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Search results - "italy"
DenCCatone.jpg
27 viewsDenarius - 123 BC (Grueber 150/125 BC) - Mint of Rome (Crawford). Uncertain mint in Italy (Grueber)
C. [PORCIVS] CATO - Gens Porcia
Obv.: Helmeted head of Roma right, X behind
Rev.: Victory in biga right holding reins and whip; C CATO below, ROMA in ex.
Gs. 3,9 mm. 18,9
Craw. 274/1, Sear RCV 149, BMRRC II 461.



Maxentius
DenMPorcioLaeca.jpg
31 viewsDenarius - 125 BC. - Rome (or in Italy) mint
M. PORCIVS LAECA - Gens Porcia
Obv.: Helmeted head of Roma right, LAECA behind
Rev.: Libertas in quadriga right with pileus, crowned by Victory, M PORC below, ROMA in ex.
Gs. 3,9 mm. 17,79x17,35
Crawf. 270/1, Sear RCV 146

Maxentius
DenCnDomizio.jpg
29 viewsDenarius - 116/115 BC. Rome mint (or in Italy)
CNAEVS DOMITIVS - Gens Domitia (Curtia)
Obv.: Helmeted head of Roma right with curl on left shoulder, ROMA before, X behind
Rev.: Jupiter in quadriga right with thunderbolt & branch, CN DOMI in ex.
Gs. 3,9 mm. 19,02x19,30
Crawf. 285/1, Sear RCV 161, Grueber II 490 (Italy)

Maxentius
IMG_9235.JPG
6 viewsAnonymous. Circa 270 BC. Æ Aes Grave Triens (48mm, 93.00 g, 12h). Rome mint. Head of horse right; [••••] (mark of value) below / Head of horse left; [••••] (mark of value) below. Crawford 18/3 (Uncertain mint); ICC 35; HN Italy 281. Fine, gray-green patina, some earthen deposits, a little flaky in parts.

From the Collection of a Director.
ecoli
image00600.jpg
8 viewsItaly, Salerno, Ruggero (Duca, 1127-1130). Æ Follaro Fraction (14mm, 1.68g, 10h). Head facing slightly r. R/ Ornate cross. Cappelli 104; MEC 14, 170Quant.Geek
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24 viewsSouthern Lucania, Metapontion, c. 540-510 BC. AR Stater (28mm, 7.97g, 12h). Barley ear. R/ Incuse barley ear. HNItaly 1479; SNG ANS 209-16.2 commentspaul1888
Greek_Italy.jpg
Greek Italy, Magna Grecia.22 viewsApulia, Bruttium, Calabria, Campania, Lucania & Samnium.Christian T
Italy-Venice-AR-Grosso-AntonioVenier-012808-temp.jpg
Italy (Venice): silver grosso of Antonio Venier, ca. 1382-140026 viewslordmarcovan
Italy- Pompeii- The Basilaca.jpg
Italy- Pompeii- The Basilaca315 viewsBASILICA
Forum of Pompeii c. 120 B.C. These more massive columns are from the basilica, the most important public building in Pompeii. Constructed prior to the Roman period, the basilica had three aisles and five entrance doors onto the forum. In the rear we see a two-tiered colonnade which has columns in the Doric style on the bottom and slender Ionic columns on top of a cross beam. In Pompeii many columns were made of brick and covered with stucco.

BASILICA (VIII,1,1)
Built in the second half of the 2nd cent. BC, as part of the plan to create monuments throughout the city. It has a rectangular layout, with three naves, with a ceiling sloping straight down in both directions from the central columns and half columns at the top of the walls, where there are still remains of decorations in ‘first style’: at the back is the tribunal, where the magistrates sat, reached by a wooden staircase. The building was dedicated to administering justice and for business negotiations.




John Schou
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Neapolis, Campania, Italy, c. 270 - 240 B.C. AE 16-20mm17 views Neapolis, Campania, Italy, c. 270 - 240 B.C.
Obv. Apollo left
Rev. Victory crowning Man Faced Bull right.

( One of my favorite coins I have cleaned myself!! )
Lee S
Dolphindidrachm.jpg
Punic occupation half shekel75 viewsNude youth on horseback to left, crowning horse with wreath; IΩ to right, ΣΩΓENHΣ below

Taras astride dolphin to left, holding cornucopiae and Nike who crowns him with wreath; TAPAΣ below.

Calabria, Tarentum ; Punic occupation, circa 212-209 BC

AR Reduced didrachm or Half-Shekel.

2.69g chipped otherwise VF+

Vlasto 975-7; HN Italy 1079.

Ex-ANE

Rare!

The climax of the Carthaginian invasion of Italy was reached when Tarentum changed sides in 212 BC. The takeover of the city was a carefully planned coup by Hannibal and members of the city's democratic faction who opened the gates to Hannibal's army. The Carthaginians failed to take the citadel, but subsequent fortifications around this enemy stronghold enabled the city to remain under Punic control. Hannibal installed his own magistrates and struck coinage based on the Punic half shekel standard.
8 commentsJay GT4
00017x00~1.jpg
37 viewsSPAIN
PB Tessera (14mm, 2.62 g)
Fly, seen from above
Blank
Stannard, Evidence 26-7 = Stannard, Parallels 99-100; Minturnae 34-5

Found in Southern Spain

This type is found both in Baetica and in central Italy, at Minturnae, demonstrating the close economic ties between the two areas. Stannard notes numerous parallels in the lead tokens and unofficial bronze coinage in the two areas. He also sees a stylistic difference between issues of the two regions, but I have not personally seen enough specimens from both regions to say.
Ardatirion
Retarrifed_Vespasian_as.jpg
105 viewsROME. Titus. As Caesar, AD 69-79.
Æ As (20mm, 9.84 g, 6 h)
Rome mint. Struck AD 77-78.
Retarrifed under by the Ostrogothic kingdom in Italy as 42 nummi, 6th century AD.
Laureate head left; XLII (= mark of value, 42 nummi) carved before bust
Spes standing left, holding flower and raising hem of skirt
For host coin:cf. RIC II 1101. For revaluation: cf. Morrisson, Re-use 19; cf. MEC 1, 76 (Vespasian)

Ex Giamba Collection (Classical Numismatic Group 82, 16 September 2009), lot 1139
3 commentsArdatirion
lothaire1-denier-leg-ch.JPG
D.1176 Lothar I (denier)7 viewsLothar I, Holy Roman emperor (840-855), king of Middle Francia (843-855) and Italy (818-855)
"Temple" denier (unknown mint, 84-855)

Silver, 1.09 g, 17-20 mm diameter, die axis 12 h

O/ +HLOTΛPIVS ΛGVS; cross pattée with 4 pellets
R/ +XPISTIANA RELIGIO; temple

Lothar I re-used the temple type, which had been made popular by his father Louis the Pious. However, it was minted by Lothar in much smaller quantities.
Droger
lg004_quad_sm.jpg
"As de Nîmes" or "crocodile" Ӕ dupondius of Nemausus (9 - 3 BC), honoring Augustus and Agrippa31 viewsIMP DIVI F , Heads of Agrippa (left) and Augustus (right) back to back, Agrippa wearing rostral crown and Augustus the oak-wreath / COL NEM, crocodile right chained to palm-shoot with short dense fronds and tip right; two short palm offshoots left and right below, above on left a wreath with two long ties streaming right.

Ӕ, 24.5 x 3+ mm, 13.23g, die axis 3h; on both sides there are remains of what appears to be gold plating, perhaps it was a votive offering? Rough edges and slight scrapes on flan typical for this kind of coin, due to primitive technology (filing) of flan preparation.

IMPerator DIVI Filius. Mint of COLonia NEMausus (currently Nîmes, France). Known as "As de Nîmes", it is actually a dupontius (lit. "two-pounder") = 2 ases (sometimes cut in halves to get change). Dupondii were often made out of a golden-colored copper alloy (type of brass) "orichalcum" and this appears to be such case.

Key ID points: oak-wreath (microphotography shows that at least one leaf has a complicated shape, although distinguishing oak from laurel is very difficult) – earlier versions have Augustus bareheaded, no PP on obverse as in later versions, no NE ligature, palm with short fronds with tip right (later versions have tip left and sometimes long fronds). Not typical: no clear laurel wreath together with the rostral crown, gold plating (!), both features really baffling.

But still clearly a "middle" kind of the croc dupondius, known as "type III": RIC I 158, RPC I 524, Sear 1730. It is often conservatively dated to 10 BC - 10 AD, but these days it is usually narrowed to 9/8 - 3 BC.

It is a commemorative issue, honoring the victory over Mark Antony and conquest of Egypt in 30 BC. The heads of Augustus and Agrippa were probably positioned to remind familiar obverses of Roman republican coins with two-faced Janus. Palm branch was a common symbol of victory, in this case grown into a tree, like the victories of Augustus and Agrippa grown into the empire. The two offshoots at the bottom may mean two sons of Agrippa, Gaius and Lucius, who were supposed to be Augustus' heirs and were patrons of the colony. Palm may also be a symbol of the local Nemausian deity, which was probably worshiped in a sacred grove. When these coins were minted, the colony was mostly populated by the settled veterans of Augustus' campaigns, hence the reminiscence of the most famous victory, but some of the original Celtic culture probably survived and was assimilated by Romans. The crocodile is not only the symbol of Egypt, like in the famous Octavian's coins AEGYPTO CAPTA. It is also a representation of Mark Antony, powerful and scary both in water and on land, but a bit slow and stupid. The shape of the crocodile with tail up was specifically chosen to remind of the shape of ship on very common "legionary" denarius series, which Mark Antony minted to pay his armies just before Actium. It is probably also related to the popular contemporary caricature of Cleopatra, riding on and simultaneously copulating with a crocodile, holding a palm branch in her hand as if in triumph. There the crocodile also symbolized Mark Antony.

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa was born c. 64-62 BC somewhere in rural Italy. His family was of humble and plebeian origins, but rich, of equestrian rank. Agrippa was about the same age as Octavian, and the two were educated together and became close friends. He probably first served in Caesar's Spanish campaign of 46–45 BC. Caesar regarded him highly enough to send him with Octavius in 45 BC to train in Illyria. When Octavian returned to Rome after Caesar's assassination, Agrippa became his close lieutenant, performing many tasks. He probably started his political career in 43 BC as a tribune of the people and then a member of the Senate. Then he was one of the leading Octavian's generals, finally becoming THE leading general and admiral in the civil wars of the subsequent years.

In 38 as a governor of Transalpine Gaul Agrippa undertook an expedition to Germania, thus becoming the first Roman general since Julius Caesar to cross the Rhine. During this foray he helped the Germanic tribe of Ubii (who previously allied themselves with Caesar in 55 BC) to resettle on the west bank of the Rhine. A shrine was dedicated there, possibly to Divus Caesar whom Ubii fondly remembered, and the village became known as Ara Ubiorum, "Altar of Ubians". This quickly would become an important Roman settlement. Agrippina the Younger, Agrippa's granddaughter, wife of Emperor Claudius and mother of Emperor Nero, would be born there in 15 AD. In 50 AD she would sponsor this village to be upgraded to a colonia, and it would be renamed Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium (colony of Claudius [at] the Altar of Agrippinians – Ubii renamed themselves as Agrippinians to honor the augusta!), abbreviated as CCAA, later to become the capital of new Roman province, Germania Inferior.

In 37 BC Octavian recalled Agrippa back to Rome and arranged for him to win the consular elections, he desperately needed help in naval warfare with Sextus Pompey, the youngest son of Pompey the Great, who styled himself as the last supporter of the republican cause, but in reality became a pirate king, an irony since his father was the one who virtually exterminated piracy in all the Roman waters. He forced humiliating armistice on the triumvirs in 39 BC and when Octavian renewed the hostilities a year later, defeated him in a decisive naval battle of Messina. New fleet had to be built and trained, and Agrippa was the man for the job. Agrippa's solution was creating a huge secret naval base he called Portus Iulius by connecting together lakes Avernus, Avernus and the natural inner and outer harbors behind Cape Misenum at the northern end of the Gulf of Naples. He also created a larger type of ship and developed a new naval weapon: harpax – a ballista-launched grapnel shot with mechanisms that allowed pulling enemy ships close for easy boarding. It replaced the previous boarding device that Romans used since the First Punic War, corvus – effective, but extremely cumbersome. A later defence against it were scythe blades on long poles for cutting ropes, but since this invention was developed in secret, the enemy had no chance to prepare anything like it. It all has proved extremely effective: in a series of naval engagements Agrippa annihilated the fleet of Sextus, forced him to abandon his bases and run away. For this Agrippa was awarded an unprecedented honour that no Roman before or after him received: a rostral crown, "corona rostrata", a wreath decorated in front by a prow and beak of a ship.

That's why Virgil (Aeneid VIII, 683-684), describing Agrippa at Actium, says: "…belli insigne superbum, tempora navali fulgent rostrata corona." "…the proud military decoration, gleams on his brow the naval rostral crown". Actium, the decisive battle between forces of Octavian and Mark Antony, may appear boring compared to the war with Sextus, but it probably turned out this way due to Agrippa's victories in preliminary naval engagements and taking over all the strategy from Octavian.

In between the wars Agrippa has shown an unusual talent in city planning, not only constructing many new public buildings etc., but also greatly improving Rome's sanitation by doing a complete overhaul of all the aqueducts and sewers. Typically, it was Augustus who later would boast that "he had found the city of brick but left it of marble", forgetting that, just like in his naval successes, it was Agrippa who did most of the work. Agrippa had building programs in other Roman cities as well, a magnificent temple (currently known as Maison Carrée) survives in Nîmes itself, which was probably built by Agrippa.

Later relationship between Augustus and Agrippa seemed colder for a while, Agrippa seemed to even go into "exile", but modern historians agree that it was just a ploy: Augustus wanted others to think that Agrippa was his "rival" while in truth he was keeping a significant army far away from Rome, ready to come to the rescue in case Augustus' political machinations fail. It is confirmed by the fact that later Agrippa was recalled and given authority almost equal to Augustus himself, not to mention that he married Augustus' only biological child. The last years of Agrippa's life were spent governing the eastern provinces, were he won respect even of the Jews. He also restored Crimea to Roman Empire. His last service was starting the conquest of the upper Danube, were later the province of Pannonia would be. He suddenly died of illness in 12 BC, aged ~51.

Agrippa had several children through his three marriages. Through some of his children, Agrippa would become ancestor to many subsequent members of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. He has numerous other legacies.
Yurii P
86A_1.jpg
"Q" Quinarius, RRC 86A/118 viewsDenomination: Quinarius
Era: c. 211 BC
Metal: AR
Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma r. with splayed visor. Hair curl visible on far side of Roma’s neck. Behind, “V”. Border of dots
Reverse: Dioscuri r.; “ROMA” in exergue. “Q” symbol below horses
Mint: S. E. Italy
Weight: 2.11 gm.
Reference: Crawford 86A/1
Provenance: Nomisma E-Live Auction 12, October 2, 2019, Lot 2034

Comments: “Q” symbol quinarius, Not to be confused with the more common Crawford 102/2 Q quinarius varieties. Very scarce, 6 examples in ACSearch at this writing.

Glossy jet black patina(?) Some reverse corrosion, otherwise GVF.
3 commentsSteve B5
m_aurel_hadrianop_serapis_cerb_2.jpg
(0161) MARCUS AURELIUS (as Caesar)54 views161 - 180 Augustus
struck 139-161 AD as Caesar
AE 25.5 mm; 10.42 g
O: M AVRHLIOC OVHROC KAICAR, laureate, draped bust right
R: ADRIANOPOLEITON, Hades-Serapis seated left, holding sceptre, right hand extended over Cerberus seated at foot.
Thrace, Hadrianopolis; Varbanov 3197; SNG Italy 415.
d.s.
laney
Denarius91BC.jpg
(501i) Roman Republic, D. Junius L.f. Silanus, 91 B.C.58 viewsSilver denarius, Syd 646a, RSC Junia 16, S 225 var, Cr 337/3 var, VF, 3.718g, 18.6mm, 0o, Rome mint, 91 B.C.; obverse head of Roma right in winged helmet, X (control letter) behind; reverse Victory in a biga right holding reins in both hands, V (control numeral) above, D•SILANVS / ROMA in ex; mint luster in recesses. Ex FORVM.

Although the coin itself does not commemorate the event, the date this coin was struck is historically significant.

MARCUS Livius DRUSUS (his father was the colleague of Gaius Gracchus in the tribuneship, 122 B.C.), became tribune of the people in 91 B.C. He was a thoroughgoing conservative, wealthy and generous, and a man of high integrity. With some of the more intelligent members of his party (such as Marcus Scaurus and L. Licinius Crassus the orator) he recognized the need of reform. At that time an agitation was going on for the transfer of the judicial functions from the equites to the senate; Drusus proposed as a compromise a measure which restored to the senate the office of judices, while its numbers were doubled by the admission of 300 equites. Further, a special commission was to be appointed to try and sentence all judices guilty of taking bribes.

The senate was hesitant; and the equites, whose occupation was threatened, offered the most violent opposition. In order, therefore, to catch the popular votes, Drusus proposed the establishment of colonies in Italy and Sicily, and an increased distribution of corn at a reduced rate. By help of these riders the bill was carried.

Drusus now sought a closer alliance with the Italians, promising them the long coveted boon of the Roman franchise. The senate broke out into open opposition. His laws were abrogated as informal, and each party armed its adherents for the civil struggle which was now inevitable. Drusus was stabbed one evening as he was returning home. His assassin was never discovered (http://62.1911encyclopedia.org/D/DR/DRUSUS_MARCUS_LIVIUS.htm).

The ensuing "Social War" (91-88 B.C.) would set the stage for the "Civil Wars" (88-87 & 82-81 B.C.) featuring, notably, Marius & Sulla; two men who would make significant impressions on the mind of a young Julius Caesar. Caesar would cross the Rubicon not thirty years later.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
LPisoFrugiDenarius_S235.jpg
(502a) Roman Republic, L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi, 90 B.C.157 viewsSilver denarius, S 235, Calpurnia 11, Crawford 340/1, Syd 663a, VF, rainbow toning, Rome mint, 3.772g, 18.5mm, 180o, 90 B.C. obverse: laureate head of Apollo right, scorpion behind; Reverse naked horseman galloping right holding palm, L PISO FRVGI and control number CXI below; ex-CNA XV 6/5/91, #443. Ex FORVM.


A portion of the following text is a passage taken from the excellent article “The Calpurnii and Roman Family History: An Analysis of the Piso Frugi Coin in the Joel Handshu Collection at the College of Charleston,” by Chance W. Cook:

In the Roman world, particularly prior to the inception of the principate, moneyers were allotted a high degree of latitude to mint their coins as they saw fit. The tres viri monetales, the three men in charge of minting coins, who served one-year terms, often emblazoned their coins with an incredible variety of images and inscriptions reflecting the grandeur, history, and religion of Rome. Yet also prominent are references to personal or familial accomplishments; in this manner coins were also a means by which the tres viri monetales could honor their forbearers. Most obvious from an analysis of the Piso Frugi denarius is the respect and admiration that Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi, who minted the coin, had for his ancestors. For the images he selected for his dies relate directly to the lofty deeds performed by his Calpurnii forbearers in the century prior to his term as moneyer. The Calpurnii were present at many of the watershed events in the late Republic and had long distinguished themselves in serving the state, becoming an influential and well-respected family whose defense of traditional Roman values cannot be doubted.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi, who was moneyer in 90 B.C., depicted Apollo on the obverse and the galloping horseman on the reverse, as does his son Gaius. However, all of L. Piso Frugi’s coins have lettering similar to “L-PISO-FRVGI” on the reverse, quite disparate from his son Gaius’ derivations of “C-PISO-L-F-FRV.”

Moreover, C. Piso Frugi coins are noted as possessing “superior workmanship” to those produced by L. Piso Frugi.

The Frugi cognomen, which became hereditary, was first given to L. Calpurnius Piso, consul in 133 B.C., for his integrity and overall moral virtue. Cicero is noted as saying that frugal men possessed the three cardinal Stoic virtues of bravery, justice, and wisdom; indeed in the Thesaurus Linguae Latinae, a synonym of frugalitas is bonus, generically meaning “good” but also implying virtuous behavior. Gary Forsythe notes that Cicero would sometimes invoke L. Calpurnius Piso’s name at the beginning of speeches as “a paragon of moral rectitude” for his audience.

L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi’s inclusion of the laureled head of Apollo, essentially the same obverse die used by his son Gaius (c. 67 B.C.), was due to his family’s important role in the establishment of the Ludi Apollinares, the Games of Apollo, which were first instituted in 212 B.C. at the height of Hannibal’s invasion of Italy during the Second Punic War. By that time, Hannibal had crushed Roman armies at Cannae, seized Tarentum and was invading Campania.

Games had been used throughout Roman history as a means of allaying the fears
of the populace and distracting them from issues at hand; the Ludi Apollinares were no different. Forsythe follows the traditional interpretation that in 211 B.C., when C. Calpurnius Piso was praetor, he became the chief magistrate in Rome while both consuls were absent and the three other praetors were sent on military expeditions against Hannibal.

At this juncture, he put forth a motion in the Senate to make the Ludi Apollinares a yearly event, which was passed; the Ludi Apollinares did indeed become an important festival, eventually spanning eight days in the later Republic. However, this interpretation is debatable; H.H. Scullard suggests that the games were not made permanent until 208 B.C. after a severe plague prompted the Senate to make them a fixture on the calendar. The Senators believed Apollo would serve as a “healing god” for the people of Rome.

Nonetheless, the Calpurnii obviously believed their ancestor had played an integral role in the establishment of the Ludi Apollinares and thus prominently displayed
the head or bust of Apollo on the obverse of the coins they minted.

The meaning of the galloping horseman found on the reverse of the L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi coin is more complicated. It is possible that this is yet another reference to the Ludi Apollinares. Chariot races in the Circus Maximus were a major component of the games, along with animal hunts and theatrical performances.

A more intriguing possibility is that the horseman is a reference to C. Calpurnius Piso, son of the Calpurnius Piso who is said to have founded the Ludi Apollinares. This C. Calpurnius Piso was given a military command in 186 B.C. to quell a revolt in Spain. He was victorious, restoring order to the province and also gaining significant wealth in the process.

Upon his return to Rome in 184, he was granted a triumph by the Senate and eventually erected an arch on the Capitoline Hill celebrating his victory. Of course
the arch prominently displayed the Calpurnius name. Piso, however, was not an infantry commander; he led the cavalry.

The difficulty in accepting C. Calpurnius Piso’s victory in Spain as the impetus for the galloping horseman image is that not all of C. Piso Frugi’s coins depict the horseman or cavalryman carrying the palm, which is a symbol of victory. One is inclined to believe that the victory palm would be prominent in all of the coins minted by C. Piso Frugi (the son of L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi) if it indeed signified the great triumph of C. Calpurnius Piso in 186 B.C. Yet the palm’s appearance is clearly not a direct reference to military feats of C. Piso Frugi’s day. As noted, it is accepted that his coins were minted in 67 B.C.; in that year, the major victory by Roman forces was Pompey’s swift defeat of the pirates throughout the Mediterranean.

Chrestomathy: Annual Review of Undergraduate Research at the College of Charleston. Volume 1, 2002: pp. 1-10© 2002 by the College of Charleston, Charleston SC 29424, USA.All rights to be retained by the author.
http://www.cofc.edu/chrestomathy/vol1/cook.pdf


There are six (debatably seven) prominent Romans who have been known to posterity as Lucius Calpurnius Piso:

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi: (d. 261 A.D.) a Roman usurper, whose existence is
questionable, based on the unreliable Historia Augusta.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Licinianus: deputy Roman Emperor, 10 January 69 to15 January
69, appointed by Galba.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 27 A.D.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 1 B.C., augur

Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 15 B.C., pontifex

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus: Consul in 58 B.C. (the uncle of Julius Caesar)

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi: Moneyer in 90 B.C. (our man)


All but one (or two--if you believe in the existence of "Frugi the usurper" ca. 261 A.D.) of these gentlemen lack the Frugi cognomen, indicating they are not from the same direct lineage as our moneyer, though all are Calpurnii.

Calpurnius Piso Frugi's massive issue was intended to support the war against the Marsic Confederation. The type has numerous variations and control marks.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucius_Calpurnius_Piso
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/catalog/indexfrm.asp?vpar=55&pos=0

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


2 commentsCleisthenes
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000a. L. Sulla and L. Manlius Toruatus33 viewsL. Sulla and L. Manlius Torquatus. 82 BC. AR Denarius (18mm, 3.89 g, 7h). Military mint moving with Sulla. Helmeted head of Roma right / Sulla driving triumphal quadriga right, holding branch and reins, being crowned by Victory flying left. Crawford 367/5; Sydenham 757 or 757a; Manlia 4 or 5. Near VF, toned, a few light scratches on the obverse.

From the Elwood Rafn Collection.

As consul for the year 88 BC, Sulla was awarded the coveted assignment of suppressing the revolt of Mithradates VI of Pontus, but political maneuvers resulted in this assignment being transferred to Marius. In response, Sulla turned his army on Rome, captured it, and reclaimed his command against Mithradates. His prosecution of the first Mithradatic War was successful, but he spared the Pontic king for personal gain. In 83 BC, Sulla returned to Italy as an outlaw, but he was able to win the support of many of the leading Romans. Within a year, he fought his way to Rome, where he was elected dictator. It was during this campaign to Rome that this denarius was struck. The obverse type represents Sulla's claim to be acting in Rome's best interest. The reverse shows Sulla enjoying the highest honor to which a Roman could aspire: the celebration of a triumph at Rome.
ecoli
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001c. Lepidus16 viewsThe Triumvirs. Lepidus and Octavian. November-December 43 BC. AR Denarius (18mm, 3.35 g, 10h). Military mint traveling with Lepidus in Italy. Bare head of Lepidus right / Bare head of Octavian right. Crawford 495/2a; CRI 140; Sydenham 1323; RSC 2a. Near Fine, toned, struck off center, bankers’ marks.ecoli
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0030 - Denarius Caecilia 81 BC31 viewsObv/Head of Pietas r. wearing diadem; before, stork.
Rev/Jug and lituus, IMPER in ex. Laurel-wreath border.

Ag, 19.5mm, 3.76g
Moneyer: Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius.
Mint: North Italy.
RRC 374/2 [dies o/r: 30/33] - BMCRR Spain 47 - Syd. 751 - RSC Caecilia 44 - RCV 302
ex-Gerhard Hirsch, auction 250/1, lot 796
1 commentsdafnis
0048.jpg
0048 - Denarius anonymous 115-4 BC61 viewsObv/ Helmeted head of Roma r.; behind, X; below, ROMA.
Rev/Roma seated r. on pile of shields, holding spear; before, she-wolf r. suckling twins; two birds in the field.

Ag, 22.0mm, 3.93g
Moneyer: anonymous.
Mint: Rome.
RRC 287/1 [dies o/r: 82/102] - Syd. 530 - RCV 164 - RSC 176 - Calicó 58 - BMCRR Italy 562
ex-Numismática y Arqueología J. Antonio Salvador
2 commentsdafnis
0049~0.jpg
0049 - Denarius Aemilia 114-3 BC39 viewsObv/ Laureate female bust (Roma?) r., veiled and wearing diadem; before, ROMA; behind, crossed X.
Rev/ Three arches, on which stands equestrian status - horseman wears cuirass and wreath, and holds spear in r. hand; around, MN AEMILIO; between arches, L E P.

Ag, 18.5 mm, 3.85 g
Moneyer: Mn. Aemilius Lepidus
Mint: Rome
RRC 291/1 [dies o/r: 283/354 - BMCRR Italy 590
ex-Jesús Vico, auction 116, lot 3080
1 commentsdafnis
0050.jpg
0050 - Denarius Lutatia 109-8 BC34 viewsObv/Helmeted head of Roma r., before CERCO, above (RO)MA, behind crossed X.
Rev/Galley r. within oak wreath, Q LVTATI above.

Ag, 18.5mm, 3.94g
Moneyer: Q Lutatius Cerco.
Mint: Rome.
RRC 305/1 [dies o/r: 135/169] - Syd. 559 - Calicó 914 - BMCRR Italy 636 - RCV 182.
ex-Valencia Coin Fair, 29 feb 2008
dafnis
0089.jpg
0089 - Denarius Furia 119 BC37 viewsObv/ M FOVRI L F, laureate head of Janus.
Rev/ Roma standing l., holding sceptre in l. hand and crowning trophy with r. hand; behind, ROMA; above, star; on the l. field, trophy surmounted by a helmet in the form of a boar's head and flanked by carnyx and shield on each side; in ex. PHILI.

Ag, 19.1 mm, 3.90 g
Moneyer: M. Furius L.f. Philus.
Mint: Rome.
RRC 281/1 [dies o/r: 393/491] - BMCRR Italy 555 - Bab. Furia 18 - Sydenham 529
ex-inAsta, auction 38, lot 473
dafnis
coin287.JPG
011. Titus 79-81 AD28 viewsTitus. 79-81 AD.

Titus was the beneficiary of considerable intelligence and talent, endowments that were carefully cultivated at every step of his career, from his early education to his role under his father's principate. Cassius Dio suggested that Titus' reputation was enhanced by his early death. [[17]] It is true that the ancient sources tend to heroicize Titus, yet based upon the evidence, his reign must be considered a positive one. He capably continued the work of his father in establishing the Flavian dynasty and he maintained a high degree of economic and administrative competence in Italy and beyond. In so doing, he solidified the role of the emperor as paternalistic autocrat, a model that would serve Trajan and his successors well.

AR Denarius (3.44 gm). Laureate head right/Radiate figure on rostral column. RIC II 16a; BMCRE 29; RSC 289. Fine. Scarce and interesting reverse type. Ex-CNG
ecoli
0111.jpg
0111 - Denarius Caecilia 81 BC84 viewsObv/ Diademed head of Pietas r., stork before.
Rev/ Elephant walking l., Q C M P I in ex.

Ag, 17.9 mm, 3.35 g
Moneyer: Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius.
Mint: North Italy.
RRC 374/1 [dies o/r: 88/98] - Syd. 750 - RSC Caecilia 43
ex-Gerhard Hirsch, auction may 2011, lot 411
dafnis
0116.JPG
0116 - Denarius Octavian 32-29 BC33 viewsObv/ Head of Venus r., wearing diadem.
Rev/ CAESAR DIVI F, Octavian l., in military dress, cloak flying behind, holding spear.

Ag, 20.2 mm, 3.51 g
Mint: Italy (Brundisium or Roma?)
RIC I/251 [S]
ex-Nomisma, auction e2, lot 18
dafnis
0205_RRC88_26.jpg
0205 - Denarius Anonymous 209 BC31 viewsObv/ Head of Rome r.; behind, X.
Rev/ Dioscuri riding r., stars above their heads, spearhead r. below, ROMA in ex.

Ag, 21.8 mm, 3.74 g
Mint: SE Italy
RRC 88/2b [40-40 (all var.)]
ex-NAC, auction 84, lot 1633.
2 commentsdafnis
RI_051t_img.jpg
051 - Marcus Aurelius Sestertius - RIC III 107825 viewsObv:– M ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXVII, laureate head right, slight drapery on left shoulder
Rev:– RESTITVTORI ITALIAE IMP VI COS III / S C, Aurelius standing left holding sceptre and raising kneeling figure of Italia who holds a globe
Minted in Rome mint. Dec. A.D. 172 - Dec. A.D. 173
Reference:– BMCRE 1449 note (light drapery). RIC III 1078. Both cite Bement Coll. 1031 (rated Scarce).

Commemorating the successes of the Quadic war on the northern edges of Italy with the Germans.

27.27g, 34.27mm, 180o
maridvnvm
antoninus-pius_ar-denarius_ITALIA_3_1gr_00.JPG
06 - Antoninus Pius - AR Denarius - ITALIA55 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Antoninus Pius (138 - 161 AD)
Silver Denarius. Rome Mint. Struck 140 AD.

obv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TR P COS III - laureate head right.

rev: ITA LIA - Italia in turreted crown, seated left on globe with cornucopiae & scepter.

weight: 3.1grams
4 commentsrexesq
antoninus-pius_ar-denarius_ITALIA_3_1gr_obv_04_rev_05.JPG
06 - Antoninus Pius - AR Denarius - ITALIA18 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Antoninus Pius (138 - 161 AD)
Silver Denarius. Rome Mint. Struck 140 AD.

obv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TR P COS III - laureate head right.

rev: ITA LIA - Italia in turreted crown, seated left on globe with cornucopiae & scepter.

weight: 3.1grams
rexesq
antoninus-pius_ar-denarius_ITALIA_3_1gr_obv_02_rev_03.JPG
06 - Antoninus Pius - AR Denarius - ITALIA32 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Antoninus Pius (138 - 161 AD)
Silver Denarius. Rome Mint. Struck 140 AD.

obv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TR P COS III - laureate head right.

rev: ITA LIA - Italia in turreted crown, seated left on globe with cornucopiae & scepter.

weight: 3.1grams
2 commentsrexesq
antoninus-pius_ar-denarius_ITALIA_3_1gr_obv_01_rev_01.JPG
06 - Antoninus Pius - AR Denarius - ITALIA15 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Antoninus Pius (138 - 161 AD)
Silver Denarius. Rome Mint. Struck 140 AD.

obv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TR P COS III - laureate head right.

rev: ITA LIA - Italia in turreted crown, seated left on globe with cornucopiae & scepter.

weight: 3.1grams
rexesq
antoninus-pius_ar-denarius_ITALIA_3_1gr_obv_05.JPG
06 - Antoninus Pius - AR Denarius - ITALIA - obv17 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Antoninus Pius (138 - 161 AD)
Silver Denarius. Rome Mint. Struck 140 AD.

obv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TR P COS III - laureate head right.

rev: ITA LIA - Italia in turreted crown, seated left on globe with cornucopiae & scepter.

weight: 3.1grams
rexesq
antoninus-pius_ar-denarius_ITALIA_3_1gr_rev_07.JPG
06 - Antoninus Pius - AR Denarius - ITALIA - rev12 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Antoninus Pius (138 - 161 AD)
Silver Denarius. Rome Mint. Struck 140 AD.

obv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TR P COS III - laureate head right.

rev: ITA LIA - Italia in turreted crown, seated left on globe with cornucopiae & scepter.

weight: 3.1grams
rexesq
07e-Constantine-Sis-200b.jpg
07e. Constantine as Filius Augustorum: Siscia follis.30 viewsFollis, 309 - 310, Siscia mint.
Obverse: CONSTANTINVS FIL AVGG / Laureate bust of Constantine.
Reverse: GENIO AVGVSTI / Genius standing, chlamys over left shoulder, pouring liquid from patera, and holding cornucopiae. Crescent in left field; A in right field.
Mint mark: SIS
6.14 gm., 24 mm.
RIC #200b; PBCC #786; Sear #15581.

The obverse legend shows Constantine as "Filius Augustorum" -- an empty title granted him after the conference at Carnuntum in November 308. Coins with this title were issued for a short time at 5 mints under the control of Galerius (Siscia, Thessalonica, Nicomedia, Antioch, Alexandria). This title was not recognized in the area under the control of Constantine himself, nor in Italy which was under the control of Maxentius.
Callimachus
Civil_Wars_RIC_I_121.jpg
09.5 Civil Wars RIC I 12149 viewsCivil Wars. 69 A.D. AR Denarius. Southern Gaul mint. 69 A.D. (2.97g, 18.5mm, 6h). Obv: FIDES, above EXERCITVVM, below clasped hands. Rev: FIDES, above,PRAETORIANORVM, blow, Clasped r. hands. RIC I 121; RCV 2048.

This is thought to be an issue by pro Vitellian forces in southern Gaul for the purpose of influencing Otho’s Praetorians in the capital. In March 69 AD, Vitellian commander Fabius Valens entered Italy from Southern Gaul at the head of a small band to sway the loyalty of Otho’s forces, and this type of coin would have been “bribe” money for that purpose.
1 commentsLucas H
victorituts.jpg
095/1a Victoriatus52 viewsAnonymous. 211-208B.C. AR Victoriatus. Uncertain Mint. (2.74g, 16mm, 12h). Obv: Laureate head of Jupiter right. Rev: Victory standing right, crowing trophy; VB monogram between. Crawford 95/1a. Sydenham 113, RSC 36m.

An interesting denomination, he Victoriatus circulated at the same time as the denarius but was made of debased silver and could have been valued at ¾ a denarius. It was hoarded separately from denarii, and could have been used for trade in southern Italy among the Greek colonies. It was later remade into the Quninarri keeping the victory motif from the old Victoriatus.
1 commentsLucas H
V1496lg.jpg
09e Domitian as Caesar-RIC 1496110 viewsAR Denarius, 3.17g
Ephesus (?) mint, 76 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r. 'o' mint mark below neck
Rev: PON MAX TR P COS IIII; Winged caduceus
RIC 1496 (R2). BMC 489. RSC 369. RPC 1469 (2 spec.). BNC 377.
Acquired from Britaly Coins, April 2016.

