2.02./09., H-038, CNH I.-046, U-029, #01
avers: +CALMAN RE, crossleted cross in a circle of dots with lines in the angles; border of dots.
reverse: +LADISLAVS RE (sometimes, Illegible legend), cross in a circle with wedges in the angles; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 13,3 mm, weight: 0,48 g, axis: 5h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-038, CNH I.-046, Unger-029,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 11.08./a2.02./09.,
Q-001
quadrans
Kalman_(1095-1116)_U-029_C1-046_H-038_Q-002_5h_13,3mm_0,48g-s.jpg
11.08. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.08./a2.03./10., H-038, CNH I.-046, U-029, #0177 views11.08. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.08./a2.03./10., H-038, CNH I.-046, U-029, #01
avers: +CALMAN RE, crossleted cross in the circle of dots with lines in the angles; border of dots.
reverse: +LADISLAVS RE (sometimes, Illegible legend), cross in a circle with wedges in the angles; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 13,3 mm, weight: 0,48 g, axis: 5h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-038, CNH I.-046, Unger-029,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 11.08./a2.03./10.,
Q-001
quadrans
Kalman,_(1095-1116_AD),_CÁC_I__11_8_b2_6-24,_H-037,_C1-046,_U-029,_Q-004,_2h,_11,2mm,_0,36g-s.jpg
11.08. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.08./b2.06./24., H-038, CNH I.-046, U-029, #01123 views11.08. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.08./b2.06./24., H-038, CNH I.-046, U-029, #01
avers: ✠ CALMAN RE, Crossleted cross in the circle of dots with lines in the angles; border of dots.
reverse: ✠ LA(D)I(S)LAVS RE (sometimes, Illegible legend), cross in a circle with wedges in the angles; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 11,2 mm, weight: 0,36 g, axis: 2h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-038, CNH I.-046, Unger-029,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 11.08./b2.06./24.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Kalman,_(1095-1116_AD),_CÁC_I__11_8_d1_6-42,_H-038,_C1-046,_U-029,_Q-001,_5h,_11mm,_0,39g-s.jpg
11.08. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.08./d1.06./42., H-038, CNH I.-046, U-029, #0164 views11.08. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.08./d1.06./42., H-038, CNH I.-046, U-029, #01
avers: +CALMAN RE, crossleted cross in a circle of dots with lines in the angles; border of dots.
reverse: +LADISLAVS RE (sometimes, Illegible legend), cross in a circle with wedges in the angles; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 11,0 mm, weight: 0,39 g, axis: 5h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-038, CNH I.-046, Unger-029,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 11.08./d1.06./42.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Kalman_(1095-1116)_U-029_C1-046_H-038_Q-001_7h_12,2mm_0,49g-s.jpg
11.08. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.08./h1.05./47., H-038, CNH I.-046, U-029, #0183 views11.08. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.08./h1.05./47., H-038, CNH I.-046, U-029, #01
avers: +CALMAN RE, crossleted cross in the circle of dots with lines in the angles; border of dots.
reverse: +LADISLAVS RE (sometimes, Illegible legend), cross in a circle with wedges in the angles; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 12,2 mm, weight: 0,49 g, axis: 7h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-038, CNH I.-046, Unger-029,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 11.08./h1.05./47.,
Q-001
quadrans
011_Kalman_(1095-1116_A_D_)_U-032_C1-047_H-039_Q-003_8h_11,2mm_0,37g-s.jpg
11.09. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.09./a2.09./22., H-039, CNH I.-047, U-032, #01117 views11.09. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.09./a2.09./22., H-039, CNH I.-047, U-032, #01
avers: +VDVNAE/ +ADANVE (Retrograde), cross with crescents in the angles, border of dots.,
reverse: +LADLAASE/+LADLAVS/+LADLAS or lines in place of legend, cross in a circle with wedges in the angles, border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 11,2 mm, weight: 0,37 g, axis: 8h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-039, CNH I.-047, Unger-032,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 11.09./a2.09./22.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
011_Kalman_(1095-1116_A_D_)_U-032_C1-047_H-039_Q-002_2h_11,3mm_0,38g-s.jpg
11.09. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.09./b2.02./35., H-039, CNH I.-047, U-032, #0191 views11.09. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.09./b2.02./35., H-039, CNH I.-047, U-032, #01
avers: +VDVNAE/ +ADANVE (Retrograde), cross with crescents in the angles, border of dots.,
reverse: +LADLAASE/+LADLAVS/+LADLAS or lines in place of legend, cross in a circle with wedges in the angles, border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 11,3 mm, weight: 0,38 g, axis: 2h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-039, CNH I.-047, Unger-032,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 11.09./b2.02./35.,
Q-001
quadrans
11_09__Kálmán_,_(1095-1116_A_D_),_AR-Denarius,_CÁC_I__11_09_-b3_02_-41_,_H-039,_CNH_I_-047,_U-032,_Q-001,_6h,_11mm,_0,35g-s.jpg
11.09. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.09./b3.02./41., H-039, CNH I.-047, U-032, #01114 views11.09. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.09./b3.02./41., H-039, CNH I.-047, U-032, #01
avers: +VDVNAE/ +ADANVE (Retrograde), cross with crescents in the angles, border of dots.,
reverse: +LADLAASE/+LADLAVS/+LADLAS or lines in place of legend cross in a circle with wedges in the angles, the border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 11,0 mm, weight: 0,35 g, axis: 6h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-039, CNH I.-047, Unger-032,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 11.09./b3.02./41.,
Q-001
quadrans
Kalman_(1095-1116_AD)_U-033_C1-047_H-039_Q-001_0h_11,0mm_0,28g-s.jpg
11.09. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.09./h2.02./81., H-039, CNH I.-047, U-032, #0168 views11.09. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.09./h2.02./81., H-039, CNH I.-047, U-032, #01
avers: +VDVNAE/ +ADANVE (Retrograde), cross with crescents in the angles, border of dots.,
reverse: +LADLAASE/+LADLAVS/+LADLAS or lines in place of legend, cross in a circle with wedges in the angles, border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 10,0 mm, weight: 0,32 g, axis: 7h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-039, CNH I.-047, Unger-032,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 11.09./h2.02./81.,
Q-001
quadrans
011_Kalman_(1095-1116_A_D_)_U-031_C1-048_H-040_Q-001_2h_10,6mm_0,43g-s.jpg
11.10. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.10./a2.08./22., H-040, CNH I.-048, U-031, #0190 views11.10. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.10./a2.08./22., H-040, CNH I.-048, U-031, #01
avers: +C AL M N, cross with dots in the angles, border of dots.
reverse: +LADLA RE, or Lines in place of legend, cross in a circle with wedges in the angles, border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 10,6mm, weight: 0,43g, axis: 2h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-040, CNH I.-048, Unger-031,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 11.10./a2.08./22.,
Q-001
quadrans
Kalman_(1095-1116_A_D_)_U-031_C1-048_H-040_Q-002_h_mm_g-s.jpg
11.10. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.10./b2.04./39., H-040, CNH I.-048, U-031, #0174 views11.10. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.10./b2.04./39., H-040, CNH I.-048, U-031, #01
avers: +C AL M N, cross with dots in the angles, border of dots.
reverse: +LADLA RE, or Lines in place of legend, cross in a circle with wedges in the angles, border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 10,5mm, weight: 0,47g, axis: 2h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-040, CNH I.-048, Unger-031,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 11.10./b2.04./39.,
Q-001
quadrans
Kalman_(1095-1116)_U-034a_C1-049_H-041_Q-001_9h_10,5mm_0,38g-s.jpg
11.11. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.11./a5.01./after 13 before 14. (New Sigla!), H-041, CNH I.-049, U-034, #0172 views11.11. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.11./a5.01./after 13 before 14. (New Sigla!), H-041, CNH I.-049, U-034, #01
avers: +CALMAN REX, cross between two horizontal lines amongst four dots in quadrilobe, border of dots.
reverse: +LADISLAVS REX or illegible legend, cross in a circle with wedges in the angles, border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 10,5 mm, weight: 0,38 g, axis:9h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-041, CNH I.-049, Unger-034,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 11.11./a5.01./after 13 before 14. (New Sigla!), New subtype/sigla variation!,
Q-001
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Kalman_(1095-1116)_U-034b_C1-049_H-041_Q-003_5h_10,4mm_0,38g-s.jpg
11.12. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.12./a1c1.02./53var., H--, CNH I.--, U--, #0165 views11.12. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.12./a1c1.02./53var., H--, CNH I.--, U--, #01
avers: +CALMAN REX, cross between two vertical lines amongst four dots in quadrilobe, the border of dots.
reverse: +LADLAVS RE/+LADLAVSE or illegible legend, cross in a circle with wedges in the angles, border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 10,4 mm, weight: 0,38 g, axis:5h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár--, CNH I.--, Unger--,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 11.12./a1c1.02./53var.,
Q-001
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Kalman_(1095-1116)_U-034b_C1-049_H-041_Q-005_h_mm_g-s.jpg
11.12. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.12./a5.03./after 24 before 25. (New Sigla!), H--, CNH I.--, U--, #0186 views11.12. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.12./a5.03./after 24 before 25. (New Sigla!), H--, CNH I.--, U--, #01
avers: +CALMAN REX, cross between two vertical lines amongst four dots in quadrilobe, the border of dots.
reverse: +LADLAVS RE/+LADLAVSE or illegible legend, cross in a circle with wedges in the angles, border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 10,3 mm, weight: 0,46 g, axis:0h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár--, CNH I.--, Unger--,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 11.12./a5.03./after 24 before 25. (New Sigla!), New subtype/sigla variation!
Q-001
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Kalman_(1095-1116)_U-034b_C1-049_H-041_Q-004_0h_10,5mm_0,44g-s.jpg
11.12. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.12./c1.01./32., H--, CNH I.--, U--, #01110 views11.12. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.12./c1.01./32., H--, CNH I.--, U--, #01
avers: +CALMAN REX, cross between two vertical lines amongst four dots in quadrilobe, the border of dots.
reverse: +LADLAVS RE/+LADLAVSE or illegible legend, cross in a circle with wedges in the angles, border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 10,5 mm, weight: 0,44 g, axis:0h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár--, CNH I.--, Unger--,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 11.12./c1.01./32.,
Q-001
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Kalman_(1095-1116)_U-034b_C1-049_H-041_Q-001_3h_11,0mm_0,50g-s.jpg
11.12. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.12./c1.03./34., H--, CNH I.--, U--, #0179 views11.12. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.12./c1.03./34., H--, CNH I.--, U--, #01
avers: +CALMAN REX, cross between two vertical lines amongst four dots in quadrilobe, the border of dots.
reverse: +LADLAVS RE/+LADLAVSE or illegible legend, cross in a circle with wedges in the angles, border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 11,0 mm, weight: 0,50 g, axis:3h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár--, CNH I.--, Unger--,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 11.12./c1.03./34.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Kalman_(1095-1116)_U-034b_C1-049_H-041_Q-002_4h_11mm_0,56g-s.jpg
11.12. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.12./c1.03./34., H--, CNH I.--, U--, #02134 views11.12. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.12./c1.03./34., H--, CNH I.--, U--, #02
avers: +CALMAN REX, cross between two vertical lines amongst four dots in quadrilobe, the border of dots.
reverse: +LADLAVS RE/+LADLAVSE or illegible legend, cross in a circle with wedges in the angles, border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 11,0 mm, weight: 0,55 g, axis:4h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár--, CNH I.--, Unger--,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 11.12./c1.03./34.,
Q-002
3 commentsquadrans
Kalman_(1095-1116)_U-034b_C1-049_H-041_Q-006_3h_10,0mm_0,28g-s.jpg
11.12. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.12./c1.06./37., H--, CNH I.--, U--, #0175 views11.12. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.12./c1.06./37., H--, CNH I.--, U--, #01
avers: +CALMAN REX, cross between two vertical lines amongst four dots in quadrilobe, border of dots.
reverse: +LADLAVS RE/+LADLAVSE or illegible legend, cross in circle with wedges in the angles, border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 10,3 mm, weight: 0,46 g, axis:0h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár--, CNH I.--, Unger--,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 11.12./c1.06./37.,
Q-001
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11_12_-h1_02-42,_Kalman_(1095-1116),_H-041b,_C1-049b,_U-034b,_Q-001,_10h,_10,3mm,_0,42g-s.jpg
11.12. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.12./h1.02./42., H--, CNH I.--, U--, #0164 views11.12. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.12./h1.02./42., H--, CNH I.--, U--, #01
avers: +CALMAN REX, cross between two vertical lines amongst four dots in quadrilobe, the border of dots.
reverse: +LADLAVS RE/+LADLAVSE or illegible legend, cross in a circle with wedges in the angles, border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 11,0 mm, weight: 0,50 g, axis:3h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár--, CNH I.--, Unger--,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 11.12./h1.02./42.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Kalman_(1095-1116)_U-034A_CP-002_H-042_Q-001_2h_10mm_0,20g-s.jpg
11.13. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.13./a1c3.02./18., H-042, CP-002, U-034A, #0184 views11.13. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.13./a1c3.02./18., H-042, CP-002, U-034A, #01
avers: Illegible, legend-like marks, cross between two horizontal lines amongst four dots in quadrilobe, the border of dots.
reverse: Four dots in place of the legend or illegible legend, cross in a circle with dots in the angles, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 10mm, weight: 0,20g, axis:2h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-042, CP-002, Unger-034A,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 11.13./a1c3.02./18.,
Q-001
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Kalman_(1095-1116)_U-034A_CP-003_H-042_Q-001_11h_10mm_0,18g-s.jpg
11.13. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.13./c4.01./05., H-042, CP-002, U-034A, #0178 views11.13. Kálmán., (Koloman the Bibliophile) King of Hungary, (1095-1116 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 11.13./c4.01./05., H-042, CP-002, U-034A, #01
avers: Illegible, legend-like marks, cross between two horizontal lines amongst four dots in quadrilobe, the border of dots.
reverse: Four dots in place of the legend or illegible legend, cross in a circle with dots in the angles, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 10mm, weight: 0,18g, axis:11h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-042, CP-002, Unger-034A,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 11.13./c4.01./05.,
Q-001
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0010-057.jpg
1117 - L. Thorius Balbus, Denarius78 viewsRome mint, 105 BC
Head of Juno Sospita right, wearing a goat's skin, ISMR behind
Bull charging right, L above (control letter), L. THORIVS BALBVS in two lines at exergue
3.93 gr
Ref : RCV # 192, RSC, Thoria # 1
3 commentsPotator II
Probus_AE-Ant-Silvered_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-F-AVG_S-O-LI-INVICT-O_KA-Delta_RIC-861_C-_Serdica-3rd-emission-_277-AD__Q-001_6h_22-23mm_3,81g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 861, Serdica, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-G, -/-//KAΔ, Sol in spread quadriga, #166 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 861, Serdica, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-G, -/-//KAΔ, Sol in spread quadriga, #1
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, helmeted, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield.
reverse: S O LI IN VICT O, Sol in spread quadriga, right hand raised, holding the globe in left.
exergue: -/-//KAΔ, no exergual line, diameter: 22-23mm, weight: 3,81g, axis: 6h,
mint: Serdica 3rd emission, date: 277 A.D., ref: RIC-861,
Q-001
quadrans
RIC_862,_112_Probus,_AE-Ant,_IMP_C_M_AVR_PROBVS_AVG_(H),_S_OL_I_INVIC_T_O,_KADelta,_Serdica-4th-emission_277Pink-or-280-81Gysen-AD_Q-001_0h_22,5-23mm_4,25g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 862, Serdica, Bust-H (H2), -/-//KAΔ, SOLI INVICTO, Sol in spread quadriga, #1151 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 862, Serdica, Bust-H (H2), -/-//KAΔ, SOLI INVICTO, Sol in spread quadriga, #1
avers:- IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Bust Type (H-H2), Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle.
revers:- S OL I INVIC T O, Sol faceing left in spred quadriga, rising right hand and holding whip in left hand.
exergo: -/-//KAΔ, no exergual line, diameter: 22,5-23,0mm, weight: 4,25g, axis: 0h,
mint: Serdica, date: 277 A.D. by Pink or 280-81 A.D. by Gysen, ref: RIC V-II 862, p-112, 4th emission,
Q-001
5 commentsquadrans
Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-AVG-(H)_S-OLI-INVIC-T-O_KA-dot-gamma-dot_RIC-862_Serdica-4th-emission_277Pink-or-280-81Gysen-AD_Q-001_7h_22,5mm_3,71g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 862, Serdica, Bust-H (H2), -/-//KA•Γ•, SOLI INVICTO, Sol in spread quadriga, #1286 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 862, Serdica, Bust-H (H2), -/-//KA•Γ•, SOLI INVICTO, Sol in spread quadriga, #1
avers:- IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Bust Type (H-H2), Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle.
revers:- S OL I INVIC T O, Sol faceing left in spred quadriga, rising right hand and holding whip in left hand.
exergo: -/-//KA•Γ•, no exergual line, diameter: 22,5mm, weight: 3,71g, axis: 7h,
mint: Serdica, date: 277 A.D. by Pink or 280-81 A.D. by Gysen, ref: RIC V-II 862, p-112, 4th emission,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Probus_AE-Ant-Silvered_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-AVG-(H-r_)_S-O-LI-INVICTO_KAdotGammadot_RIC-V-II-864-p112_Serdica_276-AD_Q-001_6h_22mm_4,45g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 864 var, Serdica, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H right (Not in RIC), -/-//KA•Γ•, Sol in spread quadriga,121 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 864 var, Serdica, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H right (Not in RIC), -/-//KA•Γ•, Sol in spread quadriga,
avers:- IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-AVG, Radiate bust right in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle. (H-var right, Not in RIC)
revers:- S-O-LI-IN-VICTO, Sol in spread quadriga holding globe and whip.
exergo: -/-//KA•Γ•, no exergual line, diameter: 22mm, weight: 4,45g, axis: 6h,
mint: Serdica, 3rd emission of Serdica, 277, date: 277 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 864 (Not in RIC), p-112,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-AVG-(H)_SOLI-INVICTO_KA-dot-gamma-dot_RIC-864_Serdica-4th-emission_277Pink-or-280-81Gysen-AD_Q-001_h_22mm_x_xxga-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 864, Serdica, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H, -/-//KA•Γ•, Sol in spread quadriga,101 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 864, Serdica, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H, -/-//KA•Γ•, Sol in spread quadriga,
avers:- IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-AVG, Bust Type H, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle.
revers:- SOLI-INVICTO, Sol faceing left in spred quadriga, rising right hand and holding whip in left hand.
exergo: -/-//KA•Γ•, no exergual line, diameter: 22mm, weight: x,xxg, axis: h,
mint: Serdica, date: 277 A.D. by Pink or 280-81 A.D. by Gysen, ref: RIC-V-II-864, p-112, 4th emission,
Q-001
quadrans
RIC_865var_,_112_Probus,_AE-Ant,_IMP_C_M_AVR_PROBVS_PIVS_AVG,_(E1-G),_SOLI_IN_VICTO,_KA_A__Not-in-this_off_,_Serdica,_4th_em_,1st_off_,_280-81AD,_Q-001,_6h,_21-22,5mm,_3,62g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 865var., Serdica, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-E1/G, -/-//KA•A•, Sol in spread quadriga, Rare! #164 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 865var., Serdica, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-E1/G, -/-//KA•A•, Sol in spread quadriga, Rare! #1
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS PIVS AVG, Radiate, helmeted, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield, (E1-G).
reverse: SOLI IN VICTO, Sol in spread quadriga, right hand raised, holding the globe in left.
exergue: -/-//KA•A•, no exergual line, diameter: 21,0-22,5mm, weight: 3,621g, axis: 6h,
mint: Serdica 4th emission, 1st off., date: 280-281A.D., ref: RIC V-II 865var., Rare!
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Probus_AE-Ant-Silvered_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-F-AVG_VIRTVS-PROBI-AVG_KA-dot-Gamma-dot_RIC-877-p-113_G_Serdica-4th-emission-277_880-81-AD_Q-001_5h_22-22,5mm_3,66g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 877, Serdica, VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Bust-G, -/-//KA•Γ•, Emperor riding right, #174 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 877, Serdica, VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Bust-G, -/-//KA•Γ•, Emperor riding right, #1
avers:- IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-F-AVG, Radiate, helmeted, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield. (G)
revers:- VIRTVS-PROBI-AVG, Emperor riding right, spearing enemy, shield beneth the horse.
exergo: -/-//KA•Γ•, no exergual line, diameter: 22-22,5mm, weight: 3,66g, axes:5h,
mint: Serdica 4ht emission, date: 277 A.D.,(80-81 A.D.), ref: RIC-V-II-877, p-113,
Q-001
quadrans
Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-AVG-(G)_VIRTVS-PROBI-AVG_KAB_RIC-878-p-113_Serdica_4th-em_281-AD_Q-001_5h_22-22,5mm_4,02g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 878, Serdica, VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Bust-G, -/-//KAB, Emperor riding right, #188 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 878, Serdica, VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Bust-G, -/-//KAB, Emperor riding right, #1
avers:- IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-AVG, Radiate, helmeted, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield. (G)
revers:- VIRTVS-PROBI-AVG, Emperor riding right, spearing enemy, shield beneth the horse.
exergo: -/-//KAB, no exergual line, diameter: 22-22,5mm, weight: 4,02g, axes:5h,
mint: Serdica 4ht emission, date: 277 A.D.,(80-81 A.D.), ref: RIC-V-II-878, p-114,
Q-001
quadrans
RIC_911_112_Probus_AE-Ant-Silvered_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-F-AVG(H)_SO-LI-N-VICT-O_B_RIC-V-II-911-p118_Cyzicus_276-AD__Q-001_6h_22mm_3,73ga-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 911-2b-2, Cyzicus, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H2/H, -/-//B, Sol facing in spread quadriga, #184 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 911-2b-2, Cyzicus, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H2/H, -/-//B, Sol facing in spread quadriga, #1
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Bust Type H2/H, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by an eagle.
reverse: SO LI INVICT O, Sol facing in spread quadriga, raising right hand and holding the whip in left hand. No exergual line.
exergue: -/-//B, diameter: 22,0mm, weight: 3,73g, axis: 6h,
mint: Cyzicus, 2nd. emission, 2nd. officina, date: 276-277 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 911-2a-2, p-118,
Q-001
quadrans
RIC_911_112_Probus_AE-Ant-Silvered_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-F-AVG(H)_SO-LI-N-VICT-O_Gamma_RIC-V-II-911-p118_Cyzicus_276-AD__Q-001_0h_21-22,5mm_3,12g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 911-2b-3, Cyzicus, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H2/H, -/-//Γ, Sol facing in spread quadriga, #1103 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 911-2b-3, Cyzicus, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H2/H, -/-//Γ, Sol facing in spread quadriga, #1
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Bust Type H2/H, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by an eagle.
reverse: SO LI INVICT O, Sol facing in spread quadriga, raising right hand and holding the whip in left hand. No exergual line.
exergue: -/-//Γ, diameter: 21,0-22,5mm, weight: 3,12g, axis: 0h,
mint: Cyzicus, 2nd. emission, 3rd. officina, date: 276-277 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 911-2a-3, p-118,
Q-001
quadrans
RIC_911_112_Probus_AE-Ant-Silvered_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-F-AVG(H)_SO-LI-N-VICT-O_Gamma_RIC-V-II-911-p118_Cyzicus_276-AD__Q-002_6h_22mm_3,92g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 911-2b-3, Cyzicus, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H2/H, -/-//Γ, Sol facing in spread quadriga, #2106 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 911-2b-3, Cyzicus, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H2/H, -/-//Γ, Sol facing in spread quadriga, #2
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Bust Type H2/H, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by an eagle.
reverse: SO LI INVICT O, Sol facing in spread quadriga, raising right hand and holding the whip in left hand. No exergual line.
exergue: -/-//Γ, diameter: 22,0mm, weight: 3,92g, axis: 6h,
mint: Cyzicus, 2nd. emission, 3rd. officina, date: 276-277 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 911-2a-3, p-118,
Q-002
quadrans
RIC_911_112_Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-F-AVG-(H)_SO-LI-INVICT-O_CM_XXI_RIC-911_Cyzicus_3rd-em_280-AD_Q-001_5h_22-24mm_4,40g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 911-3c-, Cyzicus, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H2/H, CM//XXI, Sol left in spread quadriga, #1131 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 911-3c-, Cyzicus, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H2/H, CM//XXI, Sol left in spread quadriga, #1
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Bust Type H2/H, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by an eagle.
reverse: SO LI INVICT O, Sol left in spread quadriga, raising right hand and holding the whip in left hand. No exergual line.
exergue: CM//XXI, diameter: 22,0-24,0mm, weight: 4,40g, axis: 5h,
mint: Cyzicus, 3rd. emission, - officina, date: 280 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 911-3c-, p-118,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-F-AVG-(H)_SO-LI-INVICT-O_CM_XXI-P_RIC-911_Cyzicus_3rd-em_280-AD_Q-001_5h_21,5mm_2,34g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 911-3d-1, Cyzicus, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H2/H, CM//XXIP, Sol left in spread quadriga, #178 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 911-3d-1, Cyzicus, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H2/H, CM//XXIP, Sol left in spread quadriga, #1
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Bust Type H2/H, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by an eagle.
reverse: SO LI INVICT O, Sol left in spread quadriga, raising right hand and holding the whip in left hand. No exergual line.
exergue: CM//XXIP, diameter: 21,5mm, weight: 2,34g, axis: 5h,
mint: Cyzicus, 3rd. emission, 1st. officina, date: 280 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 911-3d-1, p-118,
Q-001
quadrans
RIC_911_112_Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-F-AVG_SO-LI-INVICT-O_CM_XXI-P_Bust-H_RIC-911-p-118_Cyzicus_280-AD_Q-001_11h_23mm_3,42gax-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 911-3d-1, Cyzicus, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H2/H, CM//XXIP, Sol left in spread quadriga, #269 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 911-3d-1, Cyzicus, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H2/H, CM//XXIP, Sol left in spread quadriga, #2
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Bust Type H2/H, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by an eagle.
reverse: SO LI INVICT O, Sol left in spread quadriga, raising right hand and holding the whip in left hand. No exergual line.
exergue: CM//XXIP, diameter: 23,0mm, weight: 3,42g, axis: 11h,
mint: Cyzicus, 3rd. emission, 1st. officina, date: 280 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 911-3d-1, p-118,
Q-002
quadrans
RIC_911,_112_Probus,_AE-Ant,__IMP_C_M_AVR_PROBVS_P_F_AVG_(H-H2),_SO_LI_IN_VICT_O,_CM_XXIS,_p118,_3rd_em_,_2nd_off_,_Cyzicus,_280-AD,_Q-001_6h_22,5mm_3,49g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 911-3d-2, Cyzicus, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H2/H, CM//XXIS, Sol left in spread quadriga, #1121 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 911-3d-2, Cyzicus, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H2/H, CM//XXIS, Sol left in spread quadriga, #1
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Bust Type H2/H, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by an eagle.
reverse: SO LI INVICT O, Sol left in spread quadriga, raising right hand and holding the whip in left hand. No exergual line.
exergue: CM//XXIS, diameter: 22,5mm, weight: 3,49g, axis: 6h,
mint: Cyzicus, 3rd. emission, 2nd. officina, date: 280 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 911-3d-2, p-118,
Q-001
quadrans
RIC_911_112_Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-F-AVG_SO-LI-INVICT-O_CM_XXI-T_Bust-H_RIC-911-p-118_Cyzicus_280-AD_Q-001_1h_22,5-23mm_3,35g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 911-3d-3, Cyzicus, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H2/H, CM//XXIT, Sol left in spread quadriga, #194 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 911-3d-3, Cyzicus, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H2/H, CM//XXIT, Sol left in spread quadriga, #1
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Bust Type H2/H, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by an eagle.
reverse: SO LI INVICT O, Sol left in spread quadriga, raising right hand and holding the whip in left hand. No exergual line.
exergue: CM//XXIT, diameter: 22,5-23,0mm, weight: 3,35g, axis: 1h,
mint: Cyzicus, 3rd. emission, 3rd. officina, date: 280 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 911-3d-3, p-118,
Q-001
quadrans
RIC_911_112_Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-F-AVG_SO-LI-INVICT-O_CM_XXI-Q_Bust-H_RIC-911-p-118_Cyzicus_280-AD_Q-001_0h_23-23,5mm_3,68ga-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 911-3d-4, Cyzicus, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H2/H, CM//XXIQ, Sol left in spread quadriga, #183 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 911-3d-4, Cyzicus, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H2/H, CM//XXIQ, Sol left in spread quadriga, #1
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Bust Type H2/H, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by an eagle.
reverse: SO LI INVICT O, Sol left in spread quadriga, raising right hand and holding the whip in left hand. No exergual line.
exergue: CM//XXIQ, diameter: 23-23,5mm, weight: 3,68g, axis: 0h,
mint: Cyzicus, 3rd. emission, 4th. officina, date: 280 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 911-3d-4, p-118,
Q-001
quadrans
RIC_911_112_Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-F-AVG_SO-LI-INVICT-O_CM_XXI-Q_Bust-H_RIC-911-p-118_Cyzicus_280-AD_Q-002_0h_22,5-23mm_4,31g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 911-3d-4, Cyzicus, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H2/H, CM//XXIQ, Sol left in spread quadriga, #2117 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 911-3d-4, Cyzicus, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H2/H, CM//XXIQ, Sol left in spread quadriga, #2
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Bust Type H2/H, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by an eagle.
reverse: SO LI INVICT O, Sol left in spread quadriga, raising right hand and holding the whip in left hand. No exergual line.
exergue: CM//XXIQ, diameter: 22,5-23,0mm, weight: 4,31g, axis: 0h,
mint: Cyzicus, 3rd. emission, 4th. officina, date: 280 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 911-3d-4, p-118,
Q-002
quadrans
RIC_911-3-5,_112_Probus,_AE-Ant,__IMP_C_M_AVR_PROBVS_P_F_AVG_(H-H2),_SO_LI_IN_VICT_O,_CM_XXIV,_p118,_3rd_em_,_5th_off_,_Cyzicus,_280-AD,_Q-001,_5h,_22,5mm,_3,90g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 911-3d-5, Cyzicus, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H2/H, CM//XXIV, Sol left in spread quadriga, #180 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 911-3d-5, Cyzicus, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H2/H, CM//XXIV, Sol left in spread quadriga, #1
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Bust Type H2/H, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by an eagle.
reverse: SO LI INVICT O, Sol left in spread quadriga, raising right hand and holding the whip in left hand. No exergual line.
exergue: CM//XXIV, diameter: 22,5mm, weight: 3,90g, axis: 5h,
mint: Cyzicus, 3rd. emission, 5th. officina, date: 280 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 911-3d-5, p-118,
Q-001
4 commentsquadrans
RIC_911_112_Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-F-AVG_SO-LI-INVICT-O_CM_XXI-E_Bust-H_RIC-911-p-118_Cyzicus_280-AD_Q-001_0h_22,5mm_3,72gax-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 911-4-5, Cyzicus, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H2/H, CM//XXIЄ, Sol left in spread quadriga, #175 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 911-4-5, Cyzicus, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H2/H, CM//XXIЄ, Sol left in spread quadriga, #1
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Bust Type H2/H, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by an eagle.
reverse: SO LI INVICT O, Sol left in spread quadriga, raising right hand and holding the whip in left hand. No exergual line.
exergue: CM//XXIЄ, diameter: 22,5mm, weight: 3,72g, axis: 0h,
mint: Cyzicus, 4th. emission, 5th. officina, date: 281 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 911-4-5, p-118,
Q-001
quadrans
ManISear1966.jpg
1143-1180 AD - Manuel I Comnenus - Sear 1966 - Billon Aspron Trachy25 viewsEmperor: Manuel I Comnenus (r. 1143-1180 AD)
Date: 1143-1180 AD
Condition: Fine/VF
Denomination: Billon Aspron Trachy

Obverse: -
Christ, bearded, seated facing on throne without back, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium; in left hand, book of Gospels.

Reverse: -
The Virgin, nimbate (on right) and Manuel (on left), both standing facing; the Virgin wears pallium and maphorium, and with Her right hand crowns the emperor, who wears divitision and loros, and holds labarum and globus cruciger; between their heads, ; to right, .

Constantinople mint
Sear 1966
4.49g; 31.3mm; 180°
Pep
ManISear1966_2.jpg
1143-1180 AD - Manuel I Comnenus - Sear 1966 - Billon Aspron Trachy - 2nd Example10 viewsEmperor: Manuel I Comnenus (r. 1143-1180 AD)
Date: 1143-1180 AD
Condition: Fine/VF
Denomination: Billon Aspron Trachy

Obverse: -
Christ, bearded, seated facing on throne without back, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium; in left hand, book of Gospels.

Reverse: -
The Virgin, nimbate (on right) and Manuel (on left), both standing facing; the Virgin wears pallium and maphorium, and with Her right hand crowns the emperor, who wears divitision and loros, and holds labarum and globus cruciger; between their heads, ; to right, .

Constantinople mint
Sear 1966
3.96g; 30.4mm; 180°
Pep
HENRY_II_Tealby_AR_Penny.JPG
1154 - 1189, HENRY II, AR 'Tealby' Penny, Struck 1158 - 1163 at Canterbury (?), England33 viewsObverse: (HE)NRI • R(EX• A -). Crowned facing bust of Henry II, his head facing slightly to the left, holding sceptre tipped with a cross potent in his right hand. Crown has three vertical uprights each topped by a fleur-de-lis.
Reverse: + (ROGI)ER : ON : (C)A(NT) surrounding short cross potent within beaded circle, small cross potents in each quarter. Moneyer: Rogier, cognate with the modern English name of Roger. Mintmark: Cross potent.
Uncommonly clear Class A bust
Diameter: 20mm | Weight: 1.3gms | Die Axis: 4
Flan chipped and cracked
SPINK: 1337

For the first few years of Henry II's reign the coins of King Stephen continued to be produced, but in 1158, in order to restore public confidence in the currency, a new 'cross and crosslet' coinage was introduced in England which was of sufficient importance for the contemporary chroniclers to record that 'a new money was made, which was the sole currency of the kingdom.' While this coinage was acceptable in terms of weight and silver quality, it is notorious for its ugly appearance, bad craftsmanship and careless execution. In fact the 'Tealby' coinage is among the worst struck of any issue of English regal coinage, so much so that collectors consider it something of a bonus if they are able to make out the name of the moneyer, or the mint, from the letters showing.
The cross and crosslet type coinage of King Henry II is more often called 'Tealby' because of the enormous hoard of these coins which was found in late 1807 at Bayons Manor farm near Tealby in Lincolnshire. This hoard, which originally amounted to over 5,700 pieces, was first reported in the Stamford Mercury of the 6th November 1807, but unfortunately the majority of the coins, more than 5,000 of them, were sent to be melted at the Tower of London and only some 600 pieces were saved for national and important private collections.
A total of 30 mints were employed in the initial 'Tealby' recoinage, however once the recoinage was completed only 12 mints were permitted to remain active and this marks the beginning of the gradual decline in the number of mints which were used to strike English coins.
The 'Tealby' issue continued until 1180 when a new style coin of much better workmanship, the short-cross penny, was introduced.
2 comments*Alex
Hadrse25-2.jpg
118 AD: Donative of Hadrian upon his first arrival as emperor in Rome to celebrate his accession.236 viewsOrichalcum sestertius (24.3g, 34mm, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 118.
IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG laureate bust of Hadrian facing right
PONT MAX TR POT COS II around edge LIBERALITAS AVG / S C [in two line in ex.] donation scene with Hadrian seated left on a platform on the right and extending his right hand. In front of him, an attendant seated right giving something to a citizen, who is mounting the steps to the platform. In the background, Liberalitas standing left, holding a tessera
RIC 552 [R]; Cohen 914; Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 112:15
3 commentsCharles S
IssacIISB2005.jpg
1185-1195 AD - Isaac II - Sear 2005 - Tetarteron47 viewsEmperor: Isaac II (r. 1185-1195 AD)
Date: 1185-1195 AD
Condition: Fine
Denomination: Tetarteron

Obverse: Facing bust of Archangel Michael, beardless and nimbate, wearing loros and holding jewelled sceptre (sometimes surmounted by trefoil device) and globus cruciger; to left, O//AP; to right, /MI (or similar)

Reverse: Bust of Issac facing, wearing crown and loros, and holding cruciform sceptre and akakia; to left, ICA/AKI/OC; to right, ΔE/CΠO/TH/C (or similar).

Thessalonica mint
Sear 2005
1.89g; 17.9mm; 150°
Pep
1189_-_1199_Richard_I_AR_Denier.JPG
1189 - 1199, RICHARD I (the lionheart), AR Denier minted at Melle, Poitou, France43 viewsObverse: +RICARDVS REX. Cross pattée within braided inner circle, all within braided outer circle.
Reverse: PIC / TAVIE / NSIS in three lines within braided circle.
Diameter: 20mm | Weight: 1.0gms | Die Axis: 2
SPINK: 8008 | Elias: 8

Poitou was an Anglo-Gallic province in what is now west-central France and its capital city was Poitiers, the mint at this time was however located at Melle. Melle was an active centre of minting during the early Middle Ages due to the important silver mines located under and around the city. This is the only coin issue struck during the reign of Richard I to bear his own name and titles as King of England.