The small series struck under Vespasian this coin comes from is quite mysterious. The mint is not known for certain, although Ephesus is a prime suspect. K. Butcher and M. Ponting in The Metallurgy of Roman silver Coinage analysed the Ephesian and 'o' mint series and their data shows both issues are made from the same bullion. Not definitive proof the two series are from the same mint, but good evidence of a strong link. Unlike the Ephesian series, the 'o' issue is full of blundered legends and mules. This denarius struck for Domitian Caesar has a PON MAX reverse legend, an impossible title for the young prince. However, what the mint masters lacked in competency, the engravers made up for in their stylish portraits.

A wonderful portrait struck on a large flan. An obverse die match with my RIC V1494.
6 commentsDavid Atherton
Cornelia51QuinVict.jpg
0aa Defeat of Hannibal on Sicily, 222 BC11 viewsCn. Lentulus, moneyer
90-85 BC

Quinarius

Laureled head of Jupiter, right
Victory crowning trophy, CN LENT in ex

Seaby, Cornelia 51

Possibly a reference to this event: [Q. Fabius Maximus, afterwards called Cunctator] broke up his camp at Suessula and decided to begin by an attack on Arpi. . . . Now at last the enemy was roused; there was a lull in the storm and daylight was approaching. Hannibal's garrison in the city amounted to about 5000 men, and the citizens themselves had raised a force of 3000. These the Carthaginians put in front to meet the enemy, that there might be no attempt at treachery in their rear. The fighting began in the dark in the narrow streets, the Romans having occupied not only the streets near the gate but the houses also, that they might not be assailed from the roofs. Gradually as it grew light some of the citizen troops and some of the Romans recognised one another, and entered into conversation. The Roman soldiers asked what it was that the Arpinians wanted, what wrong had Rome done them, what good service had Carthage rendered them that they, Italians-bred and born, should fight against their old friends the Romans on behalf of foreigners and barbarians, and wish to make Italy a tributary province of Africa. The people of Arpi urged in their excuse that they knew nothing of what was going on, they had in fact been sold by their leaders to the Carthaginians, they had been victimised and enslaved by a small oligarchy. When a beginning had been once made the conversations became more and more general; at last the praetor of Arpi was conducted by his friends to the consul, and after they had given each other mutual assurances, surrounded by the troops under their standards, the citizens suddenly turned against the Carthaginians and fought for the Romans. A body of Spaniards also, numbering something less than a thousand, transferred their services to the consul upon the sole condition that the Carthaginian garrison should be allowed to depart uninjured. The gates were opened for them and they were dismissed, according to the stipulation, in perfect safety, and went to Hannibal at Salapia. Thus Arpi was restored to the Romans without the loss of a single life, except in the case of one man who had long ago been a traitor and had recently deserted. The Spaniards were ordered to receive double rations, and the republic availed itself on very many occasions of their courage and fidelity.

Livy, History of Rome, 24.46-47
Blindado
LFarsuleiusDen.jpg
0b Italy Gets Roman Citizenship13 viewsL Farsuleius Mensor, moneyer
76-71 BC

Denarius

Diademed and draped head of Liberty, right, SC below, MENSOR before, cap of Liberty and number behind
Roma in biga helping togate figure mount, L FARSVLEI in ex.

Appears to allude to the Lex Julia of 90 BC, by which all of Italy gained Roman citizenship

Seaby, Farsuleia 1
Blindado
ANTOSE86a.jpg
1. Aeneas travels from Troy to Italy 47 viewsAntoninus Pius. 138-161 AD. Sestertius (24.15g, Ø 33mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 140-144.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, laureate head right.
Rev.: S C [left and right in field], Aeneas wearing a short tunic and cloac, advancing right, carrying Anchises on left shoulder and holding Ascanius by right hand. Anchises (veiled and draped) carries a box in left hand, Ascanius wears a short tunic and Phrygian cap and caries a pedum in left hand. RIC 627[R2], BMCRE 1292, Cohen 761; Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali) 373 (4 specimens); Foss 57b.

This sestertius was issued in preparation of the 900th anniversary of Rome which was celebrated in A.D.147.
The scene depicts Aeneas leaving Ilium, as the Romans called Troy, with Ascanius and Anchises. According to Vergil (Aeneid, Book 2), Aeneas, the son of the goddess Venus and the Trojan Anchises, fled with some remnants of the inhabitants of Troy as it fell to the Greeks, taking with him his son, Ascanius, his elderly father, Anchises, and the Palladium, the ancient sacred statue of Athena. The Trojans eventually made their way west to resettle in Italy. There they intermarried with the local inhabitants and founded the town of Lavinium, and thereby became the nucleus of the future Roman people. One of the descendants of Aeneas' son Ascanius (known now as Iulus) was Rhea Silvia, mother of Romulus and Remus, founders of Rome. The mythological depictions on this coin reinforce the importance of Ilium, not only as the seedbed of the future Roman people, but also as the mother city of the future caput mundi.
Charles S
1305_-1306_Edward_I_LONDON_PENNY.JPG
1272 - 1307, EDWARD I, AR Penny, Struck 1305 - 1306 at London, England14 viewsObverse: + EDWAR ANGL DNS HYB. Crowned bust of Edward I facing within circle of pellets. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle.
Undated Penny, type 10cf1
Diameter: 18.5mm | Weight: 1.2gms | Die Axis: 9
SPINK: 1410

Edward I began a major recoinage in 1279 which consisted not only of pennies and new round half-pennies and farthings, but also introduced a new denomination, a fourpenny piece called the "Groat".

Edward I was King of England from 1272 – 1307. He was the eldest surviving son of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence. The contests between his father and the barons led by Simon de Montfort called Edward early into active life when he restored the royal authority within months by defeating and killing de Montfort at the battle of Evesham in 1265. He then proceeded to Palestine, where no conquest of any importance was achieved. After further campaigns in Italy and France he returned to England on his father's death and was crowned at Westminster Abbey in 1274.
Edward was popular because he identified himself with the growing tide of nationalism sweeping the country, displayed later in his persecution and banishment of the Jews which was the culmination of many years of anti-semitism in England.
Edward now turned his attention to the mountainous land to the west which had never been completely subdued. So, following a revolt in the Principality of Wales against English influence, Edward commenced a war which ended in the annexation of the Principality to the English Crown in 1283. He secured his conquest by building nine castles to watch over it and created his eldest son, Edward the Prince of Wales in 1301.
Edward's great ambition, however, was to gain possession of Scotland, but the death of Margaret, the Maid of Norway, who was to have been married to Edward's son, for a time frustrated the king's designs. However the sudden death of the King of Scotland, Alexander III, and the contested succession soon gave him the opportunity to intervene. He was invited by the Scots to arbitrate and choose between the thirteen competitors for the Scottish throne. Edward's choice, John Balliol, who he conceived as his puppet, was persuaded to do homage for his crown to Edward at Newcastle but was then forced to throw off Edward's overlordship by the indignation of the Scottish people. An alliance between the French and the Scots now followed, and Edward, then at war with the French king over possession of Gascony, was compelled to march his army north. Edward invaded Scotland in 1296 and devastated the country, which earned him the sobriquet 'Hammer of the Scots'. It was at this time that the symbolic Stone of Destiny was removed from Scone. Edward's influence had tainted Balliol's reign and the Scottish nobility deposed him and appointed a council of twelve to rule instead. Balliol abdicated and was eventually sent to France where he retired into obscurity, taking no more part in politics. Scotland was then left without a monarch until the accession of Robert the Bruce in 1306.
Meanwhile Edward assumed the administration of the country. However the following summer a new opposition to Edward took place under William Wallace whose successes, notably at Stirling Bridge, forced Edward to return to Scotland with an army of 100,000 men. Although he defeated Wallace's army at Falkirk, and Wallace himself was betrayed, Edward's unjust and barbaric execution of him as a traitor in London made Wallace a national hero in Scotland, and resistance to England became paramount among the people. All Edward's efforts to reduce the country to obedience were unravelling, and after the crowning of Robert Bruce, Earl of Carrick, as Robert I of Scotland in 1306 an enraged Edward assembled another army and marched yet again against the Scots. However, Edward only reached Burgh-on-Sands, a village near Carlisle, when he died. His body was taken back to London and he was buried at Westminster Abbey.
Edward I was married twice: to Eleanor of Castile, by whom he had sixteen children, and Margaret of France by whom he had three. Twelve memorials to his first wife stood between Nottingham and London to mark the journey taken by her funeral cortege. Three of those memorials, known as “Eleanor Crosses”, can still be seen today at Geddington, Hardingstone near Northampton and Waltham Cross. London's Charing Cross is also named after one, but the original was demolished in 1647 and the monument seen there today is a Victorian replica.
1 comments*Alex
GaleriusAugCyz.jpg
1303a, Galerius, 1 March 305 - 5 May 311 A.D.35 viewsGalerius, RIC VI 59, Cyzicus S, VF, Cyzicus S, 6.4 g, 25.86 mm; 309-310 AD; Obverse: GAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate bust right; Reverse: GENIO A-VGVS[TI], Genius stg. left, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera and cornucopiae. A nice example with sharp detail and nice brown hoard patina. Ex Ancient Imports.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Galerius (305-311 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University


Caius Galerius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Galerius, was from Illyricum; his father, whose name is unknown, was of peasant stock, while his mother, Romula, was from beyond the Danube. Galerius was born in Dacia Ripensis near Sardica. Although the date of his birth is unknown, he was probably born ca. 250 since he served under Aurelian. As a youth Galerius was a shepherd and acquired the nickname Armentarius. Although he seems to have started his military career under Aurelian and Probus, nothing is known about it before his accession as Caesar on 1 March 293. He served as Diocletian's Caesar in the East. Abandoning his first wife, he married Diocletian's daugher, Valeria.

As Caesar he campaigned in Egypt in 294; he seems to have taken to the field against Narses of Persia, and was defeated near Ctesiphon in 295. In 298, after he made inroads into Armenia, he obtained a treaty from the Persians favorable to the Romans. Between 299-305 he overcame the Sarmatians and the Carpi along the Danube. The Great Persecution of the Orthodox Church, which was started in 303 by the Emperor Diocletian, was probably instigated by Galerius. Because of the almost fatal illness that he contracted toward the end of 304, Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximianus Herculius, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple on 1 May 305. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. Constantius and Severus reigned in the West, whereas Galerius' and Daia's realm was the East. Although Constantius was nominally senior Augustus, the real power was in the hands of Galerius because both Caesars were his creatures.

The balance of power shifted at the end of July 306 when Constantius, with his son Constantine at his side, passed away at York in Britain where he was preparing to face incursions by the Picts; his army proclaimed Constantine his successor immediately. As soon as he received the news of the death of Constantius I and the acclamation of Constantine to the purple, Galerius raised Severus to the rank of Augustus to replace his dead colleague in August 306. Making the best of a bad situation, Galerius accepted Constantine as the new Caesar in the West. The situation became more complicated when Maxentius, with his father Maximianus Herculius acquiesing, declared himself princes on 28 October 306. When Galerius learned about the acclamation of the usurper, he dispatched the Emperor Severus to put down the rebellion. Severus took a large field army which had formerly been that of Maximianus and proceeded toward Rome and began to besiege the city, Maxentius, however, and Maximianus, by means of a ruse, convinced Severus to surrender. Later, in 307, Severus was put to death under clouded circumstances. While Severus was fighting in the west, Galerius, during late 306 or early 307, was campaigning against the Sarmatians.

In the early summer of 307 Galerius invaded Italy to avenge Severus's death; he advanced to the south and encamped at Interamna near the Tiber. His attempt to besiege the city was abortive because his army was too small to encompass the city's fortifications. Not trusting his own troops, Galerius withdrew. During its retreat, his army ravaged the Italian countryside as it was returning to its original base. When Maximianus Herculius' attempts to regain the throne between 308 and 310 by pushing his son off his throne or by winning over Constantine to his cause failed, he tried to win Diocletian and Galerius over to his side at Carnuntum in October and November 308; the outcome of the Conference at Carnuntum was that Licinius was appointed Augustus in Severus's place, that Daia and Constantine were denoted filii Augustorum, and that Herculius was completely cut out of the picture. Later, in 310, Herculius died, having been implicated in a plot against his son-in-law. After the Conference at Carnuntum, Galerius returned to Sardica where he died in the opening days of May 311.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University; Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Galerius was Caesar and tetrarch under Maximianus. Although a talented general and administrator, Galerius is better known for his key role in the "Great Persecution" of Christians. He stopped the persecution under condition the Christians pray for his return to health from a serious illness. Galerius died horribly shortly after. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
MaxentiusRIC163.jpg
1307a, Maxentius, February 307 - 28 October 312 A.D.60 viewsBronze follis, RIC 163, aEF, Rome mint, 5.712g, 25.6mm, 0o, summer 307 A.D.; obverse MAXENTIVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse CONSERVATO-RES VRB SVAE, Roma holding globe and scepter, seated in hexastyle temple, RT in ex; rare. Ex FORVM; Ex Maridvnvm


De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maxentius (306-312 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius, more commonly known as Maxentius, was the child of the Emperor Maximianus Herculius and the Syrian, Eutropia; he was born ca. 278 A.D. After Galerius' appointment to the rank of Caesar on 1 March 293, Maxentius married Galerius' daughter Valeria Maximilla, who bore him a son named Romulus and another son whose name is unknown. Due to his haughty nature and bad disposition, Maxentius could seldom agree with his father or his father-in-law; Galerius' and Maximianus Herculius' aversion to Maxentius prevented the young man from becoming a Caesar in 305. Little else is known of Maxentius' private life prior to his accession and, although there is some evidence that it was spent in idleness, he did become a Senator.

On 28 October 306 Maxentius was acclaimed emperor, although he was politically astute enough not to use the title Augustus; like the Emperor Augustus, he called himself princeps. It was not until the summer of 307 that he started using the title Augustus and started offending other claimants to the imperial throne. He was enthroned by the plebs and the Praetorians. At the time of his acclamation Maxentius was at a public villa on the Via Labicana. He strengthened his position with promises of riches for those who helped him obtain his objective. He forced his father Maximianus Herculius to affirm his son's acclamation in order to give his regime a facade of legitimacy. His realm included Italy, Africa, Sardinia, and Corsica. As soon as Galerius learned about the acclamation of Herculius' son, he dispatched the Emperor Severus to quell the rebellion. With the help of his father and Severus' own troops, Maxentius' took his enemy prisoner.

When Severus died, Galerius was determined to avenge his death. In the early summer of 307 the Augustus invaded Italy; he advanced to the south and encamped at Interamna near the Tiber. His attempt to besiege the city was abortive because his army was not large enough to encompass the city's fortifications. Negotiations between Maxentius and Galerius broke down when the emperor discovered that the usurper was trying to win over his troops. Galerius' troops were open to Maxentius' promises because they were fighting a civil war between members of the same family; some of the soldiers went over to the enemy. Not trusting his own troops, Galerius withdrew. During its retreat, Galerius' army ravaged the Italian countryside as it was returning to its original base. If it was not enough that Maxentius had to deal with the havoc created by the ineffectual invasions of Severus and Galerius, he also had to deal with his father's attempts to regain the throne between 308 and 310. When Maximianus Herculius was unable to regain power by pushing his son off his throne, he attempted to win over Constantine to his cause. When this plan failed, he tried to win Diocletian over to his side at Carnuntum in October and November 308. Frustrated at every turn, Herculius returned to his son-in-law Constantine's side in Gaul where he died in 310, having been implicated in a plot against his son-in-law. Maxentius' control of the situation was weakened by the revolt of L. Domitius Alexander in 308. Although the revolt only lasted until the end of 309, it drastically cut the size of the grain supply availble for Rome. Maxentius' rule collapsed when he died on 27 October 312 in an engagement he had with the Emperor Constantine at the Milvian Bridge after the latter had invaded his realm.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
0021-030np_noir.jpg
1373 - Julius Caesar, Denarius347 viewsDenarius minted in Italy, c.49 BC
CAESAR, elephant walking rigth, trampling on snake
No legend, Simpulum, sprinkler, axe and apex
4.05 gr
Ref : HCRI # 9, RCV #1399, Cohen #49
6 commentsPotator II
antpius_RIC73.jpg
138-161 AD - ANTONINUS PIUS AR denarius - struck 140-143 AD40 viewsobv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III (laureate head right)
rev: ITALIA (Italia, towered, seated left on globe, holding cornucopiae and sceptre)
ref: RIC III 73 (C), RSC463 (5frcs), BMC 214
mint: Rome
2.63gms, 18mm,
Scarce

Antoninus had been entrusted with the government of this province as proconsul. He was chosen by Hadrian from among the four men of consular rank under whose jurisdiction Italy was placed, to administer that particular part of Italy in which the greater part of his own holdings lay. The coin probably commemorate this.
berserker
ConstansVot.jpeg
1405a, Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. (Alexandria)39 viewsBronze AE 4, RIC 37, gVF, Egypt, Alexandria, 1.54g, 15.0mm, 180o, 345-347 A.D. Obverse: D N CONSTANS P F AVG, pearl diademed head right; Reverse: VOT XX MVLT XXX in wreath, SMALA• in exergue.

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, was born between 320 and 323 A.D. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons.

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign.

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality. He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II, Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University and Robert Frakes, Clarion UniversityPublished: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
Constans.jpg
1405n, Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. (Siscia)56 viewsConstans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 241, S 3978, VM 69, VF, Siscia, 2.32g, 18.3mm, 180o. Obverse: D N CONSTANS P F AVG, pearl diademed draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Phoenix radiate, standing on rocky mound, GSIS and symbol in ex; nice green patina.

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, was born between 320 and 323 A.D. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons.

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign.

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality. He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II, Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University and Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
U2476F1OVDKUXTA.jpeg
1405t, Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. (Thessalonica )38 viewsConstans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D., Bronze AE 3, unattributed; Thessalonica mint, 2.25g, 18.9mm, 0; aVF.

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, was born between 320 and 323 A.D. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons.

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign.

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality. He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II, Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University and Robert Frakes, Clarion University.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Cnstntine2.jpg
1406a, Constantine II, 22 May 337 - March or April 340 A.D. (Antioch)28 viewsConstantine II, 22 May 337 - March or April 340 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 87, gVF, Antioch, 2.17g, 17.6mm, 0o, 330-335 A.D. Obverse: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, two soldiers, each holding spear and shield on ground, flanking two standards, SMANE in exergue.

Constantine II (February 317 - 340) was Roman Emperor (337 - 340). The eldest son of Constantine I the Great and Fausta, he was born at Arles. Following the death of his father in 337, Constantine II became Emperor jointly with his brothers Constantius II and Constans. His section of the Empire was Gaul, Britain and Spain. At first, he was the guardian of his younger brother Constans, whose portion was Italy, Africa and Illyria. As Constans came of age, Constantine would not relinquish the guardianship, and in 340 he marched against Constans in Italy, but was defeated at Aquileia and died in battle. Constans came to control Constantine II's portion of the empire.
Cleisthenes
Constantine2.jpg
1406c, Constantine II, 337-340 A.D.36 viewsConstantine II, 317-340. AE3, RIC VII, 74 ('theta' = r), page 581 2.22 grams, 333-335 AD, Constantinople mint, VF. Obverse : CONSTANTIVS IVN NOB C - Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed. Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS - Two soldiers looking in at each other and both holding a spear; between them, two standards. CONS (theta) (dot) in exergue. Rare.

Constantine II (February 317 - 340) was Roman Emperor (337 - 340). The eldest son of Constantine I the Great and Fausta, he was born at Arles. Following the death of his father in 337, Constantine II became Emperor jointly with his brothers Constantius II and Constans. His section of the Empire was Gaul, Britain and Spain. At first, he was the guardian of his younger brother Constans, whose portion was Italy, Africa and Illyria. As Constans came of age, Constantine would not relinquish the guardianship, and in 340 he marched against Constans in Italy, but was defeated at Aquileia and died in battle. Constans came to control Constantine II's portion of the empire.
Cleisthenes
Constantius_Gallus.jpg
1408a, Constantius Gallus, Caesar 28 September 351 - winter 354 A.D. (Cyzicus)62 viewsBronze half centenionalis, RIC 106, F, Cyzicus mint, 2.603g, 18.8mm, 0o, 351-354 A.D.; obverse D N FL CL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier standing left spearing fallen horseman, SMKE in exergue.

Constantius Gallus was a cousin of Constantius II and was made Caesar in 351 A.D. He was given command of the Eastern provinces while Constantius II was in the West. His rule was so harsh and cruel that Constantius recalled him to Milan, and then had him arrested and executed before he reached Italy.
Cleisthenes
Julian2VotXConstantinople.jpg
1409a, Julian II "the Philosopher," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.143 viewsJulian II, A.D. 360-363; RIC 167; VF; 2.7g, 20mm; Constantinople mint; Obverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, helmeted & cuirassed bust right, holding spear & shield; Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath; CONSPB in exergue; Attractive green patina. Ex Nemesis.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Julian the Apostate (360-363 A.D.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University

Introduction

The emperor Flavius Claudius Julianus reigned from 360 to 26 June 363, when he was killed fighting against the Persians. Despite his short rule, his emperorship was pivotal in the development of the history of the later Roman empire. This essay is not meant to be a comprehensive look at the various issues central to the reign of Julian and the history of the later empire. Rather, this short work is meant to be a brief history and introduction for the general reader. Julian was the last direct descendent of the Constantinian line to ascend to the purple, and it is one of history's great ironies that he was the last non-Christian emperor. As such, he has been vilified by most Christian sources, beginning with John Chrysostom and Gregory Nazianzus in the later fourth century. This tradition was picked up by the fifth century Eusebian continuators Sozomen, Socrates Scholasticus, and Theodoret and passed on to scholars down through the 20th century. Most contemporary sources, however, paint a much more balanced picture of Julian and his reign. The adoption of Christianity by emperors and society, while still a vital concern, was but one of several issues that concerned Julian.

It is fortunate that extensive writings from Julian himself exist, which help interpret his reign in the light of contemporary evidence. Still extant are some letters, several panegyrics, and a few satires. Other contemporary sources include the soldier Ammianus Marcellinus' history, correspondence between Julian and Libanius of Antioch, several panegyrics, laws from the Theodosian Code, inscriptions, and coinage. These sources show Julian's emphasis on restoration. He saw himself as the restorer of the traditional values of Roman society. Of course much of this was rhetoric, meant to defend Julian against charges that he was a usurper. At the same time this theme of restoration was central to all emperors of the fourth century. Julian thought that he was the one emperor who could regain what was viewed as the lost glory of the Roman empire. To achieve this goal he courted select groups of social elites to get across his message of restoration. This was the way that emperors functioned in the fourth century. By choosing whom to include in the sharing of power, they sought to shape society.

Early Life

Julian was born at Constantinople in 331. His father was Julius Constantius, half-brother of the emperor Constantine through Constantius Chlorus, and his mother was Basilina, Julius' second wife. Julian had two half-brothers via Julius' first marriage. One of these was Gallus, who played a major role in Julian's life. Julian appeared destined for a bright future via his father's connection to the Constantinian house. After many years of tense relations with his three half-brothers, Constantine seemed to have welcomed them into the fold of the imperial family. From 333 to 335, Constantine conferred a series of honors upon his three half-siblings, including appointing Julius Constantius as one of the consuls for 335. Julian's mother was equally distinguished. Ammianus related that she was from a noble family. This is supported by Libanius, who claimed that she was the daughter of Julius Julianus, a Praetorian Prefect under Licinius, who was such a model of administrative virtue that he was pardoned and honored by Constantine.

Despite the fact that his mother died shortly after giving birth to him, Julian experienced an idyllic early childhood. This ended when Constantius II conducted a purge of many of his relatives shortly after Constantine's death in 337, particularly targeting the families of Constantine's half-brothers. ulian and Gallus were spared, probably due to their young age. Julian was put under the care of Mardonius, a Scythian eunuch who had tutored his mother, in 339, and was raised in the Greek philosophical tradition, and probably lived in Nicomedia. Ammianus also supplied the fact that while in Nicomedia, Julian was cared for by the local bishop Eusebius, of whom the future emperor was a distant relation. Julian was educated by some of the most famous names in grammar and rhetoric in the Greek world at that time, including Nicocles and Hecebolius. In 344 Constantius II sent Julian and Gallus to Macellum in Cappadocia, where they remained for six years. In 351, Gallus was made Caesar by Constantius II and Julian was allowed to return to Nicomedia, where he studied under Aedesius, Eusebius, and Chrysanthius, all famed philosophers, and was exposed to the Neo-Platonism that would become such a prominent part of his life. But Julian was most proud of the time he spent studying under Maximus of Ephesus, a noted Neo-Platonic philospher and theurgist. It was Maximus who completed Julian's full-scale conversion to Neo-Platonism. Later, when he was Caesar, Julian told of how he put letters from this philosopher under his pillows so that he would continue to absorb wisdom while he slept, and while campaigning on the Rhine, he sent his speeches to Maximus for approval before letting others hear them. When Gallus was executed in 354 for treason by Constantius II, Julian was summoned to Italy and essentially kept under house arrest at Comum, near Milan, for seven months before Constantius' wife Eusebia convinced the emperor that Julian posed no threat. This allowed Julian to return to Greece and continue his life as a scholar where he studied under the Neo-Platonist Priscus. Julian's life of scholarly pursuit, however, ended abruptly when he was summoned to the imperial court and made Caesar by Constantius II on 6 November 355.

Julian as Caesar

Constantius II realized an essential truth of the empire that had been evident since the time of the Tetrarchy--the empire was too big to be ruled effectively by one man. Julian was pressed into service as Caesar, or subordinate emperor, because an imperial presence was needed in the west, in particular in the Gallic provinces. Julian, due to the emperor's earlier purges, was the only viable candidate of the imperial family left who could act as Caesar. Constantius enjoined Julian with the task of restoring order along the Rhine frontier. A few days after he was made Caesar, Julian was married to Constantius' sister Helena in order to cement the alliance between the two men. On 1 December 355, Julian journeyed north, and in Augusta Taurinorum he learned that Alamannic raiders had destroyed Colonia Agrippina. He then proceeded to Vienne where he spent the winter. At Vienne, he learned that Augustudunum was also under siege, but was being held by a veteran garrison. He made this his first priority, and arrived there on 24 June 356. When he had assured himself that the city was in no immediate danger, he journeyed to Augusta Treverorum via Autessioduram, and from there to Durocortorum where he rendezvoused with his army. Julian had the army stage a series of punitive strikes around the Dieuse region, and then he moved them towards the Argentoratum/Mongontiacum region when word of barbarian incursions reached him.

From there, Julian moved on to Colonia Agrippina, and negotiated a peace with the local barbarian leaders who had assaulted the city. He then wintered at Senonae. He spent the early part of the campaigning season of 357 fighting off besiegers at Senonae, and then conducting operations around Lugdunum and Tres Tabernae. Later that summer, he encountered his watershed moment as a military general. Ammianus went into great detail about Julian's victory over seven rogue Alamannic chieftains near Argentoratum, and Julian himself bragged about it in his later writing. After this battle, the soldiers acclaimed Julian Augustus, but he rejected this title. After mounting a series of follow-up raids into Alamannic territory, he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia, and on the way defeated some Frankish raiders in the Mosa region. Julian considered this campaign one of the major events of his time as Caesar.

Julian began his 358 military campaigns early, hoping to catch the barbarians by surprise. His first target was the Franks in the northern Rhine region. He then proceeded to restore some forts in the Mosa region, but his soldiers threatened to mutiny because they were on short rations and had not been paid their donative since Julian had become Caesar. After he soothed his soldiers, Julian spent the rest of the summer negotiating a peace with various Alamannic leaders in the mid and lower Rhine areas, and retired to winter quarters at Lutetia. In 359, he prepared once again to carry out a series of punitive expeditions against the Alamanni in the Rhine region who were still hostile to the Roman presence. In preparation, the Caesar repopulated seven previously destroyed cities and set them up as supply bases and staging areas. This was done with the help of the people with whom Julian had negotiated a peace the year before. Julian then had a detachment of lightly armed soldiers cross the Rhine near Mogontiacum and conduct a guerilla strike against several chieftains. As a result of these campaigns, Julian was able to negotiate a peace with all but a handful of the Alamannic leaders, and he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia.

Of course, Julian did more than act as a general during his time as Caesar. According to Ammianus, Julian was an able administrator who took steps to correct the injustices of Constantius' appointees. Ammianus related the story of how Julian prevented Florentius, the Praetorian Prefect of Gaul, from raising taxes, and also how Julian actually took over as governor for the province of Belgica Secunda. Hilary, bishop of Poitiers, supported Ammianus' basic assessment of Julian in this regard when he reported that Julian was an able representative of the emperor to the Gallic provincials. There is also epigraphic evidence to support Julian's popularity amongst the provincial elites. An inscription found near Beneventum in Apulia reads:
"To Flavius Claudius Julianus, most noble and sanctified Caesar, from the caring Tocius Maximus, vir clarissimus, for the care of the res publica from Beneventum".

Tocius Maximus, as a vir clarissimus, was at the highest point in the social spectrum and was a leader in his local community. This inscription shows that Julian was successful in establishing a positive image amongst provincial elites while he was Caesar.

Julian Augustus

In early 360, Constantius, driven by jealousy of Julian's success, stripped Julian of many troops and officers, ostensibly because the emperor needed them for his upcoming campaign against the Persians. One of the legions ordered east, the Petulantes, did not want to leave Gaul because the majority of the soldiers in the unit were from this region. As a result they mutinied and hailed Julian as Augustus at Lutetia. Julian refused this acclamation as he had done at Argentoratum earlier, but the soldiers would have none of his denial. They raised him on a shield and adorned him with a neck chain, which had formerly been the possession of the standard-bearer of the Petulantes and symbolized a royal diadem. Julian appeared reluctantly to acquiesce to their wishes, and promised a generous donative. The exact date of his acclamation is unknown, but most scholars put it in February or March. Julian himself supported Ammianus' picture of a jealous Constantius. In his Letter to the Athenians, a document constructed to answer charges that he was a usurper, Julian stated that from the start he, as Caesar, had been meant as a figurehead to the soldiers and provincials. The real power he claimed lay with the generals and officials already present in Gaul. In fact, according to Julian, the generals were charged with watching him as much as the enemy. His account of the actual acclamation closely followed what Ammianus told us, but he stressed even more his reluctance to take power. Julian claimed that he did so only after praying to Zeus for guidance.

Fearing the reaction of Constantius, Julian sent a letter to his fellow emperor justifying the events at Lutetia and trying to arrange a peaceful solution. This letter berated Constantius for forcing the troops in Gaul into an untenable situation. Ammianus stated that Julian's letter blamed Constantius' decision to transfer Gallic legions east as the reason for the soldiers' rebellion. Julian once again asserted that he was an unwilling participant who was only following the desire of the soldiers. In both of these basic accounts Ammianus and Julian are playing upon the theme of restoration. Implicit in their version of Julian's acclamation is the argument that Constantius was unfit to rule. The soldiers were the vehicle of the gods' will. The Letter to the Athenians is full of references to the fact that Julian was assuming the mantle of Augustus at the instigation of the gods. Ammianus summed up this position nicely when he related the story of how, when Julian was agonizing over whether to accept the soldiers' acclamation, he had a dream in which he was visited by the Genius (guardian spirit) of the Roman state. The Genius told Julian that it had often tried to bestow high honors upon Julian but had been rebuffed. Now, the Genius went on to say, was Julian's final chance to take the power that was rightfully his. If the Caesar refused this chance, the Genius would depart forever, and both Julian and the state would rue Julian's rejection. Julian himself wrote a letter to his friend Maximus of Ephesus in November of 361 detailing his thoughts on his proclamation. In this letter, Julian stated that the soldiers proclaimed him Augustus against his will. Julian, however, defended his accession, saying that the gods willed it and that he had treated his enemies with clemency and justice. He went on to say that he led the troops in propitiating the traditional deities, because the gods commanded him to return to the traditional rites, and would reward him if he fulfilled this duty.

During 360 an uneasy peace simmered between the two emperors. Julian spent the 360 campaigning season continuing his efforts to restore order along the Rhine, while Constantius continued operations against the Persians. Julian wintered in Vienne, and celebrated his Quinquennalia. It was at this time that his wife Helena died, and he sent her remains to Rome for a proper burial at his family villa on the Via Nomentana where the body of her sister was entombed. The uneasy peace held through the summer of 361, but Julian concentrated his military operations around harassing the Alamannic chieftain Vadomarius and his allies, who had concluded a peace treaty with Constantius some years earlier. By the end of the summer, Julian decided to put an end to the waiting and gathered his army to march east against Constantius. The empire teetered on the brink of another civil war. Constantius had spent the summer negotiating with the Persians and making preparations for possible military action against his cousin. When he was assured that the Persians would not attack, he summoned his army and sallied forth to meet Julian. As the armies drew inexorably closer to one another, the empire was saved from another bloody civil war when Constantius died unexpectedly of natural causes on 3 November near the town of Mopsucrenae in Cilicia, naming Julian -- the sources say-- as his legitimate successor.

Julian was in Dacia when he learned of his cousin's death. He made his way through Thrace and came to Constantinople on 11 December 361 where Julian honored the emperor with the funeral rites appropriate for a man of his station. Julian immediately set about putting his supporters in positions of power and trimming the imperial bureaucracy, which had become extremely overstaffed during Constantius' reign. Cooks and barbers had increased during the late emperor's reign and Julian expelled them from his court. Ammianus gave a mixed assessment of how the new emperor handled the followers of Constantius. Traditionally, emperors were supposed to show clemency to the supporters of a defeated enemy. Julian, however, gave some men over to death to appease the army. Ammianus used the case of Ursulus, Constantius' comes sacrum largitionum, to illustrate his point. Ursulus had actually tried to acquire money for the Gallic troops when Julian had first been appointed Caesar, but he had also made a disparaging remark about the ineffectiveness of the army after the battle of Amida. The soldiers remembered this, and when Julian became sole Augustus, they demanded Ursulus' head. Julian obliged, much to the disapproval of Ammianus. This seems to be a case of Julian courting the favor of the military leadership, and is indicative of a pattern in which Julian courted the goodwill of various societal elites to legitimize his position as emperor.

Another case in point is the officials who made up the imperial bureaucracy. Many of them were subjected to trial and punishment. To achieve this goal, during the last weeks of December 361 Julian assembled a military tribunal at Chalcedon, empanelling six judges to try the cases. The president of the tribunal was Salutius, just promoted to the rank of Praetorian Prefect; the five other members were Mamertinus, the orator, and four general officers: Jovinus, Agilo, Nevitta, and Arbetio. Relative to the proceedings of the tribunal, Ammianus noted that the judges, " . . . oversaw the cases more vehemently than was right or fair, with the exception of a few . . .." Ammianus' account of Julian's attempt at reform of the imperial bureaucracy is supported by legal evidence from the Theodosian Code. A series of laws sent to Mamertinus, Julian's appointee as Praetorian Prefect in Italy, Illyricum, and Africa, illustrate this point nicely. On 6 June 362, Mamertinus received a law that prohibited provincial governors from bypassing the Vicars when giving their reports to the Prefect. Traditionally, Vicars were given civil authority over a group of provinces, and were in theory meant to serve as a middle step between governors and Prefects. This law suggests that the Vicars were being left out, at least in Illyricum. Julian issued another edict to Mamertinus on 22 February 362 to stop abuse of the public post by governors. According to this law, only Mamertinus could issue post warrants, but the Vicars were given twelve blank warrants to be used as they saw fit, and each governor was given two. Continuing the trend of bureaucratic reform, Julian also imposed penalties on governors who purposefully delayed appeals in court cases they had heard. The emperor also established a new official to weigh solidi used in official government transactions to combat coin clipping.