Richard I was King of England from 1189 until his death on 6th April 1199. He also ruled several territories outwith England, and was styled as Duke of Normandy, Aquitaine and Gascony, Lord of Cyprus, Count of Poitiers, Anjou, Maine, and Nantes, as well as being overlord of Brittany at various times during the same period. He was the third of five sons of King Henry II of England and Duchess Eleanor of Aquitaine. He was known as Richard the Lionheart (Richard Cśur de Lion) because of his reputation as a great military leader and warrior when, at the age of 16 and commanding his own army, he had put down rebellions against his father in Poitou.
Richard was a commander during the Third Crusade, and led the campaign after the departure of Philip II of France. However, although he scored several notable victories against the Muslims led by Saladin, he failed to retake Jerusalem from them.
Although Richard was born in England and spent his childhood there before becoming king, he lived most of his adult life in the Duchy of Aquitaine. Following his accession, his life was mostly spent on Crusade, in captivity, or actively defending his lands in France. Rather than regarding England as a responsibility requiring his presence as ruler, he appears to have used it merely as a source of revenue to support his armies. Nevertheless, he was seen as a pious hero by his subjects and he remains one of the few kings of England who is remembered by his epithet rather than by his regnal number, and even today he is still an iconic figure in both England and France.
3 comments*Alex
VHC12-coin.jpg
12- CEYLON (SRI LANKA), 1 CENT, KM92.19 viewsSize: 22.5 mm. Composition: Copper. Mintage: 1,014,000.
Grade: Raw F+ (borderline VF).
Comments: Just a cheap coin I picked up somewhere; probably eBay. It will do until I find a nice BU example.
lordmarcovan
II_Istvan_U-037_C1-053_H-047_Q-001_h_13,5mm_0,35ga-s.jpg
12.06. István II., (Stephen II.) King of Hungary, (1116-1131 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 12.06./b2.01./02., H-047, CNH I.-053, U-037, #01216 views12.06. István II., (Stephen II.) King of Hungary, (1116-1131 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 12.06./b2.01./02., H-047, CNH I.-053, U-037, #01
avers: ˇ - ˇ on wedges amongst three crosses, TE on each side; border of dots.
reverse: Illegible, legend-like marks; cross in a circle with wedges in the angles; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 13,5 mm, weight: 0,35 g, axis: h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-047, CNH I.-053, Unger-037,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 12.06./b2.01./02.,
Q-001
quadrans
II_Istvan_U-037_C1-053_H-047_Q-002_h_12,0mm_0,30ga-s.jpg
12.06.02. István II., (Stephen II.) King of Hungary, (1116-1131 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 12.06.02./b2.01./02., H-047, CNH I.-053, U-037, #01205 views12.06.02. István II., (Stephen II.) King of Hungary, (1116-1131 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 12.06.02./b2.01./02., H-047, CNH I.-053, U-037, #01
avers: ˇ - ˇ on wedges amongst three crosses, TE on each side; border of dots.
reverse: Illegible, legend-like marks; cross in a circle with wedges in the angles; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 12,0 mm, weight: 0,30 g, axis: h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-047, CNH I.-053, Unger-037,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 12.06.02./b2.01./02.,
Q-001
quadrans
LatinByzSB2024.jpg
1204-1261 AD - Latin Occupation of Constantinople - Sear 2024 - AE Trachy60 viewsLatin Occupation of Constantinople (1204-1261 AD)
Date: 1204-1261 AD
Condition: Mediocre
Denomination: AE Trachy

Obverse: -
Bust of Christ.

Reverse: MANHCΛ ΔECΠOTHC
Emperor standing, holding sceptre cruciger.

Sear 2024
1.39g; 16.7mm; 180?°
Pep
LatinByzSB2047.jpg
1204-1261 AD - Latin Occupation of Constantinople - Sear 2047 - AE Trachy58 viewsLatin Occupation of Constantinople (1204-1261 AD)
Date: 1204-1261 AD
Condition: Mediocre/Fair
Denomination: AE Trachy

Obverse: -
Christ seated.

Reverse: no legend
Half-length figure of emperor.

Sear 2047
1.12g; 19.4mm; 180°
Pep
Constantius-Q-001-s.jpg
121 Constantius I. Chlorus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-306 A.D. Augustus), Rome, RIC VI 087a, AE-Radiate Fraction, VOT/•/XX/ Γ in wreath, #1289 views121 Constantius I. Chlorus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-306 A.D. Augustus), Rome, RIC VI 087a, AE-Radiate Fraction, VOT/•/XX/ Γ in wreath, #1
avers:- FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- VOT/•/XX/ Γ in three lines within wreath.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 18mm, weight: g, axes: h,
mint: Rome, date: 298 A.D., ref: RIC VI 087a, p-359,
Q-001
quadrans
HENRY_III.JPG
1216 – 1272, Henry III, AR Penny, Struck 1248 - 1250 at London, England (Long cross type)44 viewsObverse: HENRICVS REX : III. Crowned bust of Henry III facing within circle of pellets. Mintmark: Six pointed star.
Reverse: NICOLE ON LVND. Voided long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle. Moneyer: Nicole, cognate with the modern English name of Nicholas. The surname Nicole originates in the Netherlands where it was notable for its various branches, and associated status or influence. The modern given name Nicole is a French feminine derivative of the masculine given name Nicolas.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.3gms | Die Axis: 6
SPINK: 1363

The First Barons' War (1215–1217) was a civil war in England in which a group of rebellious barons led by Robert Fitzwalter and supported by a French army under the future Louis VIII of France, waged war against King John of England. The war resulted from King John's refusal to accept and abide by the Magna Carta, which he had been forced to put his seal to on 15th June 1215, as well as from Louis' own ambitions regarding the English throne.
It was in the middle of this war that King John died leaving his son, the nine year old Henry III (who had been moved to safety at Corfe Castle in Dorset along with his mother, Queen Isabella) as his heir.
On his deathbed John appointed a council of thirteen executors to help Henry reclaim the kingdom, requesting that his son be placed into the guardianship of William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke. The loyalists decided to crown Henry immediately to reinforce his claim to the throne. William knighted the boy, and Cardinal Guala Bicchieri, the papal legate to England, then oversaw his coronation at Gloucester Cathedral on 28th October 1216. In the absence of the archbishops of either Canterbury or York, Henry was anointed by the bishops of Worcester and Exeter, and crowned by Peter des Roches, bishop of Winchester. During the civil war the royal crown had been lost, so instead, the ceremony used a simple gold corolla belonging to Queen Isabella. In 1217, Henry's forces, led by William Marshal, finally defeated the rebels at the battles of Lincoln and Sandwich.
Henry's early rule was dominated first by Hubert de Burgh, 1st Earl of Kent and Justiciar of England and Ireland, then by Peter des Roches, and they re-established royal authority after the war. In 1225 Henry promised to abide by the final and definitative version of the Magna Carta, freely authenticated by the great seal of Henry III himself, which protected the rights of the major barons and placed a limit on royal power. It is the clauses of this, the 1225 Magna Carta signed by Henry III, not the King John Magna Carta of 1215, which are on the Statute Books of the United Kingdom today.
4 comments*Alex
123_B_C_,_M_Fannius_C_f_,_AR-Denarius,_Crawford_275-1,_Rome,_Victory_in_quadriga_right,_M_FAN_CF_,_Q-001_7h_16-17mm_3,81g-s.jpg
123 B.C., M.Fannius C.f., AR-Denarius, Crawford 275/1, Rome, Victory in quadriga right, -/-//M.FAN.CF., 153 views123 B.C., M.Fannius C.f., AR-Denarius, Crawford 275/1, Rome, Victory in quadriga right, -/-//M.FAN.CF.,
avers:- Helmeted head of Roma right, X below chin, ROMA behind.
revers: - Victory in quadriga right, holding reins in left hand and wreath in right hand, line border, in exergo M.FAN.CF.
exerg: -/-// M.FAN.CF., diameter:16,0-17,0 mm, weight: 3,80g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 123 B.C., ref: Crawford-275/1_Sydenham-419, Fannia 1,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
128-1_Decia_2.jpg
128/1. Decia - denarius (206-200 BC)17 viewsAR Denarius (uncertain mint, 206-200 BC)
O/ Helmeted head of Roma right; X behind head.
R/ The Dioscuri galloping right; shield & carnyx below horses; ROMA in exergue.
4.01g; 20.5mm
Crawford 128/1 (less than 10 obverse dies/less than 12 reverse dies)
- Privately bought from Münzen & Medaillen Basel.
- Ex collection of Elvira Elisa Clain-Stefanelli (1914-2001), former director of the National Numismatic Collection (part of the Smithsonian Institute).
- Naville Numismatics Live Auction 29, lot 479.

* Anonymous (shield & carnyx), Decius?:

This very rare issue has traditionally been attributed to a descendant of a line of three heroes named Publius Decius Mus. The first of that name was Consul in 340 BC; he received the Grass Crown after having saved his army from destruction against the Samnites, then sacrificed himself at the Battle of Vesuvius during his consulship in an act of devotio (exchanging his life against the victory of his army). His son was four times Consul (312, 308, 297 and 295 BC) and similarly sacrificed himself at the Battle of Sentinum in 295 BC against a coalition of Etruscans, Samnites, and Gauls. The third of that name was Consul in 279 BC and fought against Pyrrhus, who successfully thwarted his attempt to sacrifice himself like his ancestors (cf. discussion in Broughton, vol. I, p. 193).

300 years later, Trajan restored several issues of the Republic, including this one, but with the addition of DECIVS MVS on the obverse (RIC 766). Babelon thus assumed that this denarius was minted by the son of the last Publius Decius Mus (Decia 1). In this hypothesis, the shield and Carnyx refers to the second Mus -- the one who fought the Gauls.

However, Crawford contested this view, writing: "The restoration of this issue by Trajan with the added legend DECIVS MVS provides no grounds whatever for supposing that it was originally struck by someone of that name - the family was certainly extinct by this period."

It is still very strange that Trajan picked this rare denarius, from an irregular mint, for restoration. He could have chosen many other anonymous issues of the early Roman coinage, and simply add the name of Decius Mus. It thus shows that the imperial mint had retained some specimens or archives of previous issues up to the 3rd century BC, because due to its rarity, this denarius had already disappeared from circulation by the time of Trajan. A list of the magistrates behind each issue could therefore have been kept as well; Trajan might have selected the moneyers whom he thought were significant for the history of Rome and restored their issue. A Publius Decius Subulo was living in these years (Livy, xliii. 17) and perhaps minted this coin; his name could have been preserved in the archives of the mint, which might have led Trajan to pick his denarius for restoration.
1 commentsJoss
Bela-II_(1131-1141_AD)_U-044_C1-057_H-049_Q-008_2h_11,2mm_0,40g-s.jpg
13.01. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.01./a1.04./05., H-049, CNH I.-057, U-044, #01229 views13.01. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.01./a1.04./05., H-049, CNH I.-057, U-044, #01
avers: HBRE, Crowned head facing between two lilies, border of dots.
reverse: LADISLAVS RE +/X, (sometimes Lines instead of a legend), cross in a circle with wedges in the angles, line border.
exergue:-/-//--, diameter: 11,1mm, weight: 0,41g, axis: 1h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-049, CNH I.-057, Unger-044,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 13.01./a1.04./05.,
Q-001
quadrans
Bela-II_(1131-1141_AD)_U-044_C1-057_H-049_Q-001_h_mm_g-s~0.jpg
13.01. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.01./c1.02./14., H-049, CNH I.-057, U-044, #01102 views13.01. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.01./c1.02./14., H-049, CNH I.-057, U-044, #01
avers: HBRE, Crowned head facing between two lilies, border of dots.
reverse: LADISLAVS-RE +/X, (sometimes Lines instead of a legend), cross in a circle with wedges in the angles, line border.
exergue:-/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis:h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-049, CNH I.-057, Unger-044,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 13.01./c1.02./14.,
Q-001
quadrans
Bela-II_(1131-1141_AD)_U-044_C1-057_H-049_Q-011_2h_11mm_0,40g-s.jpg
13.01. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.01./d1.03./20., H-049, CNH I.-057, U-044, #0173 views13.01. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.01./d1.03./20., H-049, CNH I.-057, U-044, #01
avers: HBRE, Crowned head facing between two lilies, border of dots.
reverse: LADISLAVS-RE +/X, (sometimes Lines instead of a legend), cross in a circle with wedges in the angles, line border.
exergue:-/-//--, diameter: 11,0mm, weight: 0,40g, axis: 2h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-049, CNH I.-057, Unger-044,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 13.01./d1.03./20.,
Q-001
quadrans
Bela-II_(1131-1141_AD)_U-044_C1-057_H-049_Q-012_9h_11,2mm_0,31g-s.jpg
13.01.01. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.01.01./a2.01./02., H-049, CNH I.-057, U-044, #01153 views13.01.01. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.01.01./a2.01./02., H-049, CNH I.-057, U-044, #01
avers: HDRE, Crowned head facing between two lilies, border of dots.
reverse: LADISLAVS RE +/X, (sometimes Lines instead of a legend), cross in a circle with wedges in the angles, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 11,2mm, weight: 0,31g, axis: 9h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-049, CNH I.-057, Unger-044,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 13.01.01./a2.01./02.,
Q-001
quadrans
Bela-II_(1131-1141_AD)_U-044_C1-057_H-049_Q-007_8h_11,2mm_0,37g-s.jpg
13.01.01. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.01.01./a2.02./03., H-049, CNH I.-057, U-044, #01108 views13.01.01. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.01.01./a2.02./03., H-049, CNH I.-057, U-044, #01
avers: HDRE, Crowned head facing between two lilies, border of dots.
reverse: LADISLAVS RE +/X, (sometimes Lines instead of a legend), cross in a circle with wedges in the angles, line border.
exergue:-/-//--, diameter: 11,2mm, weight: 0,37g, axis: 8h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-049, CNH I.-057, Unger-044,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 13.01.01./a2.02./03.,
Q-001
quadrans
Bela-II_(1131-1141_AD)_U-044var_C1-057_H-049_Q-001a_10h_12mm_0,30g-s.jpg
13.02. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.02./b2.01./08., H--, CNH I.--, U--, #0182 views13.02. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.02./b2.01./08., H--, CNH I.--, U--, #01
avers: HBOCRE, Crowned head facing between two lilies, border of dots.
reverse: LADISLAVS RE +/X, (sometimes Lines instead of a legend), cross in a circle with wedges in the angles, line border.
exergue:-/-//--, diameter: 12,0mm, weight: 0,30g, axis: 10h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár--, CNH I.--, Unger--,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 13.02./b2.01./08.,
Q-001
quadrans
13_04_-a1d2_04-235_,_Bela_II__(1131-1141_AD),_H-050,_C1-059,_U-043,_Q-001,_9h,_11-11,5mm,_0,47g-s.jpg
13.04. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.04./a1d2.04./235., H-050, CNH I.-059, U-043, #0160 views13.04. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.04./a1d2.04./235., H-050, CNH I.-059, U-043, #01
avers: REX BELA, Crowned head facing, the border of dots.
reverse: Lines in place of legend, cross in a circle with wedges in the angles, line border.
exergue:-/-//--, diameter: 11,0-11,5mm, weight: 0,47g, axis: 9h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-050, CNH I.-059, Unger-043,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 13.04./a1d2.04./235.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
II_Bela_(1131-1141_AD)_U-043_C1-059_H-050_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
13.04. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.04./a4.07./039., H-050, CNH I.-059, U-043, #0190 views13.04. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.04./a4.07./039., H-050, CNH I.-059, U-043, #01
avers: REX BELA, Crowned head facing, the border of dots.
reverse: Lines in place of legend, cross in a circle with wedges in the angles, line border.
exergue:-/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis:h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-050, CNH I.-059, Unger-043,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 13.04./a4.07./039.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
13_04_-a8_08_-178_,_Bela_II__(1131-1141_AD),_H-050,_C1-059,_U-043,_Q-001,_9h,_11,3-12mm,_0,39g-s.jpg
13.04. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.04./a8.08./178., H-050, CNH I.-059, U-043, #0160 views13.04. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.04./a8.08./178., H-050, CNH I.-059, U-043, #01
avers: REX BELA, Crowned head facing, the border of dots.
reverse: Lines in place of legend cross in a circle with wedges in the angles, line border.
exergue:-/-//--, diameter: 11,3-12,0mm, weight: 0,39g, axis: 9h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-050, CNH I.-059, Unger-043,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 13.04./a8.08./178.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
II_Bela_(1131-1141_AD)_U-045_C1-061_H-053_Q-001_6h_10,0mm_0,23g-s.jpg
13.07. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.07./c2.04./35., H-053, CNH I.-061, U-045, #0171 views13.07. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.07./c2.04./35., H-053, CNH I.-061, U-045, #01
avers: + BELA RX, Three stabs ending in a cross, border of dots.
reverse: Wedges in place of the legend, cross in a circle with wedges in the angles, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter:10,5 mm, weight: 0,23 g, axis:6h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-053, CNH I.-061, Unger-045,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 13.07./c2.04./35.,
Q-001
quadrans
II_Bela_(1131-1141_AD)_U-045_C1-061_H-053_Q-002_10h_10,2mm_0,19g-s.jpg
13.07. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.07./d1.02./?., H-053, CNH I.-061, U-045, #01109 views13.07. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.07./d1.02./?., H-053, CNH I.-061, U-045, #01
avers: + BELA RX, Three stabs ending in a cross, the border of dots.
reverse: Wedges in place of the legend, cross in a circle with wedges in the angles, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter:10,2 mm, weight: 0,19 g, axis:10h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-053, CNH I.-061, Unger-045,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 13.07./d1.02./?., New subtype/sigla variation!,
Q-001
quadrans
Bela-II_U-50_C1-56_H-54_Q-001_11,00mm_0,21ga-s.jpg
13.08. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.08./a2.20./34., H-054, CNH I.-056, U-050, #0173 views13.08. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.08./a2.20./34., H-054, CNH I.-056, U-050, #01
avers: Three columns, above them two crescents, E-E to the sides.
reverse: Lines and crescents instead of an inscription, cross with four wedges.
exergue:-/-//--, diameter: 11,0 mm, weight: 0,21g, axis: h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-054, CNH I.-056, Unger-050,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 13.08./a2.20./34.,
Q-001
quadrans
Bela-II_(1131-1141_AD)_U-50_C1-56_H-54_Q-003_10h_10,30mm_0,21g-s.jpg
13.08. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.08./b1.01./42., H-054, CNH I.-056, U-050, #0170 views13.08. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.08./b1.01./42., H-054, CNH I.-056, U-050, #01
avers: Three columns, above them two crescents, E-E to the sides.
reverse: Lines and crescents instead of an inscription, cross with four wedges.
exergue:-/-//--, diameter: 10,3 mm, weight: 0,21g, axis: 10h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-054, CNH I.-056, Unger-050,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 13.08./b1.01./42.,
Q-001
quadrans
Bela-II_U-50_C1-56_H-54_Q-002_10,00mm_0,25ga-s.jpg
13.08. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.08./b2.01./44., H-054, CNH I.-056, U-050, #0178 views13.08. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.08./b2.01./44., H-054, CNH I.-056, U-050, #01
avers: Three columns, above them two crescents, E-E to the sides.
reverse: Lines and crescents instead of an inscription, cross with four wedges.
exergue:-/-//--, diameter: 10,0 mm, weight: 0,25g, axis: h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-054, CNH I.-056, Unger-050,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 13.08./b2.01./44.,
Q-001
quadrans
Bela-II_(1131-1141_AD)_U-50_C1-56_H-54_Q-004,_h,_10,8mm,_g-s.jpg
13.08. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.08./c2.02./53., H-054, CNH I.-056, U-050, #01186 views13.08. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.08./c2.02./53., H-054, CNH I.-056, U-050, #01
avers: Three columns, above them two crescents, E-E to the sides.
reverse: Lines and crescents instead of an inscription, cross with four wedges.
exergue:-/-//--, diameter: 10,80 mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-054, CNH I.-056, Unger-050,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 13.08./c2.02./53.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
DiocleAnt.jpg
1301a, Diocletian, 284-305 A.D. (Antioch)93 viewsDIOCLETIAN (284 – 305 AD) AE Antoninianus, 293-95 AD, RIC V 322, Cohen 34. 20.70 mm/3.1 gm, aVF, Antioch. Obverse: IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, Radiate bust right, draped & cuirassed; Reverse: CONCORDIA MILITVM, Jupiter presents Victory on a globe to Diocletian, I/XXI. Early Diocletian with dusty earthen green patina.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Diocletian ( 284-305 A.D.)

Ralph W. Mathisen
University of South Carolina


Summary and Introduction
The Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (A.D. 284-305) put an end to the disastrous phase of Roman history known as the "Military Anarchy" or the "Imperial Crisis" (235-284). He established an obvious military despotism and was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second phase of the Roman Empire, which is known variously as the "Dominate," the "Tetrarchy," the "Later Roman Empire," or the "Byzantine Empire." His reforms ensured the continuity of the Roman Empire in the east for more than a thousand years.

Diocletian's Early Life and Reign
Diocletian was born ca. 236/237 on the Dalmatian coast, perhaps at Salona. He was of very humble birth, and was originally named Diocles. He would have received little education beyond an elementary literacy and he was apparently deeply imbued with religious piety He had a wife Prisca and a daughter Valeria, both of whom reputedly were Christians. During Diocletian's early life, the Roman empire was in the midst of turmoil. In the early years of the third century, emperors increasingly insecure on their thrones had granted inflationary pay raises to the soldiers. The only meaningful income the soldiers now received was in the form of gold donatives granted by newly acclaimed emperors. Beginning in 235, armies throughout the empire began to set up their generals as rival emperors. The resultant civil wars opened up the empire to invasion in both the north, by the Franks, Alamanni, and Goths, and the east, by the Sassanid Persians. Another reason for the unrest in the army was the great gap between the social background of the common soldiers and the officer corps.

Diocletian sought his fortune in the army. He showed himself to be a shrewd, able, and ambitious individual. He is first attested as "Duke of Moesia" (an area on the banks of the lower Danube River), with responsibility for border defense. He was a prudent and methodical officer, a seeker of victory rather than glory. In 282, the legions of the upper Danube proclaimed the praetorian prefect Carus as emperor. Diocletian found favor under the new emperor, and was promoted to Count of the Domestics, the commander of the cavalry arm of the imperial bodyguard. In 283 he was granted the honor of a consulate.

In 284, in the midst of a campaign against the Persians, Carus was killed, struck by a bolt of lightning which one writer noted might have been forged in a legionary armory. This left the empire in the hands of his two young sons, Numerian in the east and Carinus in the west. Soon thereafter, Numerian died under mysterious circumstances near Nicomedia, and Diocletian was acclaimed emperor in his place. At this time he changed his name from Diocles to Diocletian. In 285 Carinus was killed in a battle near Belgrade, and Diocletian gained control of the entire empire.

Diocletian's Administrative and Military Reforms
As emperor, Diocletian was faced with many problems. His most immediate concerns were to bring the mutinous and increasingly barbarized Roman armies back under control and to make the frontiers once again secure from invasion. His long-term goals were to restore effective government and economic prosperity to the empire. Diocletian concluded that stern measures were necessary if these problems were to be solved. He felt that it was the responsibility of the imperial government to take whatever steps were necessary, no matter how harsh or innovative, to bring the empire back under control.

Diocletian was able to bring the army back under control by making several changes. He subdivided the roughly fifty existing provinces into approximately one hundred. The provinces also were apportioned among twelve "dioceses," each under a "vicar," and later also among four "prefectures," each under a "praetorian prefect." As a result, the imperial bureaucracy became increasingly bloated. He institutionalized the policy of separating civil and military careers. He divided the army itself into so-called "border troops," actually an ineffective citizen militia, and "palace troops," the real field army, which often was led by the emperor in person.

Following the precedent of Aurelian (A.D.270-275), Diocletian transformed the emperorship into an out-and-out oriental monarchy. Access to him became restricted; he now was addressed not as First Citizen (Princeps) or the soldierly general (Imperator), but as Lord and Master (Dominus Noster) . Those in audience were required to prostrate themselves on the ground before him.

Diocletian also concluded that the empire was too large and complex to be ruled by only a single emperor. Therefore, in order to provide an imperial presence throughout the empire, he introduced the "Tetrarchy," or "Rule by Four." In 285, he named his lieutenant Maximianus "Caesar," and assigned him the western half of the empire. This practice began the process which would culminate with the de facto split of the empire in 395. Both Diocletian and Maximianus adopted divine attributes. Diocletian was identified with Jupiter and Maximianus with Hercules. In 286, Diocletian promoted Maximianus to the rank of Augustus, "Senior Emperor," and in 293 he appointed two new Caesars, Constantius (the father of Constantine I ), who was given Gaul and Britain in the west, and Galerius, who was assigned the Balkans in the east.

By instituting his Tetrarchy, Diocletian also hoped to solve another problem. In the Augustan Principate, there had been no constitutional method for choosing new emperors. According to Diocletian's plan, the successor of each Augustus would be the respective Caesar, who then would name a new Caesar. Initially, the Tetrarchy operated smoothly and effectively.

Once the army was under control, Diocletian could turn his attention to other problems. The borders were restored and strengthened. In the early years of his reign, Diocletian and his subordinates were able to defeat foreign enemies such as Alamanni, Sarmatians, Saracens, Franks, and Persians, and to put down rebellions in Britain and Egypt. The easter frontier was actually expanded.

.
Diocletian's Economic Reforms
Another problem was the economy, which was in an especially sorry state. The coinage had become so debased as to be virtually worthless. Diocletian's attempt to reissue good gold and silver coins failed because there simply was not enough gold and silver available to restore confidence in the currency. A "Maximum Price Edict" issued in 301, intended to curb inflation, served only to drive goods onto the black market. Diocletian finally accepted the ruin of the money economy and revised the tax system so that it was based on payments in kind . The soldiers too came to be paid in kind.

In order to assure the long term survival of the empire, Diocletian identified certain occupations which he felt would have to be performed. These were known as the "compulsory services." They included such occupations as soldiers, bakers, members of town councils, and tenant farmers. These functions became hereditary, and those engaging in them were inhibited from changing their careers. The repetitious nature of these laws, however, suggests that they were not widely obeyed. Diocletian also expanded the policy of third-century emperors of restricting the entry of senators into high-ranking governmental posts, especially military ones.

Diocletian attempted to use the state religion as a unifying element. Encouraged by the Caesar Galerius, Diocletian in 303 issued a series of four increasingly harsh decrees designed to compel Christians to take part in the imperial cult, the traditional means by which allegiance was pledged to the empire. This began the so-called "Great Persecution."

Diocletian's Resignation and Death
On 1 May 305, wearied by his twenty years in office, and determined to implement his method for the imperial succession, Diocletian abdicated. He compelled his co-regent Maximianus to do the same. Constantius and Galerius then became the new Augusti, and two new Caesars were selected, Maximinus (305-313) in the east and Severus (305- 307) in the west. Diocletian then retired to his palace at Split on the Croatian coast. In 308 he declined an offer to resume the purple, and the aged ex-emperor died at Split on 3 December 316.

Copyright (C) 1996, Ralph W. Mathisen, University of South Carolina
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
DicletianConcordCyz.jpg
1301b, Diocletian, 20 November 284 - 1 March 305 A.D.57 viewsDiocletian. RIC V Part II Cyzicus 256 var. Not listed with pellet in exegrue
Item ref: RI141f. VF. Minted in Cyzicus (B in centre field, XXI dot in exegrue)Obverse:- IMP CC VAL DIOCLETIANVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right. Reverse:- CONCORDIA MILITVM, Diocletian standing right, holding parazonium, receiving Victory from Jupiter standing left with scepter.
A post reform radiate of Diocletian. Ex Maridvnvm.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Diocletian ( 284-305 A.D.)

Ralph W. Mathisen
University of South Carolina


Summary and Introduction
The Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (A.D. 284-305) put an end to the disastrous phase of Roman history known as the "Military Anarchy" or the "Imperial Crisis" (235-284). He established an obvious military despotism and was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second phase of the Roman Empire, which is known variously as the "Dominate," the "Tetrarchy," the "Later Roman Empire," or the "Byzantine Empire." His reforms ensured the continuity of the Roman Empire in the east for more than a thousand years.

Diocletian's Early Life and Reign
Diocletian was born ca. 236/237 on the Dalmatian coast, perhaps at Salona. He was of very humble birth, and was originally named Diocles. He would have received little education beyond an elementary literacy and he was apparently deeply imbued with religious piety He had a wife Prisca and a daughter Valeria, both of whom reputedly were Christians. During Diocletian's early life, the Roman empire was in the midst of turmoil. In the early years of the third century, emperors increasingly insecure on their thrones had granted inflationary pay raises to the soldiers. The only meaningful income the soldiers now received was in the form of gold donatives granted by newly acclaimed emperors. Beginning in 235, armies throughout the empire began to set up their generals as rival emperors. The resultant civil wars opened up the empire to invasion in both the north, by the Franks, Alamanni, and Goths, and the east, by the Sassanid Persians. Another reason for the unrest in the army was the great gap between the social background of the common soldiers and the officer corps.

Diocletian sought his fortune in the army. He showed himself to be a shrewd, able, and ambitious individual. He is first attested as "Duke of Moesia" (an area on the banks of the lower Danube River), with responsibility for border defense. He was a prudent and methodical officer, a seeker of victory rather than glory. In 282, the legions of the upper Danube proclaimed the praetorian prefect Carus as emperor. Diocletian found favor under the new emperor, and was promoted to Count of the Domestics, the commander of the cavalry arm of the imperial bodyguard. In 283 he was granted the honor of a consulate.

In 284, in the midst of a campaign against the Persians, Carus was killed, struck by a bolt of lightning which one writer noted might have been forged in a legionary armory. This left the empire in the hands of his two young sons, Numerian in the east and Carinus in the west. Soon thereafter, Numerian died under mysterious circumstances near Nicomedia, and Diocletian was acclaimed emperor in his place. At this time he changed his name from Diocles to Diocletian. In 285 Carinus was killed in a battle near Belgrade, and Diocletian gained control of the entire empire.

Diocletian's Administrative and Military Reforms
As emperor, Diocletian was faced with many problems. His most immediate concerns were to bring the mutinous and increasingly barbarized Roman armies back under control and to make the frontiers once again secure from invasion. His long-term goals were to restore effective government and economic prosperity to the empire. Diocletian concluded that stern measures were necessary if these problems were to be solved. He felt that it was the responsibility of the imperial government to take whatever steps were necessary, no matter how harsh or innovative, to bring the empire back under control.

Diocletian was able to bring the army back under control by making several changes. He subdivided the roughly fifty existing provinces into approximately one hundred. The provinces also were apportioned among twelve "dioceses," each under a "vicar," and later also among four "prefectures," each under a "praetorian prefect." As a result, the imperial bureaucracy became increasingly bloated. He institutionalized the policy of separating civil and military careers. He divided the army itself into so-called "border troops," actually an ineffective citizen militia, and "palace troops," the real field army, which often was led by the emperor in person.

Following the precedent of Aurelian (A.D.270-275), Diocletian transformed the emperorship into an out-and-out oriental monarchy. Access to him became restricted; he now was addressed not as First Citizen (Princeps) or the soldierly general (Imperator), but as Lord and Master (Dominus Noster) . Those in audience were required to prostrate themselves on the ground before him.

Diocletian also concluded that the empire was too large and complex to be ruled by only a single emperor. Therefore, in order to provide an imperial presence throughout the empire, he introduced the "Tetrarchy," or "Rule by Four." In 285, he named his lieutenant Maximianus "Caesar," and assigned him the western half of the empire. This practice began the process which would culminate with the de facto split of the empire in 395. Both Diocletian and Maximianus adopted divine attributes. Diocletian was identified with Jupiter and Maximianus with Hercules. In 286, Diocletian promoted Maximianus to the rank of Augustus, "Senior Emperor," and in 293 he appointed two new Caesars, Constantius (the father of Constantine I ), who was given Gaul and Britain in the west, and Galerius, who was assigned the Balkans in the east.

By instituting his Tetrarchy, Diocletian also hoped to solve another problem. In the Augustan Principate, there had been no constitutional method for choosing new emperors. According to Diocletian's plan, the successor of each Augustus would be the respective Caesar, who then would name a new Caesar. Initially, the Tetrarchy operated smoothly and effectively.

Once the army was under control, Diocletian could turn his attention to other problems. The borders were restored and strengthened. In the early years of his reign, Diocletian and his subordinates were able to defeat foreign enemies such as Alamanni, Sarmatians, Saracens, Franks, and Persians, and to put down rebellions in Britain and Egypt. The easter frontier was actually expanded.

.
Diocletian's Economic Reforms
Another problem was the economy, which was in an especially sorry state. The coinage had become so debased as to be virtually worthless. Diocletian's attempt to reissue good gold and silver coins failed because there simply was not enough gold and silver available to restore confidence in the currency. A "Maximum Price Edict" issued in 301, intended to curb inflation, served only to drive goods onto the black market. Diocletian finally accepted the ruin of the money economy and revised the tax system so that it was based on payments in kind . The soldiers too came to be paid in kind.

In order to assure the long term survival of the empire, Diocletian identified certain occupations which he felt would have to be performed. These were known as the "compulsory services." They included such occupations as soldiers, bakers, members of town councils, and tenant farmers. These functions became hereditary, and those engaging in them were inhibited from changing their careers. The repetitious nature of these laws, however, suggests that they were not widely obeyed. Diocletian also expanded the policy of third-century emperors of restricting the entry of senators into high-ranking governmental posts, especially military ones.

Diocletian attempted to use the state religion as a unifying element. Encouraged by the Caesar Galerius, Diocletian in 303 issued a series of four increasingly harsh decrees designed to compel Christians to take part in the imperial cult, the traditional means by which allegiance was pledged to the empire. This began the so-called "Great Persecution."

Diocletian's Resignation and Death
On 1 May 305, wearied by his twenty years in office, and determined to implement his method for the imperial succession, Diocletian abdicated. He compelled his co-regent Maximianus to do the same. Constantius and Galerius then became the new Augusti, and two new Caesars were selected, Maximinus (305-313) in the east and Severus (305- 307) in the west. Diocletian then retired to his palace at Split on the Croatian coast. In 308 he declined an offer to resume the purple, and the aged ex-emperor died at Split on 3 December 316.

Copyright (C) 1996, Ralph W. Mathisen, University of South Carolina
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
MaxHercRIC5iiRome.jpg
1302a, Maximian, 285 - 305, 306 - 308, and 310 A.D.47 viewsMaximianus AE Antoninianus. RIC V Part II 506 Bust Type C. Cohen 355; VF; Minted in Rome A.D. 285-286. Obverse: IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right; Rverse: IOVI CONSERVAT AVGG, Jupiter standing left holding thunderbolt & scepter, XXIZ in exergue. Ex maridvnvm.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D.

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Perhaps born ca. 249/250 A.D. in Sirmium in the area of the Balkans, Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Maximianus Herculius (Maximian), had been a soldier before he put on the purple. A fellow soldier with the Emperor Diocletian, he had served in the military during the reigns of Aurelian and Probus.

When the Emperor Diocletian determined that the empire was too large for one man to govern on his own, he made Maximian his Caesar in 285/6 and elevated him to the rank of Augustus in perhaps the spring of 286. While Diocletian ruled in the East, Maximian ruled in the West. In 293, in order to maintain and to strengthen the stability of the empire, Diocletian appointed Constantius I Chlorus to serve Maximian as a Caesar in the West, while Galerius did the same job in the East. This arrangement, called the "Tetrarchy", was meant not only to provide a stronger foundation for the two emperors' rule, but also to end any possible fighting over the succession to the throne once the two senior Augusti had left the throne--a problem which had bedeviled the principate since the time of the Emperor Augustus. To cement the relationship between Maximian and his Caesar, Constantius married Maximian's elder daughter Theodora. A decade later, Constantius' son Constantine would marry Maximia's younger daughter Fausta.

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximian, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple. Their resignations seem largely due to the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian seems to have forced his colleague to abdicate. In any case, Herculius had sworn an oath at the temple of Capitoline Jupiter to carry out the terms of the abdication. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Diocletian's retirement was at Salonae in Dalmatia, while Herculius' retreat was either in Lucania or Campania.

Maximian's retirement, however, was of short duration because, a little more than a year later on 28 October 306, his son Maxentius was proclaimed emperor at Rome. To give his regime an aura of legitimacy, Maximian was forced to affirm his son's acclamation. When Galerius learned of Maxentius' rebellion, he sent Severus against him with an army that had formerly been under his father's command. Maxentius invested his father with the purple again to win over his enemy's troops, a ruse which succeeded. Perhaps to strengthen his own position, in 307 Maximian went to Gaul and married his daughter Fausta to Constantine. When Constantine refused to become embroiled in the civil war between Galerius and Maxentius, Maximian returned to Rome in 308 and attempted to depose his son; however, he did not succeed. When Maximian was unable to convince Diocletian to take up the purple again at a meeting in Carnuntum in late 308, he returned to his son-in-law's side in Gaul.

Although Maximian was treated with all of the respect due a former emperor, he still desired to be more than a figurehead. He decided to seize the purple from Constantine when his son-in-law least expected it. His opportunity came in the summer of 310 when the Franks revolted. When Constantine had taken a small part of his army into enemy territory, Maximian proclaimed himself again emperor and paid the soldiers under his command a donative to secure their loyalty. As soon as Constantine received news about Maximian's revolt in July 310, he went south and reached Arelate before his father-in-law could mount a defense of the city. Although Maximian fled to Massilia, his son-in-law seized the city and took Maximian prisoner. Although he was deprived of the purple, he was granted pardon for his crimes. Unable to endure the humiliation of his defeat, he attempted to have Constantine murdered in his bed. The plot failed because he tried to get his daughter Fausta's help in the matter; she chose to reveal the matter to her husband. Because of this attempt on his son-in-law's life Maximian was dead by the end of July either by his own hand or on the orders of his intended victim.

Eutropia was of Syrian extraction and her marriage to Maximian seems to have been her second. She bore him two children: Maxentius and Fausta. An older daughter, Theodora, may have been a product of her first marriage. Fausta became the wife of Constantine I , while her sister Theodora was the second spouse of his father Constantius I Chlorus . Eutropia apparently survived all her children, with the possible exception of her daughter Fausta who seems to have died in 326. Eutropia is also said to have become a Christian.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Max.jpg
1302b, Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D., commemorative issued by Constantine the Great (Siscia)55 viewsMaximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D., commemorative issued by Constantine the Great. Bronze AE3, RIC 41, VF, Siscia, 1.30g, 16.1mm, 0o, 317-318 A.D. Obverse: DIVO MAXIMIANO SEN FORT IMP, laureate and veiled head right; Reverse: REQVIES OPTIMO-RVM MERITORVM, Emperor seated left on curule chair, raising hand and holding scepter, SIS in exergue; scarce (R3).


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D.

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Perhaps born ca. 249/250 A.D. in Sirmium in the area of the Balkans, Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Maximianus Herculius (Maximian), had been a soldier before he put on the purple. A fellow soldier with the Emperor Diocletian, he had served in the military during the reigns of Aurelian and Probus.