For Julian, reigning in the abuses of imperial bureaucrats was one step in restoring the prestige of the office of emperor. Because he could not affect all elements of society personally, Julian, like other Neo-Flavian emperors, decided to concentrate on select groups of societal elites as intercessors between himself and the general populace. One of these groups was the imperial bureaucracy. Julian made it very clear that imperial officials were intercessors in a very real sense in a letter to Alypius, Vicar of Britain. In this letter, sent from Gaul sometime before 361, the emperor praises Alypius for his use of "mildness and moderation with courage and force" in his rule of the provincials. Such virtues were characteristic of the emperors, and it was good that Alypius is representing Julian in this way. Julian courted the army because it put him in power. Another group he sought to include in his rule was the traditional Senatorial aristocracy. One of his first appointments as consul was Claudius Mamertinus, a Gallic Senator and rhetorician. Mamertinus' speech in praise of Julian delivered at Constantinople in January of 362 is preserved. In this speech, Claudius presented his consular selection as inaugurating a new golden age and Julian as the restorer of the empire founded by Augustus. The image Mamertinus gave of his own consulate inaugurating a new golden age is not merely formulaic. The comparison of Julian to Augustus has very real, if implicit, relevance to Claudius' situation. Claudius emphasized the imperial period as the true age of renewal. Augustus ushered in a new era with his formation of a partnership between the emperor and the Senate based upon a series of honors and offices bestowed upon the Senate in return for their role as intercessor between emperor and populace. It was this system that Julian was restoring, and the consulate was one concrete example of this bond. To be chosen as a consul by the emperor, who himself had been divinely mandated, was a divine honor. In addition to being named consul, Mamertinus went on to hold several offices under Julian, including the Prefecture of Italy, Illyricum, and Africa. Similarly, inscriptional evidence illustrates a link between municipal elites and Julian during his time as Caesar, something which continued after he became emperor. One concrete example comes from the municipal senate of Aceruntia in Apulia, which established a monument on which Julian is styled as "Repairer of the World."

Julian seems to have given up actual Christian belief before his acclamation as emperor and was a practitioner of more traditional Greco-Roman religious beliefs, in particular, a follower of certain late antique Platonist philosophers who were especially adept at theurgy as was noted earlier. In fact Julian himself spoke of his conversion to Neo-Platonism in a letter to the Alexandrians written in 363. He stated that he had abandoned Christianity when he was twenty years old and been an adherent of the traditional Greco-Roman deities for the twelve years prior to writing this letter.

(For the complete text of this article see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/julian.htm)

Julian’s Persian Campaign

The exact goals Julian had for his ill-fated Persian campaign were never clear. The Sassanid Persians, and before them the Parthians, had been a traditional enemy from the time of the Late Republic, and indeed Constantius had been conducting a war against them before Julian's accession forced the former to forge an uneasy peace. Julian, however, had no concrete reason to reopen hostilities in the east. Socrates Scholasticus attributed Julian's motives to imitation of Alexander the Great, but perhaps the real reason lay in his need to gather the support of the army. Despite his acclamation by the Gallic legions, relations between Julian and the top military officers was uneasy at best. A war against the Persians would have brought prestige and power both to Julian and the army.

Julian set out on his fateful campaign on 5 March 363. Using his trademark strategy of striking quickly and where least expected, he moved his army through Heirapolis and from there speedily across the Euphrates and into the province of Mesopotamia, where he stopped at the town of Batnae. His plan was to eventually return through Armenia and winter in Tarsus. Once in Mesopotamia, Julian was faced with the decision of whether to travel south through the province of Babylonia or cross the Tigris into Assyria, and he eventually decided to move south through Babylonia and turn west into Assyria at a later date. By 27 March, he had the bulk of his army across the Euphrates, and had also arranged a flotilla to guard his supply line along the mighty river. He then left his generals Procopius and Sebastianus to help Arsacius, the king of Armenia and a Roman client, to guard the northern Tigris line. It was also during this time that he received the surrender of many prominent local leaders who had nominally supported the Persians. These men supplied Julian with money and troops for further military action against their former masters. Julian decided to turn south into Babylonia and proceeded along the Euphrates, coming to the fortress of Cercusium at the junction of the Abora and Euphrates Rivers around the first of April, and from there he took his army west to a region called Zaitha near the abandoned town of Dura where they visited the tomb of the emperor Gordian which was in the area. On April 7 he set out from there into the heart of Babylonia and towards Assyria.

Ammianus then stated that Julian and his army crossed into Assyria, which on the face of things appears very confusing. Julian still seems to be operating within the province of Babylonia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The confusion is alleviated when one realizes that,for Ammianus, the region of Assyria encompassed the provinces of Babylonia and Assyria. On their march, Julian's forces took the fortress of Anatha, received the surrender and support of several more local princes, and ravaged the countryside of Assyria between the rivers. As the army continued south, they came across the fortresses Thilutha and Achaiachala, but these places were too well defended and Julian decided to leave them alone. Further south were the cities Diacira and Ozogardana, which the Roman forces sacked and burned. Soon, Julian came to Pirisabora and a brief siege ensued, but the city fell and was also looted and destroyed. It was also at this time that the Roman army met its first systematic resistance from the Persians. As the Romans penetrated further south and west, the local inhabitants began to flood their route. Nevertheless, the Roman forces pressed on and came to Maiozamalcha, a sizable city not far from Ctesiphon. After a short siege, this city too fell to Julian. Inexorably, Julian's forces zeroed in on Ctesiphon, but as they drew closer, the Persian resistance grew fiercer, with guerilla raids whittling at Julian's men and supplies. A sizable force of the army was lost and the emperor himself was almost killed taking a fort a few miles from the target city.
Finally, the army approached Ctesiphon following a canal that linked the Tigris and Euphrates. It soon became apparent after a few preliminary skirmishes that a protracted siege would be necessary to take this important city. Many of his generals, however, thought that pursuing this course of action would be foolish. Julian reluctantly agreed, but became enraged by this failure and ordered his fleet to be burned as he decided to march through the province of Assyria. Julian had planned for his army to live off the land, but the Persians employed a scorched-earth policy. When it became apparent that his army would perish (because his supplies were beginning to dwindle) from starvation and the heat if he continued his campaign, and also in the face of superior numbers of the enemy, Julian ordered a retreat on 16 June. As the Roman army retreated, they were constantly harassed by guerilla strikes. It was during one of these raids that Julian got caught up in the fighting and took a spear to his abdomen. Mortally wounded he was carried to his tent, where, after conferring with some of his officers, he died. The date was 26 June 363.

Conclusion

Thus an ignominious end for a man came about who had hoped to restore the glory of the Roman empire during his reign as emperor. Due to his intense hatred of Christianity, the opinion of posterity has not been kind to Julian. The contemporary opinion, however, was overall positive. The evidence shows that Julian was a complex ruler with a definite agenda to use traditional social institutions in order to revive what he saw as a collapsing empire. In the final assessment, he was not so different from any of the other emperors of the fourth century. He was a man grasping desperately to hang on to a Greco-Roman conception of leadership that was undergoing a subtle yet profound change.
Copyright (C) 2002, Walter E. Roberts and Michael DiMaio, Jr. Used by permission.

In reality, Julian worked to promote culture and philosophy in any manifestation. He tried to reduce taxes and the public debts of municipalities; he augmented administrative decentralisation; he promoted a campaign of austerity to reduce public expenditure (setting himself as the example). He reformed the postal service and eliminated the powerful secret police.
by Federico Morando; JULIAN II, The Apostate, http://www.forumancientcoins.com/NumisWiki/view.asp?key=Julian%20II

Flavius Claudius Iulianus was born in 331 or maybe 332 A.D. in Constantinople. He ruled the Western Empire as Caesar from 355 to 360 and was hailed Augustus by his legions in Lutetia (Paris) in 360. Julian was a gifted administrator and military strategist. Famed as the last pagan emperor, his reinstatement of the pagan religion earned him the moniker "the Apostate." As evidenced by his brilliant writing, some of which has survived to the present day, the title "the Philosopher" may have been more appropriate. He died from wounds suffered during the Persian campaign of 363 A.D. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.




2 commentsCleisthenes
RI_146dr_img.jpg
146 - Maximianus Herculius - RIC VI Antioch 112c33 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP C M AVR VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO IMP-ERATORIS, Genius standing left holding patera and cornucopia
Minted in Antioch (_ | Theta / E //ANT Dot). Early to Later A.D. 309
Reference:– RIC VI Antioch 112c (R) (Citing Oxford; Apparently a rare issue for Maximianus Herculius and only issued from this officina)
 
6.39 gms. 26.19 mm. 0 degrees. Better than the RIC plate coin (reverse only illustrated).
 
From RIC Notes "A very remarkable innovation, peculiar to this issue, is the reappearance of Herculius (with the long legend Imp C M Aur Val Maximianus P F Aug matching those of Galerius and Licinus, and with cuirassed bust) on rare coins with Genio Imperatoris; this is parallelled at the same time (see RIC VI page 656). Expelled from Italy c. April 308, and rejected at the Carnuntum conference in November 308, Herculius had received ample share in the coinage of Constantine's mints, and it seems that Maximinus (now antagonisitc to both Galerius and Licinius) may have been momentarily willing to demontsrate his hostility by including the name of the man who might still play and anti-Galerian part in the west."
2 commentsmaridvnvm
0023-065.jpg
1608 - Lepidus and Octavian, Denarius148 viewsDenarius minted in Italy, 42 BC
LEPIDVS PONT MAX III V R P C, bare head of Lepidus right (NT and MA in monograms)
C CAESAR IMPIII VIR R P C, bare head of Octavian right (MP in monogram)
3.78 gr
Ref : HCRI # 140, RCV # 1523, Cohen # 2

The following from forum catalog :
"Lepidus was a faithful follower of Julius Caesar, and he served as Praetor and Consul. When Caesar was assassinated, Lepidus was in charge of the cavalry and commanded a legion. This position secured him a place in the Second Triumvirate along Marc Antony and Octavian. His cut was Africa. When Octavian attacked Sextus Pompey's Sicily, Lepidus' ships and troops supported him. In an uninspired move, Lepidus thought he could force Octavian to leave him the island. The two armies separated and isolated skirmishes occurred, but soon the soldiers sick of yet another civil war, acknowledging Octavian's superiority deserted Lepidus en-masse. Lepidus left the island as a simple civilian, retaining only his priesthood, but he was the only defeated Imperator not to suffer a violent death."
2 commentsPotator II
M.Aurelius RIC890.jpg
161-180 AD - MARCUS AURELIUS AE sestertius - struck 163-164 AD45 viewsobv: M AVREL ANTONINVS AVG ARMENIACVS P M (laureated bearded head right)
rev: VICT AVG TR P XVIII IMP II COS III (Victory standing right holding trophy a captive Armenian at her feet), S-C in field
ref: RIC 890 (S), Cohen 984 (12 Francs 1878), BMC 1092
21.14gms, 30mm,
Rare

History: After the death of Antoninus Pius the parthian king, Vologaesus III run over Armenia in 161 AD. The Expeditio orientalis was started the next year from Capua,Italy. Statius Priscus, Avidius Cassius and Martius Verus were entrusted with command of the legions while Marcus Aurelius conducted affairs of the state back in Rome. The 5 year campaign (161 – 166 AD) against Parthia proved to be as decisive as any war in recent Roman history. A Roman candidate once again sat the Armenian throne and Parthia had been thoroughly defeated. This coin commemorate the end of the first phase of the Parthian War.
berserker
MAurel RIC1058.jpg
161-180 AD - MARCUS AURELIUS AE sestertius - struck 172-173 AD37 viewsobv: M ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXVII (laureate head right)
rev: GERMANICO AVG IMP VI COS III (trophy of arms, German {Marcomann} woman seated left below, in attitude of mourning, on two shields; German standing to right, his head turned and his hands bound behind him), SC in ex.
ref: RIC III 1058 (S), Cohen 227 (15frcs)
22.46gms, 30mm,
Very rare
History: In the second half of the second century was the most important and dangerous invasion of the Marcomanni. Their leader, Ballomar, had formed a coalition of Germanic tribes, they crossed the Danube and achieved a smashing victory over 20,000 Romans near Carnuntum. Ballomar then led the larger part of his host southwards towards Italy, while the remainder ravaged Noricum. The Marcomanni razed Opitergium (Oderzo) and besieged Aquileia. The army of praetorian prefect Furius Victorinus tried to relieve the city, but was defeated and its general slain.
In 172, the Roman legions crossed the Danube into Marcomannic territory. Although few details are known, the Romans achieved success, subjugating the Marcomanni and their allies, the Naristi and the Cotini. This fact is evident from the adoption of the title "Germanicus" by Marcus Aurelius, and the minting of coins with the inscription "Germania subacta". This rare coin is one of them.
berserker
marcus aurelius RIC1077.jpg
161-180 AD - MARCUS AURELIUS AE sestertius - struck 173 AD34 viewsobv: M ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXVII (laureated bearded head right)
rev: [RESTITVTORI ITALIAE IMP VI COS III S C] (Aurelius standing left holding sceptre and raising kneeling figure of Italia who holds a globe)
ref: RIC 1077 (S), Cohen 538 (10frcs), BMC 1449
21.80gms, 29mm,
Rare

Aurelius is here portrayed as the Restorer of Italy. Although this type is normally used to refer to a defeated enemy, in this instance what Aurelius is restoring is the security of the homeland by defeating the Germanic tribes threatening Italy.
berserker
0023-056.jpg
1633 - Mark Antony, Denarius95 viewsStruck in a travelling mint, moving with Mark Antony in 41 BC
ANT AVG IMP III VI R P C, Head of Mark Antony right
Fortuna standing left, holding rudder in right hand and cornucopiae in left; at feet, stork; below, PIETAS COS
3,82 gr - 20 mm
Ref : Crawford # 516/2, Sydenham # 1174, HCRI # 241, C # 77
Ex. Auctiones.GmbH

The following comment is copied from NAC auction # 52/294 about the very rare corresponding aureus :
The year 41 B.C., when this aureus was struck at a mint travelling in the East with Marc Antony, was a period of unusual calm for the triumvir, who took a welcomed, if unexpected, rest after the great victory he and Octavian had won late in 42 B.C. against Brutus and Cassius at the Battle of Philippi. Antony’s original plan of organising an invasion of Parthia was put on hold after he sailed to Tarsus, where he had summoned Cleopatra VII, the Greek queen of Egypt. She was to defend herself against accusations that she had aided Brutus and Cassius before Philippi, but it is generally agreed that the summons was merely a pretext for Antony’s plan to secure aid for his Parthian campaign. Their meeting was anything but a source of conflict; indeed, they found much common ground, including their agreement that it was in their mutual interests to execute Cleopatra’s sister and rival Arsinoe IV, who had been ruling Cyprus. In addition to sharing political interests, the two agreed that Antony would winter in Egypt to share a luxurious vacation with Cleopatra that caused a further postponement of Antony’s designs on Parthia. Thus began another of the queen’s liaisons with noble Romans, a prior having been Julius Caesar (and, according to Plutarch, Pompey Jr. before him). During the course of his stay in Egypt Cleopatra was impregnated, which resulted in twins born to her in 40 B.C. But this care-free period was only a momentary calm in the storm, for trouble was brewing in both the East and the West. Early in 40 B.C. Syria was overrun by the Parthians, seemingly while Antony travelled to Italy to meet Octavian following the Perusine War, in which Octavian defeated the armies of Antony’s wife and brother. The conflict with Octavian was resolved when they signed a pact at Brundisium in October, and Syria was eventually recovered through the efforts of Antony’s commanders from 40 to 38 B.C.{/i]

5 commentsPotator II
0030-310np_noir.jpg
1685 - Octavian, Dupondius68 viewsMinted in Italy 38 BC
DIVI F, bare head of Octavian right
DIVOS IVLIVS, in a laurel wreath
27.07 gr
Ref : HCRI # 309, RCV # 1570
Potator II
FulviaQuinariusLion.jpg
1ae2 Fulvia45 viewsFirst wife of Marc Antony

ca 83-40 BC

AR Quinarius
Bust of Victory right with the likeness of Fulvia, III VIR R P C
Lion right between A and XLI; ANTONI above, IMP in ex

RSC 3, Syd 1163, Cr489/6

Fulvia was the first Roman non-mythological woman to appear on Roman coins. She gained access to power through her marriage to three of the most promising men of her generation, Publius Clodius Pulcher, Gaius Scribonius Curio, and Marcus Antonius. All three husbands were politically active populares, tribunes, and supporters of Julius Caesar. Fulvia married Mark Antony in 47 or 46 BC, a few years after Curio's death, although Cicero suggested that Fulvia and Antony had had a relationship since 58 BC. According to him, while Fulvia and Antony were married, Antony once left a military post to sneak back into Rome during the night and personally deliver a love letter to Fulvia describing his love for her and how he had stopped seeing the famous actress Cytheris. Cicero also suggested that Antony married Fulvia for her money. At the time of their marriage, Antony was an established politician. He had already been tribune in 49 BC, commanded armies under Caesar and was Master of the Horse in 47 BC. As a couple, they were a formidable political force in Rome, and had two sons together, Marcus Antonius Antyllus and Iullus Antonius.

Suetonius wrote, "[Antony] took a wife, Fulvia, the widow of Clodius the demagogue, a woman not born for spinning or housewifery, nor one that could be content with ruling a private husband, but prepared to govern a first magistrate, or give orders to a commander-in-chief. So that Cleopatra had great obligations to her for having taught Antony to be so good a servant, he coming to her hands tame and broken into entire obedience to the commands of a mistress. He used to play all sorts of sportive, boyish tricks, to keep Fulvia in good-humour. As, for example, when Caesar, after his victory in Spain, was on his return, Antony, among the rest, went out to meet him; and, a rumour being spread that Caesar was killed and the enemy marching into Italy, he returned to Rome, and, disguising himself, came to her by night muffled up as a servant that brought letters from Antony. She, with great impatience, before received the letter, asks if Antony were well, and instead of an answer he gives her the letter; and, as she was opening it, took her about the neck and kissed her."

After Julius Caesar was assassinated, Antony became the most powerful man in Rome. Fulvia was heavily involved in the political aftermath. After Caesar's death, the senate realized his popularity and declared that they would pass all of Caesar's planned laws. Antony had attained possession of Caesar's papers, and with the ability to produce papers in support of any law, Fulvia and Antony made a fortune and gained immense power. She allegedly accompanied Antony to his military camp at Brundisium in 44 BC. Appian wrote that in December 44 and again in 41 BC, while Antony was abroad and Cicero campaigned for Antony to be declared an enemy of the state, Fulvia attempted to block such declarations by soliciting support on Antony's behalf.

Antony formed the second triumvirate with Octavian (the future emperor Augustus) and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus on 43 BC and began to conduct proscriptions. To solidify the political alliance, Fulvia's daughter Clodia was married to the young Octavian. Appian and Cassius Dio describe Fulvia as being involved in the violent proscriptions, which were used to destroy enemies and gain badly needed funds to secure control of Rome. Antony pursued his political enemies, chief among them being Cicero, who had openly criticized him for abusing his powers as consul after Caesar's assassination. Though many ancient sources wrote that Fulvia was happy to take revenge against Cicero for Antony's and Clodius' sake, Cassius Dio is the only ancient source that describes the joy with which she pierced the tongue of the dead Cicero with her golden hairpins, as a final revenge against Cicero's power of speech.

In 42 BC, Antony and Octavian left Rome to pursue Julius Caesar's assassins, Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus. Fulvia was left behind as the most powerful woman in Rome. According to Cassius Dio, Fulvia controlled the politics of Rome. Dio wrote that "the following year Publius Servilius and Lucius Antonius nominally became consuls, but in reality it was Antonius and Fulvia. She, the mother-in‑law of Octavian and wife of Antony, had no respect for Lepidus because of his slothfulness, and managed affairs herself, so that neither the senate nor the people transacted any business contrary to her pleasure."

Shortly afterwards, the triumvirs then distributed the provinces among them. Lepidus took the west and Antony went to Egypt, where he met Cleopatra VII. When Octavian returned to Rome in 41 BC to disperse land to Caesar's veterans, he divorced Fulvia's daughter and accused Fulvia of aiming at supreme power. Fulvia allied with her brother-in-law Lucius Antonius and publicly endorsed Mark Antony in opposition to Octavian.

In 41 BC, tensions between Octavian and Fulvia escalated to war in Italy. Together with Lucius Antonius, she raised eight legions in Italy to fight for Antony's rights against Octavian, an event known as the Perusine War. Fulvia fled to Greece with her children. Appian writes that she met Antony in Athens, and he was upset with her involvement in the war. Antony then sailed back to Rome to deal with Octavian, and Fulvia died of an unknown illness in exile in Sicyon, near Corinth, Achaea.
Blindado
JuliusCaesarDenEleph.jpg
1af Julius Caesar Wages Civil War12 viewsJulius Caesar

Denarius
49-48 BC

Elephant right, trampling on serpent [probably], CAESAR in ex
Simpulum, sprinkler, axe and priest's hat

Evidently a military issue, no agreement exists on the meaning of the coin's imagery (see e.g. http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=88757.msg552803#msg552803)

Seaby 49

Given the chance that the coin was minted to pay Caesar's armies in the civil war, here is a description of the beginning, according to Suetonius: He then overtook his advanced guard at the River Rubicon, which formed the boundary between Gaul and Italy. There he paused for a while and, realising the magnitude of the step he was taking, turned to his staff, to remark: ‘We could turn back, even now; but once over that little bridge, and it will all come down to a fight.’ . . . As he stood there, undecided, he received a sign. A being of marvellous stature and beauty appeared suddenly, seated nearby, and playing on a reed pipe. A knot of shepherds gathered to listen, but when a crowd of his soldiers, including some of the trumpeters, broke ranks to join them, the apparition snatched a trumpet from one of them, ran to the river, and sounding the call to arms blew a thunderous blast, and crossed to the far side. At this, Caesar exclaimed: ‘Let us follow the summons, of the gods’ sign and our enemy’s injustice. The die is cast.’ And crossing with the army, he welcomed the tribunes of the people, who had fled to him from Rome. Then, in tears, he addressed the troops and, ripping open the breast of his tunic, asked for their loyalty.
Blindado
Lepidus_Antony_Quinarius.jpg
1af Lepidus_214 viewsQuinarius

M LEP IMP, simpulum, aspergillum, axe (surmounted by wolf's head) & ape

M ANT IMP, lituus, capis (jug) and raven

Military mint with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus & Antony in Transalpine Gaul, 44-42 BC

Cr489/3, Syd 1158a

Lepidus was a member of the Second Triumvirate.

According to Plutarch's Life of Pompey: Sulla, however, was annoyed at seeing to what a height of reputation and power Pompey was advancing, but being ashamed to obstruct his career, he kept quiet. Only, when in spite of him and against his wishes Pompey made Lepidus consul, by canvassing for him and making the people zealously support him through their goodwill towards himself, seeing Pompey going off through the forum with a throng, Sulla said: "I see, young man, that you rejoice in your victory; and surely it was a generous and noble thing for Lepidus, the worst of men, to be proclaimed consul by a larger vote than Catulus, the best of men, because you influenced the people to take this course. Now, however, it is time for you to be wide awake and watchful of your interests; you have made your adversary stronger than yourself." But Sulla showed most clearly that he was not well-disposed to Pompey by the will which he wrote. For whereas he bequeathed gifts to other friends, and made some of them guardians of his son, he omitted all mention of Pompey. And yet Pompey bore this with great composure, and loyally, insomuch that when Lepidus and sundry others tried to prevent the body of Sulla from being buried in the Campus Martius, or even from receiving public burial honours, he came to the rescue, and gave to the interment alike honour and security.

Soon after the death of Sulla, his prophecies were fulfilled, and Lepidus tried to assume Sulla's powers. He took no circuitous route and used no pretence, but appeared at once in arms, stirring up anew and gathering about himself the remnants of faction, long enfeebled, which had escaped the hand of Sulla. His colleague, Catulus, to whom the incorrupt and sounder element in the senate and people attached themselves, was the great Roman of the time in the estimate set upon his wisdom and justice, but was thought better adapted for political than military leadership. The situation itself, therefore, demanded Pompey, who was not long in deciding what course to take. He took the side of the nobility, and was appointed commander of an army against Lepidus, who had already stirred up a large part of Italy and was employing Brutus to hold Cisalpine Gaul with an army.

Other opponents against whom Pompey came were easily mastered by him, but at Mutina, in Gaul, he lay a long while besieging Brutus. Meanwhile, Lepidus had made a hasty rush upon Rome, and sitting down before it, was demanding a second consulship, and terrifying the citizens with a vast throng of followers. But their fear was dissipated by a letter brought from Pompey, announcing that he had brought the war to a close without a battle. For Brutus, whether he himself betrayed his army, or whether his army changed sides and betrayed him, put himself in the hands of Pompey, and receiving an escort of horsemen, retired to a little town upon the Po. Here, after a single day had passed, he was slain by Geminius, who was sent by Pompey to do the deed. And Pompey was much blamed for this. For as soon as the army of Brutus changed sides, he wrote to the senate that Brutus had surrendered to him of his own accord; then he sent another letter denouncing the man after he had been put to death. The Brutus who, with Cassius, killed Caesar, was a son of this Brutus, a man who was like his father neither in his wars nor in his death, as is written in his Life. As for Lepidus, moreover, as soon as he was expelled from Italy, he made his way over to Sardinia. There he fell sick and died of despondency, which was due, as we are told, not to the loss of his cause, but to his coming accidentally upon a writing from which he discovered that his wife was an adulteress.
Blindado
MarcAntonyDenGalley.jpg
1bd Mark Antony Battles Octavian11 viewsMark Antony
32-31 BC

Denarius

Galley, ANT AVG III VIR R P C, counter-marked
Legionary eagle between two standards, counter-marked

Seaby, Mark Antony 26ff

Plutarch described the outbreak of the conflict thusly: That night Antony had a very unlucky dream, fancying that his right hand was thunderstruck. And, some few days after, he was informed that Caesar was plotting to take his life. Caesar explained, but was not believed, so that the breach was now made as wide as ever; each of them hurried about all through Italy to engage, by great offers, the old soldiers that lay scattered in their settlements, and to be the first to secure the troops that still remained undischarged. Cicero was at this time the man of greatest influence in Rome. He made use of all his art to exasperate the people against Antony, and at length persuaded the senate to declare him a public enemy, to send Caesar the rods and axes and other marks of honour usually given to proctors, and to issue orders to Hirtius and Pansa, who were the consuls, to drive Antony out of Italy.
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Sestertius

Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust, right, IMP CAES PVPIEN MAXIMVS AVG
Pax seated left with branch & scepter PAX PVBLICA SC

RIC 22b

Herodian, continuing the story of the rebellion against Maximinus, wrote: [Pupienus] led most of these soldiers out to attack Maximinus; the rest remained behind to guard and defend the city. . . . In the meantime, having completed his march, Maximinus was poised on the borders of Italy; after offering sacrifices at all the boundary altars, he advanced into Italy. . . . When no opposition was offered, they crossed the Alps without hindrance. . . . While the army was in the plain, the scouts reported that Aquileia, the largest city in that part of Italy, had closed its gates and that the Pannonian legions which had been sent ahead had launched a vigorous attack upon the walls of this city. In spite of frequent assaults, they were completely unsuccessful. . . .

As time passed, the army of Maximinus grew depressed and, cheated in its expectations, fell into despair. . . . As Maximinus rode about, the [people of Aquileia] shouted insults and indecent blasphemies at him and his son. The emperor became increasingly angry because he was powerless to retaliate. . . . The emperor's soldiers were. . . in need of everything. There was scarcely even sufficient water for them. . . .

Without warning, the soldiers whose camp was near Rome at the foot of Mount Alba, where they had left their wives and children, decided that the best solution was to kill Maximinus and end the interminable siege. . . . [T]he conspirators went to Maximinus' tent about noon. The imperial bodyguard, which was involved in the plot, ripped Maximinus' pictures from the standards; when he came out of his tent with his son to talk to them, they refused to listen and killed them both. . . .

For the rest of the time the two emperors governed in an orderly and well-regulated manner, winning approval on every hand both privately and publicly. The people honored and respected them as patriotic and admirable rulers of the empire. . . . It so happened that the two men were not in complete accord: so great is the desire for sole rule and so contrary to the usual practice is it for the sovereignty to be shared that each undertook to secure the imperial power for himself alone. Balbinus considered himself the more worthy because of his noble birth and his two terms as consul; [Pupienus] felt that he deserved first place because he had served as prefect of Rome and had won a good reputation by his administrative efforts. Both men were led to covet the sole rule because of their distinguished birth, aristocratic lineage, and the size of their families. This rivalry was the basis of their downfall. When [Pupienus] learned that the Praetorian Guard was coming to kill them, he wished to summon a sufficient number of the German auxiliaries who were in Rome to resist the conspirators. But Balbinus, thinking that this was a ruse intended to deceive him (he knew that the Germans were devoted to [Pupienus]), refused to allow [Pupienus] to issue the order. . . . While the two men were arguing, the praetorians rushed in. . . . When the guards at the palace gates deserted the emperors, the praetorians seized the old men and ripped off the plain robes they were wearing because they were at home. Dragging the two men naked from the palace, they inflicted every insult and indignity upon them. Jeering at these emperors elected by the senate, they beat and tortured them. . . . When the Germans learned what was happening, they snatched up their arms and hastened to the rescue. As soon as the praetorians were informed of their approach, they killed the mutilated emperors.
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1cn Philippus29 views244-249

Antoninianus

Radiate draped bust, right, IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG
Liberalitas standing left with abacus & cornucopiae, LIBERALITAS AVGG II

RIC 38b

The Historia Augusta records: Philippus Arabs was made prefect of the guard [in 243]. This Philip was low-born but arrogant, and now could not contain himself in his sudden rise to office and immoderate good fortune, but immediately, through the soldiers, began to plot against Gordian, who had begun to treat him as a father. . . . Timesitheus [Gordian's father-in-law] had stored up such a quantity of supplies everywhere, that the Roman administration could not break down. But now Philip intrigued first to have the grain-ships turned away, and then to have the troops moved to stations where they could not get provisions. In this way he speedily got them exasperated against Gordian, for they did not know that the youth had been betrayed through Philip's intriguing. In addition to this, Philip spread talk among the soldiers to the effect that Gordian was young and could not manage the Empire, and that it were better for someone to rule who could command the army and understood public affairs. Besides this, he won over the leaders, and finally brought it about that they openly called him to the throne. Gordian's friends at first opposed him vigorously, but when the soldiers were at last overcome with hunger Philip was entrusted with the sovereignty, and the soldiers commanded that he and Gordian should rule together with equal rank while Philip acted as a sort of guardian.

Now that he had gained the imperial power Philip began to bear himself very arrogantly towards Gordian ; and he, knowing himself to be an emperor, an emperor's son, and a scion of a most noble family, could not endure this low-born fellow's insolence. And so, mounting the platform, with his kinsman Maecius Gordianus standing by him as his prefect, he complained bitterly to the officers and soldiers in the hope that Philip's office could be taken from him. But by this complaint in which he accused Philip of being unmindful of past favours and too little grateful he accomplished nothing. Next he asked the soldiers to make their choice, after openly canvassing the officers, but as a result of Philip's intriguing he came off second in the general vote. And finally, when he saw that everyone considered him worsted, he asked that their power might at least be equal, but he did not secure this either. After this he asked to be given the position of Caesar, but he did not gain this. He asked also to be Philip's prefect, and this, too, was denied him. His last prayer was that Philip should make him a general and let him live. And to this Philip almost consented not speaking himself, but acting through his friends, as he had done throughout, with nods and advice. But when he reflected that through the love that the Roman people and senate, the whole of Africa and Syria, and indeed the whole Roman world, felt for Gordian, because he was nobly born and the son and grandson of emperors and had delivered the whole state from grievous wars, it was possible, if the soldiers ever changed their minds, that the throne might be given back to Gordian if he asked for it again, and when he reflected also that the violence of the soldiers' anger against Gordian was due to hunger, he had him carried, shouting protests, out of their sight and then despoiled and slain.

Eutropius wrote, "When Gordian was killed, the two PHILIPS, father and son, seized on the government, and, having brought off the army safe, set out from Syria for Italy. In their reign the thousandth year of the city of Rome was celebrated with games and spectacles of vast magnificence. Soon after, both of them were put to death by the soldiery; the elder Philip at Verona, the younger at Rome. They reigned but five years. They were however ranked among the gods."
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1cu Trebonianus Gallus24 views251-253

AE Viminacium

Laureate, draped bust, right, IMP C GALLVS P FELIX AVG
Moesia standing facing, head left, hands outstretched over a bull and a lion at her sides, PMS COL VIM

Moushmov 56

For Gallus' perfidy against Decius, see the Decius entry. Zosimus reports regarding Gallus' reign: Gallus, who declared his son Volusianus his associate in the empire, published an open declaration, that Decius and his army had perished by his contrivance. The Barbarians now became more prosperous than before. For Callus not only permitted them to return home with the plunder, but promised to pay them annually a sum of money, and allowed them to carry off all the noblest captives; most of whom had been taken at Philippopolis in Thrace.

Gallus, having made these regulations, came to Rome, priding himself on the peace he had made with the Barbarians. And though he at first spoke with approbation of Decius's mode of government, and adopted one of his sons, yet, after some time was elapsed, fearing that some of them who were fond of new projects might recur to a recapitulation of the princely virtues of Decius, and therefore might at some opportunity give the empire to his son, he concerted the young man's destruction, without regard either to his own adoption of him, or to common honour and justice.

Gallus was so supine in the administration of the empire, that the Scythians in the first place terrified all the neighbouring nations, and then laid waste all the countries as far by degrees as the sea coast; not leaving one nation subject to the Romans unpillaged, and taking almost all the unfortified towns, and many that were fortified. Besides the war on every side, which was insupportably burdensome to them, the cities and villages were infested with a pestilence, which swept away the remainder of mankind in those regions; nor was so great a mortality ever known in any former period.

At this crisis, observing that the emperors were unable to defend the state, but neglected all without the walls of Rome, the Goths, the Borani, the Urugundi, and the Carpi once more plundered the cities of Europe of all that had been left in them; while in another quarter, the Persians invaded Asia, in which they acquired possession of Mesopotamia, and proceeded even as far as Antioch in Syria, took that city, which is the metropolis of all the east, destroyed many of the inhabitants, and carried the remainder into captivity, returning home with immense plunder, after they had destroyed all the buildings in the city, both public and private, without meeting with the least resistance. And indeed the Persians had a fair opportunity to have made themselves masters of all Asia, had they not been so overjoyed at their excessive spoils, as to be contented with keeping and carrying home what they had acquired.

Meantime the Scythians of Europe were in perfect security and went over into Asia, spoiling all the country as far as Cappodocia, Pesinus, and Ephesus, until Aemilianus, commander of the Pannonian legions, endeavouring as much as possible to encourage his troops, whom the prosperity of the Barbarians had so disheartened that they durst not face them, and reminding them of the renown of Roman courage, surprised the Barbarians that were in that neighbourhood. Having destroyed great numbers of them, and led his forces into their country, removing every obstruction to his progress, and at length freeing the subjects of the Roman empire from their ferocity, he was appointed emperor by his army. On this he collected all the forces of that country, who were become more bold since his successes against the Barbarians, and directed his march towards Italy, with the design of fighting Gallus, who was as yet. unprepared to contend with him. For Gallus had never heard of what had occurred in the east, and therefore made only what accidental preparations were in his reach, while Valerianus went to bring the Celtic and German legions. But Aemilianus advanced with great speed into Italy, and the armies were very near to each other, when the soldiers of Gallus, reflecting that his force was much inferior to the enemy both in number and strength, and likewise that he was a negligent indolent man, put him and his son to death, and going over to the party of Aemilianus, appeared to establish his authority.
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AE 26

Laureate, draped & cuirassed bust, right, IMP C M AEMIL AEMILIANVS AVG
PROVIN-CIA DACIA, Dacia standing facing, holding short sceptre in left arm, over which is a wreath, and holding up a bundle of rice in right hand, eagle and lion at feet, VIII in exergue.

Moushmov 20

Zosimus records: Aemilianus advanced with great speed into Italy, and the armies were very near to each other, when the soldiers of Gallus, reflecting that his force was much inferior to the enemy both in number and strength, and likewise that he was a negligent indolent man, put him and his son to death, and going over to the party of Aemilianus, appeared to establish his authority. But Valerianus brought into Italy from beyond the Alps a vast army, with which he deemed himself secure of conquering Aemilianus. The soldiers of Aemilianus, who saw that his conduct was more like that of a private sentinel than of an emperor, now put him to death as a person unfit for so weighty a charge.

Eutropius' curt review: AEMILIANUS was little distinguished by birth, and less distinguished by his reign, in the third month of which he was cut off.
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1cx Valerian37 views253-260

Antoninianus

Radiate draped and cuirassed bust, right, IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG
Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm, VICTORIA AVGG

RIC 125

Persians surrounded Valerian's army in the East in 260 and took the emperor prisoner. He died on an unknown date in captivity.

Zosimus noted: The nations subject to the Romans being unable to endure [Maximinus'] monstrous cruelty, and greatly distressed by the ravages he committed, the Africans proclaimed Gordianus and his son, of the same name, emperors, and sent ambassadors to Rome, one of whom was Valerianus, a man of consular rank, who afterwards himself became emperor. . . .