When the Emperor Diocletian determined that the empire was too large for one man to govern on his own, he made Maximian his Caesar in 285/6 and elevated him to the rank of Augustus in perhaps the spring of 286. While Diocletian ruled in the East, Maximian ruled in the West. In 293, in order to maintain and to strengthen the stability of the empire, Diocletian appointed Constantius I Chlorus to serve Maximian as a Caesar in the West, while Galerius did the same job in the East. This arrangement, called the "Tetrarchy", was meant not only to provide a stronger foundation for the two emperors' rule, but also to end any possible fighting over the succession to the throne once the two senior Augusti had left the throne--a problem which had bedeviled the principate since the time of the Emperor Augustus. To cement the relationship between Maximian and his Caesar, Constantius married Maximian's elder daughter Theodora. A decade later, Constantius' son Constantine would marry Maximia's younger daughter Fausta.

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximian, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple. Their resignations seem largely due to the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian seems to have forced his colleague to abdicate. In any case, Herculius had sworn an oath at the temple of Capitoline Jupiter to carry out the terms of the abdication. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Diocletian's retirement was at Salonae in Dalmatia, while Herculius' retreat was either in Lucania or Campania.

Maximian's retirement, however, was of short duration because, a little more than a year later on 28 October 306, his son Maxentius was proclaimed emperor at Rome. To give his regime an aura of legitimacy, Maximian was forced to affirm his son's acclamation. When Galerius learned of Maxentius' rebellion, he sent Severus against him with an army that had formerly been under his father's command. Maxentius invested his father with the purple again to win over his enemy's troops, a ruse which succeeded. Perhaps to strengthen his own position, in 307 Maximian went to Gaul and married his daughter Fausta to Constantine. When Constantine refused to become embroiled in the civil war between Galerius and Maxentius, Maximian returned to Rome in 308 and attempted to depose his son; however, he did not succeed. When Maximian was unable to convince Diocletian to take up the purple again at a meeting in Carnuntum in late 308, he returned to his son-in-law's side in Gaul.

Although Maximian was treated with all of the respect due a former emperor, he still desired to be more than a figurehead. He decided to seize the purple from Constantine when his son-in-law least expected it. His opportunity came in the summer of 310 when the Franks revolted. When Constantine had taken a small part of his army into enemy territory, Maximian proclaimed himself again emperor and paid the soldiers under his command a donative to secure their loyalty. As soon as Constantine received news about Maximian's revolt in July 310, he went south and reached Arelate before his father-in-law could mount a defense of the city. Although Maximian fled to Massilia, his son-in-law seized the city and took Maximian prisoner. Although he was deprived of the purple, he was granted pardon for his crimes. Unable to endure the humiliation of his defeat, he attempted to have Constantine murdered in his bed. The plot failed because he tried to get his daughter Fausta's help in the matter; she chose to reveal the matter to her husband. Because of this attempt on his son-in-law's life Maximian was dead by the end of July either by his own hand or on the orders of his intended victim.

Eutropia was of Syrian extraction and her marriage to Maximian seems to have been her second. She bore him two children: Maxentius and Fausta. An older daughter, Theodora, may have been a product of her first marriage. Fausta became the wife of Constantine I , while her sister Theodora was the second spouse of his father Constantius I Chlorus . Eutropia apparently survived all her children, with the possible exception of her daughter Fausta who seems to have died in 326. Eutropia is also said to have become a Christian.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
GaleriusAugCyz.jpg
1303a, Galerius, 1 March 305 - 5 May 311 A.D.35 viewsGalerius, RIC VI 59, Cyzicus S, VF, Cyzicus S, 6.4 g, 25.86 mm; 309-310 AD; Obverse: GAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate bust right; Reverse: GENIO A-VGVS[TI], Genius stg. left, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera and cornucopiae. A nice example with sharp detail and nice brown hoard patina. Ex Ancient Imports.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Galerius (305-311 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University


Caius Galerius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Galerius, was from Illyricum; his father, whose name is unknown, was of peasant stock, while his mother, Romula, was from beyond the Danube. Galerius was born in Dacia Ripensis near Sardica. Although the date of his birth is unknown, he was probably born ca. 250 since he served under Aurelian. As a youth Galerius was a shepherd and acquired the nickname Armentarius. Although he seems to have started his military career under Aurelian and Probus, nothing is known about it before his accession as Caesar on 1 March 293. He served as Diocletian's Caesar in the East. Abandoning his first wife, he married Diocletian's daugher, Valeria.

As Caesar he campaigned in Egypt in 294; he seems to have taken to the field against Narses of Persia, and was defeated near Ctesiphon in 295. In 298, after he made inroads into Armenia, he obtained a treaty from the Persians favorable to the Romans. Between 299-305 he overcame the Sarmatians and the Carpi along the Danube. The Great Persecution of the Orthodox Church, which was started in 303 by the Emperor Diocletian, was probably instigated by Galerius. Because of the almost fatal illness that he contracted toward the end of 304, Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximianus Herculius, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple on 1 May 305. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. Constantius and Severus reigned in the West, whereas Galerius' and Daia's realm was the East. Although Constantius was nominally senior Augustus, the real power was in the hands of Galerius because both Caesars were his creatures.

The balance of power shifted at the end of July 306 when Constantius, with his son Constantine at his side, passed away at York in Britain where he was preparing to face incursions by the Picts; his army proclaimed Constantine his successor immediately. As soon as he received the news of the death of Constantius I and the acclamation of Constantine to the purple, Galerius raised Severus to the rank of Augustus to replace his dead colleague in August 306. Making the best of a bad situation, Galerius accepted Constantine as the new Caesar in the West. The situation became more complicated when Maxentius, with his father Maximianus Herculius acquiesing, declared himself princes on 28 October 306. When Galerius learned about the acclamation of the usurper, he dispatched the Emperor Severus to put down the rebellion. Severus took a large field army which had formerly been that of Maximianus and proceeded toward Rome and began to besiege the city, Maxentius, however, and Maximianus, by means of a ruse, convinced Severus to surrender. Later, in 307, Severus was put to death under clouded circumstances. While Severus was fighting in the west, Galerius, during late 306 or early 307, was campaigning against the Sarmatians.

In the early summer of 307 Galerius invaded Italy to avenge Severus's death; he advanced to the south and encamped at Interamna near the Tiber. His attempt to besiege the city was abortive because his army was too small to encompass the city's fortifications. Not trusting his own troops, Galerius withdrew. During its retreat, his army ravaged the Italian countryside as it was returning to its original base. When Maximianus Herculius' attempts to regain the throne between 308 and 310 by pushing his son off his throne or by winning over Constantine to his cause failed, he tried to win Diocletian and Galerius over to his side at Carnuntum in October and November 308; the outcome of the Conference at Carnuntum was that Licinius was appointed Augustus in Severus's place, that Daia and Constantine were denoted filii Augustorum, and that Herculius was completely cut out of the picture. Later, in 310, Herculius died, having been implicated in a plot against his son-in-law. After the Conference at Carnuntum, Galerius returned to Sardica where he died in the opening days of May 311.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University; Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Galerius was Caesar and tetrarch under Maximianus. Although a talented general and administrator, Galerius is better known for his key role in the "Great Persecution" of Christians. He stopped the persecution under condition the Christians pray for his return to health from a serious illness. Galerius died horribly shortly after. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
Constantius1_silvered_follis.jpg
1304a, Constantius I, May 305 - 25 July 306 A.D.48 viewsSilvered follis, RIC 20a, S 3671, VM 25, gVF, Heraclea mint, 10.144g, 27.7mm, 180o, 297 - 298 A.D. Obverse: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, laureate head right; Reverse GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked except for chlamys over shoulder, cornucopia in left, pouring liquor from patera, HTD in exergue; some silvering, nice portrait, well centered.



De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Constantius I Chlorus (305-306 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Constantius' Early Life and Marriage

Born March 31st, Emperor Flavius Valerius Constantius may have come into the world ca. 250. His family was from Illyricum. In the army he served as a protector, tribunus, and a praeses Dalmatiarum. During the 270s or the 280s, he became the father of Constantine by Helena, his first spouse. By 288 he was the Praetorian Prefect of the western emperor Maximianus Herculius.

Constantius' Reign as Caesar

On 1 March 293 Diocletian appointed Galerius as his Caesar (junior emperor) in the east and Constantius as the Caesar of Maximianus Herculius. Caesar in the west. Both Caesars had the right of succession. In order to strengthen the dynastic relationship between himself and Herculius., Constantius put aside his wife Helena and married Theodora, the daughter, or perhaps stepdaughter, of Maximianus Herculius.. The union was fruitful and of it there were six issue: Flavius Dalmatius, Julius Constantius, Hannibalianus, Constantia, Anastasia, and Eutropia. To strengthen his bond with Galerius and Diocletian in the east, Constantius allowed Galerius to keep his son Constantine as a hostage for his good behavior.

In the remainder of the time that he was a Caesar, Constantius spent much of his time engaged in military actions in the west. In the summer of 293 Constantius expelled the troops of the usurper Carausius from northern Gaul; after Constantius' attack on Bononia (Boulogne), Carausius was murdered. At the same time he dealt with the unrest of the Germans. In 296 he invaded Britain and put down the revolt of the usurper Allectus. Between 300 and 305 A.D. the Caesar campaigned successfully several times with various German tribes. It is worth noting in passing, that while his colleagues rigidly enforced the "Great Persecution in 303," Constantius limited his action to knocking down a few churches.

Constantius as Augustus and His Untimely Death

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedia, and Maximianus Herculius, at Mediolanum (Milan), divested themselves of the purple, probably because of the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian forced Maximianus to abdicate. They appointed as their successors Constantius and Galerius, with Severus and Maximinus Daia as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Constantius, as had his predecessor, ruled in the west, while Galerius and Daia ruled in the east. Almost as soon as he was appointed Augustus, he crossed to Britain to face incursions by the Picts where he died at York on 25 July 306 with his son (Constantine I, known to history as “The Great”) at his side.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
MaxentiusRIC163.jpg
1307a, Maxentius, February 307 - 28 October 312 A.D.60 viewsBronze follis, RIC 163, aEF, Rome mint, 5.712g, 25.6mm, 0o, summer 307 A.D.; obverse MAXENTIVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse CONSERVATO-RES VRB SVAE, Roma holding globe and scepter, seated in hexastyle temple, RT in ex; rare. Ex FORVM; Ex Maridvnvm


De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maxentius (306-312 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius, more commonly known as Maxentius, was the child of the Emperor Maximianus Herculius and the Syrian, Eutropia; he was born ca. 278 A.D. After Galerius' appointment to the rank of Caesar on 1 March 293, Maxentius married Galerius' daughter Valeria Maximilla, who bore him a son named Romulus and another son whose name is unknown. Due to his haughty nature and bad disposition, Maxentius could seldom agree with his father or his father-in-law; Galerius' and Maximianus Herculius' aversion to Maxentius prevented the young man from becoming a Caesar in 305. Little else is known of Maxentius' private life prior to his accession and, although there is some evidence that it was spent in idleness, he did become a Senator.

On 28 October 306 Maxentius was acclaimed emperor, although he was politically astute enough not to use the title Augustus; like the Emperor Augustus, he called himself princeps. It was not until the summer of 307 that he started using the title Augustus and started offending other claimants to the imperial throne. He was enthroned by the plebs and the Praetorians. At the time of his acclamation Maxentius was at a public villa on the Via Labicana. He strengthened his position with promises of riches for those who helped him obtain his objective. He forced his father Maximianus Herculius to affirm his son's acclamation in order to give his regime a facade of legitimacy. His realm included Italy, Africa, Sardinia, and Corsica. As soon as Galerius learned about the acclamation of Herculius' son, he dispatched the Emperor Severus to quell the rebellion. With the help of his father and Severus' own troops, Maxentius' took his enemy prisoner.

When Severus died, Galerius was determined to avenge his death. In the early summer of 307 the Augustus invaded Italy; he advanced to the south and encamped at Interamna near the Tiber. His attempt to besiege the city was abortive because his army was not large enough to encompass the city's fortifications. Negotiations between Maxentius and Galerius broke down when the emperor discovered that the usurper was trying to win over his troops. Galerius' troops were open to Maxentius' promises because they were fighting a civil war between members of the same family; some of the soldiers went over to the enemy. Not trusting his own troops, Galerius withdrew. During its retreat, Galerius' army ravaged the Italian countryside as it was returning to its original base. If it was not enough that Maxentius had to deal with the havoc created by the ineffectual invasions of Severus and Galerius, he also had to deal with his father's attempts to regain the throne between 308 and 310. When Maximianus Herculius was unable to regain power by pushing his son off his throne, he attempted to win over Constantine to his cause. When this plan failed, he tried to win Diocletian over to his side at Carnuntum in October and November 308. Frustrated at every turn, Herculius returned to his son-in-law Constantine's side in Gaul where he died in 310, having been implicated in a plot against his son-in-law. Maxentius' control of the situation was weakened by the revolt of L. Domitius Alexander in 308. Although the revolt only lasted until the end of 309, it drastically cut the size of the grain supply availble for Rome. Maxentius' rule collapsed when he died on 27 October 312 in an engagement he had with the Emperor Constantine at the Milvian Bridge after the latter had invaded his realm.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
Lcnius1.jpg
1308b, Licinius I, 308 - 324 A.D. (Siscia)59 viewsLicinius I, 11 November 308 - 18 September 324 A.D. Bronze follis, RIC 4, F, Siscia, 3.257g, 21.6mm, 0o, 313 - 315 A.D. Obverse: IMP LIC LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate head right; Reverse IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG NN, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath in beak left, E right, SIS in exergue.



De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Licinius (308-324 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Licinius' Heritage

Valerius Licinianus Licinius, more commonly known as Licinius, may have been born ca. 265. Of peasant origin, his family was from Dacia. A close friend and comrade of arms of the Emperor Galerius, he accompanied him on his Persian expedition in 297. When campaigns by Severus and Galerius in late 306 or early 307 and in the summer of 307, respectively, failed to dislodge Maxentius who, with the luke warm support of his father Maximianus Herculius, was acclaimed princeps on 28 October 306, he was sent by the eastern emperor to Maxentius as an ambassador; the diplomatic mission, however, failed because the usurper refused to submit to the authority of his father-in-law Galerius. At the Conference of Carnuntum which was held in October or November of 308, Licinius was made an Augustus on 11 November 308; his realm included Thrace, Illyricum, and Pannonia.

Licinius' Early Reign

Although Licinius was initially appointed by Galerius to replace Severus to end the revolt of Maxentius , Licinius (perhaps wisely) made no effort to move against the usurper. In fact, his first attested victory was against the Sarmatians probably in the late spring, but no later than the end of June in 310. When the Emperor Galerius died in 311, Licinius met Maximinus Daia at the Bosporus during the early summer of that year; they concluded a treaty and divided Galerius' realm between them. It was little more than a year later that the Emperor Constantine defeated Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge on 28 October 312. After the defeat of the usurper, Constantine and Licinius met at Mediolanum (Milan) where Licinius married the former's sister Constantia; one child was born of this union: Valerius Licinianus Licinius. Licinius had another son, born of a slave woman, whose name is unknown. It appears that both emperors promulgated the so-called Edict of Milan, in which Constantine and Licinius granted Christians the freedom to practice their faith without any interference from the state.

As soon as he seems to have learned about the marital alliance between Licinius and Constantine and the death of Maxentius, who had been his ally, Daia traversed Asia Minor and, in April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, which he took from Licinius after an eleven day siege. On 30 April 313 the armies of both emperors clashed on the Campus Ergenus; in the ensuing battle Daia's forces were routed. A last ditch stand by Daia at the Cilician Gates failed; the eastern emperor subsequently died in the area of Tarsus probably in July or August 313. As soon as he arrived in Nicomedeia, Licinius promulgated the Edict of Milan. As soon as he had matters in Nicomedeia straightened out, Licinius campaigned against the Persians in the remaining part of 313 and the opening months of 314.

The First Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine

Once Licinius had defeated Maximinus Daia, the sole rulers of the Roman world were he and Constantine. It is obvious that the marriage of Licinius to Constantia was simply a union of convenience. In any case, there is evidence in the sources that both emperors were looking for an excuse to attack the other. The affair involving Bassianus (the husband of Constantius I's daughter Anastasia ), mentioned in the text of Anonymus Valesianus (5.14ff), may have sparked the falling out between the two emperors. In any case, Constantine' s forces joined battle with those of Licinius at Cibalae in Pannonia on 8 October 314. When the battle was over, Constantine prevailed; his victory, however, was Pyrrhic. Both emperors had been involved in exhausting military campaigns in the previous year and the months leading up to Cibalae and each of their realms had expanded so fast that their manpower reserves must have been stretched to the limit. Both men retreated to their own territory to lick their wounds. It may well be that the two emperors made an agreement, which has left no direct trace in the historical record, which would effectively restore the status quo.

Both emperors were variously engaged in different activities between 315 and 316. In addition to campaigning against the Germans while residing in Augusta Treverorum (Trier) in 315, Constantine dealt with aspects of the Donatist controversy; he also traveled to Rome where he celebrated his Decennalia. Licinius, possibly residing at Sirmium, was probably waging war against the Goths. Although not much else is known about Licinius' activities during this period, it is probable that he spent much of his time preparing for his impending war against Constantine; the latter,who spent the spring and summer of 316 in Augusta Treverorum, was probably doing much the same thing. In any case, by December 316, the western emperor was in Sardica with his army. Sometime between 1 December and 28 February 317, both emperors' armies joined battle on the Campus Ardiensis; as was the case in the previous engagement, Constantine' s forces were victorious. On 1 March 317, both sides agreed to a cessation of hostilities; possibly because of the intervention of his wife Constantia, Licinius was able to keep his throne, although he had to agree to the execution of his colleague Valens, who the eastern emperor had appointed as his colleague before the battle, as well as to cede some of his territory to his brother-in-law.

Licinius and the Christians

Although the historical record is not completely clear, Licinius seems to have campaigned against the Sarmatians in 318. He also appears to have been in Byzantium in the summer of 318 and later in June 323. Beyond these few facts, not much else is known about his residences until mid summer of 324. Although he and Constantine had issued the Edict of Milan in early 313, Licinius turned on the Christians in his realm seemingly in 320. The first law that Licinius issued prevented bishops from communicating with each other and from holding synods to discuss matters of interest to them. The second law prohibited men and women from attending services together and young girls from receiving instruction from their bishop or schools. When this law was issued, he also gave orders that Christians could hold services only outside of city walls. Additionally, he deprived officers in the army of their commissions if they did not sacrifice to the gods. Licinius may have been trying to incite Constantine to attack him. In any case, the growing tension between the two rulers is reflected in the consular Fasti of the period.

The Second Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine and Licinius' Death

War actually broke out in 321 when Constantine pursued some Sarmatians, who had been ravaging some territory in his realm, across the Danube. When he checked a similar invasion of the Goths, who were devastating Thrace, Licinius complained that Constantine had broken the treaty between them. Having assembled a fleet and army at Thessalonica, Constantine advanced toward Adrianople. Licinius engaged the forces of his brother-in-law near the banks of the Hebrus River on 3 July 324 where he was routed; with as many men as he could gather, he headed for his fleet which was in the Hellespont. Those of his soldiers who were not killed or put to flight, surrendered to the enemy. Licinius fled to Byzantium, where he was besieged by Constantine. Licinius' fleet, under the command of the admiral Abantus, was overcome by bad weather and by Constantine' s fleet which was under the command of his son Crispus. Hard pressed in Byzantium, Licinius abandoned the city to his rival and fled to Chalcedon in Bithynia. Leaving Martinianus, his former magister officiorum and now his co-ruler, to impede Constantine' s progress, Licinius regrouped his forces and engaged his enemy at Chrysopolis where he was again routed on 18 September 324. He fled to Nicomedeia which Constantine began to besiege. On the next day Licinius abdicated and was sent to Thessalonica, where he was kept under house arrest. Both Licinius and his associate were put to death by Constantine. Martinianus may have been put to death before the end of 324, whereas Licinius was not put to death until the spring of 325. Rumors circulated that Licinius had been put to death because he attempted another rebellion against Constantine.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
Licin1AEFolJupiAlex.jpg
1308c, Licinius I, 308-324 A.D. (Alexandria)66 viewsLicinius I, 308-324 A.D. AE Follis, 3.60g, VF, 315 A.D., Alexandria. Obverse: IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG - Laureate head right; Reverse: IOVI CONS-ERVATORI AVGG - Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on a globe and scepter; exergue: ALE / (wreath) over "B" over "N." Ref: RIC VII, 10 (B = r2) Rare, page 705 - Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland.


De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Licinius (308-324 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Licinius' Heritage

Valerius Licinianus Licinius, more commonly known as Licinius, may have been born ca. 265. Of peasant origin, his family was from Dacia. A close friend and comrade of arms of the Emperor Galerius, he accompanied him on his Persian expedition in 297. When campaigns by Severus and Galerius in late 306 or early 307 and in the summer of 307, respectively, failed to dislodge Maxentius who, with the luke warm support of his father Maximianus Herculius, was acclaimed princeps on 28 October 306, he was sent by the eastern emperor to Maxentius as an ambassador; the diplomatic mission, however, failed because the usurper refused to submit to the authority of his father-in-law Galerius. At the Conference of Carnuntum which was held in October or November of 308, Licinius was made an Augustus on 11 November 308; his realm included Thrace, Illyricum, and Pannonia.

Licinius' Early Reign

Although Licinius was initially appointed by Galerius to replace Severus to end the revolt of Maxentius , Licinius (perhaps wisely) made no effort to move against the usurper. In fact, his first attested victory was against the Sarmatians probably in the late spring, but no later than the end of June in 310. When the Emperor Galerius died in 311, Licinius met Maximinus Daia at the Bosporus during the early summer of that year; they concluded a treaty and divided Galerius' realm between them. It was little more than a year later that the Emperor Constantine defeated Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge on 28 October 312. After the defeat of the usurper, Constantine and Licinius met at Mediolanum (Milan) where Licinius married the former's sister Constantia; one child was born of this union: Valerius Licinianus Licinius. Licinius had another son, born of a slave woman, whose name is unknown. It appears that both emperors promulgated the so-called Edict of Milan, in which Constantine and Licinius granted Christians the freedom to practice their faith without any interference from the state.

As soon as he seems to have learned about the marital alliance between Licinius and Constantine and the death of Maxentius, who had been his ally, Daia traversed Asia Minor and, in April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, which he took from Licinius after an eleven day siege. On 30 April 313 the armies of both emperors clashed on the Campus Ergenus; in the ensuing battle Daia's forces were routed. A last ditch stand by Daia at the Cilician Gates failed; the eastern emperor subsequently died in the area of Tarsus probably in July or August 313. As soon as he arrived in Nicomedeia, Licinius promulgated the Edict of Milan. As soon as he had matters in Nicomedeia straightened out, Licinius campaigned against the Persians in the remaining part of 313 and the opening months of 314.

The First Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine

Once Licinius had defeated Maximinus Daia, the sole rulers of the Roman world were he and Constantine. It is obvious that the marriage of Licinius to Constantia was simply a union of convenience. In any case, there is evidence in the sources that both emperors were looking for an excuse to attack the other. The affair involving Bassianus (the husband of Constantius I's daughter Anastasia ), mentioned in the text of Anonymus Valesianus (5.14ff), may have sparked the falling out between the two emperors. In any case, Constantine' s forces joined battle with those of Licinius at Cibalae in Pannonia on 8 October 314. When the battle was over, Constantine prevailed; his victory, however, was Pyrrhic. Both emperors had been involved in exhausting military campaigns in the previous year and the months leading up to Cibalae and each of their realms had expanded so fast that their manpower reserves must have been stretched to the limit. Both men retreated to their own territory to lick their wounds. It may well be that the two emperors made an agreement, which has left no direct trace in the historical record, which would effectively restore the status quo.

Both emperors were variously engaged in different activities between 315 and 316. In addition to campaigning against the Germans while residing in Augusta Treverorum (Trier) in 315, Constantine dealt with aspects of the Donatist controversy; he also traveled to Rome where he celebrated his Decennalia. Licinius, possibly residing at Sirmium, was probably waging war against the Goths. Although not much else is known about Licinius' activities during this period, it is probable that he spent much of his time preparing for his impending war against Constantine; the latter,who spent the spring and summer of 316 in Augusta Treverorum, was probably doing much the same thing. In any case, by December 316, the western emperor was in Sardica with his army. Sometime between 1 December and 28 February 317, both emperors' armies joined battle on the Campus Ardiensis; as was the case in the previous engagement, Constantine' s forces were victorious. On 1 March 317, both sides agreed to a cessation of hostilities; possibly because of the intervention of his wife Constantia, Licinius was able to keep his throne, although he had to agree to the execution of his colleague Valens, who the eastern emperor had appointed as his colleague before the battle, as well as to cede some of his territory to his brother-in-law.

Licinius and the Christians

Although the historical record is not completely clear, Licinius seems to have campaigned against the Sarmatians in 318. He also appears to have been in Byzantium in the summer of 318 and later in June 323. Beyond these few facts, not much else is known about his residences until mid summer of 324. Although he and Constantine had issued the Edict of Milan in early 313, Licinius turned on the Christians in his realm seemingly in 320. The first law that Licinius issued prevented bishops from communicating with each other and from holding synods to discuss matters of interest to them. The second law prohibited men and women from attending services together and young girls from receiving instruction from their bishop or schools. When this law was issued, he also gave orders that Christians could hold services only outside of city walls. Additionally, he deprived officers in the army of their commissions if they did not sacrifice to the gods. Licinius may have been trying to incite Constantine to attack him. In any case, the growing tension between the two rulers is reflected in the consular Fasti of the period.

The Second Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine and Licinius' Death

War actually broke out in 321 when Constantine pursued some Sarmatians, who had been ravaging some territory in his realm, across the Danube. When he checked a similar invasion of the Goths, who were devastating Thrace, Licinius complained that Constantine had broken the treaty between them. Having assembled a fleet and army at Thessalonica, Constantine advanced toward Adrianople. Licinius engaged the forces of his brother-in-law near the banks of the Hebrus River on 3 July 324 where he was routed; with as many men as he could gather, he headed for his fleet which was in the Hellespont. Those of his soldiers who were not killed or put to flight, surrendered to the enemy. Licinius fled to Byzantium, where he was besieged by Constantine. Licinius' fleet, under the command of the admiral Abantus, was overcome by bad weather and by Constantine' s fleet which was under the command of his son Crispus. Hard pressed in Byzantium, Licinius abandoned the city to his rival and fled to Chalcedon in Bithynia. Leaving Martinianus, his former magister officiorum and now his co-ruler, to impede Constantine' s progress, Licinius regrouped his forces and engaged his enemy at Chrysopolis where he was again routed on 18 September 324. He fled to Nicomedeia which Constantine began to besiege. On the next day Licinius abdicated and was sent to Thessalonica, where he was kept under house arrest. Both Licinius and his associate were put to death by Constantine. Martinianus may have been put to death before the end of 324, whereas Licinius was not put to death until the spring of 325. Rumors circulated that Licinius had been put to death because he attempted another rebellion against Constantine.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
RI 132ss img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 551 - Bust Type F (Ticinum) (BXXI)22 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– PROVIDENT AVG, Providentia standing left, holding globe and sceptre
Minted in Ticinum (BXXI in exe) Emission 6 Officina 3. A.D. 279
Reference:– RIC 551 Bust type F

This coin shows an unusual positioning of the officina. It is raised compared to the remainder of the exe. with respect to the ground line.
maridvnvm
Licinius-I_AE-3-Follis_IMP-LICI-NIVS-AVG_LICNI-AVGVSTI,_VOT_I_S_XX__BSIS___RIC-VII-141-p-442_Siscia_320-AD_r3_Q-001_2h_20,5-21,0mm_3,33gx-s.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VII 141, •//•BSIS•, AE-3 Follis, LICNI AVGVSTI, VOT/I•S/XX in three lines, R3 !141 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VII 141, •//•BSIS•, AE-3 Follis, LICNI AVGVSTI, VOT/I•S/XX in three lines, R3 !
avers:- IMP LICI NIVS AVG, Laureate head right.
revers:- LICNI AVGVSTI, VOT/I•S/XX in three lines.
exergo: •//•BSIS•, diameter:20,5-21mm, weight: 3,33g, axis: 2h,
mint: Siscia, date: 320 A.D., ref: RIC VII 141, p-442, R3 !
Q-001
quadrans
1327_-_1377_Edward_III_billon_denier_au_leopard.JPG
1327 - 1377, EDWARD III, Billon Denier au Leopard, struck 1327 - 1362 at Bordeaux, France5 viewsObverse: + EDVARDVS : REX around beaded inner circle containing legend ANGL between two lines, Leopard facing left above, trefoil of pellets below. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: + DVX AQITANIE around beaded inner circle containing cross pattée. Cross pattée in legend.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 0.70gms | Die Axis: 3
Second type issue. Scarce
SPINK: 8090

Unlike English silver coins which, with few exceptions were maintained at sterling fineness, these small denomination continental coins were often debased. At the time of issue they would have had a good silver appearance, but after some use their color darkened, hence they became known as “Black Money”.
Black money coins were hastily produced in large numbers and often poorly struck. They were the common circulating medium at the time and consequently they became very worn so that, during the ensuing years during which there were frequent re-coinages, they were the first into the melting pot. Surviving examples are therefore now quite rare and most of those that have survived are of a low grade.

*Alex
0010-075.jpg
1343 - M. Aemilius Scaurus and P. Plautius Hypsaeus. Denarius73 viewsRome mint, 58 BC
M SCAVR AED CVR In two lines above camel, EX | SC, in exergue REX ARETAS, King Aretas of Nabataea, kneeling right beside a camel, holding an olive branch
P HVPSAEVS AED CVR in two lines, CAPTVM in the right field, C HVPSAE COS PREIVER in two lines, Jupiter driving a quadriga left, holding a thunderbolt
Ref : RCV #379
3 commentsPotator II
136_B_C_,_Cn__Lucretius_Trio,_AR-Denarius,_Crawford_237-1a,_Rome,_Dioscuri_right,_-CN_LVCR-ROMA,_Q-001_6h_18-18,5mm_3,82g-s.jpg
136 B.C., Cn. Lucretius Trio, AR-Denarius, Crawford 237/1a, Rome, Dioscuri right, -/-//CN.LVCR//ROMA, 145 views136 B.C., Cn. Lucretius Trio, AR-Denarius, Crawford 237/1a, Rome, Dioscuri right, -/-//CN.LVCR//ROMA,
avers:- Helmeted head of Roma right, TRIO behind, before X. Line border within border of dots.
revers: - Dioscuri right, in exergo -/-//CN.LVCR//ROMA. Line border within border of dots.
exerg: -/-//CN.LVCR//ROMA, diameter:18,0 mm, weight: 3,78g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 136 B.C., ref: Crawford-237/1a, Sydenham-450, Lucretia 1,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
136_Constantinus_I__Lugdunum_RIC_VII_079,_AE-Follis_CONS_TANTINVS_AVG,_VICTORIAE_LAET_PRINC_PERP,_P-captives-L,_320-AD,_Q-001,_h,_18-19mm,_g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Lugdunum, RIC VII 079, AE-2 Follis, VICTORIAE LAET PRINC PERP, 2 Victories, standing, 120 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Lugdunum, RIC VII 079, AE-2 Follis, VICTORIAE LAET PRINC PERP, 2 Victories, standing,
avers:- CONS TANTINVS AVG, Cuirassed bust right wearing a high-crested helmet.
revers:- VICTORIAE LAET PRINC PERP, 2 Victories, standing, facing each other, holding shield inscribed VOT/PR in two lines over the plain altar.
exerg: -/-//P-left-facing seated captive-right facing seated captive L., diameter: 18,0-19,0mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Lugdunum, date: 320 A.D., ref:RIC VII 079, p-,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTA-NTINVS-AVG_CONSTANTINI-AVGVSTI_VOT-I-dot-S-XX_dotASISdot_RIC-VII-140-p-441-1-B1_Siscia_1st-off_320-AD_R3_Q-001_7h_19,5-20mm_3,18ga-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 140, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•ASIS•, CONSTANTINI-AVGVSTI, B1, VOT/I•S/XX in three lines. R3!83 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 140, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•ASIS•, CONSTANTINI AVGVSTI, B1, VOT/I•S/XX in three lines. R3!
avers: CONSTA NTINVS AVG, 1, Laureate head right.
rever: CONSTANTINI AVGVSTI, B1, VOT/I•S/XX in three lines.
exergo: -/-//•ASIS•, diameter: 19,5-20mm, weight: 3,18g, axis: 7h, R3!
mint: Siscia, 1st.off., date: 320 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-140, p-441 ,
Q-001
quadrans
ROBERT_II_AR_Groat_of_Perth.JPG
1371 – 1390, Robert II, AR Groat minted at Perth, Scotland0 viewsObverse: + ROBERTVS DEI GRA REX SCOTORVM. Crowned bust of Robert II facing left, sceptre topped with a lis and with a star at its base before, within double tressure of six arches broken at the king's neck, small trefoils in spandrels, surrounded by beaded inner circle. Mintmark, cross pattée in legend and small crosses in spaces between words. The whole within beaded outer circle.
Reverse: + DnS PTECTOR MS ┼ LIBATOR MS (God is my protector and redeemer) / VILLA DE PERTh X. Long cross pattée dividing two concentric legends separated by two beaded circles into quarters, pierced mullet in each quarter of inner circle. Mintmark, cross pattées in both inner and outer legends, but cross set as saltire in inner legend, small cross over crescent after DnS in outer legend. The whole within beaded outer circle.
Diameter: 30mm | Weight: 3.87gms | Die Axis: 12
SPINK: 5136 | SCBI: 35, 460-72

Robert II's coinage was maintained at the same standard and in the same general style as that of David’s last issue, but coins were struck at Perth and Dundee in addition to those of the Edinburgh mint.

Robert II was the first Scottish king of the Stewart line, he was the son of Walter, the sixth hereditary High Steward of Scotland, and of Marjorie Bruce, daughter of Robert the Bruce. Robert II acted as regent during part of the period of imprisonment in England of David II and was himself imprisoned in England when Edward III was declared to be David’s successor. The Scots never accepted this arrangement and, after several years of secret negotiations between David II and Edward III, in 1370 Robert was released. He peacefully succeeded to the throne on David II's death the following year.
Robert II succeeded to the throne at the age of 54 and was viewed by many in his kingdom as past his best. In November 1384 he was effectively deposed by his eldest son John, Earl of Carrick. John, however, was seriously injured after being kicked by a horse, and Robert II's second son, Robert, Earl of Fife, later the Duke of Albany, was appointed as Guardian of Scotland instead. Robert II died at Dundonald Castle on 19 April 1390, and was buried at Scone. He was succeeded by his son John, who confusingly took the name Robert III, probably because in Scotland "John" was a name too closely associated with John Balliol, the erstwhile protégé of Edward I.
*Alex
RI 138b img.jpg
138 - Magnia Urbica - RIC 337 - (D | _)37 viewsAE Antoninianus.
Obv:– MAGNIA VRBICA AVG, Draped bust right on crescent, hair brushed in straight lines, plait carried up the back to top of head and running under stephane
Rev:– VENVS GENETRIX, Venus standing facing, head left, apple upward in right hand, vertical scepter in left
Minted in Lugdunum (D in left field).
RIC V pt. 2, 337. Bastien 617

Some areas flatly struck but still a quite pleasing example.
maridvnvm
RI 138a img.jpg
138 - Magnia Urbica - RIC 337 var - (A | _)43 viewsAE Antoninianus.
Obv:– MAGNIA VRBICA AVG, Draped bust right on crescent, hair brushed in straight lines, plait carried up the back to top of head and running under stephane
Rev:– VENVS GENETRIX, Venus standing facing, head left, apple upward in right hand, vertical scepter in left
Minted in Lugdunum (A in left field).
RIC V pt. 2, 337 var (not listed from this officina). Bastien -, Bastien Supplement -, Bastien Supplement II 613α (2 examples cited)
23mm, 3.16g
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_138c_img.jpg
138 - Magnia Urbica, Antoninianus - RIC V Pt 2 343 - (Rome)59 viewsObv:– MAGN VRBICA AVG, Draped bust right on crescent, hair brushed in straight lines, plait carried up the back to top of head and running under stephane
Rev:– VENVS V-I_CTRIX, Venus standing left, holding helmet and scepter, shield at her feet
Minted in Rome (//KAS). A.D. 283-285
Reference:– RIC V Pt 2 343. Cohen 17.
2 commentsmaridvnvm
antpius_RIC143d.jpg
138-161 AD - ANTONINUS PIUS AR denarius - struck 158-159 AD64 viewsobv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP (laureate head right)
rev: TEMPLVM DIV AVG REST COS IIII (octastyle temple [8 columns] in which the statues of Augustus and Livia reside)
ref: RIC III 143D (R), Cohen 809 (8frcs)
3.01 gms, 18mm,
Rare

History: The Temple of Divus Augustus was built between the Palatine and Capitoline Hills, behind the Basilica Julia. It is known from Roman coinage that the temple was originally built to an Ionic hexastyle design (see my Caligula sestertius). During the reign of Domitian the Temple of Divus Augustus was destroyed by fire but was rebuilt and rededicated in 89/90 with a shrine to his favourite deity, Minerva. The temple was redesigned as a memorial to four deified emperors, including Vespasian and Titus.
It was restored again in the late 150s by Antoninus Pius, who was perhaps motivated by a desire to be publicly associated with the first emperor. The exact date of the restoration is not known, but the restored temple was an octostyle design with Corinthian capitals and two statues - presumably of Augustus and Livia - in the cella. The pediment displayed a relief featuring Augustus and was topped by a quadriga. Two figures stood on the eaves of the roof, that on the left representing Romulus and the one on the right depicting Aeneas leading his family out of Troy, alluding to Rome's origin-myth. The steps of the temple were flanked by two statues of Victory.
1 commentsberserker
568_P_Hadrian_RIC495.jpg
1380 Hadrian, Cistophorus CARIA, Mylasa Zeus Karios standing38 viewsReference. very rare
RPC III, 1380, (this coin plate 59)Metcalf Type 42, BM-1063, C-274 (citing BM, 100 Fr.), RIC-495 (R2). Pinder 51.

Obv. HADRIANVS - AVGVSTVS P P
Head bare right.

Rev. COS - III
Zeus Karios standing front, holding spear and shield, both of which rest on ground; in front of the shield an eagle on a curving pedestal.