Aemilianus advanced with great speed into Italy, and the armies were very near to each other, when the soldiers of Gallus, reflecting that his force was much inferior to the enemy both in number and strength, and likewise that he was a negligent indolent man, put him and his son to death, and going over to the party of Aemilianus, appeared to establish his authority. But Valerianus brought into Italy from beyond the Alps a vast army, with which he deemed himself secure of conquering Aemilianus. The soldiers of Aemilianus, who saw that his conduct was more like that of a private sentinel than of an emperor, now put him to death as a person unfit for so weighty a charge.

By these means Valerianus became emperor with universal consent, and employed himself in the regulation of affairs. But the excursions of the Scythians, and of the Marcomanni, who made an inroad into all the countries adjacent to the empire, reduced Thessalonica to extreme danger; and though they were with muct difficulty compelled to raise the siege by the brave defence of those within, yet all Greece was in alarm. The Athenians repaired their walls, which they had never thought worth their care since Sylla threw them down. The Peloponnesians likewise fortified the Isthmus, and all Greece put itself upon its guard for the general security.

Valerianus, perceiving the empire in danger on every side, associated his son Gallienus with himself in the government! and went himself into the east to oppose the Persians. He entrusted to his son the care of the forces in Europe, thus leaving him to resist the Barbarians who poured in upon him in every direction. . . .

Valerianus had by this time heard of the disturbances in Bithynia, but his district would not allow him to confide the defence of it to any of his generals. He therefore sent Felix to Byzantium, and went in person from Antioch into Cappadocia, and after he had done some injury to every city by which he passed, he returned homeward. But the plague then attacked his troops, and destroyed most of them, at the time when Sapor made an attempt upon the east, and reduced most of it into subjection. In the mean time, Valerianus became so effeminate and indolent, that he dispaired of ever recovering from the present ill state of affairs, and would have concluded the war by a present of money; had not Sapor sent back the ambasadors who were sent to him with that proposal, without their errand, desiring the emperor to come and speak with him in person concerning the affairs he wished to adjust; To which he most imprudently consented, and going without consideration to Sapor with a small retinue, to treat for a peace, was presently laid hold of by the enemy, and so ended his days in the capacity of a slave among the Persians, to the disgrace of the Roman name in all future times.
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1cy Gallienus16 views253-268

Bronze antoninianus

Radiate, draped bust, right, GALLINVS AVG
Mars standing left, holding globe in right hand and spear in left hand, P in right field, VIRTVS AVG

RIC 317

Gallienus oversaw a period of disintegration of the empire and lost control over the East, Gaul, Spain, and Britain.

Zosimus observed: [When Valerian left for the East] As the Germans were the most troublesome enemies, and harrassed the Gauls in the vicinity of the Rhine, Gallienus marched against them in person, leaving his officers to repel with the forces under their command any others that should enter Italy, Illyricum, and Greece. With these designs, he possessed himself of and defended the passages of the Rhine, at one time preventing their crossing, and at another engaging them as soon as they had crossed it. But having only a small force to resist an immense number, he was at a loss how to act, and thought to secure himself by a league with one of the German princes. He thus not only prevented the other Barbarians from so frequently passing the Rhine, but obstructed the access of auxiliaries.

Eutropius recorded: Gallienus, who was made emperor when quite a young man, exercised his power at first happily, afterwards fairly, and at last mischievously. In his youth he performed many gallant acts in Gaul and Illyricum, killing Ingenuus, who had assumed the purple, at Mursa, and Regalianus. He was then for a long time quiet and gentle; afterwards, abandoning himself to all manner of licentiousness, he relaxed the reins of government with disgraceful inactivity and carelesness. The Alemanni, having laid waste Gaul, penetrated into Italy. Dacia, which had been added to the empire beyond the Danube, was lost. Greece, Macedonia, Pontus, Asia, were devastated by the Goths. Pannonia was depopulated by the Sarmatians and Quadi. The Germans made their way as far as Spain, and took the noble city of Tarraco. The Parthians, after taking possession of Mesopotamia, began to bring Syria under their power.

Zosimus resumes: Gallienus in the mean time still continued beyond the Alps, intent on the German war, while the Senate, seeing Rome in such imminent danger, armed all the soldiers that were in the city, and the strongest of the common people, and formed an army, which exceeded the Barbarians in number. This so alarmed the Barbarians, that they left Rome, but ravaged all the rest of Italy. At this period, when Illyricum groaned under the oppression of the Barbarians, and the whole Roman empire was in such a helpless state as to be on the very verge of ruin, a plague happened to break out in several of the towns, more dreadful than any that had preceded it. The miseries inflicted on them by the Barbarians were thus alleviated, even the sick esteeming themselves fortunate. The cities that had been taken by the Scythians were thus deserted.

Gallienus, being disturbed by these occurrences, was returning to Rome to relieve Italy from the war which the Scythians were thus carrying on. It was at this time, that Cecrops, a Moor, Aureolus and Antoninus, with many others, conspired against him, of whom the greater part were punished and submitted. Aureolus alone retained his animosity against the emperor.

The Scythians, who had dreadfully afflicted the whole of Greece, had now taken Athens, when Gallienus advanced against those who were already in possession of Thrace, and ordered Odonathus of Palmyra, a person whose ancestors had always been highly respected by the emperors, to assist the eastern nations which were then in a very distressed condition. . . .

While affairs were thus situated in the east, intelligence was brought to Gallienus, who was then occupied in the Scythian war, that Aurelianus, or Aureolus, who was commander of the cavalry posted in the neighbourhood of Milan to watch the motions of Posthumus, had formed some new design, and was ambitious to be emperor. Being alarmed at this he went immediately to Italy, leaving the command against the Scythians with Marcianus, a person of great experience in military affairs. . . . Gallienus, in his journey towards Italy, had a plot formed against him by Heraclianus, prefect of the court, who communicated his design to Claudius, in whom the chief management of affairs was vested. The design was to murder Gallienus. Having found a man very ready for such an undertaking, who commanded a troop of Dalmatians, he entrusted the action to him. To effect it, the party stood by Gallienus at supper and informed him that some of the spies had brought intelligence, that Aureolus and his army were close at hand. By this they considerably alarmed him. Calling immediately for his horse and arms, he mounted, ordering his men to follow him in their armour, and rode away without any attendance. Thus the captain finding him alone killed him.
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1dg Tetricus33 views270-273

AE antoninianus

Radiate draped bust, right, IMP C TETRICVS P F AVG
Virtus standing left with shield & spear, VIRTVS AVGG

RIC 148

According to the Historia Augusta: After Victorinus and his son were slain, his mother Victoria (or Vitruvia) urged Tetricus, a Roman senator then holding the governorship of Gaul, to take the imperial power, for the reason, many relate, that he was her kinsman; she then caused him to be entitled Augustus and bestowed on his son the name of Caesar. But after Tetricus had done many deeds with success and had ruled for a long time he was defeated by Aurelian, and, being unable to bear the impudence and shamelessness of his soldiers, he surrendered of his own free will to this prince most harsh and severe. . . . Aurelian, nevertheless, exceedingly stern though he was, overcome by a sense of shame, made Tetricus, whom lie had led in his triumph, supervisor over the whole of Italy,' that is, over Campania, Samnium, Lucania, Bruttium, Apulia, Calabria, Etruria and Umbria, Picenum and the Flaminian district, and the entire grain-bearing region, and suffered him not only to retain his life but also to remain in the highest position, calling him frequently colleague, sometimes fellow-soldier, and sometimes even emperor.
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1dk Aurelian28 views270-275

Radiate, cuirassed bust, right, IMP AVRELIANVS AVG
Aurelian & Severina or priest standing facing each other, each holding short sceptre, sacrificing at altar between them, S in ex, PIETAS AVG

Zosimus recorded: Aurelianus, having regulated the empire, went from Rome to Aquileia, and from thence into Pannonia, which he was informed the Scythians were preparing to invade. For this reason he sent orders to the inhabitants of that country to carry into the towns all their corn and cattle, and every thing that could be of use to the enemy, in order to distress them with famine, with which they were already afflicted. The Barbarians having crossed the river into Pannonia had an engagement, the result of which was nearly equal. But the same night, the Barbarians recrossed the river, and as soon as day appeared, sent ambassadors to treat for peace. |25

The Emperor, hearing that the Alemanni and the neighbouring nations intended to over-run Italy, was with just reason more concerned for Rome and the adjacent places, than for the more remote. Having therefore ordered a sufficient force to remain for the defence of Pannonia, he marched towards Italy, and on his route, on the borders of that country, near the Ister, slew many thousands of the Barbarians in one battle. Several members of the senate being at this time accused of conspiring against the emperor were put to death ; and Rome, which before had no walls, was now surrounded with them. This work was begun in the reign of Aurelianus, and was finished by Probus. At the same time Epitimius, Urbanus, and Domitianus, were likewise suspected as innovators, and were immediately apprehended and punished. During these occurrences in Italy and Pannonia, the emperor prepared to march against the Palmyrenians, who had subdued all Egypt, and the east, as far as Ancyra in Galatia, and would have acquired Bithynia even as far as Chalcedon, if the inhabitants of that country had not learned that Aurelianus was made emperor, and so shook off the Palmyrenian yoke. As soon as the emperor was on his march thither, Ancyra submitted to the Romans, and afterwards Tuana, and all the cities between that and Antioch. There finding Zenobia with a large army ready to engage, as he himself also was, he met and engaged her as honour obliged him [an defeated the enemy. . . .

[Having crushed Palmyra and razed it] He then entered Rome in triumph, where he was most magnificiently received by the senate and people. At this period also be erected that sumptuous temple of the sun, which he ornamented with all the sacred spoils that he brought from Palmyra; placing in it the statues of the sun and Belus. After this he easily reduced Tatricus with his rebellious accomplices, whom he brought to signal punishment. He likewise called in all the counterfeit money, and issued new, to avoid confusion in trade. Besides which he bestowed on the people a gift of bread, as a mark of his favour; and having arranged all affairs set out on a journey from Rome. . . .

During his stay at Perinthus, now called Heraclea, a conspiracy was thus formed against him. There was in the court a man named Eros, whose office was to carry out the answers of the emperor. This man had been for some fault threatened by the emperor, and put in great fear. Dreading therefore lest the emperor should realize his menaces by actions, he went to some of the guard, whom he knew to be the boldest men in the court; be told them a plausible story, and shewed them a letter of his own writing, in the character of the emperor (which he had long before learned to counterfeit), and persuading them first that they themselves were to be put to death, [h]e endeavoured to prevail on them to murder the emperor. The deception answered. Observing Aurelianus to go out of the city with a small retinue, they ran out upon him and murdered him.

RIC 138
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AE antoninianus

Radiate, draped & cuirassed bust, right, IMP FLORIANVS AVG
Victory & Flor, CONCORDIA MILITVM

RIC 116Q

Half-brother to Tacitus, he reigned only two months before his troops killed him rather than fight an army under Probus. Concordia Militvm did not really work out for him. Zosimus recorded, "An universal civil disturbance now arose, those of the east chusing Probus emperor, and those at Rome Florianus. The former of these governed all Syria, Phoenicia, Palestine, and Egypt; but the latter was in possession of all the countries from Cilicia to Italy; besides which the homage of all the nations beyond the Alps, the Gauls, Spaniards, Britons, and Africans was paid to him. When both therefore were ready for war, Florianus came to Tarsus, resolving to encamp there, leaving his victory over the Scythians at the Bosphorus unfinished, by which he gave them an opportunity of recovering themselves and returning home, though he had cut off their retreat. Probus protracted the time, because he came with less preparation for a battle. By these means it came to pass, that the weather, being exceedingly hot, a pestilential disorder broke out amongst the troops of Florianus, most of whom were Europeans, and consequently unaccustomed to such excessive heat, by which many were taken off. When Probus understood this, he thought it a proper time to attack the enemy. The soldiers of Florianus, attempting what exceeded their strength, fought some slight skirmishes before the city, but nothing being done worthy of notice, some of the troops of Probus deposed Florianus. Having performed this, he was kept in custody for some time, until his own soldiers said, that it was the will of Probus that he should share the empire. Florianus therefore assumed |32 the purple robe again, until the return of those who were sent to know the true resolution of Probus. On their arrival they caused Florianus to be killed by his own soldiers."
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AE antoninianus

Radiate, cuirassed bust, right, holding spear and shield, IMP PROBVS P F AVG
Concordia and Probus, CONCORDIA MILIT

RIC 332

Zosimus observed: Probus, having thus gained the empire, marched forward, and performed a very commendable action for the public good, as a prelude to what he should afterwards do. For he resolved to punish those who had murdered Aurelianus, and conspired against Tacitus ; though for fear of an insurrection he did not openly execute his design, but planted a company of men, in whom he had confidence, at a convenient post, near to which he invited the murderers to a feast. [Probus] gave a signal to his men to perform. As soon as they had received it, they fell on the murderers in their defenceless state. . . .

Probus obtained several victories over the Barbarians in two different wars; in one of which he himself commanded, but left the other to the conduct of his lieutenant. Perceiving that it was necessary to assist the cities of Germany which lay upon the Rhine, and were harrassed by the Barbarians, he marched with his army towards that river. . . . The emperor terminated several other wars, with scarcely any trouble ; and fought some fierce battles, first against the Logiones, a German nation, whom he conquered, [and] against the Franks, whom he subdued through the good conduct of his commanders. He made war on the Burgundi and the Vandili.

The Historia Augusta adds: After this he set out for Illyricum, but before going thither he left Raetia in so peaceful a state that there remained therein not even any suspicion of fear. In Illyricum l he so crushed the Sarmatians and other tribes that almost without any war at all he got back all they had ravaged. He then directed his march through Thrace, and received in either surrender or friendship all the tribes of the Getae, frightened by the repute of his deeds and brought to submission by the power of his ancient fame. This done, he set out for the East. . . . Having made peace, then, with the Persians, he returned to Thrace, and here he settled one hundred thousand Bastarnae on Roman soil, all of whom remained loyal. . . .

He celebrated a triumph over the Germans and the Blemmyae, and. . . gave in the Circus a most magnificent wild-beast hunt. . . . These spectacles finished, he made ready for war with Persia, but while on the march through Iliyricum he was treacherously killed by his soldiers. The causes of his murder were these : first of all, he never permitted a soldier to be idle, for he built many works by means of their labor, saying that a soldier should eat no bread that was not earned. To this he added another remark, hard for them, should it ever come true, but beneficial to the commonwealth, namely, that soon there would be no need of soldiers.

Zonaras described Probus' death differently: There was another rebellion against him. For Carus, who was in command of portions of Europe, recognized that the soldiers under him wished to proclaim him emperor and revealed this to Probus, begging that he be recalled from there. But Probus was not willing to remove him from office. Then the soldiers surrounded Carus, compelled him reluctantly to receive the empire of the Romans, and immediately hastened with him against Italy. Probus, when he had learned of this, sent an army with a commander to oppose him. As soon as those dispatched had drawn near Carus, they arrested their commander and surrendered him and themselves to Carus. Probus was killed by his own guardsmen, who had learned of the desertion of the soldiers to Carus. The duration of Probus’ sole rule had been not quite six years
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AE antoninianus

Radiate draped & cuirassed bust, right, IMP C M AVR CARINVS AVG
Aequitas stg. Left, AEQVITAS AVGG

RIC 238

According to the Historia Augusta: He was the most polluted of men, an adulterer and a constant corrupter of youth. . . . He was left by his father as Caesar in Gaul and Italy and in Illyricum, Spain, Britain, and Africa, all of which had been voted to him, and he exercised there a Caesar's powers, but with the permission to perform all the duties of an Augustus. Then he defiled himself by unwonted vices and inordinate depravity. . . . He appeared in public as consul contrary to his father's wish. He wrote arrogant letters to the senate, and he even promised the senate's property to the mob of the city of Rome, as though it, forsooth, were the Roman people. By marrying and divorcing he took nine wives in all, and he put away some even while they were pregnant. He filled the Palace with actors and harlots, pantomimists, singers and pimps. He had such an aversion for the signing of state-papers that he appointed for signing them a certain filthy fellow, with whom he used always to jest at midday, and then he reviled him because he could imitate his writing so well. . . .

When he learned that his father had been killed by lightning and his brother slain by his own father-in-law, and that Diocletian had been hailed as Augustus, Carinus committed acts of still greater vice and crime, as though now set free and released by the death of his kindred from all the restraints of filial duty. He did not, however, lack strength of purpose for claiming the imperial power. For he fought many battles against Diocletian, but finally, being defeated in a fight near Margus, he perished.
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Quarter Follis

Laureate head, right, IMP CONSTANTIVS P F AVG
Genius standing left, modius on head, naked except for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera and cornucopiae. Mintmark: SIS, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI

Also known as Constantius Chlorus.

RIC 167

After being names Caesar, according to Eutropius: A battle was fought by Constantius Caesar in Gaul, at Lingonae, where he experienced both good and had fortune in one day; for though he was driven into the city by a sudden onset of the barbarians, with such haste and precipitation that after the gates were shut he was drawn up the wall by ropes, yet, when his army came up, after the lapse of scarcely six hours, he cut to pieces about sixty thousand of the Alemanni. . . .

CONSTANTIUS and GALERIUS were made emperors; and the Roman world was divided between them in such a manner, that Constantius had Gaul, Italy, and Africa; Galerius Illyricum, Asia, and the East; two Caesars being joined with them. [Zosimus adds: Three years after Dioclesian died, and the reigning emperors, Constantius and Maximianus Gallerius declared Severus and Maximinus (who was nephew to Gallerius), the Caesars, giving all Italy to Severus, and the eastern provinces to Maximinus.] Constantius, however, content with the dignity of emperor, declined the care of governing Africa. He was an excellent man, of extreme benevolence, who studied to increase the resources of the provinces and of private persons, cared but little for the improvement of the public treasury, and used to say that "it was better for the national wealth to be in the hands of individuals than to be laid up in one place of confinement." So moderate was the furniture of his house, too, that if, on holidays, he had to entertain a greater number of friends than ordinary, his dining-rooms were set out with the plate of private persons, borrowed from their several houses. By the Gauls1 he was not only beloved but venerated, especially because, under his government, they had escaped the suspicious prudence of Diocletian, and the sanguinary rashness of Maximian. He died in Britain, at York, in the thirteenth year of his reign, and was enrolled among the gods.
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Quarter Follis

Laureate head, right, MAXIMIANVS AVG
Genius standing left, modius on head, holding cornucopia & patera, SIS in ex., GENIO POPVLI ROMANI

RIC 169b

Eutropius tells us: Diocletian promoted MAXIMIAN HERCULIUS from the dignity of Caesar to that of emperor, and created Constantius and Maximian Galerius Caesars, of whom Constantius is said to have been the grand-nephew of Claudius by a daughter, and Maximian Galerius to have been born in Dacia not far from Sardica. . . . Galerius married Valeria, the daughter of Diocletian. . . .

Galerius Maximian, in acting against Narseus, fought, on the first occasion, a battle far from successful, meeting him between Callinicus and Carrae, and engaging in the combat rather with rashness than want of courage; for he contended with a small army against a very numerous enemy. Being in consequence defeated, and going to join Diocletian, he was received by him, when he met him on the road, with such extreme haughtiness, that he is said to have run by his chariot for several miles in his scarlet robes.

But having soon after collected forces in Illyricum and Moesia, he fought a second time with Narseus (the grandfather of Hormisdas and Sapor), in Greater Armenia, with extraordinary success, and with no less caution and spirit, for he undertook, with one or two of the cavalry, the office of a speculator. After putting Narseus to flight, he captured his wives, sisters, and children, with a vast number of the Persian nobility besides, and a great quantity of treasure; the king himself he forced to take refuge in the remotest deserts in his dominions. Returning therefore in triumph to Diocletian, who was then encamped with some troops in Mesopotamia, he was welcomed by him with great honour. Subsequently, they conducted several wars both in conjunction and separately, subduing the Carpi and Bastarnae, and defeating the Sarmatians, from which nations he settled a great number of captives in the Roman territories. . . .

Galerius, a man of excellent moral character, and skilful in military affairs, finding that Italy, by Constantius's permission, was put under his government, created two Caesars, MAXIMIN, whom he appointed over the east, and SEVERUS, to whom he committed Italy. He himself resided in Illyricum.
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Quarter Follis

Laureate head, right, FL VAL SEVERVS NOB C
Genius standing left, modius on head, naked except for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera and cornucopiae. Mintmark SIS, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI.

RIC 170a

According to Eutropius: Galerius, a man of excellent moral character, and skilful in military affairs, finding that Italy, by Constantius's permission, was put under his government, created two Caesars, MAXIMIN, whom he appointed over the east, and SEVERUS, to whom he committed Italy. He himself resided in Illyricum. But after the death of Constantius, CONSTANTINE, his son by a wife of obscure birth, was made emperor in Britain, and succeeded his father as a most desirable ruler. In the meantime the praetorian guards at Rome, having risen in insurrection, declared MAXENTIUS, the son of Maximian Herculius, who lived in the Villa Publica not far from the city, emperor. . . . Severus Caesar, being despatched to Rome by Galerius to suppress the rising of the guards and Maxentius, arrived there with his army, but, as he was laying siege to the city, was deserted through the treachery of his soldiers. . . .
The power of Maxentius was thus increased, and his government established. Severus, taking to flight, was killed at Ravenna.
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1dy Maximinus II22 views309-313

Quarter Follis

Laureate head, right, MAXIMINVS NOB C
Genius standing left, naked except for modius on head & chlamys over shoulder, holding patera & cornucopiae, SIS in ex, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI.

RIC 170b

According to Eutropius: Galerius, a man of excellent moral character, and skilful in military affairs, finding that Italy, by Constantius's permission, was put under his government, created two Caesars, MAXIMIN, whom he appointed over the east, and SEVERUS, to whom he committed Italy. He himself resided in Illyricum. . . . LICINIUS, a native of Dacia, was made emperor by Galerius, to whom he was known by old companionship, and recommended by his vigorous efforts and services in the war which he had conducted against Narseus. The death of Galerius followed immediately afterwards. The empire was then held by the four new emperors, Constantine and Maxentius, sons of emperors, Licinius and Maximian, sons of undistinguished men. Constantine, however, in the fifth year of his reign, commenced a civil war with Maxentius, routed his forces in several battles, and at last overthrew Maxentius himself (when he was spreading death among the nobility by every possible kind of cruelty,4) at the Milvian bridge, and made himself master of Italy. Not long after, too, Maximin, after commencing hostilities against Licinius in the east, anticipated the destruction that was falling upon him by an accidental death at Tarsus.
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Follis

Laureate head, right, MAXENTIVS P F AVG
Roma in temple, CONSERVATORES VRB SVAE

RIC 194a

Eutropius reports: But after the death of Constantius, CONSTANTINE, his son by a wife of obscure birth, was made emperor in Britain, and succeeded his father as a most desirable ruler. In the meantime the praetorian guards at Rome, having risen in insurrection, declared MAXENTIUS, the son of Maximian Herculius, who lived in the Villa Publica not far from the city, emperor. At the news of this proceeding, Maximian, filled with hopes of regaining the imperial dignity, which he had not willingly resigned, hurried to Rome from Lucania. . . , and stimulated Diocletian by letters to resume the authority that he had laid down, letters which Diocletian utterly disregarded. Severus Caesar, being despatched to Rome by Galerius to suppress the rising of the guards and Maxentius, arrived there with his army, but, as he was laying siege to the city, was deserted through the treachery of his soldiers.

The power of Maxentius was thus increased, and his government established. Severus, taking to flight, was killed at Ravenna. Maximian Herculius, attempting afterwards, in an assembly of the army, to divest his son Maxentius of his power, met with nothing but mutiny and reproaches from the soldiery. . . .

At this time LICINIUS, a native of Dacia, was made emperor by Galerius, to whom he was known by old companionship, and recommended by his vigorous efforts and services in the war which he had conducted against Narseus. The death of Galerius followed immediately afterwards. The empire was then held by the four new emperors, Constantine and Maxentius, sons of emperors, Licinius and Maximian, sons of undistinguished men. Constantine, however, in the fifth year of his reign, commenced a civil war with Maxentius, routed his forces in several battles, and at last overthrew Maxentius himself (when he was spreading death among the nobility by every possible kind of cruelty,) at the Milvian bridge, and made himself master of Italy.
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Follis

Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, IMP CONSTANTINVS PF AVG
Sol standing left, chlamys across left shoulder, raising right hand and holding globe in left hand, captive to left. Mintmark RQ.

RIC VII 52

According to Zonaras: Constans, in the eleventh year of his reign since he had been proclaimed Caesar, having ruled gently and mildly, came to the end of his life while residing in Britain, having, because of his goodness, bequeathed grief for himself among those he ruled, first having appointed successor the elder of his own sons, namely Constantine the Great, whom he begat by his first wife. He also had by his second wife, Herculius’ daughter Theodora, other sons, Constantinus, Hannibalianus, and Constantius. Constantine the Great was preferred over them, since they were judged by their father to be unsuited for sovereignty. . . . Constantine, when he was still a lad, was actually given by his father as a hostage to Gallerius, in order that, serving as a hostage, at the same time he be trained in the exercise of the soldierly art.

Eutropius summarizes: CONSTANTINE, being a man of great energy, bent upon effecting whatever he had settled in his mind, and aspiring to the sovereignty of the whole world, proceeded to make war on Licinius, although he had formed a connexion with him by marriage,5 for his sister Constantia was married to Licinius. And first of all be overthrew him, by a sudden attack, at Cibalae in Pannonia, where he was making vast preparations for war; and after becoming master of Dardania, Maesia, and Macedonia, took possession also of several other provinces.

There were then various contests between them, and peace made and broken. At last Licinius, defeated in a battle at Nicomedia by sea and land, surrendered himself, and, in violation of an oath taken by Constantine, was put to death, after being divested of the purple, at Thessalonica.

At this time the Roman empire fell under the sway of one emperor and three Caesars, a state of things which had never existed before; the sons of Constantine ruling over Gaul, the east, and Italy. But the pride of prosperity caused Constantine greatly to depart from his former agreeable mildness of temper. Falling first upon his own relatives, he put to death his son, an excellent man; his sister's son, a youth of amiable disposition; soon afterwards his wife, and subsequently many of his friends.

He was a man, who, in the beginning of his reign, might have been compared to the best princes; in the latter part of it, only to those of a middling character. Innumerable good qualities of mind and body were apparent in him; he was exceedingly ambitious of military glory, and had great success in his wars; a success, however, not more than proportioned to his exertions. After he had terminated the Civil war, he also overthrew the Goths on various occasions, granting them at last peace, and leaving on the minds of the barbarians a strong remembrance of his kindness. He was attached to the arts of peace and to liberal studies, and was ambitious of honourable popularity, which he, indeed, sought by every kind of liberality and obligingness. Though he was slow, from suspicion, to serve some of his friends,6 yet he was exceedingly generous towards others, neglecting no opportunity to add to their riches and honours.

He enacted many laws, some good and equitable, but most of them superfluous, and some severe. He was the first that endeavoured to raise the city named after him to such a height as to make it a rival to Rome. As he was preparing for war against the Parthians, who were then disturbing Mesopotamia, he died in the Villa Publica, at Nicomedia, in the thirty-first year of his reign, and the sixty-sixth of his age.

Zosimus described Constantine's conversion to Christianity: For he put to death his son Crispus, stiled (as I mentioned) Caesar, on suspicion of debauching his mother-in-law Fausta, without any regard to the ties of nature. And when his own mother Helena expressed much sorrow for this atrocity, lamenting the young man's death with great bitterness, Constantine under pretence of comforting her, applied a remedy worse than the disease. For causing a bath to be heated to an extraordinary degree, he shut up Fausta in it, and a short time after took her out dead. Of which his conscience accusing him, as also of violating his oath, he went to the priests to be purified from his crimes. But they told him, that there was no kind of lustration that was sufficient to clear him of such enormities. A Spaniard, named Aegyptius, very familiar with the court-ladies, being at Rome, happened to fall into converse with Constantine, and assured him, that the Christian doctrine would teach him how to cleanse himself from all his offences, and that they who received it were immediately absolved from all their sins. Constantine had no sooner heard this than he easily believed what was told him, and forsaking the rites of his country, received those which Aegyptius offered him ; and for the first instance of his impiety, suspected the truth of divination.
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AE3, Thessalonica

Laureate, cuirassed bust, right, FL DELMATIVS NOB C two soldiers holding spears and shields with two standards between them, O on banner, GLORIA EXERCITVS. Mintmark: SMTSD.

RIC 202D

Zosimus recorded: After Constantine had oppressed and tormented the people in these various modes, he died of a disease, and was succeeded by his three sons, who were not born of Fausta the daughter of Maximianus Herculius, but of another woman, whom he had put to death for adultery. They devoted themselves more to the pleasures of youth than to the service of the state. They began by dividing the nations between them. Constantine the eldest, and Constans the youngest, having for their share all beyond the Alps, together with Italy and Illyricum, the countries bordering on the Euxine sea and all that belonged to Carthage in Africa; Constantius obtained all Asia, the east, and Egypt. There were likewise others who shared in the government; Dalmatius, whom Constantine made Caesar, Constantius his brother, and Hanniballianus, who had all worn robes of purple embroidered with gold, and were promoted to the order of Nobilissimates by Constantine, from respect to their being of his own family. . . . The empire being thus divided, Constantius who appeared to take pains not to fall short of his father in impiety, began by shedding the blood of his nearest relations. He first caused Constantius, his father's brother, to be murdered by the soldiers ; next to whom he treated Dalmatius in the same manner, as also Optatus whom Constantine had raised to the rank of a Nobilissimate.

A great-nephew of Constantine the Great.
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AE3, London

Radiate, draped, cuirassed bust left, seen from the back, CONSTANTINVS IVN N C
Altar inscribed VOT-IS-XX, F-B across fields, three stars above, BEAT TRANQVILLITAS. Mintmark PLON.

Constantine II received Britain, Gaul, and Spain of the empire after Constantine's death. He quarreled with his brother Constans over territory, invaded Italy, and died in an ambush.

RIC 255
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AE3

RIC 93

Rosette diademed, draped & cuirassed bust, right, CONSTANS P F AVG
Two soldiers standing to either side of one standard with chi-rho on banner, GLORIA EXERCITVS, [A]SIS-crescent in ex.

Constans received Italy, Africa, and the Balkans when the empire was divided. He took charge of the remainder of the West after Constantine II imprudently attacked him in 340. Zosimus recorded, "Constans, having thus removed his brother, exercised every species of cruelty toward his subjects, exceeding the most intolerable tyranny. He purchased some well favoured Barbarians, and had others with him as hostages, to whom he gave liberty to harrass his subjects as they pleased, in order to gratify his vicious disposition. In this manner he reduced all the nations that were subject to him to extreme misery. This gave uneasiness to the court guards, who perceiving that he was much addicted to hunting placed themselves under the conduct of Marcellinus prefect of the treasury, and Magnentius who commanded the Joviani and Herculiani (two legions so termed), and formed a plot against him in the following manner. Marcellinus reported that he meant to keep the birth-day of his sons, and invited many of the superior officers to a feast. Amongst the rest Magnentius rose from table and left the room; he presently returned, and as it were in a drama stood before them clothed in an imperial robe. Upon this all the guests saluted him with the title of king, and the inhabitants of Augustodunum, where it was done, concurred in the same sentiment. This transaction being rumoured abroad, the country people flocked into the city; while at the same time a party of Illyrian cavalry who came to supply the Celtic legions, joined themselves with those that were concerned in the enterprize. When the officers of the army were met together, and heard the leaders of the conspiracy proclaim their new emperor, they scarcely knew the meaning of it; they all, however, joined in the acclamation, and saluted Magnentius with the appellation of Augustus. When this became known to Constans, he endeavoured to escape to a small town called Helena, which lies near the Pyrenean mountains. He was taken by Gaison, who was sent with some other select persons for that purpose, and being destitute of all aid, was killed. "
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Centenionalis

Bare-headed, draped & cuirassed bust, right, D N MAGNEN-TIVS P F AVG
Two victories, VICTORIAE DD NN AVG ET CAES

RIC 173

Zosimus recorded: Magnentius thus gained the empire, and possessed himself all the nations beyond the Alps, and the whole of Italy. Vetranio, general of the Pannonian army, upon hearing of the good fortune of Magnentius, was himself inflamed with the same desire, and was declared emperor by the legions that were with him, at Mursa, a city of Pannonia. While affairs were thus situated, the Persians plundered the eastern countries, particularly Mesopotamia. But Constantine, though he was defeated by the Persians, yet resolved to subdue the factions of Magnentius and Vetranio. . . . Constantius advanced from the east against Magnentius, but deemed it best first to win over Vetranio to his interest, as it was difficult to oppose two rebels at once. On the other hand, Magnentius used great endeavours to make Vetranio his friend, and thus to put an end to the war against Constantius. Both therefore sent agents to Vetranio, who chose to adopt the friendship of Constantius rather than that of Magnentius. The ambassadors of Magnentius returned without effecting their purpose. Constantius desired that both armies might join, to undertake the war against Magnentius. To which proposal Vetranio readily assented. . . . When the soldiers heard this, having been previously corrupted by valuable presents, they cried out, that they would have no mock emperors, and immediately began to strip the purple from Vetranio, and pulled him from the throne with the determination to reduce him to a private station. . . . Constantius, having so well succeeded in his design against Vetranio, marched against Magnentius, having first conferred the title of Caesar on Gallus, the son of his uncle, and brother to Julian who was afterwards emperor, and given him in marriage his sister Constantia. . . .

Constantius now gaining the victory, by the army of Magnentius taking to flight, a terrible slaughter ensued. Magnentius, therefore being deprived ofall hope, and apprehensive lest the remnant of his army should deliver him to Constantius, deemed it best to retire from Pannonia, and to enter Italy, in order to raise an army there for another attempt. But when he heard that the people of Rome were in favour of Constantius, either from hatred to himself, or because they had heard of the event of the battle, he resolved to cross the Alps, and .seek for himself a refuge among the nations on that side. Hearing however that Constantius had likewise engaged the Barbarians near the Rhine against him, and that |65 he could not enter Gaul, as some officers had obstructed his passage thither in order to make their court to Constantius, nor through Spain into Mauritania, on account of the Roman allies there who studied to please Constantius. In these circumstances he preferred a voluntary death to a dishonourable life, and chose rather to die by his own hand than by that of his enemy.

Thus died Magnentius, having been emperor three years and six months. He was of Barbarian extraction, but lived among the Leti, a people of Gaul. He understood Latin, was bold when favoured by fortune, but cowardly in adversity, ingenious in concealing his natural evil disposition, and deemed by those who did not know him to be a man of candour and goodness. I have thought it just to make these observations concerning Magnentius, that the world may be acquainted With his true character, since it has been the opinion of some that he performed much good, who never in his life did any thing with a good intention.
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AE3

Pearl-diademed, helmeted, cuirassed bust left, holding shield & spear, D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG
VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath, palm branch-BSIS-palm branch in ex [?].

RIC 415

According to Zosimus: Constantius, having so well succeeded in his design against Vetranio, marched against Magnentius, having first conferred the title of Caesar on Gallus, the son of his uncle, and brother to Julian who was afterwards emperor, and given him in marriage his sister Constantia. . . . CONSTANTIUS, after having acted towards Gallus Caesar in the manner I have related, left Pannonia to proceed into Italy. . . . He scarcely thought himself capable of managing affairs at this critical period. He was unwilling, however, to associate any one with himself in the government, because he so much desired to rule alone, and could esteem no man his friend. Under these circumstances he was at a loss how to act. It happened, however, that when the empire was in the greatest danger, Eusebia, the wife of Constantius, who was a woman of extraordinary learning, and of greater wisdom than her sex is usually endowed with, advised him to confer the government of the nations beyond the Alps on Julianus Caesar, who was brother to Gallus, and grandson to Constantius. As she knew that the emperor was suspicious of all his kindred, she thus circumvented him. She observed to him, that Julian was a young man unacquainted with the intrigues of state, having devoted himself totally to his studies; and that he was wholly inexperienced in worldly business. That on this account he would be more fit for his purpose than any other person. That either he would be fortunate, and his success would be attributed to the emperor's conduct, or that he would fail and perish; and that thus Constantius would have none of the imperial family to succeed to him.

Constantius, having approved her advice, sent for Julian from Athens, where he lived among the philosophers, and excelled all his masters in every kind of learning. Accordingly, Julian returning from Greece into Italy, Constantius declared him Caesar, gave him in marriage his sister Helena, and sent him beyond the Alps. . . .