10.57 gr
25 mm
6h

Ex HJB 2016, Gemini III, 29 Jan. 2007, lot 373; CNG 70, 21 Sep. 2005, lot 995

Note.
Unusual image of a local Carian form of Zeus, which appears nowhere else in ancient coinage or ancient art. Very rare: only two specimens known to Metcalf. Our coin shares its obverse die with Metcalf's specimen 192, but is from a new reverse die. Apparently overstruck on a PAX cistophorus of Augustus, RPC-2203: the AX of PAX and the outline of Pax's lower body is faintly visible in reverse left field to the right of the C of COS, and above Zeus' head we can probably make out a leaf and two berries from the wreath encircling the original reverse type. The curious triangular indentation at 5 o'clock on obverse edge may be the lower corner of an IMP VES AVG countermark that had been applied to the cistophorus of Augustus and that was largely filled in when the coin was restruck for Hadrian.
1 commentsokidoki
schnurrbart-coin.jpg
14. Celtic AR tetradrachm - GALLIERKOPF / SCHNURRBART type - 2nd-1st century (?)486 viewsobv: Apollo head (?) with a mustache right
rev: Rider left, under the horse is rosette with a central point
ref: Göbl OTA 349 (Gallierkopf/Schnurrbart), Pink 349 (Gallischer Einflus); Dessewffy 1224; Dembski 1273-1278 (Kopf mit Schnurrbart); Kostial -; LaTour 9866;
mint: unknown
9.87gms, 24mm

The obverse is one of the most beautiful and the most characteristic product of the (east) celtic coinage. The tipical gallic (or Apollo ?) head without beard and the thick pleated hair belongs to celtic coins of Noricum, and this motive probably got to the Munkács area with transmit of Boii. Maybe that's why Pink is classified in category of Western influence coins (unter Westlichem Einfluss).
Reverse rider holds a zickzack line (lightning?) in right hand, while with his left hand is based on the horse (see: LaTour 9866)
Other description of this type see my East celtic coins topic at the Classical Numismatics
2 commentsberserker
14_01__Géza_II_,_(1141-1162_A_D_),_AR-Den_,_14_01_-a1_06_-07_,_H-055,_CNH_I_-063,_U-054,_Q-001,_7h,12,6-12,8mm,0,35g-s.jpg
14.01. Géza II., King of Hungary, (1141-1162 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 14.01./a1.06./07., H-055, CNH I.-063, U-054, #0172 views14.01. Géza II., King of Hungary, (1141-1162 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 14.01./a1.06./07., H-055, CNH I.-063, U-054, #01
avers: GEISA REX, cross with dots in the angles, lines connecting the arms, crosses at the end of the arms; border of dots.
reverse: Crescents and lines in place of the legend; cross in a circle with wedges in the angles; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 12,6-12,8 mm, weight: 0,35 g, axis:7h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-055, CNH I.-063, Unger-054,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 14.01./a1.06./07.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Geza-II_U-054_C1-063_H-055_Q-001_7h_12,5mm_0,24g-s.jpg
14.01. Géza II., King of Hungary, (1141-1162 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 14.01./a2.03./17., H-055, CNH I.-063, U-054, #0170 views14.01. Géza II., King of Hungary, (1141-1162 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 14.01./a2.03./17., H-055, CNH I.-063, U-054, #01
avers: GEISA REX, cross with dots in the angles, lines connecting the arms, crosses at the end of the arms; border of dots.
reverse: Crescents and lines in place of the legend; cross in a circle with wedges in the angles; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 12,5 mm, weight: 0,24 g, axis:7h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-055, CNH I.-063, Unger-054,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 14.01./a2.03./17.,
Q-001
quadrans
Geza-II_U-054_C1-063_H-055_Q-004_0h_mm_g-s.jpg
14.01. Géza II., King of Hungary, (1141-1162 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 14.01./a2.11./25., H-055, CNH I.-063, U-054, #01112 views14.01. Géza II., King of Hungary, (1141-1162 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 14.01./a2.11./25., H-055, CNH I.-063, U-054, #01
avers: GEISA REX, cross with dots in the angles, lines connecting the arms, crosses at the end of the arms; border of dots.
reverse: Crescents and lines in place of the legend; cross in a circle with wedges in the angles; border of line.
exergue:-/-//--, diameter: 12,0-12,5 mm, weight: 0,47g, axis: 5h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-055, CNH I.-063, Unger-054,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 14.01./a2.11./25.,
Q-001
quadrans
Geza-II_U-054_C1-063_H-055_Q-006_5h_11,5mm_0,25g-s.jpg
14.01. Géza II., King of Hungary, (1141-1162 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 14.01./a2.12./?., H-055, CNH I.-063, U-054, #0194 views14.01. Géza II., King of Hungary, (1141-1162 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 14.01./a2.12./?., H-055, CNH I.-063, U-054, #01
avers: GEISA REX, cross with dots in the angles, lines connecting the arms, crosses at the end of the arms; border of dots.
reverse: Crescents and lines in place of the legend; cross in a circle with wedges in the angles; border of line.
exergue:-/-//--, diameter: 11,5mm, weight: 0,25 g, axis: 5h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-055, CNH I.-063, Unger-054,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 14.01./a2.12./?. (New sigla variation between 25 and 26),
Q-001
quadrans
14_01__Géza_II_,_(1141-1162_A_D_),_AR-Den_,_14_01_-a3_01_-26_,_H-055,_CNH_I_-063,_U-054,_Q-001,_7h,12,5-13mm,0,39g-s.jpg
14.01. Géza II., King of Hungary, (1141-1162 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 14.01./a3.01./26., H-055, CNH I.-063, U-054, #0160 views14.01. Géza II., King of Hungary, (1141-1162 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 14.01./a3.01./26., H-055, CNH I.-063, U-054, #01
avers: GEISA REX, cross with dots in the angles, lines connecting the arms, crosses at the end of the arms; border of dots.
reverse: Crescents and lines in place of the legend; cross in a circle with wedges in the angles; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 12,5-13,0mm, weight: 0,39g, axis:7h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-055, CNH I.-063, Unger-054,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 14.01./a3.01./26.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Geza-II_U-054_C1-063_H-055_Q-003_0h_12,3mm_0,31g-s.jpg
14.01. Géza II., King of Hungary, (1141-1162 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 14.01./b2.01./36., H-055, CNH I.-063, U-054, #0192 views14.01. Géza II., King of Hungary, (1141-1162 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 14.01./b2.01./36., H-055, CNH I.-063, U-054, #01
avers: GEISA REX, cross with dots in the angles, lines connecting the arms, crosses at the end of the arms; border of dots.
reverse: Crescents and lines in place of the legend; cross in a circle with wedges in the angles; border of line.
exergue:-/-//--, diameter: 12,3 mm, weight: 0,31 g, axis:0h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-055, CNH I.-063, Unger-054,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 14.01./b2.01./36.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Geza-II_U-054_C1-063_H-055_Q-002_8h_12,5mm_0,39g-s.jpg
14.01. Géza II., King of Hungary, (1141-1162 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 14.01./h2.01./47., H-055, CNH I.-063, U-054, #0172 views14.01. Géza II., King of Hungary, (1141-1162 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 14.01./h2.01./47., H-055, CNH I.-063, U-054, #01
avers: GEISA REX, cross with dots in the angles, lines connecting the arms, crosses at the end of the arms; border of dots.
reverse: Crescents and lines in place of the legend; cross in a circle with wedges in the angles; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 12,5 mm, weight: 0,39 g, axis:8h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-055, CNH I.-063, Unger-054,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 14.01./h2.01./47.,
Q-001
quadrans
Geza-II_U-054_C1-063_H-055_Q-005_h_12mm_0,31g-s.jpg
14.01. Géza II., King of Hungary, (1141-1162 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 14.01./h2.02./48., H-055, CNH I.-063, U-054, #0171 views14.01. Géza II., King of Hungary, (1141-1162 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 14.01./h2.02./48., H-055, CNH I.-063, U-054, #01
avers: GEISA REX, cross with dots in the angles, lines connecting the arms, crosses at the end of the arms; border of dots.
reverse: Crescents and lines in place of the legend; cross in a circle with wedges in the angles; border of line.
exergue:-/-//--, diameter: 12,0mm, weight: 0,31 g, axis: h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-055, CNH I.-063, Unger-054,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 14.01./h2.02./48.,
Q-001
quadrans
CrispusRIC17.jpg
1404a, Crispus, Caesar 317 - 326 A.D. 38 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 17, aEF, Cyzicus mint, 3.196g, 19.9mm, 315o, 321 - 324 A.D.; Obverse: D N FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe in right and scepter in left, eagle with wreath in beak to left, X / IIG and captive right, SMKD in exergue; scarce (RIC R3). Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis;
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Crispus Caesar (317-326 A.D.)

Hans Pohlsander
SUNY Albany

Crispus was the oldest son of the emperor Constantine I and played a fairly important role in the political and military events of the early fourth century. The regular form of his full name is Flavius Iulius Crispus, although the forms Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus also occur. His mother was a woman named Minervina, with whom Constantine had a relationship, probably illegitimate, before he married Fausta in 307. When Minervina died or when Constantine put her aside we do not know. Nor do we know when she gave birth to Crispus; we may assume, of course, that it was before 307. Some modern authorities, on good grounds, think that it was in 305. Crispus' place of birth must have been somewhere in the East, and it is not known when he was brought to Gaul and when, where, or under what circumstances he was separated from his mother.

Constantine entrusted the education of his son to the distinguished Christian scholar Lactantius, thereby giving a clear sign of his commitment to Christianity. We are not told when Lactantius assumed his duties, but a date before 317 seems likely. Nor do we know how successful he was in instilling Christian beliefs and values in his imperial pupil. No later than January of 322 Crispus must have married a woman named Helena -- not to be confused with Constantine's mother or daughter by the same name- and this woman bore him a child in October of 322. Constantine, we learn, was pleased.

Crispus' official career began at an early age and is well documented. On March 1 of 317, at Serdica (modern Sofia), his father appointed him Caesar. The consulship was his three times, in 318, 321, and 324. While nominally in charge of Gaul, with a prefect at his side, he successfully undertook military operations against the Franks and Alamanni in 320 and 323.

In 324, during the second war between Constantine and Licinius, he excelled as commander of Constantine's fleet in the waters of the Hellespont, the Propontis, and the Bosporus, thus making a significant contribution to the outcome of that war. The high points of his career are amply reflected in the imperial coinage. In addition to coins, we have his portrait, with varying degrees of certainty, in a number of sculptures, mosaics, cameos, etc. Contemporary authors heap praises upon him. Thus the panegyrist Nazarius speaks of Crispus' "magnificent deeds," and Eusebius calls him "an emperor most dear to God and in all regards comparable to his father."

Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship. There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but it is certain that at some time during the same year the emperor ordered the death of his own wife as well, and the two cases must be considered together. That Crispus and Fausta plotted treason is reported by Gregory of Tours, but not very believable. We must resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins. A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate. We must also, I think, reject the suggestion of Guthrie that the emperor acted in the interest of "dynastic legitimacy," that is, that he removed his illegitimate first-born son in order to secure the succession for his three legitimate younger sons. But Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children).

Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:
http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm


What If?

St. Nectarios, in his book, The Ecumenical Synods, writes "Hellenism spread by Alexander paved the way for Christianity by Emperor Constantine the Great."

Constantine's upward gaze on his "Eyes to Heaven" coins recall the coin portraits of Alexander the Great (namely coins struck by the Diodochi), which served as prototypes for the divine ruler portraiture of much of the Hellenistic age. The diadem, of which this is the most elaborate type, was adopted by Constantine and the members of his house as a new symbol of sovereignty.

In the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Is it just possible? Constantine, knowing what happened (or thinking that he does) to Phillip II of Macedon—assassinated on the eve of his greatness, in a plot that most likely involved his wife—and possibly his son. . . isn’t it just possible that Constantine is growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? Imagine the Constantine who has proven time and again (think: Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, decides to murder again? Why "must we resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins [?] (see: above). A similar claim had already been made by Julian the [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
crispus_votV.jpg
1404b, Crispus, Caesar 317 - 326 A.D. (Thessalonica)35 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 118, VF, Thessalonica mint, 2.740g, 18.0mm, 180o, 320 - 321 A.D. Obverse: FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left; Reverse: CAESARVM NOSTRORVM, VOT V in wreath, TSDVI in exergue.

Flavius Julius Crispus was the son of Constantine I by his first wife. A brilliant soldier, Crispus was well loved by all until 326 A.D., when Constantine had him executed. It is said that Fausta, Crispus stepmother, anxious to secure the succession for her own sons falsely accused Crispus of raping her. Constantine, learning of Fausta`s treachery, had her executed too.


De Imperatoribus Romanis;
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Crispus Caesar (317-326 A.D.)

Hans Pohlsander
SUNY Albany

Crispus was the oldest son of the emperor Constantine I and played a fairly important role in the political and military events of the early fourth century. The regular form of his full name is Flavius Iulius Crispus, although the forms Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus also occur. His mother was a woman named Minervina, with whom Constantine had a relationship, probably illegitimate, before he married Fausta in 307. When Minervina died or when Constantine put her aside we do not know. Nor do we know when she gave birth to Crispus; we may assume, of course, that it was before 307. Some modern authorities, on good grounds, think that it was in 305. Crispus' place of birth must have been somewhere in the East, and it is not known when he was brought to Gaul and when, where, or under what circumstances he was separated from his mother.

Constantine entrusted the education of his son to the distinguished Christian scholar Lactantius, thereby giving a clear sign of his commitment to Christianity. We are not told when Lactantius assumed his duties, but a date before 317 seems likely. Nor do we know how successful he was in instilling Christian beliefs and values in his imperial pupil. No later than January of 322 Crispus must have married a woman named Helena -- not to be confused with Constantine's mother or daughter by the same name- and this woman bore him a child in October of 322. Constantine, we learn, was pleased.

Crispus' official career began at an early age and is well documented. On March 1 of 317, at Serdica (modern Sofia), his father appointed him Caesar. The consulship was his three times, in 318, 321, and 324. While nominally in charge of Gaul, with a prefect at his side, he successfully undertook military operations against the Franks and Alamanni in 320 and 323.

In 324, during the second war between Constantine and Licinius, he excelled as commander of Constantine's fleet in the waters of the Hellespont, the Propontis, and the Bosporus, thus making a significant contribution to the outcome of that war. The high points of his career are amply reflected in the imperial coinage. In addition to coins, we have his portrait, with varying degrees of certainty, in a number of sculptures, mosaics, cameos, etc. Contemporary authors heap praises upon him. Thus the panegyrist Nazarius speaks of Crispus' "magnificent deeds," and Eusebius calls him "an emperor most dear to God and in all regards comparable to his father."

Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship. There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but it is certain that at some time during the same year the emperor ordered the death of his own wife as well, and the two cases must be considered together. That Crispus and Fausta plotted treason is reported by Gregory of Tours, but not very believable. We must resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins. A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate. We must also, I think, reject the suggestion of Guthrie that the emperor acted in the interest of "dynastic legitimacy," that is, that he removed his illegitimate first-born son in order to secure the succession for his three legitimate younger sons. But Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children).

Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:
http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm


What If?

St. Nectarios, in his book, The Ecumenical Synods, writes "Hellenism spread by Alexander paved the way for Christianity by Emperor Constantine the Great."

Constantine's upward gaze on his "Eyes to Heaven" coins recall the coin portraits of Alexander the Great (namely coins struck by the Diodochi), which served as prototypes for the divine ruler portraiture of much of the Hellenistic age. The diadem, of which this is the most elaborate type, was adopted by Constantine and the members of his house as a new symbol of sovereignty.

In the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Is it just possible? Constantine, knowing what happened (or thinking that he does) to Phillip II of Macedon—assassinated on the eve of his greatness, in a plot that most likely involved his wife—and possibly his son. . . isn’t it just possible that Constantine is growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? Imagine the Constantine who has proven time and again (think: Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, decides to murder again? Why "must we resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins [?] (see: above). A similar claim had already been made by Julian the [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
ConstansVot.jpeg
1405a, Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. (Alexandria)39 viewsBronze AE 4, RIC 37, gVF, Egypt, Alexandria, 1.54g, 15.0mm, 180o, 345-347 A.D. Obverse: D N CONSTANS P F AVG, pearl diademed head right; Reverse: VOT XX MVLT XXX in wreath, SMALA• in exergue.

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, was born between 320 and 323 A.D. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons.

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign.

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality. He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II, Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University and Robert Frakes, Clarion UniversityPublished: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
Constans.jpg
1405n, Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. (Siscia)56 viewsConstans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 241, S 3978, VM 69, VF, Siscia, 2.32g, 18.3mm, 180o. Obverse: D N CONSTANS P F AVG, pearl diademed draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Phoenix radiate, standing on rocky mound, GSIS and symbol in ex; nice green patina.

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, was born between 320 and 323 A.D. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons.

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign.

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality. He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II, Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University and Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
U2476F1OVDKUXTA.jpeg
1405t, Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. (Thessalonica )38 viewsConstans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D., Bronze AE 3, unattributed; Thessalonica mint, 2.25g, 18.9mm, 0; aVF.

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, was born between 320 and 323 A.D. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons.

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign.

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality. He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II, Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University and Robert Frakes, Clarion University.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
U809F1JMXNTCBT.jpg
1407a, Constantius II, 337-361 A.D. (Antioch)51 viewsAE4, 337-361 A.D. Antioch, aVF/VF,Obv:– DN CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, Pearl and rosette diadem, head right/R: Wreath with VOT XX MVLT XXX, SMANB in exe.RIC VIII Antioch 113,Item ref: RI170b.

AE3, 2.80 grams, 330-333, Heraclea, aVF. Obv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C - Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed. R: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS - Two soldiers looking in at each other and both holding a spear; between them, two standards Exe: SMHB.

Constantius II was born in Illyricum in August AD 317, the son of Constantine the Great and Fausta, and was proclaimed Caesar in AD 323.

In AD 337, at the death of his father Constantine, he acceded to the throne together with his two brothers Constantine II and Constans. But this accession by the three brothers was tainted by the murder of their cousins Dalmatius and Hannibalianus, whom Constantine had also intended as joint heirs. These murders are believed to have been masterminded by Constantius II.

Eventually, Constantius II was left as the sole emperor of the Roman empire. Constantius elevated his cousin, Julian, to the rank of Caesar (junior emperor) and gave him his sister Helena in marriage. Julian was assigned the task of dealing with the Frankish leader, Silvanus, who had proclaimed himself emepror at Colonia Agrippina. Julian's success led his men to declare him Augustus. Julian, while reluctant to take the throne, accepted.

Constantius II, therefore, left the Mesopotamian frontier and marched his troops west, seeking to deal with the usurper. As he reached Cilicia in the winter of AD 361, he was overcome by a sudden fever and died at Mopsucrene. Julian, the Apostate, succeded him as Emperor.

Our chief source for Constantius' reign is the great historian Ammianus Marcellinus. He presents a mixed view of that emperor. In some ways a sound administrator and competent general, Constantius is also portrayed as easily influenced by those around him such as his wives, courtiers and the eunuchs of the court (Ammianus 21. 16. 16). Ammianus (21.16.18) also attacks Constantius' great interest in Church affairs--alleging that he bankrupted the courier service with calls for Church councils. Of course, imperial interest in Church affairs was a major policy of his father Constantine and it may be that Constantius was trying to emulate his model (if only with mixed success). Indeed, Constantius II (like his brothers Constantine II and Constans) was raised a Christian. Among his many laws is the famous CTh 16.10.2 of 341 which either prohibited or re-issued his father's prohibition of pagan sacrifices. Sympathetic to Arianism, he spent a great deal of his reign calling Church councils. One of the longest-reigned emperors in Roman history, Constantius is hard for the modern historian to fully understand both due to his own actions and due to the interests of the authors of primary sources for his reign.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University & Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
Cnstntius2b.jpg
1407h, Constantius II, 337-361 A.D. (Heraclea)32 viewsConstantius II 337-361 A.D. AE3, 2.80 grams, 330-333, Heraclea, aVF. Obverse: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C - Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed; Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS - Two soldiers looking in at each other and both holding a spear; between them, two standards; SMHB in exergue.