Constantius, having thus disposed of Julian, marched himself into Pannonia and Moesia, and having there suppressed the Quadi and the Sarmatians, proceeded to the east, and was provoked to war by the inroads of the Persians. Julian by this time had arrived beyond the Alps into the Gallic nations which he was to rule. Perceiving that the Barbarians continued committing the same violence, Eusebia, for the same reasons as before, persuaded Constantius to place the entire management of those countries into the hands of Julian. . . . Julian finding the military affairs of Gallia Celtica in a very ruinous state, and that the Barbarians pased the Rhine without any resistance, even almost as far as the sea-port towns, he took a survey of the remaining parts of the enemy. And understanding that the people of those parts were terrified at the very name of the Barbarians, while those whom Constantius had sent along with him, who were not more than three hundred and sixty, knew nothing more, as he used to say, than how to say their prayers, he enlisted as many more as he could and took in a great number of volunteers. He also provided arms, and finding a quantity of old weapons in some town he fitted them up, and distributed them among the soldiers. The scouts bringing him intelligence, that an immense number of Barbarians had crossed the river near the city of Argentoratum (Strasburg) which stands on the Rhine, he no sooner heard of it, than he led forth his army with the greatest speed, and engaging with the enemy gained such a victory as exceeds all description.

After these events he raised a great army to make war on the whole German nation; He was opposed however by the Barbarians in vast numbers. Caesar therefore would not wait while they came up to him, but crossed the Rhine, preferring that their country should be the seat of war, and not that of the Romans, as by that means the cities would escape being again pillaged by the Barbarians. A most furious battle therefore took place; a great number of the Barbarians being slain on the field of battle, while the rest fled, and were pursued by Caesar into the Hercynian forest, and many of them killed. . . .

But while Julian was at Parisium, a small town in Germany, the soldiers, being ready to march, continued at supper till midnight in a place near the palace, which they so called there. They were as yet ignorant of any design against Caesar [by Constantius], when some tribunes, who began to suspect the contrivance against him, privately distributed a number of anonymous billets among the soldiers, in which they represented to them, that Caesar, by his judicious conduct had so managed affairs, that almost all of them had erected trophies over the Barbarians ; that he had always fought like a private soldier, and was now in extreme danger from the emperor, who would shortly deprive him of his whole army, unless they prevented it. Some of the soldiers having read these billets, and published the intrigue to the whole army, all were highly enraged. They suddenly rose from their seats in great commotion, and with the cups yet in their hands went to the palace. Breaking open the doors without ceremony, they brought out Caesar, and lifting him on a shield declared him emperor and Augustus. They then, without attending to his reluctance, placed a diadem upon his head. . . .

Arriving at Naisus, he consulted the soothsayers what measures to pursue. As the entrails signified that he must stay there for some time, he obeyed, observing likewise the time that was mentioned in his dream. When this, according to the motion of the planets, was arrived, a party of horsemen arrived from Constantinople at Naisus, with intelligence that Constantius was dead, and that the armies desired Julian to be emperor. Upon this he accepted what the gods had bestowed upon him, and proceeded on his journey. On his arrival at. Byzantium, he was received with joyful acclamations. . . .

[After slashing through Persia and crossing the Tigris,] they perceived the Persian army, with which they engaged, and having considerably the advantage, they killed a great number of Persians. Upon the following day, about noon, the Persians drew up in a large body, and once more attacked the rear of the Roman army. The Romans, being at that time out of their ranks, were surprised and alarmed at the suddenness of the attack, yet made a stout and spirited defence. The emperor, according to his custom, went round the army, encouraging them to fight with ardour. When by this means all were engaged, the emperor, who sometimes rode to the commanders and tribunes, and was at other times among the private soldiers, received a wound in the heat of the engagement, and was borne on a shield to his tent. He survived only till midnight. He then expired, after having nearly subverted the Persian empire.

Note: Julian favored the pagan faith over Christianity and was tarred by the church as "the apostate."
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AE3

Pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right , D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG
Emperor in military dress, advancing right, head left, holding labarum, dragging captive behind him. No fieldmarks. Mintmark: dot GSISC, GLORIA ROMANORVM

RIC 5a

According to Zosimus: Several discussions were held among the soldiers and their officers, and various persons were nominated. At length Sallustius, the prefect of the court, was unanimously elected. He excused himself on the pretext of his advanced age, which disabled him from being of service in the present critical circumstances. They then desired that his son might be emperor in lieu of himself. But his son he told them was too young, and from that as well as other causes unable to sustain the weight of an imperial diadem. They thus failed in their wish to appoint so distinguished a person, who was the most worthy of the age. They therefore elected Valentinian, a native of Cibalis in Pannonia. He was an excellent soldier, but extremely illiterate. They sent for him, he being then at some distance: and the state was not long without a ruler. Upon his arrival at the army, at Nicaea in Bithynia, he assumed the imperial authority, and proceeded forward. . . .

I have now to state, that while Valentinian was on his journey towards Constantinople, he was seized with a distemper, which increased his natural choleric temper to a degree of cruelty, and even to madness, so that he falsely suspected his sickness to proceed from some charm or poison which Julian's friends had prepared for him through malice. Accusations to that effect were drawn up against some distinguished persons, which were set aside by the discretion of Sallustius, who still was prefect of the court. After his distemper abated, he proceeded from Nicaea to Constantinople. The army and his friends in that city advised him to choose an associate in the empire, that if occasion should require, he might have some one to assist him, and prevent their again suffering as at the death of Julian. He complied with their advice, and after consideration, selected his brother Valens, whom he thought most likely to prove faithful to him. He declared him associate in the empire. . . . Affairs being thus disposed, Valentinian deemed it most prudent to place the east as far as Egypt, Bithynia, and Thrace, under the care of his brother, and to take charge of Illyricum himself. From thence he designed to proceed to Italy, and to retain in his own possession all the cities in that country, and the countries beyond the Alps, with Spain, Britain, and Africa. The empire being thus divided, Valentinian began to govern more rigorously, correcting the faults of the magistrates. He was very severe in the collection of the imposts, and particularly in observing that the soldiers were duly paid. . . .

Meantime the Barbarians beyond the Rhine, who while Julian lived held the Roman name in terror, and were contented to remain quiet in their own territories, as soon as they heard of his death, immediately marched out of their own country, and prepared for a war with the Romans. Valentinian. on bring informed of this, made a proper disposition of his forces, and placed suitable garrisons in all the towns along the Rhine. Valentinian was enabled to make these arrangements by his experience in military affairs. . . . [T] he emperor Valentinian, having favourably disposed the affairs of Germany, made provisions for the future security of the Celtic nations. . . . Valentinian was now attacked by a disease which nearly cost him his life. Upon his recovery the countries requested him to appoint a successor, lest at his decease the commonwealth should be in danger. To this the emperor consented, and declared his son Gratian emperor and his associate in the government, although he was then very young, and not yet capable of the management of affairs. . . .

Valentinian, thinking he had sufficiently secured himself from a German war, acted towards his subjects with great severity, exacting from them exorbitant tributes, such as they had never before paid; under pretence that the military expenditure compelled him to have recourse to the public. Having thus acquired universal hatred, he became still more severe; nor would he enquire into the conduct of the magistrates, but was envious of all whe had the reputation of leading a blameless life. . . . For this cause, the Africans, who could not endure the excessive avarice of the person who held the military command in Mauritania, gave the purple robe to Firmus, and proclaimed him emperor. This doubtless gave much uneasiness to Valentinian, who immediately commanded some legions from the stations in Pannonia and Moesia, to embark for Africa. On this the Sarmatians and the Quadi, who had long entertained a hatred for Celestius, the governor of those countries, availing themselves, of the opportunity afforded by the departure of the legions for Africa, invaded the Pannonians and Moesians. . . . .

Valentinian, roused by the intelligence of these events, marched from Celtica into Illyricum, for the purpose of opposing the Quadi and the Sarmatians, and consigned the command of his forces to Merobaudes, who was a person of the greatest military experience. The winter continuing unusually late, the Quadi sent ambassadors to him with insolent and unbecoming messages. These so exasperated the emperor, that through the violence of his rage, the blood flowed from his head into his mouth, and suffocated him. He thus died after having resided in Illyricum nearly nine months, and after a reign of twelve years.
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1et Valentinian II19 views373-392

AE3, Nicomedia

Pearl-diademed, draped & cuirassed bust rightt, D N VALENTINIANVS IVN P F AVG
Roma seated on cuirass, holding spear and Victory on globe, VRBS ROMA

The SMN mintmark indicates that the coin was minted in Nicomedia, but RIC does not list this reverse type for that mint.

Sim to RIC 51

Zosimus reports: Valentinian being dead, the tribunes Merobaudes and Equitius, reflecting on the distance at which Valens and Gratian resided, the former being in the east, and the latter left by his father in the western part of Gaul, were apprehensive lest the Barbarians beyond the Ister should make an effort while the country was without a ruler. They therefore sent for the younger son of Valentinian, who was born of his wife the widow of Magnentius, who was not far from thence with the child. Having clothed him in purple, they brought him into the court, though scarcely five years old. The empire was afterwards divided between Gratian and the younger Valentinian, at the discretion of their guardians, they not being of age to manage their own affairs. The Celtic nations, Spain, and Britain were given to Gratian; and Italy, Illyricum, and Africa to Valentinian. . . .

Affairs being thus situated in the east, in Thrace, and in Illyricum, Maximus, who deemed his appointments inferior to his merits, being only governor of the countries formerly under Gratian, projected how to depose the young Valentinian from the empire, if possible totally, but should he fail in the whole, to secure at least some part. . . . he immediately entered Italy without; resistance, and marched to Aquileia. . . . This so much surprised Valentinian, and rendered his situation so desperate, that his courtiers were alarmed lest he should be taken by Maximus and put to death. He, therefore, immediately embarked,and sailed to Thessalonica with his mother Justina, who, as I before mentioned, had been the wife of Magnentius, but after his decease was taken in marriage by the emperor Valentinian on account of her extraordinary beauty. She carried along with her her daughter Galla. After having passed many seas, and arriving at Thessalonica, they sent messengers to the emperor Theodosius, intreating him now at least to revenge the injuries committed against the family of Valentinian. He was astonished at hearing of this, and began to forget his extravagance, and to lay some restraint on his wild inclination for pleasure. . . . Theodosius then delivered to Valentinian as much of the empire as his father had possessed; in which he only acted as he was enjoined by his duty to those who so merited his kindness. . . .

intelligence was brought that the emperor Valentianian was no more, and that his death happened in this manner: Arbogastes, a Frank, who was appointed by the emperor Gratian lieutenant to Baudo, at the death of Baudo, confiding in his own ability, assumed the command without the emperor's permission. Being thought proper for the station by all the soldiers under him, both for his valour and experience in military affairs, and for his disregard of riches, he attained great influence. He thus became so elevated, that he would speak without reserve to the emperor, and would blame any measure which he thought improper. This gave such umbrage to Valentinian. . . .

Eugenius became the sincere friend of Arbogastes, who had no secret which he did not confide to him. Recollecting Eugenius, therefore, at this juncture, who by his extraordinary learning and the gravity of his conversation seemed well-adapted for the management of an empire, he communicated to him his designs. But finding him not pleased with the proposals, he attempted to prevail on him by all the arts he could use, and entreated him not to reject what fortune so favourably offered. Having at length persuaded him, he deemed it advisable in the first place to remove Valentinian, and thus to deliver the sole authority to Eugenius. With this view he proceeded to Vienna, a town in Gaul, where the emperor resided; and as he was amusing himself near the town in some sports with the soldiers, apprehending no danger, Arbogastes gave him a mortal wound.
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1eu Theodosius24 views379-395

AE4

Pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right, D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG
VOT V MVLT X within wreath, ASISC in ex

RIC 29d

Zosimus recorded: [Valentinian] commanded some legions from the stations in Pannonia and Moesia, to embark for Africa [to crush a rebellion]. On this the Sarmatians and the Quadi. . . , availing themselves, of the opportunity afforded by the departure of the legions for Africa, invaded the Pannonians and Moesians. . . . The barbarians therefore revenged themselves by plundering all the country along the Ister, carrying off all that they found in the towns. The Pannonians were by these means exposed to the cruelty of the barbarians, while the soldiers were extremely negligent in the defence of their towns, and committed as much mischief as the Barbarians themselves in all places on this side of the river. But Moesia was free from harm, because Theodosius, who commanded the forces there, courageously resisted the Barbarians, and routed them when they attacked him. By that victory he not only acquired great renown, but subsequently attained the imperial dignity. . . .

When the affairs of the empire were reduced to this low condition, Victor, who commanded the Roman cavalry, escaping the danger with some of his troops, entered Macedon and Thessaly. From thence he proceeded into Moesia and Pannonia, and informed Gratian, who was then in that quarter, of what had occurred, and of the loss of the emperor [Valens] and his army. Gratian received the intelligence without uneasiness, and was little grieved at the death of his uncle, a disagreement having existed between them. Finding himself unable to manage affairs, Thrace being ravaged by the Barbarians, as were likewise Pannonia and Moesia, and the towns upon the Rhine being infested by the neighbouring Barbarians without controul, he chose for his associate in the empire, Theodosius, who was a native of a town called Cauca, in the part of Spain called Hispania Callaecia, and who possessed great knowledge and experience of military affairs. Having given him the government of Thrace and the eastern provinces, Gratian himself proceeded to the west of Gaul, in order, if possible, to compose affairs in that quarter. . . .

During the stay of the new emperor, Theodosius, at Thesslonica, a great concourse arrived there from all parts of persons soliciting him on business, both public and private; who having obtained of him whatever he could conveniently grant, returned, to their homes. As a great multitude of the Scythians beyond the Ister, the Gotthi, and the Taiphali, and other tribes that formerly dwelt among them, had crossed the river, and were driven to infest the Roman dominions, because the Huns, had expelled them from their own country, the emperor Theodosius prepared for war with all his forces. . . . The army having made this good use of the occasion afforded by fortune, the affairs of Thrace, which had been on the brink of ruin, were now, the Barbarians being crushed beyond all hope, re-established in peace. . . .

Meanwhile, the emperor Theodosius, residing in Thessalonica, was easy of access to all who wished to see him. Having commenced his reign in luxury and indolence, he threw the magistracy into disorder, and increased the number of his military officers. . . . As he squandered the public money without consideration, bestowing it on unworthy persons, he consequently impoverished himself. He therefore sold the government of provinces to any who would purchase them, without regard to the reputation or ablity of the persons, esteeming him the best qualified who brought him the most gold or silver. . . .

Maximus, who deemed his appointments inferior to his merits, being only governor of the countries formerly under Gratian, projected how to depose the young Valentinian from the empire. . . . This so much surprised Valentinian, and rendered his situation so desperate, that his courtiers were alarmed lest he should be taken by Maximus and put to death. He, therefore, immediately embarked,and sailed to Thessalonica with his mother Justina. . . . [A]rriving at Thessalonica, they sent messengers to the emperor Theodosius, intreating him now at least to revenge the injuries committed against the family of Valentinian. . . . The emperor, being delivered from this alarm, marched with great resolution with his whole army against Maximus. . . . Theodosius, having passed through Pannonia and the defiles of the Appennines, attacked unawares the forces of Maximus before they were prepared for him. A part of his army, having pursued them with the utmost speed, forced their way through the gates of Aquileia, the guards being too few to resist them. Maximus was torn from his imperial throne while in the act of distributing money to his soldiers, and being stripped of his imperial robes, was brought to Theodosius, who, having in reproach enumerated some of his crimes against the commonwealth, delivered him to the common executioner to receive due punishment. . . . The emperor Theodosius, having consigned Italy, Spain, Celtica, and Libya to his son Honorius, died of a disease on his journey towards Constantinople.
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1ew Magnus Maximus45 views383-388

AE2

Diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right, D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG
Emperor standing left, raising kneeling female; mintmarks PCON, SCON and TCON known, REPARATIO REIPVB

RIC 26a

Zosimus reports: While the affairs of Thrace were, thus situated, those of Gratian were in great perplexity. Having accepted the counsel of those courtiers who usually corrupt the manners of princes, he gave a reception to some fugitives called Alani, whom he not only introduced into his army, but honoured with valuable presents, and confided to them his most important secrets, esteeming his own soldiers of little value. This produced among his soldiers a violent hatred against him, which being gradually inflamed and augmented incited in them a disposition for innovation, and most particulary in that part of them which was in Britain, since they were the most resolute and vindictive. In this spirit they were encouraged by Maximus, a Spaniard, who had been the fellow-soldier of Theodosius in Britain. He was offended that Theodosius should be thought worthy of being made emperor, while he himself had no honourable employment. He therefore cherished the animosity of the soldiers towards the emperor. They were thus easily induced to revolt and to declare Maximus emperor. Having presented to him the purple robe and the diadem, they sailed to the mouth of the Rhine. As the German army, and all who were in that quarter approved of the election, Gratian prepared to contend against Maximus, with a considerable part of the army which still adhered to him. When the armies met, there were only slight skirmishes for five days; until Gratian, |115 perceiving that the Mauritanian cavalry first deserted from him and declared Maximus Augustus, and afterwards that the remainder of his troops by degrees espoused the cause of his antagonist, relinquished all hope, and fled with three hundred horse to the Alps. Finding those regions without defence, he proceeded towards Rhaetia, Noricum, Pannonia, and the Upper Moesia. When Maximus was informed of his route, he was not negligent of the opportunity, but detached Andragathius, commander of the cavalry, who was his faithful adherent, in pursuit of Gratian. This officer followed him with so great speed, that he overtook him when he was passing the bridge at Sigidunus, and put him to death. . . .

The reign of Gratian being thus terminated, Maximus, who now considered himself firmly fixed in the empire, sent an embassy to the emperor Theodosius, not to intreat pardon for his treatment of Gratian, but rather to increase his provocations. The person employed in this mission was the imperial chamberlain (for Maximus would not suffer an eunuch to preside in his court), a prudent person, with whom he had been familiarly acquainted from his infancy. The purport of his mission was to propose to Theodosius a treaty of amity, and of alliance, against all enemies who should make war on the Romans, and on refusal, to declare against him open hostility. Upon this, Theodosius admitted Maximus to a share in the empire, and in the honour of his statues and his imperial title. . . .

Affairs being thus situated in the east, in Thrace, and in Illyricum, Maximus, who deemed his appointments inferior to his merits, being only governor of the countries formerly under Gratian, projected how to depose the young Valentinian from the empire, if possible totally, but should he fail in the whole, to secure at least some part. . . . he immediately entered Italy without; resistance, and marched to Aquileia. . . .

Theodosius, having passed through Pannonia and the defiles of the Appennines, attacked unawares the forces of Maximus before they were prepared for him. A part of his army, having pursued them with the utmost speed, forced their way through the gates of Aquileia, the guards being too few to resist them. Maximus was torn from his imperial throne while in the act of distributing money to his soldiers, and being stripped of his imperial robes, was brought to Theodosius, who, having in reproach enumerated some of his crimes against the commonwealth, delivered him to the common executioner to receive due punishment. Such was the end of Maximus and of his usurpation. Having fraudulently overcome Valentinian, he imagined that he should with ease subdue the whole Roman empire. Theodosius, having heard, that when Maximus came from beyond the Alps he left his son Victor, whom he had dignified with the title of Caesar, he immediately sent for his general, named Arbogastes, who deprived the youth both of his dignity and life.
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1fa Honorius19 views393-423

AE3

RIC 403

Pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right, DN HONORIVS PF AVG
Two emperors standing facing, heads turned to one another, each holding spear and resting hand on shield, GLORIA ROMANORVM. Mintmark SMKA.

Zosimus wrote: [Theodosius] proceeded with his army to the war [against Eugenius], leaving behind him his son Arcadius, who had some time previously been made emperor. . . . Having done this, he took with him his younger son Honorius, quickly passed through the intermediate countries, and having exceded his expectations in crossing the Alps, arrived where the enemy was stationed. . . . The emperor Theodosius after these successes proceeded to Rome, where he declared his son Honorius emperor, and appointing Stilico to the command of his forces there, left him as guardian to his son. . . . The emperor Theodosius, having consigned Italy, Spain, Celtica, and Libya to his son Honorius, died of a disease on his journey towards Constantinople. . . .

THE whole empire being vested in Arcadius and Honorius, they indeed appeared by their title to possess the sovereign authority, although the universal administration of affairs was under Rufinus in the east, and under Stilico in the west. By these all causes were determined, at their own pleasure; for whoever bribed plentifully, or by any other means of friendship or consanguinity could make the judge his advocate, was sure to succeed in the process. From hence it happened that most of those great estates, which cause the possessors to be generally esteemed fortunate, devolved to these two; since some endeavoured by gifts to avoid false accusations, and others relinquished all their possessions to obtain an office, or in any other manner to purchase the ruin of particular cities. While iniquity of every kind presided, therefore, in the respective cities, the money from all quarters flowed into the coffers of Rufinus and Stilico ; while on the reverse, poverty preyed on the habitations of those who had formerly been rich. Nor were the emperors acquainted with anything that was done, but thought all that Rufinus and Stilico commanded was done by virtue of some unwritten law. . . .

After the autumn was terminated, and winter had commenced, Bassus and Philippus being chosen consuls, the emperor Honorius, who had long before lost his wife Maria, desired to marry her sister Thermantia. But Stilico appeared not to approve of the match, although it was promoted by Serena, who wished it to take place from these motives. When Maria was about to be married to Honorius, her mother, deeming her too young for the marriage-state and being unwilling to defer the marriage, although she thought that to submit so young and tender a person to the embraces of a man was offering violence to nature, she had recourse to a woman who knew how to manage such affairs, and by her means contrived that Maria should live with the emperor and share his bed, but that he should not have the power to deprive her of virginity. In the meantime Maria died a virgin, and Serena, who, as may readily be supposed, was desirous to become the grandmother of a young emperor or empress, through fear of her influence being diminished, used all her endeavours to marry her other daughter to Honorius. This being accomplished, the young lady shortly afterwards died in the same manner as the former. . . . .

For Stilico was desirous of proceeding to the east to undertake the management of the affairs of Theodosius, the son of Arcadius, who was very young, and in want of a guardian. Honorius himself was also inclined to undertake the same journey, with a design to secure the dominions of that emperor. But Stilico, being displeased at that, and laying before the emperor a calculation of the immense sum of money it would require to defray the expence of such an expedition, deterred him from the enterprise. . . .

In the mean time, the emperor Honorius commanded his wife Thermantia to be taken from the imperial throne, and to be restored to her mother, who notwithstanding was without suspicion. . . . Alaric began his expedition against Rome, and ridiculed the preparations made by Honorius. . . . The emperor Honorius was now entering on the consulship, having enjoyed that honour eight times, and the emperor Theodosius in the east three times. At this juncture the rebel Constantine sent some eunches to Honorius, to intreat pardon from him for having accepted of the empire. When the emperor heard this petition, perceiving that it was not easy for him, since Alaric and his barbarians were so near, to prepare for other wars ; and consulting the safety of his relations who were in the hands of the rebel, whose names were Verenianus and Didymius; he not only granted his request, but likewise sent him an imperial robe. . . .

Note: No ancient source reports the sack of Rome by the Goths in 410, they having besieged the city three times, all while Honorius huddled in a besieged Ravenna. Honorius retained his nominal capacity until he died in 423.
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201a. Julia Domna11 viewsVesta

Vesta was introduced in Rome by King Numa Pompilius. She was a native Roman deity (some authors suggest received from the Sabine cults), sister of Zeus, Poseidon, Hades, Hera and Demeter, and presumably the daughter of Saturn and Ops (or Rea). However, the similarity with the cult of Greek Hestia is notable. Vesta too protected familial harmony and the res publica. Apollo and Neptune had asked for her in marriage, but she refused both, preferring to preserve her virginity, whose symbol was the perpetually lit fire in her circular fane next to the Forum which the Romans always distinguished from a temple by calling it her "house".

As Goddess of the Hearth she was the symbol of the home, around which a newborn child must be carried before it could be received into the family. Every meal began and ended with an offering to her:

Vesta, in all dwellings of men and immortals
Yours is the highest honor, the sweet wine offered
First and last at the feast, poured out to you duly.
Never without you can gods or mortals hold banquet.

Landscape with Vesta temple in Tivoli, Italy, c. 1600.Each city too had a public hearth sacred to Vesta, where the fire was never allowed to go out. If a colony was to be founded, the colonists carried with them coals from the hearth of the mother-city with which to kindle the fire on the new city's hearth.

The fire was guarded by her priestesses, the Vestales. Every March 1 the fire was renewed. It burned until 391, when the Emperor Theodosius I forbade public pagan worship. One of the Vestales was Rea Silvia, who with Mars conceived Romulus and Remus (see founding of Rome).

3070. Silver denarius, RIC 538, RSC 221, VF, 2.30g, 17.5mm, 0o, Rome mint, 193-196 A.D.; obverse IVLIA DOMNA AVG, draped bust right; reverse VESTA, Vesta seated left, holding palladium and scepter. Ex Forum
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201a. Julia Domna66 viewsIn Rome, when the worship of Cybele, as Magna Mater, was formally initiated in 203 BC, Rome was embroiled in the Second Punic War. The previous year, an inspection had been made of the Sibylline Books, and some oracular verses had been discovered that announced that if a foreign foe should carry war into Italy, he could be driven out and conquered if the Mater Magna were brought from Pessinos to Rome. Publius Cornelius Scipio Nasica was ordered to go to the port of Ostia, accompanied by all the matrons, to meet the goddess. He was to receive her as she left the vessel, and when brought to land he was to place her in the hands of the matrons who were to bear her to her destination, the Temple of Victory on the Palatine Hill. The day on which this event took place, 12 April, was observed afterwards as a festival, the Megalesian. (Livy, History of Rome, circa AD 10)

In Rome, her Phrygian origins were recalled by Catullus, whose famous poem on the theme of Attis includes a vivid description of Cybele's worship: "Together come and follow to the Phrygian home of Cybele, to the Phrygian forests of the goddess, where the clash of cymbals ring, where tambourines resound, where the Phrygian flute-player blows deeply on his curved reed, where ivy-crowned maenads toss their heads wildly."

Roman devotion to Cybele ran deep. Not coincidentally, when a Christian basilica was built over the site of a temple to Cybele, to occupy the site, it was dedicated as the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore.

The worship of Cybele penetrated as far as Mauretania, where, just outside Setif, the ceremonial "tree-bearers" and the faithful (religiosi) restored the temple of Cybele and Attis after a disastrous fire in AD 288. Lavish new fittings paid for by the private group included the silver statue of Cybele and the chariot that carried her in procession received a new canopy, with tassels in the form of fir cones. (Robin Lane Fox, Pagans and Christians, p 581.)

Today, a monumental statue of Cybele can be found in one of the principal traffic circles of Madrid, the Plaza de Cibeles (illustration, upper right).

In Roman mythology, Magna Mater deorum Idaea ("great Idaean mother of the gods") was the name for the originally Phrygian goddess Cybele, as well as Rhea.

Her cult moved from Phrygia to Greece from the 6th century to the 4th. In 205 BC, Rome adopted her cult.

Julia Domna Denarius. 212 AD. IVLIA PIA FELIX AVG, draped bust right / MATRI DEVM, Cybele standing left, leaning on column, holding drum & scepter, lion at foot. RSC 137. RIC 382
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201c. Pescennius Niger125 viewsGaius Pescennius Niger was governor of Syria in the year 193 when he learned of the emperor Pertinax's murder. Niger's subsequent attempt to claim the empire for himself ended in failure in Syria after roughly one year. His life before becoming governor of Syria is not well known. He was born in Italy to an equestrian family. He seems to have been older than his eventual rival Septimius Severus, so his birth should perhaps be placed ca. AD 135-40. Niger may have held an important position in the administration of Egypt. He won renown, along with Clodius Albinus, for participation in a military campaign in Dacia early in Commodus' reign. Although Niger could have been adlected into the senate before the Dacian campaign, he was by now pursuing a senatorial career and must have been held in high esteem by Commodus. Niger was made a suffect consul, probably in the late 180s, and he was sent as governor to the important province of Syria in 191.

Niger was a well-known and well-liked figure to the Roman populace. After Pertinax became emperor at the beginning of 193, many in Rome may have hoped that the elderly Pertinax would adopt Niger as his Caesar and heir, but Pertinax was murdered without having made succession plans. When Didius Julianus arrived at the senate house on 29 March 193, his first full day as emperor, a riot broke out among the Roman crowd. The rioters took over the Circus Maximus, from which they shouted for Niger to seize the throne. The rioters dispersed the following day, but a report of their demonstration may well have arrived in the Syrian capital, Antioch, with the news that Pertinax had been murdered and replaced by Julianus.

Spurred into action by the news, Niger had himself proclaimed emperor in Antioch. The governors of the other eastern provinces quickly joined his cause. Niger's most important ally was the respected proconsul of Asia, Asellius Aemilianus, and support began to spread across the Propontis into Europe. Byzantium welcomed Niger, who now was preparing further advances. Niger took the additional cognomen Justus, "the Just." Justice was promoted as the theme of his intended reign, and personifications of Justice appeared on his coins.

Other provincial governors, however, also set their sights on replacing Julianus. Albinus in Britain and Septimius Severus in Upper Pannonia (western Hungary) had each aspired to the purple, and Severus was marching an army on Rome. Severus was still 50 miles from the city when the last of Julianus' dwindling authority disappeared. Julianus was killed in Rome 1 June 193.

Niger sent messengers to Rome to announce his acclamation, but those messengers were intercepted by Severus. A deal was struck between Severus and Albinus that kept Albinus in Britain with the title of Caesar. The larger armies of the western provinces were now united in their support for Severus. Niger's support was confined to the east. Severus had Niger's children captured and held as hostages, and a legion was sent to confront Niger's army in Thrace.

The first conflict between the rival armies took place near Perinthus. Although Niger's forces may have inflicted greater casualties on the Severan troops, Niger was unable to secure his advance; he returned to Byzantium. By the autumn of 193, Severus had left Rome and arrived in the region, though his armies there continued to be commanded by supporters. Niger was offered the chance of a safe exile by Severus, but Niger refused.

Severan troops crossed into Asia at the Hellespont and near Cyzicus engaged forces supporting Niger under the command of Aemilianus. Niger's troops were defeated. Aemilianus attempted to flee but was captured and killed. Not long after, in late December 193 or early January 194, Niger was defeated in a battle near Nicaea and fled south to Antioch. Eastern provincial governors now switched their loyalty to Severus, and Niger faced revolts even in Syria. By late spring 194, the Severan armies were in Cilicia preparing to enter Syria. Niger and his army met the Severan troops near Issus. The battle was a decisive defeat for Niger, who fled back to Antioch. The Syrian capital that only one year earlier had cheered as Niger was proclaimed emperor now waited in fear for the approach of its new master. Niger prepared to flee once more, but outside Antioch he was captured and killed.

Despite his popularity with the Roman mob, Pescennius Niger lacked both the strong loyalty of other senatorial commanders and the number of soldiers that his rival Severus enjoyed. Niger was ultimately unable to make himself the true avenger of Pertinax, and his roughly one-year control of the eastern provinces never qualified him to be reckoned a legitimate emperor.

BITHYNIA, Caesarea. Pescennius Niger. AD 193-194. Æ 22mm (6.35 g). Laureate head right / KAICAREIAC GERMANIKHC, coiled serpent left. RG p. 282, 9, pl. XLIV, 8 (same dies); SNG Copenhagen -; SNG von Aulock -. Near VF, brown patina, rough surfaces. Very rare. Ex-CNG
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202 AD., Septimius Severus, Rome mint, Denarius, RIC 248.100 viewsSeptimius Severus, Rome mint, 202 AD.,
Denarius (18-19 mm / 3.56 g),
Obv.: SEVERVS - PIVS AVG , laureate head of Septimius Severus right.
Rev.: ADVENT AVGG , Septimius Severus on horseback left, raising right hand and holding spear; before him, soldier (or Virtus?) holding vexillum and leading horse.
RIC 248 ; Hill, Severus 559 ; BMC 304 ; C. 1 .

Like many emperors of the 3rd Century, Septimius Severus often travelled great distances to meet the demands of warfare. This denarius, inscribed ADVENT AVGG, celebrates the return of Severus and his family to Rome after one of his many journeys – in this case a long absence in the East.
His journey was overdue, and it had been delayed only long enough for Severus to defeat Clodius Albinus, his rival Caesar in the West. In the summer of 197 Severus and his family embarked by sea from Italy to Asia Minor and immediately waged war against the Parthians, who had invaded Roman territory while Severus had been fighting Albinus in Gaul. By January, 198 Severus had scored a resounding, vengeful victory. The Romans gathered a great amount of booty, killed all of the men who had remained in the capital Ctesiphon, and took as slaves perhaps 100,000 women and children.
The royal family remained in the East throughout 198 to 201, and on January 1, 202, Severus and Caracalla jointly assumed the consulate in Antioch. It was the first time they had shared the honour, and was also the first time in more than forty years that two emperors had been consuls.
Probably soon after this ceremony the royal family began its arduous journey back to Italy, this time proceeding by land, up through Asia Minor to Bithynia, crossing the Propontis into Thrace, then seemingly tracking the Danube until they descended upon Italy.
Severus’ return was no ordinary event: not only had the royal family been gone for five years, but the yearlong celebration of Severus’ decennalia, his tenth year of power, had begun and the royal wedding of Caracalla was planned. The imperial adventus was celebrated with games, spectacles and donatives to the people and to the praetorian guards, who Dio Cassius tells us each received ten aurei.

my ancient coin database
2 commentsArminius
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227 var. Hadrian Denarius Roma 134-38 AD Hadrian & Roma standing26 viewsReference.
Strack 218; RIC cf 227; C.cf 94; BMCR cf 584

Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P
Bare head right

Rev. ADVENTVS AVGVSTI
Roma standing left, holding spear, and parazonium on hip?? and clasping hands with Hadrian standing right, holding a roll.

3.35 gr
18 mm
7h

Note.
Strack saw two similar coins in Vienna and Sofia with same die pair.

This denarius was Rome struck during the latter part of Hadrian’s reign, and which fall into three classes or categories: 1) a series of coins commemorating the visit or arrival (adventus) of the emperor to each province; 2) another series which commemorates the restoration (restitutor) of the province by the emperor; and 3) an additional series which commemorates the military strength (exercitus) of province, for those provinces which had legions stationed within them. In addition to these three categories of commemorative issues that are collectively known as Hadrian’s ‘travel’ series, there are a further two related groups of coins. The first is quite extensive and simply commemorates the various provinces, with the provinces of Egypt, Africa, Hispania and Gallia being the most common. Then there is a much smaller issue which commemorates the emperor’s final return (adventus) to Rome, after his subjugation of the Jewish zealots under Simon Bar Kochba led to the pacification of the province of Judaea, of which this coin is a particularly handsome specimen. After spending more than half his reign on the road, and especially after having just inflicted such a crushing defeat on the recalcitrant Jews, Hadrian’s homecoming was a momentous occasion in the capital which was warmly welcomed by the citizens. The reverse shows the city of Rome personified as the goddess Roma, helmeted and draped in military attire, holding a spear and clasping the hand of the now elderly emperor who is depicted togate and holding a roll in the guise of a citizen, standing before her. The legend which appears on the obverse of this coin was only employed ca. A.D. 134-138. As Hadrian returned to Italy during A.D. 136 and died not two years later, this coin belongs to the very last issue of coinage struck at Rome during his principate.
1 commentsokidoki
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260 Claudius II20 viewsClaudius II
Æ Antoninianus
Mediolanum (Milan, Italy) mint

IMP CLAVDIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse PAX AVG, Pax walking left, extending olive-branch in right hand, long transverse scepter in left, T in ex

RIC V 157, SRCV 3215, Cohen 202
Randygeki(h2)
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305b. Herennius Etruscus24 viewsQuintus Herennius Etruscus Messius Decius (c. 227 - July 1, 251), was Roman emperor in 251, in a joint rule with his father Trajan Decius. Emperor Hostilian was his younger brother.

Herennius was born in Pannonia, during one of his father's military postings. His mother was Herennia Cupressenia Etruscilla, a Roman lady of an important senatorial family. Herennius was very close to his father and accompanied him in 248, as a military tribune, when Decius was appointed by Philip the Arab to deal with the revolt of Pacatianus in the Danube frontier. Decius was successful on defeating this usurper and felt confident to begin a rebellion of his own in the following year. Acclaimed emperor by his own troops, Decius marched into Italy and defeated Philip near modern Verona. In Rome, Herennius was declared heir to the throne and received the title of princeps iuventutis (prince of youth).

From the beginning of Herennius' accession, Gothic tribes raided across the Danube frontier and the provinces of Moesia and Dacia. At the beginning of 251, Decius elevated Herennius to the title of Augustus making him his co-emperor. Moreover, Herennius was chosen to be one of the year's consuls. The father and son, now joint rulers, then embarked in an expedition against king Cniva of the Goths to punish the invaders for the raids. Hostilian remained in Rome and the empress Herennia Etruscilla was named regent. Cniva and his men were returning to their lands with the booty, when the Roman army encountered them. Showing a very sophisticated military tactic, Cniva divided his army in smaller, more manageable groups and started to push back the Romans into a marshy swamp. On July 1, both armies engaged in the battle of Abrittus. Herennius died in battle, struck by an enemy arrow. Decius survived the initial confrontation, only to be slain with the rest of the army before the end of the day. Herennius and Decius were the first two emperors to be killed by a foreign army in battle.

With the news of the death of the emperors, the army proclaimed Trebonianus Gallus emperor, but in Rome they were succeeded by Hostilian, who would die shortly afterwards in an outbreak of plague.

Herennius Etruscus AR Antoninianus. Q HER ETR MES DECIVS NOB C, radiate draped bust right / CONCORDIA AVGG, clasped hands. RIC 138, RSC 4
1 commentsecoli
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306. Trebonianus Gallus28 viewsGaius Vibius Trebonianus Gallus (206 - August, 253), was Roman emperor from 251 to 253, in a joint rule with his son Volusianus.

Gallus was born in Italy, in a family with respected ancestry and a senatorial background. He had two children in his marriage with Afinia Gemina Baebiana: the future emperor Gaius Vibius Volusianus and a daughter, Vibia Galla. His early career was typical with several appointments, both political and military. He was suffect consul and in 250 was nominated governor of the Roman province of Moesia Superior, an appointment that showed the confidence of emperor Trajan Decius in him. In Moesia, Gallus was a key figure in repelling the frequent invasion attacks by the Gothic tribes of the Danube and became popular with the army.

On July 1, 251, Decius and his co-emperor and son Herennius Etruscus died in the battle of Abrittus, at the hands of the Goths they were supposed to punish for raids into the empire. When the army heard the news, the soldiers proclaimed Gallus emperor, despite Hostilian, Decius' surviving son, ascending the imperial throne in Rome. Gallus did not back down from his intention to became emperor, but accepted Hostilian as co-emperor, perhaps to avoid the damage of another civil war. While Gallus marched on Rome, an outbreak of plague struck the city and killed the young Hostilian. With absolute power now on his hands, Gallus nominated his son Volusianus co-emperor.

Eager to show himself competent and gain popularity with the citizens, Gallus swiftly dealt with the epidemic, providing burial for the victims. Gallus is often accused of persecuting the Christians, but the only solid evidence of this allegation is the imprisoning of Pope Cornelius in 252.

Like his predecessors, Gallus did not have an easy reign. In the East, king Shapur I of Persia invaded and conquered the province of Syria, without any response from Rome. On the Danube, the Gothic tribes were once again on the loose, despite the peace treaty signed in 251. The army was not pleased with the emperor and when Aemilianus, governor of Moesia Superior and Pannonia, took the initiative of battle and defeated the Goths, the soldiers proclaimed him emperor. With a usurper threatening the throne, Gallus prepared for a fight. He recalled several legions and ordered reinforcements to return to Rome from the Rhine frontier. Despite these dispositions, Aemilianus marched onto Italy ready to fight for his claim. Gallus did not have the chance to face him in battle: he and Volusianus were murdered by their own troops in August 253.
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307 Hadrian Denarius Roma 134-138 Italia22 viewsReference.
RIC 307a

Obv.HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P
Bare head right

Rev: ITA-LIA
Italy standing left, scepter in right hand, cornucopiae in left

3.2 gr
19 mm
6h
okidoki
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307. Aemilian30 viewsMarcus Aemilius Aemilianus was born about AD 207 either on the island of Jerba in Africa, or somewhere in Mauretania.
His career saw him becoming senator and reaching the office of consul. In AD 252 he then became governor of Lower Moesia.

In the spring of AD 253 the Goths broke the treaty made with the emperor Trebonianus Gallus. Aemilian quickly drove them out of Moesia and then, crossed the Danube crushing the Gothic forces.

In a time when Rome suffered continuous setbacks his unexpected triumph made him an outstanding leader in the eyes of his men. So, in July or August AD 253 Aemilian was proclaimed emperor by his troops. The new emperor didn't waste time. Immediately he marched his troops into Italy, rapidly moving on Rome. Only fifty miles north of the capital, at Interamna, they were were approached by the much inferior army of unprepared emperor Gallus and with his son and co-emperor Volusianus. Their troops however, realizing themselves dead if they were sent to fight Aemilian's much larger and more experienced Danubian forces, turned on them and killed them, leaving Aemilian sole emperor.

The senate, having only recently declared Aemilian a public enemy under Gallus, immediately confirmed him as emperor and Aemilian's wife Gaia Cornelia Supera was made Augusta.

All the empire now lay at Aemilian's feet, but for one big problem. Publius Licinius Valerianus, called to aid by the late Trebonianus Gallus, was marching toward Rome. His emperor might have been dead, but his usurper was still alive, giving Valerian all the reasons needed to carry on towards the capital. In fact the soldiers of his Rhine armies now declared him emperor in place of Aemilian.

As Aemilian now moved north to face his challenger history repeated itself. His own soldiers not wanting to fight a army they thought superior to their own, turned on him near Spoletium and stabbed him to death (October AD 253). The bridge where he died was afterwards known as the pons sanguinarius, the 'bridge of blood'.

Aemilian had ruled for only 88 days.

Aemilian AR Antonininus. 253 AD. IMP AEMILIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, radiate draped bust right / VIRTVS AVG, Virtus standing left, foot on helmet, holding branch & spear. RSC 60. RIC 12. Ex-WCNC
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309. Gallienus33 viewsOne of the key characteristics of the Crisis of the Third Century was the inability of the Emperors to maintain their hold on the Imperium for any marked length of time. An exception to this rule was the reign of the Emperor Gallienus. The fact that Gallienus served as junior Emperor with his father, Valerian, from 253 to 260 may have had something to do with his successes. Father and son each wielded his authority over a smaller area, thus allowing for more flexible control and imperial presence. Another, more probable reason, lay in Gallienus's success in convincing Rome that he was the best man for the job. However, Gallienus had to handle many rebellions of the so-called "Gallienus usurpers".

In 260, Valerian was taken prisoner by Sapor, King of Persia while trying to negotiate a peace settlement. Although aware that his father had been taken alive (the only Emperor to have suffered this fate), Gallienus did not make public Valerian's death until a year later. His decision hinged on the fact that Romans believed that their fate rose and fell with the fate of the Emperor, which in turn depended upon his demonstrating the proper amount of piety (Latin pietas) to the gods and maintaining their favor. A defeated Emperor would surely have meant that the gods had forsaken Valerian and, by extension, Gallienus.

Gallienus's chief method of reinforcing his position is seen in the coinage produced during his reign (see Roman currency). The coinage provides clear evidence of a successful propaganda campaign. Gallienus took pains to make sure that he was regularly represented as victorious, merciful, and pious. The people who used these coins on a daily basis saw these messages and, with little evidence to the contrary, remained supportive of their Emperor.

There were, however, those who knew better. During Gallienus' reign, there was constant fighting on the western fringes of the Empire. As early as 258, Gallienus had lost control over a large part of Gaul, where another general, Postumus, had declared his own realm (typically known today as the Gallic Empire). As Gallienus' influence waned, another general came to the fore. In time-honored tradition, Claudius II Gothicus gained the loyalty of the army and succeeded Gallienus to the Imperium.

In the months leading up to his mysterious death in September of 268, Gallienus was ironically orchestrating the greatest achievements of his reign. An invasion of Goths into the province of Pannonia was leading to disaster and even threatening Rome, while at the same time, the Alamanni were raising havoc in the northern part of Italy. Gallienus halted the Allamanic progress by defeating them in battle in April of 268, then turned north and won several victories over the Goths. That fall, he turned on the Goths once again, and in September, either he or Claudius, his leading general, led the Roman army to victory (although the cavalry commander Aurelian was the real victor) at the Battle of Naissus.

At some time following this battle, Gallienus was murdered during the siege of usurper Aureolus in Mediolanum; many theories abound that Claudius and Aurelian conspired to have the emperor killed. Be that as it may, Claudius spared the lives of Gallienus' family — Gallienus' wife, Iulia Cornelia Salonina, had given him three sons: Valerianus (who died in 258), Saloninus (died in 260 after becoming co-emperor), and Egnatius Marinianus — and had the emperor deified.

Gallienus Antoninianus - Minerva
OBVERSE: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate, cuirassed bust right
REVERSE: MINERVA AVG, Minerva standing right with spear and shield.
23mm - 3.7 grams
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313. Tetricus I27 viewsCaius Pius Esuvius Tetricus was emperor of the Gallic Empire from 270/271 to 273, following the murder of Victorinus. Tetricus, who ruled with his son, Tetricus II, was the last of the Gallic Emperors.

Tetricus was born to a noble family and held the administrative rank of praeses provinciae (provincial governor) of Aquitania at the time of Victorinus' death. Victorinus' mother, Victoria, paid the army heavily to declare Tetricus emperor near Burdigalia (Bordeaux, France), which was approved in Gaul and Britain. Following his appointment, Tetricus repelled Germanic tribes that took advantage of the confusion following the death of Victorinus to invade.

Tetricus installed his capital at Augusta Treverorum (present Trier, Germany, near the vital Rhine border, hence later seat of a Tetrarch) and appointed his son, Tetricus II, Caesar, i.e. junior emperor (273). Tetricus made no attempts to expand the Gallic Empire, other than southward, regaining Aquitania (which had rejoined the Roman empire during the reign of Claudius Gothicus).

In 273, Emperor Aurelian set out to reconquer the western Roman empire, following his victories in the east. Tetricus took his army southward from Trier to meet Aurelian, who was advancing into northern Gaul. The decisive battle took place near Châlons-sur-Marne, where Tetricus and his son surrendered to Aurelian.

According to literary sources, after being displayed as trophies at Aurelian's triumph in Rome, the lives of Tetricus and his son were spared by Aurelian and Tetricus was even given the title of corrector Lucaniae et Bruttiorum, that is governor of a region of Italia. Tetricus died at an unknown date living in Italy; he is listed as one of Rome's Thirty Tyrants in the Historia Augusta.
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367/5 L. Manlius Torquatus.25 viewsL. Manlius Torquatus. AR Denarius. 82 BC. Military mint moving with Sulla. Obv: L·MANLI -I – PRO Q. Helmeted head of Roma right. Rev: Sulla driving triumphal quadriga right, crowned by Victory flying left; in exergue, L·SVLLA·IMP.
Syd 757; Manlia 4;Crawford 367/5

I had no idea that this was related to Sulla when I bought it. I do now. Military mint!

As consul for the year 88 BC, Sulla was awarded the coveted assignment of suppressing the revolt of Mithradates VI of Pontus, but political maneuvers resulted in this assignment being transferred to Marius. In response, Sulla turned his army on Rome, captured it, and reclaimed his command against Mithradates. His prosecution of the first Mithradatic War was successful, but he spared the Pontic king for personal gain. In 83 BC, Sulla returned to Italy as an outlaw, but he was able to win the support of many of the leading Romans. Within a year he fought his way to Rome, where he was elected dictator. It was during this campaign to Rome that this (....) was struck. The obverse type represents Sulla's claim to be acting in Rome's best interest. The reverse shows Sulla enjoying the highest honor to which a Roman could aspire, the celebration of a triumph at Rome.






Paddy
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4) Antony and Octavian Denarius35 viewsMark Antony and Octavian
AR Denarius, 2.97g
Ephesus, spring/summer, 41 BC

M ANT IMP AVG III VIR R P C M BARBAT Q P (MP and AV in monogram), Bare hd of Mark Antony right / CAESAR IMP PONT III VIR R P C, Bare head of Octavian right

Sear 1504

This series of coins commemorates the establishment of the second Triumvirate of November 43 B.C. between Antony, Octavian and Lepidus. Both sides bear the inscription "III VIR R P C", meaning "One of Three Men for the Regulation of the Republic. Within a few years Antony would depart Italy for the Eastern provinces.

The moneyer for this coin is M. Barbatius Pollio who was also a Questor in 41 BC. Barbatius bears the title of "Quaestor pro praetore" abbreviated to QP a distinction shared by his colleague L. Gelllius.

Photo and text credit goes to FORVM member Jay GT4, from whom I purchased the coin in 2011. Thanks, Jay!
RM0034
1 commentsSosius
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40 BC Octavian denarius164 viewsC CAESAR III VIR R P C
Bare haed of Octavian right

Q SALVIVS IMP COS DESIG
thunderbolt

Italy early 40 BC
3.43g

Sear 1541

SOLD!

David Sear says that this Q Salvius may be Quintus Salvius Salvidienus Rufus who was the boyhood friend and confidant of Octavian. In 42 BC Octavian made him admiral of his fleet and instructed him to attack Sextus Pompey in Sicily. Despite being beaten by Sextus he was granted the title of Imperator which appears on this coin.

After the battle of Philippi Salvidienus was given command of 6 Legions an sent to Spain however he quickly had to return to Italy to confront Fulvia (Antony's wife) and Lucius Antonius (Antony's brother). Salvidienus captured and destroyed the city of Sentinum and then moved on to Perusia with Agrippa to besiege Lucius Antony. At the end of the Perusian War Octavian sent Salvidienus to Gallia as Governor, with eleven legions. He was also designated as consul for 39 BC, although he had not reached senatorial rank.

Salvidienus proved to be unworthy of Octavian's trust and entered into secret negotiations with Mark Antony thinking that Antony would prevail. Unfortunately for Salvidienus, Antony and Octavian were reconciled and Antony informed Octavian of Salvidienus treachary. Antony's decision to inform on Salvidienus has been used to show his desire to settle the differences with Octavian. The senate declared Salvidienus a public enemy and shortly after he was killed, either by his own hand or by execution.
Jay GT4
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406. Galerius40 viewsChristians had lived in peace during most of the rule of Diocletian. The persecutions that began with an edict of February 24, 303, were credited by Christians to the influence of Galerius. Christian houses of assembly were destroyed, for fear of sedition in secret gatherings.

Detail of the Arch of Galerius in Thessaloniki.In 305, on the abdication of Diocletian and Maximian, he at once assumed the title of Augustus, with Constantius his former colleague, and having procured the promotion to the rank of Caesar of Flavius Valerius Severus, a faithful servant, and (Maximinus II Daia), his nephew, he hoped on the death of Constantius to become sole master of the Roman world. Having Constantius' son Constantine as guest at Galerius' court in the east helped to secure his position.

His schemes, however, were defeated by the sudden elevation of Constantine at Eboracum (York) upon the death of his father, and by the action of Maximianus and his son Maxentius, who were declared co-Augusti in Italy.

After an unsuccessful invasion of Italy in 307, he elevated his friend Licinius to the rank of Augustus, and moderating his ambition, he retired to the city Felix Romuliana (near present day Gamzigrada,Serbia/Montenegro)built by him to honor his mother Romula, and devoted the few remaining years of his life "to the enjoyment of pleasure and to the execution of some works of public utility."

It was at the instance of Galerius that the last edicts of persecution against the Christians were published, beginning on February 24, 303, and this policy of repression was maintained by him until the appearance of the general edict of toleration, issued from Nicomedia in April 311, apparently during his last bout of illness, in his own name and in those of Licinius and Constantine. Lactantius gives the text of the edict in his moralized chronicle of the bad ends to which all the persecutors came, De Mortibus Persecutorum ("On the Deaths of the Persecutors", chapters 34, 35). This marked the end of official persecution of Christians.

Galerius as Caesar, 305-311AD. GENIO POPVLI ROMANI reverse type with Genius standing left holding scales and cornucopia
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407. Severus II35 viewsFlavius Valerius Severus was of humble origin and from Illyricum. Early in his career he had held a military command. When Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximianus Herculius, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple (Milan) on 1 May 305, they appointed Constantius I and Galerius as Augusti in their place, with Severus and Maximinus Daia as the new Caesars. Both Caesars were Galerius' creatures and received their appointment at his hands. Constantius I and Severus ruled the west, while Galerius and Daia controlled the east.

When Galerius learned of the death of Constantius I in August 306 and the acclamation of Constantine to the purple, he raised Severus to the rank of Augustus to replace the dead Augustus. Matters went from bad to worse for Galerius when Maxentius, the son of Maximianus Herculius, was proclaimed emperor at Rome on 28 October 306. Galerius was disturbed when he heard the news of Maxentius' revolt because the usurper seized Rome, then part of Severus' realm. Galerius sent Severus from Mediolanum (Milan) to fight the enemy. Severus took a large field army which had formerly been that of Maximianus and proceeded toward Rome.

When Maxentius learned about the advance of Severus, he sent his own father the purple and offered to make him Augustus again to win Severus' army to his side; Maximianus accepted his offer. Meanwhile, Severus and his army reached Rome and began to besiege the city; Maxentius, however, bribed Severus' soldiers and, at a set signal, the Augustus' forces joined the usurper. Severus fled ro Ravenna with a few remaining soldiers. Maximianus went to Ravenna and, with false promises of safety, convinced Severus to surrender. He took this action because he realized that Severus' position was impregnable. Under house arrest Severus was brought to Rome and imprisoned at Tres Tabernae. Severus was put to death in 307 under clouded circumstances, when Galerius invaded Italy

Severus II AD 305-306 AE Follis "Genius Serdica" "The genius of the people of Rome." Obv: FL VAL SEVERVS NOB C - Laureate head right Rev: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI - Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia. Exe: SIS Siscia mint: AD 305-306 = RIC VI, p. 475, 170a Rare (r)
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408. Maxentius34 viewsMarcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius, more commonly known as Maxentius, was the child of the Emperor Maximianus Herculius and the Syrian Eutropia; he was born ca. 278 A.D. After Galerius' appointment to the rank of Caesar on 1 March 293, Maxentius married Galerius' daughter Valeria Maximilla, who bore him a son named Romulus and another son whose name is unknown. Due to his haughty nature and bad disposition, Maxentius could seldom agree with his father or his father-in-law; Galerius' and Maximianus Herculius' aversion to Maxentius prevented the young man from becoming a Caesar in 305. Little else is known of Maxentius' private life prior to his accession and, alth ough there is some evidence that it was spent in idleness, he did become a Senator.

On 28 October 306 Maxentius was acclaimed emperor, although he was politcally astute enough not to use the title Augustus; like the Emperor Augustus, he called himself princeps. It was not until the summer of 307 that he started usi ng the title Augustus and started offending other claimants to the imperial throne. He was enthroned by the plebs and the Praetorians. At the time of his acclamation Maxentius was at a public villa on the Via Labicana. He strengthened his position with promises of riches for those who helped him obtain his objective. He forced his father Maximianus Herculius to affirm his son's acclamation in order to give his regime a facade of legitimacy. His realm included Italy, Africa, Sardinia, and Corsica. As soon as Galerius learned about the acclamation of Herculius' son, he dispatched the Emperor Severus to quell the rebellion. With the help of his father and Severus' own troops, Maxentius' took his enemy prisoner.

When Severus died, Galerius was determined to avenge his death. In the early summer of 307 the Augustus invaded Italy; he advanced to the south and encamped at Interamna near the Tiber. His attempt to besiege the city was abortive because his army was not large enough to encompass the city's fortifications. Negotiations between Maxentius and Galerius broke down when the emperor discovered that the usurper was trying to win over his troops. Galerius' troops were open to Maxentius' promises because they were fighting a civil war between members of the same family; some of the soldiers went over to the enemy. Not trusting his own troops, Galerius withdrew. During its retreat, Galerius' army ravaged the Italian countryside as it was returning to its original base. If it was not enough that Maxentius had to deal with the havoc created by the ineffectual invasions of Severus and Galerius, he also had to deal with his father's attempts to regain the throne between 308 and 310. When Maximianus Herculius was unable to regain power by pushing his son off his throne, he attempted to win over Constantine to his cause. When this plan failed, he tried to win Diocletian over to his side at Carnuntum in October and November 308. Frustrated at every turn, Herculius returned to his son-in-law Constantine's side in Gaul where he died in 310, having been implicated in a plot against his son-in-law. Maxentius' control of the situation was weakened by the revolt of L. Domitius Alexander in 308. Although the revolt only lasted until the end of 309, it drastically cut the size of the grain supply availble for Rome. Maxentius' rule collapsed when he died on 27 October 312 in an engagement he had with the Emperor Constantine at the Milvian Bridge after the latter had invaded his realm.

Maxentius Follis. Ostia mint. IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG, laureate head right / AETE-RNITAS A-VGN, Castor and Pollux standing facing each other, each leaning on sceptre and holding bridled horse.
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421/1. Nonia - denarius (59 BC)21 viewsAR Denarius (Rome, 59 BC)
O/ Head of Saturn right, head of a harpoon and conical stone behind; S C upwards behind; SVFENAS downwards before.
R/ Roma seated left on a pile of trophies, holding sceptre and sword, crowned by Victory standing behind; PR L V P F around; SEX NONI in exergue.
3.90g; 19mm
Crawford 421/1 (56 obverse dies/62 reverse dies)
- Collection of Walter Friedrich Stoecklin, Amriswil, Switzerland, before 1975. W. F. Stoecklin was the second member of a dynasty of coin collectors based in Switzerland.
- Obolos 9, lot 77.

* Marcus Nonius Sex.f. Sufenas:

Sufenas belonged to the plebeian gens Nonia, a relatively new gens at this time. He was the son of son of Sextus Nonius Sufenas, who had played a crucial part in 86 BC by leading the defection to Sulla among Fimbria's troops during the Civil War. Sulla then rewarded him with a praetorship in 81 BC. In turn, Sextus organised the first Victory games celebrating his patron (the Ludi Victoriae Sullanae), as explained on the reverse (Sextus Nonius praetor ludos Victoriae primus fecit).

Marcus Sufenas' career relied on the patronage of Pompey, whom he devotedly served. In 56 he was Tribune of the Plebs, and with the famous Publius Clodius Pulcher, Gaius Porcius Cato, and Lucius Procilius, they sabotaged the consular elections in order to force the choice of Pompey and Crassus as Consuls for 55 (Cassius Dio, Roman History, xxxix. 27-33). Pompey then used his influence to acquit Sufenas (Cicero, Atticus, iv. 15).

Since he was governor of Macedonia or Cyrenaica in 51 (Cicero, Atticus, vi. 1 & viii. 15), Broughton conjectured that he had been Praetor in 52. He was still in his province by 49, so he probably helped Pompey after his flight from Italy. Plutarch mentions him just before the Battle of Pharsalus (Life of Cicero, 38). As he disappears from ancient sources after this, he might have died during the battle.
2 commentsJoss
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47/46 BC Julius Caesar83 viewsDiademed head of Venus right, wearing necklace, hair collected into a knot, falling in two locks

CAESAR
Aeneas, naked, advancing left, head facing, holding palladium in extended right hand and bearing his father, Anchises, wearing long tunic and hood, on his left shoulder.


Military mint moving with Caesar in North Africa.

47-46 BC

3.5g

Crawford 458/1; CRI 55; Sydenham 1013; RSC 12.

Ex-Munzhandlung Polak

The reverse depicts Aeneas’ flight from Troy, with his elderly father Anchises on his shoulder. Virgil's epic poam The Aeneid tells the story of Aeneas. When Troy was sacked by the Greeks, Aeneas, after being commanded by the gods to flee, gathered a group of Trojan's and then travelled to Italy and became progenitors of the Roman people.

Probably struck in Africa during Caesar’s campaign against the remaining Pompeian's. The obverse depicts Venus, from whom Caesar claimed descent via Iulus, son of the Trojan prince Aeneas, who was the son of Anchises and Venus.
1 commentsJay GT4
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495/2a Lepidus and Octavian23 viewsLepidus and Octavian. Military mint traveling with Lepidus in Italy. 43 B.C., late. AR Denarius.(3.35g, 16mm, 6h). Obv:LEPIDVS•PONT•MAX•III•VIR•R•P•C•, bare head of Lepidus right Rev: CAESAR•IMP•III•VIR•R•P•C•, bare head of Octavian right. Cf Crawford 495/2a 2c-d; Syd. 1323; Cf RSC 2-2a; 2c-d. “From Group SGF”

I’ve sought a coin with a portrait of Lepidus, and while worn, the obverse portrait is clearly identifiable. 43 B.C. saw the establishment of the Second Triumvirate giving Lepidus, Antony, and Octavian dictatorial powers over the Roman State.
1 commentsLucas H
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501. Constantine I Lyons Sol14 viewsLyons

Originally, the important city in this area was that of Vienne, at a crossroads of Celtic trails, and port for the Greek trade. They had been largly Hellanised during the 2nd - 1st centuries BCE, then caught up in the conflicts involving Rome and Athens. Roman traders had settled there and competition started a revolt, driving the Romans to the north. At the present site of Lyons, they sought and received refuge from the Gallic tribe called Segusiavi. At that time, Lyons was just a tribe of Celts occupying the top of a hill, later to be called Fourviere. A Roman settlement was begun, and then later used by Julius Caesar to launch his campaigns against the Helvetii in 58 BCE.

The site of Lyons, being on a crossroads as well as a connection to the Mediterranean, was early recognised as being strategically important. In 43 BCE, the city of Lugdunum became an official Roman colony recognised by the Roman senate, founded by the governor of Gallia Comata (province of Comata), Lucius Munatius Plancus. Later, in 27 BCE, then Emperor Augustus divided Gallia Comata into three provinces, and Lugdunum became the capital of Gallia Lugdunensis. [The third province was Gallia Aquitania.]

Lyons became the financial center for taxation purposes of Aquitania and Lugdunum provinces, and an official mint was established there. Also, the state cult honoring Augustus [or the present Emperor] was established at Lyons, drawing many pilgrims and supplicants. Drusus, the father of Claudius, (born 10 BCE) was stationed at Lyons, being in charge of Gallia Comata. Also, a cohort of Roman policemen were stationed at lyons, to protect the mint. A bronze inscription found at Lyons records the speech given to the Roman Senate in 48 CE by Emperor Claudius, arguing for the acceptance of admission of senators from Gallia Comata.

Through Lyons [and Vienne] passed the great roads leading to the different regions of Gaul and towards Italy. Trade with Gaul, Britain and Germany passed through Lyons, mostly supplying Roman colonies on the the frontier. Later, these routes were paved by the Romans to facilitate trade and troop movement. Lyons became an important trade and military center. However, intercity rivalry with Vienne to the south never died, and indeed Vienne became jealous over time.

Lyons was burnt to the ground in 65 CE but quickly rebuilt. It prospered until 197 when it was sacked in a civil war. The city of Lyons had backed the unfortunate loser in a battle between two Roman generals. Cities to the south [Arles, Vienne, and to the north, Trier] took over the economic functions of Lyons; and the city of Lyons was again plundered 269. Lyons fought back, and the trade wars raged on, until early in the 4th century when the aqueducts of Lyons were destroyed. Without water, the hillsite of Lyons [the Fourviere Hill] became untenable. The merchants moved down to the city below, or out of the city entirely. The protection of Lyons was thus much more difficult. And the decline of the Roman Empire also spelled the decline of many of its cities.

RIC VII Lyons 34 C3

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502. CONSTANTINE II156 viewsFlavius Claudius Constantinus, known in English as Constantine II, (316 - 340) was Roman Emperor (337 - 340). The eldest son of Constantine I and Fausta, he was born at Arles, and was raised as a Christian.

On March 1, 317, Constantine was made Caesar, and at the age of seven, in 323, took part in his father's campaign against the Sarmatians.

At the age of ten became commander of Gaul, after the death of his half-brother Crispus. An inscription dating to 330 records the title of Alamannicus, so it is probable that his generals won a victory over Alamanni. His military career continued when Constantine I elected his son field commander during the 332 campaign against the Goths.

Following the death of his father in 337, Constantine II became Emperor jointly with his brothers Constantius II and Constans. His section of the Empire was Gaul, Britannia and Hispania.

At first, he was the guardian of his younger brother Constans, whose portion was Italia, Africa and Illyricum. As Constans came of age, Constantine would not relinquish the guardianship and in 340 he marched against Constans in Italy, but was defeated at Aquileia and died in battle. Constans came to control his deceased brother's realm.

CONSTANTINE II, as Caesar. 317-337 AD. Æ Reduced Follis (18mm, 2.74 gm). Siscia mint. Struck 321-324 AD. Laureate head right / VOT / X in two lines across field; all within wreath; SIS sunburst. RIC VII 182. Ex-CNG
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503. Constans25 viewsFlavius Julius Constans (320 - January 18, 350), was a Roman Emperor who ruled from 337 to 350. Constans was the third and youngest son of Constantine the Great and Fausta, Constantine's second wife.

From 337, he was a joint ruler with his brothers Constantius II and Constantine II. Constantine II attempted to take advantage of his youth and inexperience by invading Italy in 340, but Constans defeated Constantine II at Aquileia, where the older brother died.

The writer Julius Firmicus Maternus mentioned that Constans visited Britain in the early months of 343, but did not explain why. The speed of his trip, paired with the fact he crossed the English Channel during the dangerous winter months, suggests it was in response to a military emergency of some kind.

In 350, the general Magnentius declared himself emperor with the support of the troops on the Rhine frontier, and later the entire Western portion of the Roman Empire. Constans lacked any support beyond his immediate household, and was forced to flee for his life. Magnentius' supporters cornered him in a fortification in southeastern Gaul, where he was killed.

Constans, AE3. 340-348 AD. DN CONSTANS P F AVG, diademed draped bust right / VICTORIAE DD AVGG Q NN, two Victories standing facing each other, each holding wreath & palm.
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504. CONSTANTIUS II148 viewsFlavius Iulius Constantius, known in English as Constantius II, (7 August 317 - 3 November 361) was a Roman Emperor (337 - 361) of the Constantinian dynasty

Constantius was the second of the three sons of Constantine I and his second wife Fausta. Constantius was born in Sirmium (in Illyricum) and named Caesar by his father. When Constantine died in 337, Constantius II led the massacre of his relatives decended from the second marriage of his grandfather Constantius Chlorus and Theodora, leaving himself, his older brother Constantine II, his younger brother Constans and two cousins (Gallus and his half-brother Julian) as the only surviving adult males related to Constantine. The three brothers divided the Roman Empire among them, according to their father's will. Constantine II received Britannia, Gaul and Hispania; Constans ruled Italia, Africa, and Illyricum; and Constantius ruled the East.

This division changed when Constantine II died in 340, trying to overthrow Constans in Italy, and Constans become sole ruler in the Western half of the empire. The division changed once more in 350 when Constans was killed in battle by forces loyal to the usurper Magnentius. Until this time, Constantius was preoccupied with fighting the Sassanid Empire, and he was forced to elevate his cousin Gallus to Caesar of the East to assist him, while he turned his attention to this usurper.

Constantius eventually met and crushed Magnentius in the Battle of Mursa Major, one of the bloodiest battles in Roman history, in 351. Magnentius committed suicide in 353, and Constantius soon after put his cousin Gallus to death. However, he still could not handle the military affairs of both the Eastern and German frontiers by himself, so in 355 he elevated his last remaining relative, Julian, to Caesar. As Julian was hailed Augustus by the army in Gaul, Constantius saw no alternative but to face the usurper with violent force. As the two armies sought engagement, Constantius died from a fever near Tarsus on November 3, 361, and Julian was hailed Augustus in the whole of the Roman empire.

Constantius took an active part in the affairs of the Christian church, frequently taking the side of the Arians, and he called the Council of Rimini in 359.

Constantius married three times, first to a daughter of Julius Constantius, then to Eusebia, and last to Faustina, who gave birth to a posthumous daughter, Faustina Constantia, who later married Emperor Gratian.

CONSTANTIUS II. 337-361 AD. Æ 18mm (2.41 gm). Siscia mint. Struck 351-355 AD. D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier spearing falling enemy horseman who wears conical hat; at right, shield on ground; ASIS. RIC VIII 350. Good VF, green patina. Ex CNG
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507. Magnentius36 viewsMagnentius (ruled AD January 18, 350–August 11, 353), was a Roman usurper.

Dissatisfaction amongst the ranks of the Roman army with Constans came to a head with the elevation of Magnentius at Autun on January 18, 350. Constans was abandoned by all except a handful of retainers, and he was slain shortly afterwards by a troop of light cavalry near the Pyrenees.

Magnentius quickly attracted the loyalty of the provinces in Britain, Gaul, and the rest of western Europe, in part because he proved to be far more tolerant towards both Christians and pagans.

The remaining emperor of the family of Constantine the Great, Constantius II broke off his war in the east with Persia, and marched west. Their armies met in the Battle of Mursa Major in 351; Magnentius led his troops into battle, while Constantius spent the day of battle praying in a nearby church. Despite Magnentius' heroism, his troops were defeated and forced to retreat back to Gaul.

As a result of Magnentius' defeat, Italy ejected his garrisons and rejoined the loyalist cause. Magnentius made a final stand in 353 in the Battle of Mons Seleucus, after which he committed suicide.

Following the suppression of Magnentius' rebellion, Constantius commanded an investigation be made to find his followers. The most notorious agent in this search was the primicerius notorarum Paulus Catena.


Magnentius AE 16mm Half Centenionalis. D N MAGNENTIVS P F AVG, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right, A behind / VICTORIAE NN AVG ET CAE, two Victories holding shield marked VOT V MVLT X.
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510. Valentinian I51 viewsFlavius Valentinianus, known in English as Valentinian I, (321 - November 17, 375) was a Roman Emperor (364 - 375). He was born at Cibalis, in Pannonia, the son of a successful general, Gratian the Elder.

He had been an officer of the Praetorian guard under Julian and Jovian, and had risen high in the imperial service. Of robust frame and distinguished appearance, he possessed great courage and military capacity. After the death of Jovian, he was chosen emperor in his forty-third year by the officers of the army at Nicaea in Bithynia on February 26, 364, and shortly afterwards named his brother Valens colleague with him in the empire.

The two brothers, after passing through the chief cities of the neighbouring district, arranged the partition of the empire at Naissus (Nissa) in Upper Moesia. As Western Roman Emperor, Valentinian took Italia, Illyricum, Hispania, the Gauls, Britain and Africa, leaving to Eastern Roman Emperor Valens the eastern half of the Balkan peninsula, Greece, Aegyptus, Syria and Asia Minor as far as Persia. They were immediately confronted by the revolt of Procopius, a relative of the deceased Julian. Valens managed to defeat his army at Thyatria in Lydia in 366, and Procopius was executed shortly afterwards.

During the short reign of Valentinian there were wars in Africa, in Germany and in Britain, and Rome came into collision with barbarian peoples never of heard before, specifically the Burgundians, and the Saxons.

Valentinian's chief work was guarding the frontiers and establishing military positions. Milan was at first his headquarters for settling the affairs of northern Italy. The following year (365) Valentinian was at Paris, and then at Reims, to direct the operations of his generals against the Alamanni. These people, defeated at Scarpona (Charpeigne) and Catelauni (Châlons-en-Champagne) by Jovinus, were driven back to the German bank of the Rhine, and checked for a while by a chain of military posts and fortresses. At the close of 367, however, they suddenly crossed the Rhine, attacked Moguntiacum (Mainz) and plundered the city. Valentinian attacked them at Solicinium (Sulz am Neckar, in the Neckar valley, or Schwetzingen) with a large army, and defeated them with great slaughter. But his own losses were so considerable that Valentinian abandoned the idea of following up his success.

Later, in 374, Valentinian made peace with their king, Macrianus, who from that time remained a true friend of the Romans. The next three years he spent at Trier, which he chiefly made his headquarters, organizing the defence of the Rhine frontier, and personally superintending the construction of numerous forts.

During his reign the coasts of Gaul were harassed by the Saxon pirates, with whom the Picts and Scots of northern Britain joined hands, and ravaged the island from the Antonine Wall to the shores of Kent. In 368 Count Theodosius was sent to drive back the invaders; in this he was completely successful, and established a new British province, called Valentia in honour of the emperor.

In Africa, Firmus, raised the standard of revolt, being joined by the provincials, who had been rendered desperate by the cruelty and extortions of Comes Romanus, the military governor. The services of Theodosius were again requisitioned. He landed in Africa with a small band of veterans, and Firmus, to avoid being taken prisoner, committed suicide.

In 374 the Quadi, a Germanic tribe in what is now Moravia and Slovakia, resenting the erection of Roman forts to the north of the Danube in what they considered to be their own territory, and further exasperated by the treacherous murder of their king, Gabinius, crossed the river and laid waste the province of Pannonia. The emperor in April, 375 entered Illyricum with a powerful army. But during an audience to an embassy from the Quadi at Brigetio on the Danube (near Komárom, Hungary), Valentinian suffered a burst blood vessel in the skull while angrily yelling at the people gathered. This injury resulted in his death on November 17, 375.

His general administration seems to have been thoroughly honest and able, in some respects beneficent. If Valentinian was hard and exacting in the matter of taxes, he spent them in the defence and improvement of his dominions, not in idle show or luxury. Though himself a plain and almost illiterate soldier, Valentinian was a founder of schools. He also provided medical attendance for the poor of Rome, by appointing a physician for each of the fourteen districts of the city.