Constantius II was born in Illyricum in August AD 317, the son of Constantine the Great and Fausta, and was proclaimed Caesar in AD 323.

In AD 337, at the death of his father Constantine, he acceded to the throne together with his two brothers Constantine II and Constans. But this accession by the three brothers was tainted by the murder of their cousins Dalmatius and Hannibalianus, whom Constantine had also intended as joint heirs. These murders are believed to have been masterminded by Constantius II.

Eventually, Constantius II was left as the sole emperor of the Roman empire. Constantius elevated his cousin, Julian, to the rank of Caesar (junior emperor) and gave him his sister Helena in marriage. Julian was assigned the task of dealing with the Frankish leader, Silvanus, who had proclaimed himself emepror at Colonia Agrippina. Julian's success led his men to declare him Augustus. Julian, while reluctant to take the throne, accepted.

Constantius II, therefore, left the Mesopotamian frontier and marched his troops west, seeking to deal with the usurper. As he reached Cilicia in the winter of AD 361, he was overcome by a sudden fever and died at Mopsucrene. Julian, the Apostate, succeded him as Emperor.

Our chief source for Constantius' reign is the great historian Ammianus Marcellinus. He presents a mixed view of that emperor. In some ways a sound administrator and competent general, Constantius is also portrayed as easily influenced by those around him such as his wives, courtiers and the eunuchs of the court (Ammianus 21. 16. 16). Ammianus (21.16.18) also attacks Constantius' great interest in Church affairs--alleging that he bankrupted the courier service with calls for Church councils. Of course, imperial interest in Church affairs was a major policy of his father Constantine and it may be that Constantius was trying to emulate his model (if only with mixed success). Indeed, Constantius II (like his brothers Constantine II and Constans) was raised a Christian. Among his many laws is the famous CTh 16.10.2 of 341 which either prohibited or re-issued his father's prohibition of pagan sacrifices. Sympathetic to Arianism, he spent a great deal of his reign calling Church councils. One of the longest-reigned emperors in Roman history, Constantius is hard for the modern historian to fully understand both due to his own actions and due to the interests of the authors of primary sources for his reign.
By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University & Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Constantius II.jpg
1407r, Constantius II, 22 May 337 - 3 November 361 A.D.39 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 272, aVF, 2.203g, 18.1mm, 0o, Rome mint, 352 - 355 A.D.; obverse D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier spearing fallen horseman, RT in ex.

Constantius II was born in Illyricum in August AD 317, the son of Constantine the Great and Fausta, and was proclaimed Caesar in AD 323.

In AD 337, at the death of his father Constantine, he acceded to the throne together with his two brothers Constantine II and Constans. But this accession by the three brothers was tainted by the murder of their cousins Dalmatius and Hannibalianus, whom Constantine had also intended as joint heirs. These murders are believed to have been masterminded by Constantius II.

Eventually, Constantius II was left as the sole emperor of the Roman empire. Constantius elevated Julian to the rank of Caesar (junior emperor) and gave him his sister Helena in marriage. Julian was assigned the task of dealing with the Frankish leader, Silvanus, who had proclaimed himself emepror at Colonia Agrippina. Julian's success lead his men to declare him Augustus. Julian, while reluctant to take the throne, accepted.

Constantius II, therefore left the Mesopotamian frontier and marched his troops west, seeking to deal with the usurper. As he reached Cilicia in the winter of AD 361, he was overcome by a sudden fever and died at Mopsucrene. Julian, the Apostate, succeded him as Emperor.

Our chief source for Constantius' reign is the great historian Ammianus Marcellinus. He presents a mixed view of that emperor. In some ways a sound administrator and competent general, Constantius is also portrayed as easily influenced by those around him such as his wives, courtiers and the eunuchs of the court (Ammianus 21. 16. 16). Ammianus (21.16.18) also attacks Constantius' great interest in Church affairs--alleging that he bankrupted the courier service with calls for Church councils. Of course, imperial interest in Church affairs was a major policy of his father Constantine and it may be that Constantius was trying to emulate his model (if only with mixed success). Indeed, Constantius II (like his brothers Constantine II and Constans) was raised a Christian. Among his many laws is the famous CTh 16.10.2 of 341 which either prohibited or re-issued his father's prohibition of pagan sacrifices. Sympathetic to Arianism, he spent a great deal of his reign calling Church councils. One of the longest-reigned emperors in Roman history, Constantius is hard for the modern historian to fully understand both due to his own actions and due to the interests of the authors of primary sources for his reign.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University & Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
Julian2VotXConstantinople.jpg
1409a, Julian II "the Philosopher," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.143 viewsJulian II, A.D. 360-363; RIC 167; VF; 2.7g, 20mm; Constantinople mint; Obverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, helmeted & cuirassed bust right, holding spear & shield; Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath; CONSPB in exergue; Attractive green patina. Ex Nemesis.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Julian the Apostate (360-363 A.D.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University

Introduction

The emperor Flavius Claudius Julianus reigned from 360 to 26 June 363, when he was killed fighting against the Persians. Despite his short rule, his emperorship was pivotal in the development of the history of the later Roman empire. This essay is not meant to be a comprehensive look at the various issues central to the reign of Julian and the history of the later empire. Rather, this short work is meant to be a brief history and introduction for the general reader. Julian was the last direct descendent of the Constantinian line to ascend to the purple, and it is one of history's great ironies that he was the last non-Christian emperor. As such, he has been vilified by most Christian sources, beginning with John Chrysostom and Gregory Nazianzus in the later fourth century. This tradition was picked up by the fifth century Eusebian continuators Sozomen, Socrates Scholasticus, and Theodoret and passed on to scholars down through the 20th century. Most contemporary sources, however, paint a much more balanced picture of Julian and his reign. The adoption of Christianity by emperors and society, while still a vital concern, was but one of several issues that concerned Julian.

It is fortunate that extensive writings from Julian himself exist, which help interpret his reign in the light of contemporary evidence. Still extant are some letters, several panegyrics, and a few satires. Other contemporary sources include the soldier Ammianus Marcellinus' history, correspondence between Julian and Libanius of Antioch, several panegyrics, laws from the Theodosian Code, inscriptions, and coinage. These sources show Julian's emphasis on restoration. He saw himself as the restorer of the traditional values of Roman society. Of course much of this was rhetoric, meant to defend Julian against charges that he was a usurper. At the same time this theme of restoration was central to all emperors of the fourth century. Julian thought that he was the one emperor who could regain what was viewed as the lost glory of the Roman empire. To achieve this goal he courted select groups of social elites to get across his message of restoration. This was the way that emperors functioned in the fourth century. By choosing whom to include in the sharing of power, they sought to shape society.

Early Life

Julian was born at Constantinople in 331. His father was Julius Constantius, half-brother of the emperor Constantine through Constantius Chlorus, and his mother was Basilina, Julius' second wife. Julian had two half-brothers via Julius' first marriage. One of these was Gallus, who played a major role in Julian's life. Julian appeared destined for a bright future via his father's connection to the Constantinian house. After many years of tense relations with his three half-brothers, Constantine seemed to have welcomed them into the fold of the imperial family. From 333 to 335, Constantine conferred a series of honors upon his three half-siblings, including appointing Julius Constantius as one of the consuls for 335. Julian's mother was equally distinguished. Ammianus related that she was from a noble family. This is supported by Libanius, who claimed that she was the daughter of Julius Julianus, a Praetorian Prefect under Licinius, who was such a model of administrative virtue that he was pardoned and honored by Constantine.

Despite the fact that his mother died shortly after giving birth to him, Julian experienced an idyllic early childhood. This ended when Constantius II conducted a purge of many of his relatives shortly after Constantine's death in 337, particularly targeting the families of Constantine's half-brothers. ulian and Gallus were spared, probably due to their young age. Julian was put under the care of Mardonius, a Scythian eunuch who had tutored his mother, in 339, and was raised in the Greek philosophical tradition, and probably lived in Nicomedia. Ammianus also supplied the fact that while in Nicomedia, Julian was cared for by the local bishop Eusebius, of whom the future emperor was a distant relation. Julian was educated by some of the most famous names in grammar and rhetoric in the Greek world at that time, including Nicocles and Hecebolius. In 344 Constantius II sent Julian and Gallus to Macellum in Cappadocia, where they remained for six years. In 351, Gallus was made Caesar by Constantius II and Julian was allowed to return to Nicomedia, where he studied under Aedesius, Eusebius, and Chrysanthius, all famed philosophers, and was exposed to the Neo-Platonism that would become such a prominent part of his life. But Julian was most proud of the time he spent studying under Maximus of Ephesus, a noted Neo-Platonic philospher and theurgist. It was Maximus who completed Julian's full-scale conversion to Neo-Platonism. Later, when he was Caesar, Julian told of how he put letters from this philosopher under his pillows so that he would continue to absorb wisdom while he slept, and while campaigning on the Rhine, he sent his speeches to Maximus for approval before letting others hear them. When Gallus was executed in 354 for treason by Constantius II, Julian was summoned to Italy and essentially kept under house arrest at Comum, near Milan, for seven months before Constantius' wife Eusebia convinced the emperor that Julian posed no threat. This allowed Julian to return to Greece and continue his life as a scholar where he studied under the Neo-Platonist Priscus. Julian's life of scholarly pursuit, however, ended abruptly when he was summoned to the imperial court and made Caesar by Constantius II on 6 November 355.

Julian as Caesar

Constantius II realized an essential truth of the empire that had been evident since the time of the Tetrarchy--the empire was too big to be ruled effectively by one man. Julian was pressed into service as Caesar, or subordinate emperor, because an imperial presence was needed in the west, in particular in the Gallic provinces. Julian, due to the emperor's earlier purges, was the only viable candidate of the imperial family left who could act as Caesar. Constantius enjoined Julian with the task of restoring order along the Rhine frontier. A few days after he was made Caesar, Julian was married to Constantius' sister Helena in order to cement the alliance between the two men. On 1 December 355, Julian journeyed north, and in Augusta Taurinorum he learned that Alamannic raiders had destroyed Colonia Agrippina. He then proceeded to Vienne where he spent the winter. At Vienne, he learned that Augustudunum was also under siege, but was being held by a veteran garrison. He made this his first priority, and arrived there on 24 June 356. When he had assured himself that the city was in no immediate danger, he journeyed to Augusta Treverorum via Autessioduram, and from there to Durocortorum where he rendezvoused with his army. Julian had the army stage a series of punitive strikes around the Dieuse region, and then he moved them towards the Argentoratum/Mongontiacum region when word of barbarian incursions reached him.

From there, Julian moved on to Colonia Agrippina, and negotiated a peace with the local barbarian leaders who had assaulted the city. He then wintered at Senonae. He spent the early part of the campaigning season of 357 fighting off besiegers at Senonae, and then conducting operations around Lugdunum and Tres Tabernae. Later that summer, he encountered his watershed moment as a military general. Ammianus went into great detail about Julian's victory over seven rogue Alamannic chieftains near Argentoratum, and Julian himself bragged about it in his later writing. After this battle, the soldiers acclaimed Julian Augustus, but he rejected this title. After mounting a series of follow-up raids into Alamannic territory, he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia, and on the way defeated some Frankish raiders in the Mosa region. Julian considered this campaign one of the major events of his time as Caesar.

Julian began his 358 military campaigns early, hoping to catch the barbarians by surprise. His first target was the Franks in the northern Rhine region. He then proceeded to restore some forts in the Mosa region, but his soldiers threatened to mutiny because they were on short rations and had not been paid their donative since Julian had become Caesar. After he soothed his soldiers, Julian spent the rest of the summer negotiating a peace with various Alamannic leaders in the mid and lower Rhine areas, and retired to winter quarters at Lutetia. In 359, he prepared once again to carry out a series of punitive expeditions against the Alamanni in the Rhine region who were still hostile to the Roman presence. In preparation, the Caesar repopulated seven previously destroyed cities and set them up as supply bases and staging areas. This was done with the help of the people with whom Julian had negotiated a peace the year before. Julian then had a detachment of lightly armed soldiers cross the Rhine near Mogontiacum and conduct a guerilla strike against several chieftains. As a result of these campaigns, Julian was able to negotiate a peace with all but a handful of the Alamannic leaders, and he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia.

Of course, Julian did more than act as a general during his time as Caesar. According to Ammianus, Julian was an able administrator who took steps to correct the injustices of Constantius' appointees. Ammianus related the story of how Julian prevented Florentius, the Praetorian Prefect of Gaul, from raising taxes, and also how Julian actually took over as governor for the province of Belgica Secunda. Hilary, bishop of Poitiers, supported Ammianus' basic assessment of Julian in this regard when he reported that Julian was an able representative of the emperor to the Gallic provincials. There is also epigraphic evidence to support Julian's popularity amongst the provincial elites. An inscription found near Beneventum in Apulia reads:
"To Flavius Claudius Julianus, most noble and sanctified Caesar, from the caring Tocius Maximus, vir clarissimus, for the care of the res publica from Beneventum".

Tocius Maximus, as a vir clarissimus, was at the highest point in the social spectrum and was a leader in his local community. This inscription shows that Julian was successful in establishing a positive image amongst provincial elites while he was Caesar.

Julian Augustus

In early 360, Constantius, driven by jealousy of Julian's success, stripped Julian of many troops and officers, ostensibly because the emperor needed them for his upcoming campaign against the Persians. One of the legions ordered east, the Petulantes, did not want to leave Gaul because the majority of the soldiers in the unit were from this region. As a result they mutinied and hailed Julian as Augustus at Lutetia. Julian refused this acclamation as he had done at Argentoratum earlier, but the soldiers would have none of his denial. They raised him on a shield and adorned him with a neck chain, which had formerly been the possession of the standard-bearer of the Petulantes and symbolized a royal diadem. Julian appeared reluctantly to acquiesce to their wishes, and promised a generous donative. The exact date of his acclamation is unknown, but most scholars put it in February or March. Julian himself supported Ammianus' picture of a jealous Constantius. In his Letter to the Athenians, a document constructed to answer charges that he was a usurper, Julian stated that from the start he, as Caesar, had been meant as a figurehead to the soldiers and provincials. The real power he claimed lay with the generals and officials already present in Gaul. In fact, according to Julian, the generals were charged with watching him as much as the enemy. His account of the actual acclamation closely followed what Ammianus told us, but he stressed even more his reluctance to take power. Julian claimed that he did so only after praying to Zeus for guidance.

Fearing the reaction of Constantius, Julian sent a letter to his fellow emperor justifying the events at Lutetia and trying to arrange a peaceful solution. This letter berated Constantius for forcing the troops in Gaul into an untenable situation. Ammianus stated that Julian's letter blamed Constantius' decision to transfer Gallic legions east as the reason for the soldiers' rebellion. Julian once again asserted that he was an unwilling participant who was only following the desire of the soldiers. In both of these basic accounts Ammianus and Julian are playing upon the theme of restoration. Implicit in their version of Julian's acclamation is the argument that Constantius was unfit to rule. The soldiers were the vehicle of the gods' will. The Letter to the Athenians is full of references to the fact that Julian was assuming the mantle of Augustus at the instigation of the gods. Ammianus summed up this position nicely when he related the story of how, when Julian was agonizing over whether to accept the soldiers' acclamation, he had a dream in which he was visited by the Genius (guardian spirit) of the Roman state. The Genius told Julian that it had often tried to bestow high honors upon Julian but had been rebuffed. Now, the Genius went on to say, was Julian's final chance to take the power that was rightfully his. If the Caesar refused this chance, the Genius would depart forever, and both Julian and the state would rue Julian's rejection. Julian himself wrote a letter to his friend Maximus of Ephesus in November of 361 detailing his thoughts on his proclamation. In this letter, Julian stated that the soldiers proclaimed him Augustus against his will. Julian, however, defended his accession, saying that the gods willed it and that he had treated his enemies with clemency and justice. He went on to say that he led the troops in propitiating the traditional deities, because the gods commanded him to return to the traditional rites, and would reward him if he fulfilled this duty.

During 360 an uneasy peace simmered between the two emperors. Julian spent the 360 campaigning season continuing his efforts to restore order along the Rhine, while Constantius continued operations against the Persians. Julian wintered in Vienne, and celebrated his Quinquennalia. It was at this time that his wife Helena died, and he sent her remains to Rome for a proper burial at his family villa on the Via Nomentana where the body of her sister was entombed. The uneasy peace held through the summer of 361, but Julian concentrated his military operations around harassing the Alamannic chieftain Vadomarius and his allies, who had concluded a peace treaty with Constantius some years earlier. By the end of the summer, Julian decided to put an end to the waiting and gathered his army to march east against Constantius. The empire teetered on the brink of another civil war. Constantius had spent the summer negotiating with the Persians and making preparations for possible military action against his cousin. When he was assured that the Persians would not attack, he summoned his army and sallied forth to meet Julian. As the armies drew inexorably closer to one another, the empire was saved from another bloody civil war when Constantius died unexpectedly of natural causes on 3 November near the town of Mopsucrenae in Cilicia, naming Julian -- the sources say-- as his legitimate successor.

Julian was in Dacia when he learned of his cousin's death. He made his way through Thrace and came to Constantinople on 11 December 361 where Julian honored the emperor with the funeral rites appropriate for a man of his station. Julian immediately set about putting his supporters in positions of power and trimming the imperial bureaucracy, which had become extremely overstaffed during Constantius' reign. Cooks and barbers had increased during the late emperor's reign and Julian expelled them from his court. Ammianus gave a mixed assessment of how the new emperor handled the followers of Constantius. Traditionally, emperors were supposed to show clemency to the supporters of a defeated enemy. Julian, however, gave some men over to death to appease the army. Ammianus used the case of Ursulus, Constantius' comes sacrum largitionum, to illustrate his point. Ursulus had actually tried to acquire money for the Gallic troops when Julian had first been appointed Caesar, but he had also made a disparaging remark about the ineffectiveness of the army after the battle of Amida. The soldiers remembered this, and when Julian became sole Augustus, they demanded Ursulus' head. Julian obliged, much to the disapproval of Ammianus. This seems to be a case of Julian courting the favor of the military leadership, and is indicative of a pattern in which Julian courted the goodwill of various societal elites to legitimize his position as emperor.

Another case in point is the officials who made up the imperial bureaucracy. Many of them were subjected to trial and punishment. To achieve this goal, during the last weeks of December 361 Julian assembled a military tribunal at Chalcedon, empanelling six judges to try the cases. The president of the tribunal was Salutius, just promoted to the rank of Praetorian Prefect; the five other members were Mamertinus, the orator, and four general officers: Jovinus, Agilo, Nevitta, and Arbetio. Relative to the proceedings of the tribunal, Ammianus noted that the judges, " . . . oversaw the cases more vehemently than was right or fair, with the exception of a few . . .." Ammianus' account of Julian's attempt at reform of the imperial bureaucracy is supported by legal evidence from the Theodosian Code. A series of laws sent to Mamertinus, Julian's appointee a