Valentinian was a Christian but permitted absolute religious freedom to all his subjects. Against all abuses, both civil and ecclesiastical, Valentinian steadily set his face, even against the increasing wealth and worldliness of the clergy. His chief flaw was his temper, which at times was frightful, and showed itself in its full fierceness in the punishment of persons accused of witchcraft, fortune-telling or magical practices.

Valentinian I; RIC IX, Siscia 15(a); C.37; second period: 24 Aug. 367-17 Nov. 375; common. obv. DN VALENTINI-ANVS PF AVG, bust cuir., drap., r., rev. SECVRITAS-REI PVBLICAE, Victory advancing l., holding wreath and trophy. l. field R above R with adnex, r. field F, ex. gamma SISC rev.Z dot (type xxxv)
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513. Gratian27 viewsFlavius Gratianus Augustus (April 18/May 23, 359 - August 25, 383), known as Gratian, was a Western Roman Emperor from 375 to 383. He was the son of Valentinian I by Marina Severa and was born at Sirmium in Pannonia.

On August 4, 367 he received from his father the title of Augustus. On the death of Valentinian (November 17, 375), the troops in Pannonia proclaimed his infant son (by a second wife Justina) emperor under the title of Valentinian II.

Gratian acquiesced in their choice; reserving for himself the administration of the Gallic provinces, he handed over Italy, Illyria and Africa to Valentinian and his mother, who fixed their residence at Milan. The division, however, was merely nominal, and the real authority remained in the hands of Gratian.

The Eastern Roman Empire was under the rule of his uncle Valens. In May, 378 Gratian completely defeated the Lentienses, the southernmost branch of the Alamanni, at the Battle of Argentovaria, near the site of the modern Colmar. Later that year, Valens met his death in the Battle of Adrianople on August 9.

In the same year, the government of the Eastern Empire devolved upon Gratian, but feeling himself unable to resist unaided the incursions of the barbarians, he promoted Theodosius I on January 19, 379 to govern that portion of the empire. Gratianus and Theodosius then cleared the Balkans of barbarians in the Gothic War (377–382).

For some years Gratian governed the empire with energy and success but gradually sank into indolence, occupying himself chiefly with the pleasures of the chase, and became a tool in the hands of the Frankish general Merobaudes and bishop Ambrose of Milan.

By taking into his personal service a body of Alani, and appearing in public in the dress of a Scythian warrior, he aroused the contempt and resentment of his Roman troops. A Roman general named Magnus Maximus took advantage of this feeling to raise the standard of revolt in Britain and invaded Gaul with a large army. Gratian, who was then in Paris, being deserted by his troops, fled to Lyon. There, through the treachery of the governor, Gratian was delivered over to one of the rebel generals and assassinated on August 25, 383.

RIC IX Antioch 46b S

DN GRATIA-NVS PF AVG
CONCOR-DIA AVGGG
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514. Valentinian II34 viewsValentinian II (371 - 392) was elevated as Western Roman Emperor at the age of four in 375, along with his half-brother Gratian.

Valentinian and his family lived in Milan, and the empire was nominally divided between them. Gratian took the trans- Alpine provinces, while Italy, Illyricum in part, and Africa were to be under the rule of Valentinian, or rather of his mother, Justina. Justina was an Arian, and the imperial court at Milan struggled against the Catholics of that city, led by their bishop Ambrose. The popularity of Ambrose was so great that the emperors' authority was materially shaken. In 387, Magnus Maximus, a Roman consul who had commanded an army in Briton, and in 383 (the year of Gratian's death) had declared himself emperor of Western Rome, crossed the Alps into the valley of the Po and threatened Milan.

The emperor Valentinian II and his mother fled to Theodosius I, the Eastern Roman Emperor and Valentinian's brother in law. Valentinian was restored in 388 by Theodosius, following the death of Magnus Maximus.

On May 15, 392, Valentinian was found hanged in his residence in the town of Vienne in Gaul. The Frankish soldier Arbogast, Valentinian's protector and magister militum, maintained that it was suicide. Arbogast and Valentinian had frequently disputed rulership over the Western Roman Empire, and Valentinian was also noted to have complained of Arbogast's control over him to Theodosius. Thus when word of his death reached Constantinople Theodosius believed, or at least suspected, that Arbogast was lying and that he had engineered Valentinian's demise. These suspicions were further fueled by Arbogast's elevation of a Eugenius, pagan official to the position of Western Emperor, and the veiled accusations which Ambrose, the Bishop of Milan, spoke during his funeral oration for Valentinian.

Valentinian II's death sparked a civil war between Eugenius and Theodosius over the rulership of the West in the Battle of the Frigidus. The resultant Eastern victory there led to the final brief unification of the Roman Empire under Theodosius, and the ultimate irreparable division of the Empire after his death.

Bronze AE3, RIC 22, VF, 2.19g, 17.7mm, 0o, Arelate mint, 378-383 A.D.; obverse D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse VICTORIAE AVGGG, Victory advancing left holding wreath in right and palm frond in left, [S]CON in ex;Ex Aiello;Ex Forum
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515c. Flavius Victor29 viewsFlavius Victor was the infant son of Magnus Maximus by his wife Helen, allegedly the daughter of Octavius. He was proclaimed an Augustus from 384 to his death in 388.

Victor's father was considered a usurper of the Western Roman Empire. He negotiated receiving recognition by the legitimate Augusti Valentinian II and Theodosius I. When negotiations failed, Maximus pressed the matter by proclaiming his son an Augustus, indicating an attempt to secure a succession. This method had been used by former Emperor Valentinian I who declared his son and heir Gratian an Augustus in 367 and by Theodosius who had declared his own son and heir Arcadius an Augustus in 383.

Maximus and Victor gained recognition of their legitimacy for their co-reign by Theodosius in 386. In 387, Maximus campaigned in Italy against Valentinian II. Victor was left behind in Trier. His father defeated Valentinian but failed against a then hostile Theodosius in 388. Theodosius send Arbogastes in Trier to slay Victor.

Victor's death left Valentinian II, Theodosius and Arcadius as the sole Augusti in the Empire

RIC IX Aquileia 55b
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516. Honorius45 viewsFlavius Honorius (September 9, 384–August 15, 423) was Emperor of the Western Roman Empire from 395 until his death. He was the younger son of Theodosius I and his first wife Aelia Flaccilla, and brother of the Eastern emperor Arcadius.

Honorius was declared Augustus in 393 by his father and became western emperor at the age of 10, following his father's death in January 395. For the first part of his reign he depended on the military leadership of the Vandal general Stilicho. To strengthen his bonds to the young emperor, Stilicho married his daughter Maria to him.

At first Honorius based his capital in Milan, but when the Visigoths entered Italy in 402 he moved his capital to the coastal city of Ravenna, which was protected by a ring of marshes and strong fortifications. While the new capital was easier to defend, it was poorly situated to allow Roman forces to protect central Italy from the barbarian incursions.

The most notable event of his reign was the assault and sack of Rome on August 24, 410 by the Visigoths under Alaric.

The city had been under Visigothic siege since shortly after Stilicho's deposition and execution in the summer of 408. Lacking a strong general to control the by-now mostly barbarian Roman Army, Honorius could do little to attack Alaric's forces directly, and apparently adopted the only strategy he could do in the situation: wait passively to Visigoths to grow weary and spend the time marshalling what forces he could. Unfortunately, this course of action appeared to be the product of Honorius' indecisive character and he suffered much criticism for it both from contemporaries and later historians.

Whether this plan could have worked is perhaps debatable, especially since he deprived himself of several skillful officers by only promoting Catholics to the top military positions. In any case it was overtaken by events. Stricken by starvation, somebody opened Rome's defenses to Alaric and the Goths poured in. The city had not been under the control of a foreign force since an invasion of Gallic Celts some seven centuries before. The victorious Visigoths did untold damage to the city and the shock of this event reverberated from Britain to Jerusalem, and inspired Augustine to write his magnum opus, The City of God.

The year 410 also saw Honorius reply to a British plea for assistance against local barbarian incursions. Preoccupied with the Visigoths and lacking any real capabilities to assist the distant province, Honorius told the Britons to defend themselves as best they could.

There is a story (which Gibbon disbelieved) that when he heard the news that Rome had "perished", Honorius was initially shocked; thinking the news was in reference to a favorite chicken he had named "Roma", he recalled in disbelief that the bird was just recently feeding out of his hand. It was then explained to him that the Rome in question was the city.

His reign of twenty-eight years was one of the most disastrous in the Roman annals. Honorius' supposed weakness and timidity in the face of internal dissension and the attacks of the Visigoths and Vandals is often said to have contributed to the rapid disintegration of the western half of the empire.



RIC X Antioch 153
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516a Johannes42 viewsAfter the death of Honorius on August 15, 423, his closest male relative was Valentinian, son of Galla Placidia. Valentinian was currently at Constantinople. This power vacuum allowed Ioannes, the primicerius notariorum (chief notary) to seize power in the west. Virtually nothing is known of Ioannes himself, though he was said to have had a mild character. He was supported by the magister militum Castinus and by Aetius, son of the magister militum Gaudentius. After his acclamation at Rome, Ioannes transferred his capital to Ravenna. Ioannes' rule was accepted in Gaul, Spain and Italy, but not in Africa. Ioannes' attempts to negotiate with the eastern emperor Theodosius II were unsuccessful. He seems not to have had a firm grasp of power and this encouraged eastern intervention. In 425, Theodosius II sent an expedition under the command of Ardabur the Elder to install Valentinian as emperor in the west. Ardabur was captured, but treated well, as Ioannes still hoped to be able to negotiate with Theodosius. Ardabur, however, persuaded some of Ioannes' officials to betray him. After his capture, Ioannes was taken to Aquileia where he was mutilated, then executed. Three days after Ioannes's execution, one of his generals, Aetius, arrived in Italy with a large force of Huns. Rather than continue the war, Valentinian bought off the Huns with gold and Aetius with the office of comes.
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55 BC Gn. Plancius150 viewsCN PLANCIVS AED CVR SC
Head of Macedonia right, wearing causia

Cretan goat standing right, bow and quiver behind
IIZ (old museum number?) in Ex.

Rome 55 BC
3.46g

Sear 396, RRC 432/1

Ex-Canadian Coin

Gnaeus Plancius was a friend of Cicero and strikes this coin as curule aedile. The type recalls his military service in Crete under the Proconsul Q. Metellus. He was also a military tribune under C. Antonius. He later returned to Macedonia as questor under the Propraetor L. Appuleius Saturninus. While serving as Questor in Thessalonia Plancius courageously took in Cicero as a guest in his official residence. Earlier that year (January or Early February of 58 BC.) Cicero was exiled from Italy and Rome because of the Tribune Clodius' legislation which confiscated Cicero's property and forced him to stay 400 miles out of the city of Rome. Clodius was eventually killed along the Appian Way by his rival Milo. Cicero took up the case for the defense of Milo unsuccessfully. In 54 BC Cicero defended Gn. Plancius in a court case (Pro Plancio) in which A. Laterensis accused Plancius of illegally organizing voting clubs (Colegia) to sway the elections and of bribery. Cicero was able to get Plancius acquitted and wrote his Pro Plancio which outlined his speeches and lines of questioning.
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602a. Valentinian III31 viewsIn the early years of his reign, Valentinian was overshadowed by his mother. After his marriage in 437, moreover, much of the real authority lay in the hands of the Patrician and Master of Soldiers Aetius. Nor does Valentinian seem to have had much of an aptitude for rule. He is described as spoiled, pleasure-loving, and influenced by sorcerers and astrologers. He divided his time primarily between Rome and Ravenna. Like his mother, Valentinian was devoted to religion. He contributed to churches of St. Laurence in both Rome and Ravenna. He also oversaw the accumulation of ecclesiastical authority in the hands of the bishop of Rome as he granted ever greater authority and prestige to pope Leo the Great (440-461) in particular.

Valentinian's reign saw the continued dissolution of the western empire. By 439, nearly all of North Africa was effectively lost to the Vandals; Valentinian did attempt to neutralize that threat by betrothing his sister Placidia to the Vandal prince Huneric. In Spain, the Suevi controlled the northwest, and much of Gaul was to all intents and purposes controlled by groups of Visigoths, Burgundians, Franks, and Alans. In 454, Valentinian murdered his supreme general Aetius, presumably in an attempt to rule in his own right. But in the next year, he himself was murdered by two members of his bodyguard, ex-partisans of Aetius.

Although Valentinian was ineffectual as a ruler, his legitimate status and connection to the old ruling dynasty provided a last vestige of unity for the increasingly fragmented Roman empire. After his death, the decay of the west accelerated. The different regions of the west went their own way, and the last several western emperors, the so-called "Shadow" or "Puppet" Emperors, not only were usually overshadowed by one barbarian general or other, but also were limited primarily to Italy.
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603. Marcian26 viewsMarcian was born in Thrace or Illyria. He spent his early life as an obscure soldier. He subsequently served for nineteen years under Ardaburius and Aspar, and took part in the wars against the Persians and Vandals. In 431, Marcian was taken prisoner by the Vandals in the fighting near Hippo Regius; brought before the Vandal king Geiseric, he was released on his oath never to take up arms against the Vandals.

Through the influence of these generals he became a captain of the guards, and was later raised to the rank of tribune and senator. On the death of Theodosius II he was chosen as consort by the latter's sister and successor, Pulcheria, and called upon to govern an empire greatly humbled and impoverished by the ravages of the Huns.

Upon becoming Emperor, Marcian repudiated the embarrassing payments of tribute to Attila the Hun, which the latter had been accustomed to receiving from Theodosius in order to refrain from attacks on the eastern empire. Aware that he could never capture the eastern capital of Constantinople, Attila turned to the west and waged his famous campaigns in Gaul 451 and Italy (452) while leaving Marcian's dominions alone.

He reformed the finances, checked extravagance, and repopulated the devastated districts. He repelled attacks upon Syria and Egypt (452), and quelled disturbances on the Armenian frontier (456). The other notable event of his reign is the Council of Chalcedon (451), in which Marcian endeavoured to mediate between the rival schools of theology.

Marcian generally ignored the affairs of the western Roman Empire, leaving that tottering half of the empire to its fate. He did nothing to aid the west during Attila's campaigns, and, living up to his promise, ignored the depredations of Geiseric even when the Vandals sacked Rome in 455. It has recently been argued, however, that Marcian was more actively involved in aiding the western Empire than historians had previously believed and that Marcian's fingerprints can be discerned in the events leading up to, and including, Attila's death. (See Michael A. Babcock, "The Night Attila Died: Solving the Murder of Attila the Hun," Berkley Books, 2005.)

Shortly before Attila's death in 453, conflict had begun again between him and Marcian. However, the powerful Hun king died before all-out war broke out. In a dream, Marcian claimed he saw Attila's bow broken before him, and a few days later, he got word that his great enemy was dead.

Marcian died in 457 of disease, possibly gangrene contracted during a long religious journey.

Despite his short reign and his writing off of the west Marcian is considered one of the best of the early "Byzantine" emperors. The Eastern Orthodox Church recognizes him and his wife Pulcheria as saints, with their feast day on February 17.

Marcian AE4.9mm (1.30 grams) D N MARCIANVS P F AV, diademed & draped bust right / Monogram of Marcian inside wreath, * above
ecoli
Tetricus-I-RIC-80.jpg
70. Tetricus I.16 viewsAntoninianus, 270 - 273 AD, Cologne or Vienne mint.
Obverse: IMP TETRICVS P F AVG / Radiate bust of Tetricus I.
Reverse: HILARITAS AVGG / Hilaritas standing, holding palm branch and cornucopiae.
2.33 gm., 20 mm.
RIC #80; Sear #11237.

Tetricus was the last emperor of the so-called Gallo-Roman Empire. He became emperor in 270 AD, and immediately gave his young son, also named Tetricus, the title and rank of Caesar. Several years later in 273 AD when Aurelian invaded Gaul, Tetricus abdicated and surrendered to him. The lives of Tetricus and his son were spared and they spent the rest of their lives in Italy as private citizens. A welcome interlude in a saga where ambition lead to violent deaths for just about everyone involved !
Callimachus
roman_emperor_otho.jpg
708a, Otho64 viewsOtho (69 A.D.)
John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction
In January 69 Otho led a successful coup to overthrow the emperor Galba. Upon advancing to the throne, he hoped to conciliate his adversaries and restore political stability to the Empire. These ambitions were never to be realized. Instead, our sources portray a leader never fully able to win political confidence at Rome or to overcome military anarchy abroad. As a result, he was defeated in battle by the forces of Vitellius, his successor, and took his own life at the conclusion of the conflict. His principate lasted only eight weeks.
Early Life and Career
Marcus Salvius Otho was born at Ferentium on 28 April 32 A. D. His grandfather, also named Marcus Salvius Otho, was a senator who did not advance beyond the rank of praetor. Lucius Otho, his father, was consul in 33 and a trusted administrator under the emperors Tiberius, Gaius and Claudius. His mother, Albia Terentia, was likely to have been nobly born as well. The cognomen "Otho" was Etruscan in origin, and the fact that it can be traced to three successive generations of this family perhaps reflects a desire to maintain a part of the Etruscan tradition that formed the family's background.
Otho is recorded as being extravagant and wild as a youth - a favorite pastime involved roving about at night to snare drunkards in a blanket. Such behavior earned floggings from his father, whose frequent absences from home on imperial business suggest little in the way of a stabilizing parental influence in Otho's formative years. These traits apparently persisted: Suetonius records that Otho and Nero became close friends because of the similarity of their characters; and Plutarch relates that the young man was so extravagant that he sometimes chided Nero about his meanness, and even outdid the emperor in reckless spending.
Most intriguing in this context is Otho's involvement with Nero's mistress, Poppaea Sabina, the greatest beauty of her day. A relationship between the two is widely cited in the ancient sources, but the story differs in essential details from one account to the next. As a result, it is impossible to establish who seduced whom, whether Otho ever married Poppaea, and whether his posting to Lusitania by Nero should be understood as a "banishment" for his part in this affair. About the only reliable detail to emerge is that Otho did indeed become governor of Lusitania in 59, and that he assumed the post as a quaestor, a rank below that of praetor or consul, the minimum usually required for the office. From here he would launch his initial thrust towards the imperial throne.
Overthrow of Galba
Nero's suicide in June 68 marked the end of the Julio-Claudian dynasty and opened up the principate to the prerogatives of the military beyond Rome. First to emerge was Servius Sulpicius Galba, governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, who had been encouraged to revolt by the praetorians and especially by Nymphidius Sabinus, the corrupt and scheming praetorian prefect at Rome. By this time Otho had been in Spain for close to ten years. His record seems to have been a good one, marked by capable administration and an unwillingness to enrich himself at the expense of the province. At the same time, perhaps seeing this as his best chance to improve his own circumstances, he supported the insurrection as vigorously as possible, even sending Galba all of his gold and his best table servants. At the same time, he made it a point to win the favor of every soldier he came in contact with, most notably the members of the praetorian guard who had come to Spain to accompany Galba to Rome. Galba set out from Spain in July, formally assuming the emperorship shortly thereafter. Otho accompanied him on the journey.
Galba had been in Rome little more than two months when on 1 January 69 the troops in Upper Germany refused to declare allegiance to him and instead followed the men stationed in Lower Germany in proclaiming their commander, Aulus Vitellius, as the new ruler. To show that he was still in charge Galba adopted his own successor, Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi Licinianus, an aristocrat completely without administrative or military experience. The choice meant little to the remote armies, the praetorians or the senate and particularly angered Otho, who had hoped to succeed Galba. Otho quickly organized a conspiracy among the praetorians with promise of a material reward, and on 15 January 69 they declared him emperor and publicly killed Galba; Piso, dragged from hiding in the temple of Vesta, was also butchered. On that same evening a powerless senate awarded Otho the imperial titles.
Otho's Principate in Rome
It is not possible to reconstruct a detailed chronology of Otho's brief eight and a half weeks as princeps in Rome (15 January-15 March). Even so, Galba's quick demise had surely impressed upon Otho the need to conciliate various groups. As a result, he continued his indulgence of the praetorian guard but he also tried to win over the senate by following a strict constitutionalist line and by generally keeping the designations for the consulship made by Nero and Galba. In the provinces, despite limited evidence, there are some indications that he tried to compensate for Galba's stinginess by being more generous with grants of citizenship. In short, Otho was eager not to offend anyone.
Problems remained, however. The praetorians had to be continually placated and they were always suspicious of the senate. On the other hand, the senate itself, along with the people, remained deeply disturbed at the manner of Otho's coming to power and his willingness to be associated with Nero. These suspicions and fears were most evident in the praetorian outbreak at Rome. Briefly, Otho had decided to move from Ostia to Rome a cohort of Roman citizens in order to replace some of Rome's garrison, much of which was to be utilized for the showdown with Vitellius. He ordered that weapons be moved from the praetorian camp in Rome by ship to Ostia at night so that the garrison replacements would be properly armed and made to look as soldierly as possible when they marched into the city. Thinking that a senatorial counter-coup against Otho was underway, the praetorians stormed the imperial palace to confirm the emperor's safety, with the result that they terrified Otho and his senatorial dinner guests. Although the praetorians' fears were eventually calmed and they were given a substantial cash payment, the incident dramatically underscored the unease at Rome in the early months of 69.
Otho's Offensive against Vitellius
Meanwhile, in the Rhineland, preparations for a march on Rome by the military legions that had declared for Vitellius were far advanced. Hampered by poor intelligence gathering in Gaul and Germany and having failed to negotiate a settlement with Vitellius in early 69, Otho finally summoned to Italy his forces for a counterattack against the invading Vitellian army. His support consisted of the four legions of Pannonia and Dalmatia, the three legions of Moesia and his own imperial retinue of about 9,000. Vitellius' own troops numbered some 30,000, while those of his two marshals, Aulus Caecina Alienus and Fabius Valens, were between 15,000 and 20,000 each.
Otho's strategy was to make a quick diversionary strike in order to allow time for his own forces to assemble in Italy before engaging the enemy. The strategy worked, as the diversionary army, comprised of urban cohorts, praetorians and marines all from Rome or nearby, was successful in Narbonese Gaul in latter March. An advance guard sent to hold the line on the Po River until the Danubian legions arrived also enjoyed initial success. Otho himself arrived at Bedriacum in northern Italy about 10 April for a strategy session with his commanders. The main concern was that the Vitellians were building a bridge across the Po in order to drive southward towards the Apennines and eventually to Rome. Otho decided to counter by ordering a substantial part of his main force to advance from Bedriacum and establish a new base close enough to the new Vitellian bridge to interrupt its completion. While en route, the Othonian forces, strung out along the via Postumia amid baggage and supply trains, were attacked by Caecina and Valens near Cremona on 14 April. The clash, know as the Battle of Bedriacum, resulted in the defeat of the Othonian forces, their retreat cut off by the river behind them. Otho himself, meanwhile, was not present, but had gone to Brixellum with a considerable force of infantry and cavalry in order to impede any Vitellian units that had managed to cross the Po.
The plan had backfired. Otho's strategy of obtaining victory while avoiding any major battles had proven too risky. Realizing perhaps that a new round of fighting would have involved not only a significant re-grouping of his existing troops but also a potentially bloody civil war at Rome, if Vitellius' troops reached the capital, Otho decided that enough blood had been shed. Two weeks shy of his thirty-seventh birthday, on 16 April 69, he took his own life.
Assessment
To be sure, Otho remains an enigma - part profligate Neronian wastrel and part conscientious military commander willing to give his life for the good of the state. Our sources are at a loss to explain the paradox. Perhaps, like Petronius, he saw it was safer to appear a profligate in Nero's court? In the final analysis, Otho proved to be an organized and efficient military commander, who appealed more to the soldier than to the civilian. He also seems to have been a capable governor, with administrative talents that recalled those of his father. Nevertheless, his violent overthrow of Galba, the lingering doubts that it raised about his character, and his unsuccessful offensive against Vitellius are all vivid reminders of the turbulence that plagued the Roman world between the reigns of Nero and Vespasian. Regrettably, the scenario would play itself out one more time before peace and stability returned to the empire.
Copyright (C) 1999, John Donahue
Edited by J.P.Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
VitelliusARdenariusVesta.jpg
709a, Vitellius, 2 January - 20 December 69 A.D.42 viewsVITELLIUS AR silver denarius. RSC 72, RCV 2200. 19mm, 3.2 g. Obverse: A VITELLIVS GERM IMP AVG TR P, laureate head right; Reverse - PONT MAXIM, Vesta seated right, holding scepter and patera. Quite decent. Ex. Incitatus Coins. Photo courtesy of Incitatus Coins.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Vitellius (69 A.D.)

John F. Donahue
College of William and Mary


It is often difficult to separate fact from fiction in assessing the life and reign of Vitellius. Maligned in the ancient sources as gluttonous and cruel, he was also a victim of a hostile biographical tradition established in the regime of the Flavians who had overthrown him. Nevertheless, his decision to march against Rome in 69 was pivotal, since his subsequent defeat signalled the end of military anarchy and the beginning of an extended period of political stability under Vespasian and his successors.

Early Life and Career

Aulus Vitellius was born in September, 15 AD, the son of Lucius Vitellius and his wife Sestilia. One of the most successful public figures of the Julio-Claudian period, Lucius Vitellius was a three-time consul and a fellow censor with the emperor Claudius. Aulus seems to have moved with equal ease in aristocratic circles, successively winning the attention of the emperors Gaius, Claudius, and Nero through flattery and political skill.

Among his attested public offices, Vitellius was a curator of public works, a senatorial post concerned with the maintenance and repair of public buildings in Rome, and he was also proconsul of North Africa, where he served as a deputy to his brother, perhaps about 55 A. D. In addition, he held at least two priesthoods, the first as a member of the Arval Brethren, in whose rituals he participated from 57 A.D., and the second, as one of the quindecemviri sacris faciundis, a sacred college famous for its feasts.

With respect to marriage and family, Vitellius first wed a certain Petroniana, the daughter of a consul, sometime in the early to mid thirties A.D. The union produced a son, Petronianus, allegedly blind in one eye and emancipated from his father's control as a result of being named his mother's heir. Tradition records that Vitellius killed the boy shortly after emancipation amid charges of parricide; the marriage soon ended in divorce. A second marriage, to Galeria Fundana, daughter of an ex-praetor, was more stable than the first. It produced another son, who was eventually killed by the Flavians after the overthrow of Vitellius, as well as a daughter. Galeria is praised by Tacitus for her good qualities, and in the end it was she who saw to Vitellius' burial.

Rise to Power and Emperorship

Without doubt, the most fortuitous moment in Vitellius' political career was his appointment as governor of Lower Germany by the emperor Galba late in 68. The decision seemed to have caught everybody by surprise, including Vitellius himself, who, according to Suetonius, was in straitened circumstances at the time. The choice may have been made to reduce the possibility of rebellion by the Rhine armies, disaffected by Galba's refusal to reward them for their part in suppressing the earlier uprising of Julius Vindex. Ironically, it was Vitellius' lack of military achievement and his reputation for gambling and gluttony that may have also figured in his selection. Galba perhaps calculated that a man with little military experience who could now plunder a province to satisfy his own stomach would never become disloyal. If so, it was a critical misjudgement by the emperor.

The rebellion began on January 1, 69 ("The Year of the Four Emperors"), when the legions of Upper Germany refused to renew their oath of allegiance to Galba. On January 2, Vitellius' own men, having heard of the previous day's events, saluted him as emperor at the instigation of the legionary legate Fabius Valens and his colleagues. Soon, in addition to the seven legions that Vitellius now had at his command in both Germanies, the forces in Gaul, Britain, and Raetia also came over to his side. Perhaps aware of his military inexperience, Vitellius did not immediately march on Rome himself. Instead, the advance was led by Valens and another legionary general, Aulus Caecina Alienus, with each man commanding a separate column. Vitellius would remain behind to mobilize a reserve force and follow later.

Caecina was already one hundred fifty miles on his way when news reached him that Galba had been overthrown and Otho had taken his place as emperor. Undeterred, he passed rapidly down the eastern borders of Gaul; Valens followed a more westerly route, quelling a mutiny along the way. By March both armies had successfully crossed the Alps and joined at Cremona, just north of the Po. Here they launced their Batavian auxiliaries against Otho's troops and routed them in the First Battle of Bedriacum. Otho killed himself on April 16, and three days later the soldiers in Rome swore their allegience to Vitellius. The senate too hailed him as emperor.

When Vitellius learned of these developments, he set out to Rome from Gaul. By all accounts the journey was a drunken feast marked by the lack of discipline of both the troops and the imperial entourage. Along the way he stopped at Lugdunum to present his six-year-old son Germanicus to the legions as his eventual successor. Later, at Cremona, Vitellius witnessed the corpse-filled battlefield of Otho's recent defeat with joy, unmoved by so many citizens denied a proper burial.

The emperor entered Rome in late June-early July. Conscious of making a break with the Julio-Claudian past, Vitellius was reluctant to assume the traditional titles of the princes, even though he enthusiastically made offerings to Nero and declared himself consul for life. To his credit, Vitellius did seem to show a measure of moderation in the transition to the principate. He assumed his powers gradually and was generally lenient to Otho's supporters, even pardoning Otho's brother Salvius Titianus, who had played a key role in the earlier regime. In addition, he participated in Senate meetings and continued the practice of providing entertainments for the Roman masses. An important practical change involved the awarding of posts customarily held by freedmen to equites, an indication of the growth of the imperial bureaucracy and its attractiveness to men of ambition.

In other matters, he replaced the existing praetorian guard and urban cohorts with sixteen praetorian cohorts and four urban units, all comprised of soldiers from the German armies. According to Tacitus, the decision prompted a mad scramble, with the men, and not their officers, choosing the branch of service that they preferred. The situation was clearly unsatisfactory but not surprising, given that Vitellius was a creation of his own troops. To secure his position further, he sent back to their old postings the legions that had fought for Otho, or he reassigned them to distant provinces. Yet discontent remained: the troops who had been defeated or betrayed at Bedriacum remained bitter, and detachments of three Moesian legions called upon by Otho were returned to their bases, having agitated against Vitellius at Aquileia.

Flavian Revolt

The Vitellian era at Rome was short-lived. By mid-July news had arrived that the legions of Egypt under Tiberius Julius Alexander had sworn allegiance to a rival emperor, Titus Flavius Vespasianus, the governor of Judaea and a successful and popular general. Vespasian was to hold Egypt while his colleague Mucianus, governor of Syria, was to invade Italy. Before the plan could be enacted, however, the Danube legions, former supporters of Otho, joined Vespasian's cause. Under the leadership of Antonius Primus, commander of the Sixth legion in Pannonia, and Cornelius Fuscus, imperial procurator in Illyricum, the legions made a rapid descent on Italy.

Although his forces were only half of what Vitellius commanded in Italy, Primus struck first before the emperor could muster additional reinforcements from Germany. To make matters worse for the Vitellians, Valens was ill, and Caecina, now consul, had begun collaborating with the Flavians. His troops refused to follow his lead, however, and arrested him at Hostilia near Cremona. They then joined the rest of the Vitellian forces trying to hold the Po River. With Vitellius still in Rome and his forces virtually leaderless, the two sides met in October in the Second Battle of Bedriacum. The emperor's troops were soundly defeated and Cremona was brutally sacked by the victors. In addition, Valens, whose health had recovered, was captured while raising an army for Vitellius in Gaul and Germany; he was eventually executed.

Meanwhile, Primus continued towards Rome. Vitellius made a weak attempt to thwart the advance at the Apennine passes, but his forces switched to the Flavian side without a fight at Narnia in mid-December. At Rome, matters were no better. Vespasian's elder brother, Titus Flavius Sabinus, the city prefect, was successful in an effort to convince Vitellius to abdicate but was frustrated by the mob in Rome and the emperor's soldiers. Forced to flee to the Capitol, Sabinus was set upon by Vitellius' German troops and soon killed, with the venerable Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus set ablaze in the process. Within two days, the Flavian army fought its way into Rome. In a pathetic final move, Vitellius disguised himself in dirty clothing and hid in the imperial doorkeeper's quarters, leaning a couch and a mattress against the door for protection. Dragged from his hiding place by the Flavian forces, he was hauled off half-naked to the Forum, where he was tortured, killed, and tossed into the Tiber. The principate could now pass to Vespasian.

Assessment

Vitellius has not escaped the hostility of his biographers. While he may well have been gluttonous, his depiction as indolent, cruel, and extravagant is based almost entirely on the propaganda of his enemies. On the other hand, whatever moderating tendencies he did show were overshadowed by his clear lack of military expertise, a deficiency that forced him to rely in critical situations on largely inneffective lieutenants. As a result he was no match for his Flavian successors, and his humiliating demise was perfectly in keeping with the overall failure of his reign.

Copyright (C) 1999, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
VespasianPax_RICii10.jpg
710a, Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.134 viewsSilver denarius, RIC II, 10, aVF, 3.5 g, 18mm, Rome mint, 69-71 AD; Obverse: IMP CAESA[R] VESPASIANV[S AV]G - Laureate head right; Reverse: COS ITER [T]R POT - Pax seated left holding branch and caduceus. Ex Imperial Coins.


De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espèrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.





Cleisthenes
TitusCommColosseum.jpg
711a, Titus, 24 June 79 - 13 September 81 A.D. 110 viewsTITUS AUGUSTUS AR silver denarius. Struck at Rome, 80 AD. IMP TITVS CAESAR VESPASIAN AVG PM, laureate head right. Reverse - TRP IX IMP XV COS VIII PP, elephant walking left. Fully legible legends, about Very Fine, nice golden toning. Commemmorates the completion and dedication of the Colosseum and the opening of games. SCARCE. RCV 2512, valued at $544 in EF. 17mm, 3.1g. Ex Incitatus.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 79-81)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Titus Flavius Vespasianus was born on December 30, 39 A.D. He was the oldest of the three children of the founder of the Flavian Dynasty, Vespasian. Beginning in the year 70 Titus was named Cæsar and coregent; he was highly educated and a brilliant poet and orator in both Latin and Greek. He won military fame during the Jewish Revolt of 69-70. In April, 70, he appeared before the walls of Jerusalem, and conquered and destroyed the city after a siege of five months. He wished to preserve the Temple, but in the struggle with the Jews who rushed out of it a soldier threw a brand into the building. The siege and taking of the city were accompanied by barbarous cruelties. The next year Titus celebrated his victory by a triumph; to increase the fame of the Flavian dynasty the inscription on the triumphal arch represented the overthrow of the helpless people as a heroic achievement. Titus succeeded his father as Emperor in 79.

Before becoming emperor, tradition records that Titus was feared as the next Nero, a perception that may have developed from his association with Berenice, his alleged heavy-handedness as praetorian prefect, and tales of sexual debauchery. Once in office, however, both emperor and his reign were portrayed in universally positive terms. The suddenness of this transformation raises immediate suspicions, yet it is difficult to know whether the historical tradition is suspect or if Titus was in fact adept at taking off one mask for another. What is clear, however, is that Titus sought to present the Flavians as the legitimate successors of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Proof came through the issuing of a series of restoration coins of previous emperors, the most popular being Augustus and Claudius. In A.D. 80 Titus also set out to establish an imperial cult in honor of Vespasian. The temple, in which cult (the first that was not connected with the Julio-Claudians) was housed, was completed by Domitian and was known as the Temple of Vespasian and Domitian.
Legitimacy was also sought through various economic measures, which Titus enthusiastically funded. Vast amounts of capital poured into extensive building schemes in Rome, especially the Flavian Amphitheater, popularly known as the Colosseum. In celebration of additions made to the structure, Titus provided a grand 100-day festival, with sea fights staged on an artificial lake, infantry battles, wild beast hunts, and similar activities. He also constructed new imperial baths to the south-east of the Amphitheater and began work on the celebrated Arch of Titus, a memorial to his Jewish victories. Large sums were directed to Italy and the provinces as well, especially for road building. In response to the eruption of Vesuvius in A.D. 79, Titus spent large sums to relieve distress in that area; likewise, the imperial purse contributed heavily to rebuilding Rome after a devastating fire destroyed large sections of the city in A.D. 80. As a result of these actions, Titus earned a reputation for generosity and geniality. For these reasons he gained the honourable title of "amor et deliciæ generis humani" (the darling and admiration of the human race). Even so, his financial acumen must not be under-estimated. He left the treasury with a surplus, as he had found it, and dealt promptly and efficiently with costly natural disasters. The Greek historian of the third-century A.D., Cassius Dio, perhaps offered the most accurate and succinct assessment of Titus' economic policy: "In money matters, Titus was frugal and made no unnecessary expenditure." In other areas, the brevity of Titus' reign limits our ability to detect major emphases or trends in policy. As far as can be discerned from the limited evidence, senior officials and amici were well chosen, and his legislative activity tended to focus on popular social measures, with the army as a particular beneficiary in the areas of land ownership, marriage, and testamentary freedom. In the provinces, Titus continued his father's policies by strengthening roads and forts in the East and along the Danube.

Titus died in September, A.D. 81 after only 26 months in office. Suetonius recorded that Titus died on his way to the Sabine country of his ancestors in the same villa as his father. A competing tradition persistently implicated his brother and successor, Domitian, as having had a hand in the emperor's demise, but the evidence is highly contradictory and any wrongdoing is difficult to prove. Domitian himself delivered the funeral eulogy and had Titus deified. He also built several monuments in honor of Titus and completed the Temple of Vespasian and Titus, changing the name of the structure to include his brother's and setting up his cult statue in the Temple itself.

Titus was the beneficiary of considerable intelligence and talent, endowments that were carefully cultivated at every step of his career, from his early education to his role under his father's principate. Cassius Dio suggested that Titus' reputation was enhanced by his early death. It is true that the ancient sources tend to heroicize Titus, yet based upon the evidence, his reign must be considered a positive one. He capably continued the work of his father in establishing the Flavian Dynasty and he maintained a high degree of economic and administrative competence in Italy and beyond. In so doing, he solidified the role of the emperor as paternalistic autocrat, a model that would serve Trajan and his successors well. Titus was used as a model by later emperors, especially those known as the Five Good Emperors (Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius).

Copyright (C) 1997, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Catholic Encyclopedia, http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14746b.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Titus_Colosseum_Commem_AR_denarius.jpg
711a, Titus, 24 June 79 - 13 September 81 A.D.136 viewsTitus, 24 June 79 - 13 September 81 A.D. AR denarius, RCV 2512, aVF, struck at Rome, 80 A.D., 17.5mm, 3.4g. Obverse: IMP TITVS CAESAR VESPASIAN AVG PM, laureate head right; Reverse: TRP IX IMP XV COS VIII PP, elephant walking left. Fully legible legends; nice golden toning. This coin was struck in order to commemorate the completion and dedication of the Flavian Amphitheatre (the Colosseum) and its opening games. Very scarce. Ex Incitatus; photo courtesy Incitatus.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 79-81)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Titus Flavius Vespasianus was born on December 30, 39 A.D. He was the oldest of the three children of the founder of the Flavian Dynasty, Vespasian. Beginning in the year 70 Titus was named Cæsar and coregent; he was highly educated and a brilliant poet and orator in both Latin and Greek. He won military fame during the Jewish Revolt of 69-70. In April, 70, he appeared before the walls of Jerusalem, and conquered and destroyed the city after a siege of five months. He wished to preserve the Temple, but in the struggle with the Jews who rushed out of it a soldier threw a brand into the building. The siege and taking of the city were accompanied by barbarous cruelties. The next year Titus celebrated his victory by a triumph; to increase the fame of the Flavian dynasty the inscription on the triumphal arch represented the overthrow of the helpless people as a heroic achievement. Titus succeeded his father as Emperor in 79.

Before becoming emperor, tradition records that Titus was feared as the next Nero, a perception that may have developed from his association with Berenice, his alleged heavy-handedness as praetorian prefect, and tales of sexual debauchery. Once in office, however, both emperor and his reign were portrayed in universally positive terms. The suddenness of this transformation raises immediate suspicions, yet it is difficult to know whether the historical tradition is suspect or if Titus was in fact adept at taking off one mask for another. What is clear, however, is that Titus sought to present the Flavians as the legitimate successors of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Proof came through the issuing of a series of restoration coins of previous emperors, the most popular being Augustus and Claudius. In A.D. 80 Titus also set out to establish an imperial cult in honor of Vespasian. The temple, in which cult (the first that was not connected with the Julio-Claudians) was housed, was completed by Domitian and was known as the Temple of Vespasian and Domitian.
Legitimacy was also sought through various economic measures, which Titus enthusiastically funded. Vast amounts of capital poured into extensive building schemes in Rome, especially the Flavian Amphitheater, popularly known as the Colosseum. In celebration of additions made to the structure, Titus provided a grand 100-day festival, with sea fights staged on an artificial lake, infantry battles, wild beast hunts, and similar activities. He also constructed new imperial baths to the south-east of the Amphitheater and began work on the celebrated Arch of Titus, a memorial to his Jewish victories. Large sums were directed to Italy and the provinces as well, especially for road building. In response to the eruption of Vesuvius in A.D. 79, Titus spent large sums to relieve distress in that area; likewise, the imperial purse contributed heavily to rebuilding Rome after a devastating fire destroyed large sections of the city in A.D. 80. As a result of these actions, Titus earned a reputation for generosity and geniality. For these reasons he gained the honourable title of "amor et deliciæ generis humani" (the darling and admiration of the human race). Even so, his financial acumen must not be under-estimated. He left the treasury with a surplus, as he had found it, and dealt promptly and efficiently with costly natural disasters. The Greek historian of the third-century A.D., Cassius Dio, perhaps offered the most accurate and succinct assessment of Titus' economic policy: "In money matters, Titus was frugal and made no unnecessary expenditure." In other areas, the brevity of Titus' reign limits our ability to detect major emphases or trends in policy. As far as can be discerned from the limited evidence, senior officials and amici were well chosen, and his legislative activity tended to focus on popular social measures, with the army as a particular beneficiary in the areas of land ownership, marriage, and testamentary freedom. In the provinces, Titus continued his father's policies by strengthening roads and forts in the East and along the Danube.

Titus died in September, A.D. 81 after only 26 months in office. Suetonius recorded that Titus died on his way to the Sabine country of his ancestors in the same villa as his father. A competing tradition persistently implicated his brother and successor, Domitian, as having had a hand in the emperor's demise, but the evidence is highly contradictory and any wrongdoing is difficult to prove. Domitian himself delivered the funeral eulogy and had Titus deified. He also built several monuments in honor of Titus and completed the Temple of Vespasian and Titus, changing the name of the structure to include his brother's and setting up his cult statue in the Temple itself.

Titus was the beneficiary of considerable intelligence and talent, endowments that were carefully cultivated at every step of his career, from his early education to his role under his father's principate. Cassius Dio suggested that Titus' reputation was enhanced by his early death. It is true that the ancient sources tend to heroicize Titus, yet based upon the evidence, his reign must be considered a positive one. He capably continued the work of his father in establishing the Flavian Dynasty and he maintained a high degree of economic and administrative competence in Italy and beyond. In so doing, he solidified the role of the emperor as paternalistic autocrat, a model that would serve Trajan and his successors well. Titus was used as a model by later emperors, especially those known as the Five Good Emperors (Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius).

Copyright (C) 1997, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Catholic Encyclopedia, http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14746b.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
3 commentsCleisthenes
LarryW2235.jpg
7276 Nikomedes IV, Philopator, 94-74 BC134 viewsSilver tetradrachm, 34.4mm, 15.61g, EF
Diademed head right / BAΣIΛEΩΣ EΠIΦANOYΣ NIKOMHΔOY, Zeus standing left holding wreath and sceptre, eagle on thunderbolt over monogram and date EΣ (year 205 or 94 BC) in inner left field.
Ex: Forvm Ancient Coins
Sear 7276; BMC Pontus, page 215, #1; SNG von Aulock 265; SNG Cop 650
My personal favourite of this small collection because of the finely detailed portrait, 'perfect' toning, and minor imperfections like small die breaks that for me, add 'character.'
Note (courtesy Joe Sermarini): During the first year of his reign, Mithradates, king of Pontus, expelled him and placed his younger brother Socrates on the throne. The next year he was restored by the Roman army under Aquilius. Aquilius was later defeated and killed and in 88 BC, Mithradates destroyed Nikomedes' army forcing him to flee to Italy. Nikomedes' throne was again restored when Rome defeated Mithradates in 84 BC. He died childless and his will left his kingdom to Rome.
Lawrence Woolslayer
LarryW2284.jpg
7276 Nikomedes IV, Philopator, 94-74 BC36 viewsSilver tetradrachm, 36.4mm, 15.51g, Nice VF
Diademed head of Nikomedes II right / BAΣIΛEΩΣ EΠIΦANOYΣ NIKOMHΔOY, Zeus standing left, crowning King's name with wreath in right, and holding sceptre in left hand. Eagle on thunderbolt inner left field, monogram and date (BIΣ =year 212 or 87/6 BC) below. Extremely rare date.
Ex: Forvm Ancient Coins; Wayne G. Sayles
Sear 7276; BMC Pontus, pg 213, 6v; SNG Cop 651v; SNG Von Aulock 266v
Note (courtesy Joe Sermarini): In 88 BC, Mithradates destroyed Nikomedes' army forcing him to flee to Italy. His throne was not restored until Rome defeated Mithradates in 84 BC Waddington, [RG], pp. 217-8, notes, "it is difficult to explain the very rare coins that bear the dates IC, AIC, BIC. These dates correspond to 89/8 to 87/6 BC...; but between mid-88 and the end of 83, the whole of Bithynia was in the hands of Mithradates Eupator. We are forced to conjecture (no text says so) that during this period several fortified places in Bithynia remained faithful to the legitimate king and continued to strike coins in his name."
Lawrence Woolslayer
AntoSeRIC644.jpg
8. Janus, first king of Italy, and inventor of civilisation65 viewsSestertius minted AD 140, Rome. 24.70g, Ø 32mm, 12h. RIC 644, Cohen 881, Foss 55
Obv.: ANTONINVS - AVG PIVS PP, laurate head right.
Rev.: TR POT COS III round edge SC in field, Janus standing facing, holding sceptre.
ex CNG eAuction 233 lot 335 (June 2010); ex the John Bitner Collection of Secular Games Coinage; ex Astarte XV (27 November 2004), lot 234.

Sestertius issued in preparation of the 900th anniversary of Rome, celebrated on 21 April 147.
Janus was believed to be first king of Italy, serving as both leader and teacher to all within his lands. In honor of his deeds, he was elevated to the status of a deity by the Romans, with Romulus himself, one of the mythical founders of Rome, building and dedicating the Temple of Janus.
2 commentsCharles S
Justinian-Con-S-163.jpg
96. Justinian I.19 viewsFollis (40 nummia), 541, Constantinople mint.
Obverse: DN IVSTINIANVS P P AVG / Helmeted and cuirassed bust, facing; holding globe and cruciger. Cross at right.
Reverse: Large M, cross above, ANNO XIIII at sides, Γ between legs of M.
Mint mark: CON
22.82 gm., 38 mm.
Sear #163.

The large M is the Greek numeral 40 -- i.e. 40 nummia is the coin's denomination. The smaller Γ is the Greek numeral 3 -- i.e. the 3'rd officina of the mint at Constantinople. ANNO XIIII is Latin for Year 14 -- the 14'th year of Justinian's reign (541 AD).
In 541, things were going bad for the Empire -- trouble with the Goths in Italy, the Bulgars ravaging the Balkans, and the Persians invading from the east. Bubonic plague swept across the eastern Mediterranean in 541, reaching Constantinople in May 542, before going on to Italy and Gaul.
Callimachus
0068.jpg
A. Postumius Albinus. Denarius41 viewsRRC 372/2
81 BC

Obverse: HISPAN, Veiled head of Hispania r
Reverse: ·S·N – ALBIN Togate figure standing l., raising hand; to l., legionary eagle and to r., fasces with axe.

Issued when Rome had won the supremacy in Italy but was still fighting the last of the Marians in Spain.

....and so the magistrate has been iddentified as the praetor Lucius Postumius Albinus who had gone to further Spain in 180 and had his term prorogued into 179. He fought two major battles with the Vaccaei, killing a reported 35,000. (....) If the magistrate on the coin is the victorious praetor, his century old triumph over the Lusitanians was especially relevant in 81, for ir was among the Lusitanians where Sertorius found the greatest support. (Harlan)

The moneyer is assumed to be a grandson of the consul of 110 and a son of the moneyer of 96 (Crawford)
--
Ex Numismatica Ars Classica, Auction 78; Lot 635, 26 - 27 May 2014
3 commentsNorbert
15104254386401088906398.jpg
AE Aes Signatum or Aes Formatum13 viewsCentral Italy (Rome?).
Anonymous, 4th-3rd Century BCE.
AE Aes Signatum or Aes Formatum - Fragment (209g; circa 70mm).

A peice of an Aes Signatum or Aes Formatum ingot. Both sides show indecipherable remnants of design.

Provenance: Ex Dr. Neussel Collection [Peus Auction 420/421 (1 Nov 2017), Lot 18]; purchased on eBay from D.F. Grotjohann (17 Oct 2009).
Carausius
aes_rude_SRCV505.jpg
Aes rude, SRCV 50523 viewsRoman Republic, 5th - 4th century BC
Aes rude, length 32.5mm, 14.23g
ref. SRCV I, 505; Thurlow-Vecchi pl. 2
From Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!

Aes Rude is the earliest type of money used by the population of central Italy. They are actually irtregular pieces of bronze with no marks or designs. More advanced types were used later: Aes Signatum or Aes Grave, and in the end, normal struck coins (FAC).
Jochen
1431_Aesernia.jpg
Aesernia, Samnium - AE5 viewsc. 263-240 BC
head of Vulcan left wearing laureate pileus, tongs behind
VOLCANOM
Jupiter in biga right holding thunderbolt and reins
AISERNINO
HNItaly 430 SNG Copenhagen 256-257 SNG ANS 118
6,90g
ex Artemide Kunstauktionen
Johny SYSEL
alxmecu.jpg
Alexander the Great13 viewsPortrait of Alexander the Great done in mosaic that is housed at the Museo Nazionale, Naples, Italy. Dated from the late 2nd century. B.C., copy of a painting dated to c. 300 B.C.

Traditionally this scene reresents the turning-point at Issus when Darius fled the battle; but Philoxenus, the artist from whose painting the mosaic was copied, may have incorporated elements from other battles. Alexander's personal moment of peril seems borrowed from the Granicus, and the confrontation also has echoes of Gaugamela.

This mosaic depicts a battle between Alexander the Great and the Persian king Darius, probably the Battle of the Issus River in November of 333 B.C. It is in opus vermiculatum, with over one and a half million tesserae, none larger than 4 mm., in four colors: white, yellow, red, and black. The minuteness of the tesserae enables incredibly fine detail and painterly effects, including remarkable portraits of Alexander and Darius.

See:http://www.hackneys.com/alex_web/pages/alxphoto.htm
Cleisthenes
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Andrea Dandolo (1343 - 1354 A.D.)53 viewsItaly, Venice
AR Soldino di nuovo tipo
O: +•ANDR•DAN-"DVLO•DVX•, Doge kneeling left, holding banner.
R: +•S MARCVS VENETI•, nimbate rampant lion left, holding banner; S to left.
Secondo Aventurado, mintmaster.Struck 1353-1354.
15mm
.58g
Cf. CNI VII 23; Papadopoli 5 var. (obv. legend); cf. Paolucci 5.
2 commentsMat
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Anonymous7 viewsAnonymous. 211-210 BC. AR Victoriatus (16.5mm, 3.14 g, 6h). Spearhead (first) series. Mint in southeast Italy. Laureate head of Jupiter right within border of dots / Victory standing right, placing wreath on trophy; Roma in exergue.

In around 218 BC, at roughly the same time as the appearance of the silver denarius, mints in the Roman Republic began to strike silver coins bearing on the obverse a bust of Jupiter and on the reverse a figure of Victory placing a wreath upon a trophy. Known as a victoriatus in Latin or tropaikon in Greek, this coin was primarily issued to facilitate payments in Greek-speaking southern Italy, where its weight was roughly equivalent to a drachm or half nomos. Rome at this time had a great need for coinage, as the Second Punic War then raged across Italy, and the city needed silver to pay her allies. This function is demonstrated by the hoard evidence, which shows that their circulation was generally limited to southern Italy, and later Cisalpine Gaul and Spain.

The victoriatus was generally struck in less pure silver than the denarius, rarely meeting the same 90% standard, yet it generally followed the same overall pattern of debasements. Despite this, it proved to be an important coin for the budding empire. Though the type was discontinued around 170 BC, the coins themselves continued to circulate, eventually becoming worn enough to function in the marketplace as quinarii. Accordingly, even into the early Imperial period, the silver quinarius was also sometimes refered to as a victoriatus.
ecoli
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Anonymous Aes Grave As192 viewsAnonymous. Circa 225-217 BC. Æ Aes Grave As (63mm, 266.40 g, 12h). Libral standard. Rome mint. Head of bearded Janus; – (mark of value) below; all on a raised disk / Prow of galley right; | (mark of value) above; all on a raised disk. Crawford 35/1; Thurlow & Vecchi 51; Haeberlin pl. 10, 1-16, 4; HN Italy 337; Sydenham 71; Kestner 111-5; BMCRR Rome (Aes Grave) 1-16.

Ex. CNG eAuction 163, lot 211 (2007)
Ex. Triton XVI, lot 753 (2013)
Ex. CNG Coin Shop (2013)
8 commentsMolinari
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Anonymous AR Didrachm (Quadrigatus) - Janiform head and Jupiter in Quadriga (Crawf. 30/1)80 viewsAR Didrachm (Quadrigatus)
Uncertain mint, 225-214 BC
6.57g, 22mm

Obv: Laureate head of youthful Janus or Dioscuri

Rev: Jupiter holding sceptre and brandishing thunderbolt, in quadriga driven to right by Victory; ROMA incuse on raised tablet below.

Crawford 30/1; RSC 23; Sydenham 64b

Roma Numismatics Auction XVI, 498
From a private Swiss collection, outside of Italy prior to January 2011.
7 commentsKained but Able
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Anonymous Bronze double litra; Female head r./ Lion walking r.16 viewsRoman Republic, 275 - 270 B.C. Bronze double litra, Crawford 16/1a, Sydenham 5, BMCRR Romano-Campanian 23; SRCV I 590, South Italy mint, 7.580g, 20.7mm, 90o, obverse diademed female head right; reverse , lion walking right, head facing, broken spear in mouth and resting on forepaw, ROMANO in ex; scarce. ex FORVMPodiceps
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Anonymous Wheel Cr.79/164 viewsCrawford 79/1 Wheel (209-8BC) Sicily?
Denarius Serratus
Ob: helmeted head of Roma right, behind X
Rev: Dioscuri riding right with lances, below wheel, in exergue ROMA; line border

BMCRR II 308 (217-197BC)

Sydenham 519 (113BC) Narbo

Iridescent highlights, 4.4gr.

Grueber: The wheel maybe a symbol of the moneyer rather than of a mint, although it does occur on aes grave of Campania and central Italy, and the early coins of Luceria and Tartentum. This is the earliest occurrence of the serratus on republican denarii and the only anonymous. Only serratus attributed to a mint other than Rome by Count de Salis.

Sydenham classifies this serratus with Porcia 8 at the colony of Narbo. The serrated edge may have been suggested by the Gaulish custom of using serrated rings or wheels as currency. Tacitus stated that the Gaulish tribes showed a marked preference for coins that were serrati bigatique (Germania 5) Sydenham wrote an article entitled “Origin of the Roman Serrati” NC 1935 209 ff.

Crawford writes that Mattingly’s view that serrati were Marian coins was demolished by Sydenham’s article, but his view that they were struck at non-Italian mints for Trans-alpine circulation does not hold either. Grueber’s view that they are probably merely decorative best remaining theory. Crawford Vol 2 p. 581

Tacitus Germania 5 pecuniam probant veterem et diu notam, serratos bigatosque. They approve the old and long known money, those that are serrated and biga depicting.
3 commentsPetrus Elmsley
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Anonymous Æ Triens Overstruck on Akarnanian Federal Coinage Ex RBW50 viewsAnonymous Æ Triens, 211-208 B.C. 5.38g, 24mm.
O: Helmeted head of Minerva right; four pellets above
R: Prow right
Overstruck on Akarnanian Federal Coinage (Akarnanian Confederacy) of Oiniadai.
O: Zeus
R: Head of river-god Acheloüs, trident above.
- Crawford 95a From the RBW Collection

This triens comes from the CA series thought to have been struck in Canusium, modern-day Canosa, Italy. You can't see the CA on this example but the style is entirely consistent with the CA series and the CA tridents which apparently always come overstruck on bronzes of Acarnania and Oeniadae. So, why would a series struck in Southeast Italy have so many known overstrikes on undertypes from far away across the Adriatic?

The answer is that Marcus Valerius Laevinus had earlier driven the Macedonians from this region and this issue from Canusium represents booty captured during this fighting and brought back with the fleet when M. Valerius landed in Southern Italy circa 210-209 B.C.. The trientes are all overstruck likely because many of the captured coins were close enough to the necessary weight and the rest of the denominations were probably largely struck on flans whose bronze came from melting down and recasting of the captured booty, with a small number being overstruck on earlier coins that were the correct size. Since this issue contains no precious metal coinage, it is likely that if any precious metal was captured it was either sent back to Rome or used by one of the other Roman field mints operating in Apulia.
1 commentsNemonater
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Anonymous, Aes Grave Triens6 viewsAnonymous. Circa 225-217 BC. Æ Aes Grave Triens (44mm, 87.30 g, 12h). Libral standard. Rome mint. Helmeted head of Minerva or Mars left; •••• (mark of value) below; all on a raised disk / Prow of galley right; •••• (mark of value) below; all on a raised disk. Crawford 35/3a; ICC 78; HN Italy 339. Near VF, green patina, some roughness.ecoli
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Antoninus Pius denarius Italia33 viewsAR Denarius
Antoninus Pius, 138-161 CE
Diameter: 18mm, Weight: 3.24 grams, Die axis: 7h

Obverse: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TRP COS III
Laureate head to right.

Reverse: ITALIA
Italia towered, seated left on globe, holding cornucopiae and sceptre.

Mint: Rome

Notes:
- This coin can be dated between 140 to 143 CE.
- A scarcer issue of Antoninus, alluding to Italian domination over the world. The cornucopiae symoblises the Roman belief in the prosperity and good fortune they had brought the world
- Denarii minted under the reign of Antoninus Pius had a target weight of 3.4 grams and an average silver content of 88%.

Ex Mike Vosper Coins, 2006
1 commentsPharsalos
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Antoninus Pius Imperator RIC 717a42 viewsAntoninus Pius, Sestertius, Rome, 143 - 144 AD, 31.66mm, 24.2g, RIC III 717a, Strack 941d, Banti 178, 1610, Cohen 433
OBV: ANTONINVS AVG PI-VS P P TR P COS III, Laureate head right
REV: IMPERA-TOR II, S-C across field, Victory flying right,
holding trophy in both hands

Pius was acclaimed Imperator by his troops for the second time in 142
(the first time right after he succeeded Hadrian on the throne)
after the Romans beat the Brigantes in Britannia.
Pius, however, did not command the victorious troops.
In fact, he never left Italy during his reign.

Romanorvm
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Antoninus Pius, AD Sestertius, ITALIA seated21 viewsAncient Rome, 2nd Century AD, 'ITALIA'
AE Sestertius, weight: 22.1 Grams.
Titles in Latin:
obv: " ANTONINUS AUG PIUS PP " - Laureate crowned bust of Emperor facing right.
rev: " TR POT COS III " - Italia, facing left, seated on globe, holding caduceus and spear. " S C " in each field, " ITALIA " below, in exergue.
3 commentsrexesq
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Antoninus Pius, AD Sestertius, ITALIA seated - rev7 viewsAncient Rome, 2nd Century AD, 'ITALIA'
AE Sestertius, weight: 22.1 Grams.
Titles in Latin:
obv: " ANTONINUS AUG PIUS PP " - Laureate crowned bust of Emperor facing right.
rev: " TR POT COS III " - Italia, facing left, seated on globe, holding caduceus and spear. " S C " in each field, " ITALIA " below, in exergue.
rexesq
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Antoninus Pius, AD Sestertius, ITALIA seated - rev.6 viewsAncient Rome, 2nd Century AD, 'ITALIA'
AE Sestertius, weight: 22.1 Grams.
Titles in Latin:
obv: " ANTONINUS AUG PIUS PP " - Laureate crowned bust of Emperor facing right.
rev: " TR POT COS III " - Italia, facing left, seated on globe, holding caduceus and spear. " S C " in each field, " ITALIA " below, in exergue.
rexesq
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Antoninus Pius, RIC 615a, Sestertius of AD 140-144 (Aeneas) 114 viewsÆ Sestertius (26.15g, Ø33mm, 11h). Rome mint. Struck AD 140-44.
Obv/ ANTONINVS · AVGVSTVS PIVS, laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right, aegis on left shoulder.
Rev/ P P TR P COS III (in field) [S C (in ex.)], Aeneas wearing a short tunic and cloak, advancing right, looking back, carrying Anchises on his shoulder and holding Ascanius by the hand. Anchises (veiled and draped) carries a box in left hand, Ascanius wears a short tunic and Phrygian cap and caries a pedum (shepherd's crook) in left hand.
RIC 615a (R2), BMCRE 1264, Cohen 655 (80 Fr.), Strack 904 (3 specimens found); Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali II-3) 309 (same obv. and rev. dies, 3 specimens found).
ex Numphil (Paris, june 2014 auction)

This type is part of a series figuring scenes from ancient Roman legends. The scene depicts Aeneas leaving Troy with his son Ascanius and his father Anchises. According to the legend, Aeneas, son of Venus and the Trojan Anchises, fled by boat with some inhabitants of Troy as it fell to the Greeks, taking the Palladium - the ancient sacred statue of Athena - and eventually made their way west to resettle in Italy. They intermarried with the local inhabitants and founded the town of Lavinium, and became the nucleus of the future Roman people. One of the descendants of Aeneas'son Ascianus was Rhea Silvia, the mother of the twins Romulus and Remus.

Numismatic note: This issue has been struck from a single obverse die with the unique obverse legend "ANTONINVS AVGVSTVS PIVS" found nowhere else in the coinage of Antoninus Pius. This obverse die was used exclusively with two reverse dies with slightly different legends: the one in the photo above, and a similar one with the legend "P P TR POT COS III". The use of the aegis on the bust is not exclusive for this issue, but very rare for Antoninus Pius.
2 commentsCharles S
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Antoninus Pius, RIC 621, Sestertius of AD 140-144 (Roma)163 viewsÆ Sestertius (28.4g, Ø 33-34mm, 12h) Rome mint. Struck AD 140-144.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PI-VS P P TR P COS III, laurate head right
Rev.: ROMA AETERNA (around), S C (in ex.), Roma seated left on throne, holding palladium and spear; shield at side.
RIC 621; BMCRE 1276; C. 694; Strack 846; Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali II-3) 330 (7 spec.); Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 24b; Sear (Roman Coins and their Values II) 1276
ex CNG Auction #29, lot 62687, May 2001

Issued to celebrate the completion in AD141 of the temple of Venus and Rome, designed and begun by Hadrian. This could also belong to the series of ancient Roman legends issued in this same period, as the Palladium held by Roma is the statue of Pallas Athena, stolen from Troy and brought to Italy by Aeneas. It was regarded by the Romans as guardian of their city.
2 commentsCharles S
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Antoninus Pius, RIC 644, Sestertius of AD 140-144 (Janus) 43 viewsÆ Sestertius (24.70g, Ø32mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 140-144.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P, laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right
Rev.: TR POT COS III (around) S C (in field) Janus standing facing, holding a long sceptre.
RIC 644 (S), Cohen 881, BMC 1317, Strack 886; Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali II-3) 435 (3 spec.); Sear (Roman Coins & Their Values II) 4240.
ex CNG eAuction 233, 2010; ex the John Bitner Collection of Secular Games Coinage; ex Astarte XV, 2004

This issue is part of a series of coins struck in preparation of the 900th anniversary of Rome, figuring scenes from Ancient Roman legends. Janus was believed to have been the first king of Italy. He was elevated to the status of a deity and a temple was dedicated to him.
Charles S
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Antoninus Pius, RIC 693a, As of AD 140-144 (Janus) 27 viewsÆ As (9.8g, Ø27mm, 5h). Rome mint. Struck AD 140-144.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P, laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Rev.: TR POT COS III (around), S C (in field), Janus draped, naked to waist, standing front, holding long sceptre.
RIC 693a (S); BMC 1369; Cohen 882

Type belonging to a series depicting scenes from ancient Roman legends, struck just prior to 900th anniversary of Rome in AD 147. Janus was supposedly the first king of Italy, and inventor of civilisation before he became a god. He also stands here as a symbol of the new, golden, age.
Charles S
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Antoninus Pius, RIC 239, 154 – 155 AD, Rome, Italy10 viewsHead of Antoninus Pius, laureate, right. Annona, draped, standing left, holding two corn-ears downwards in right hand and resting left on modius set on prow, right.

ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TR P XVIII
COS IIII
Antoninus Pius The Revered Emperor Father of the Country Tribune of the People for the 18th time.
Consul for the 4th time.
Jonathan N
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Apollo kitharoidos, Vatican Museum, a 2nd-century AD colossal marble statue by an unknown Roman sculptor.89 viewsAn Apollo Citharoedus is a statue or other image of Apollo with a Kithara (lyre). Among the best-known examples is this Apollo Citharoedus of the Vatican Museums, a 2nd-century AD colossal marble statue by an unknown Roman sculptor. Apollo is shown crowned with laurel and wearing the long, flowing robe of the Ionic bard. The statue was found in 1774, with seven statues of the Muses, in the ruins of Gaius Cassius Longinus' villa near Tivoli, Italy. The sculptures are preserved in the Hall of the Muses, in the Museo Pio-Clementino of the Vatican Museums. Joe Sermarini
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Apulia, Arpi13 viewsAPULIA, Arpi. Circa 275-250 BC. Æ. Bull butting right / Horse galloping right. SNG ANS 641; HN Italy 645ecoli
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Apulia, Arpi9 viewsAPULIA, Arpi. Circa 325-275 BC. Æ Laureate head of Zeus left / Horse rearing left; star above, monogram below. HN Italy 644; SNG ANS -.ecoli
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Apulia, Arpi (Italy) 3rd Century B.C.98 viewsAE 21; SGCV I 569, Lindgren 210; Weight 7.7 gr., Max. Diameter 21.17 mm; Obv. Δ A Σ O Y on right, Laureate head of Zeus left, thunderbolt behind; Rev. Calydonian Boar w/bristling ridgeback right, spearhead above, A P Π A N Ω N in ex.

Background info:

Arpi origially allied with Rome in 326 B.C. Later sided with Hannibal 217-213 B.C., then recaptured by Rome.
5 commentsSteve E
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APULIA, Arpi.5 viewsÆ22, 6.6g, 6h; c. 325-275 BC.
Obv.: Laureate head of Zeus left; thunderbolt to right /
Rev.: Boar standing right; above, spearhead right. // APΠANΩN
Reference: Siciliano, Arpi, B, 1–3; HN Italy 642 / 17-121-55
John Anthony
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Apulia, Teate15 viewsAPULIA, Teate. Circa 225-200 BC. Æ Quincunx, Head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet; four pellets above / Owl standing right on Ionic capital; four pellets in exergue. SNG ANS 742; SNG France 1420; SNG Morcom 224 var. (pellets right on reverse); HN Italy 702a.ecoli
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Apulia. Teate6 viewsApulia, Teate, Uncia, c. 225-220 BC; AE; Head of Athena r., wearing crested Corinthian helmet, Rv. TIATI, owl standing r. with closed wings; below one pellet. Dotted border. HNItaly 702d; SNG Copenhagen -; SNG ANS 752.ecoli
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Apulian kylix74 viewsApulian (Greek colonies in Southern Italy) kylix or shallow drinking vessel with palm frond tondo, c 325 BC.3 commentsmauseus
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Aquileia AQS33 viewsAquileia

A former city of the Roman Empire, situated at the head of the Adriatic, on what is now the Austrian sea-coast, in the country of Goerz, at the confluence of the Anse an the Torre. It was for many centuries the seat of a famous Western patriarchate, and as such plays and important part in ecclesiastical history, particularly in that of the Holy See and Northern Italy.

The site is now known as Aglar, a village of 1500 inhabitants. The city arose (180 B.C.) on the narrow strip between the mountains and the lagoons, during the Illyrian wars, as a means of checking the advance of that warlike people. Its commerce grew rapidly, and when Marcus Aurelius made it (168) the principal fortress of the empire against the barbarians of the North and East, it rose to the acme of its greatness and soon had a population of 100,000. It was pillaged in 238 by the Emperor Maximinus, and it was so utterly destroyed in 452 by Attila, that it was afterwards hard to recognize its original site. The Roman inhabitants, together with those of smaller towns in the neighbourhood, fled to the lagoons, and so laid the foundations of the city of Venice. Aquileia arose again, but much diminished, and was once more destroyed (590) by the Lombards; after which it came under the Dukes of Friuli, was again a city of the Empire under Charlemagne, and in the eleventh century became a feudal possesion of its patriarch, whose temporal authority, however, was constantly disputed and assailed by the territorial nobility.

002. CONSTANTINOPOLIS Aquileia

RIC VII Aquileia 129 R4

Ex-Varangian
ecoli
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AR Nomos of Kroton, Bruttium 500-480 BC9 viewsOBVERSE: KPO upwards on left, Tripod with legs terminating in lion's feet, heron standing left on right.
REVERSE: Incuse tripod.

A slightly chipped example. Bruttium was in the toe of Italy (Calabria). It is believed to have been settled by Greek colonists from Crotona, hence the KPO legend. The followers of the cult of Pythagoras resided here and the tripod/inverse tripod design may have been inspired by their ideas or, more likely, it depicts a trophy in Olympic events. The Greeks were mainly farmers then (and now) and were more attracted to homely themes like scenes from nature and sporting competition than philosophy as subjects on their coins.

SNG ANS 269 (5.99 gm) ex-Forvm Coins
daverino
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Arpi, Apulia30 views325-275 BC
AE20 (20mm, 7.07g)
O: Laureate head of Zeus left; [thunderbolt] behind.
R: Kalydonian boar running right; spearhead above, [Α]ΡΠΑΝ[ΟΥ] below.
SNG ANS 639; SNG Cop 605; HN Italy 642; Sear 569; BMC 1, 4
ex Andre C

Situated about 20 miles inland from the Adriatic Sea, Arpi was an ancient city which legend tells us was founded by the hero Diomedes. Arpi allied with Rome at the end of the 4th century BC, and supplied them with infantry and cavalry in the war against Pyrrhus.
After the annihilation of the Roman army at Cannae in 216 Arpi defected to the Carthaginian cause, and Hannibal made the city his winter headquarters in 215. However upon his departure to move his army south the Roman consul Quintus Fabius Maximus retook the city in 213, and Arpi never again regained its’ former importance.
Enodia
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Arpi, Apulia, Italy, c. 325 - 275 B.C.17 viewsBronze AE 21, old cut on boar, 7.464g, 20.9mm, 90o, Arpi mint, c. 325 - 275 B.C.
Obv: Laureate and bearded head of Zeus left, thunderbolt right.
Rev: Boar right, spear above, ARPANWN in exergue.
Ref: HN Italy 642, SNG ANS 637, SNG Cop 603, SNG München 438, SNG BnF 1228.
VF
mjabrial
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Augustus89 viewsRoman Imperatorial
Octavian Caesar
(Reign as ‘Augustus’ 1st Emperor of the Roman Empire 27 BC-14 AD)
(b. 63 BC, d. 14 AD)


Obverse: Bare head of Octavian facing right

Reverse: IMP CAESAR, Facing head of Octavian on ithyphallic boundary stone of Jupiter Terminus, winged thunderbolt below

Reverse refers to Octavian's reestablishment of boundaries in the east after the battle of Actium and review of the client kingdoms established by Mark Antony (in particular return of Roman territory from Cleopatra and her children)

Silver Denarius
Minted in Italy 30-29 BC




Translations:

Imperatorial=The Imperatorial period extends from the outbreak of civil war between Julius Caesar and Pompey in January 49 BC and ends early 27 BC when Caesar's adopted heir Octavian was given the title "Augustus" by the Senate, effectively making him the sole ruler of the entire Roman territory. 

IMP CAESAR=Imperator(Commander-in-Chief) Caesar(Octavian took Julius Caesar’s name after he was posthumously adopted by him in 44 BC)


Reference
RIC I 269a
2 commentsSphinx357
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Augustus41 viewsDate: 16 BCE
Denomination: As
Material: Bronze
Authority: Augustus
Issuer: C. Cassius Celer
Mint: Rome
Region: Italy
Obverse
Legend: CAESAR AVGVSTVS TRIBVNIC POTEST
Type: Head of Augustus, bare, right
Portrait: Augustus
Reverse
Legend: C CASSIVS C F CELER IIIVIR A A A F F
Type: Legend surrounding S C
Weight: 8,8g
Dimensions: 27mm
Flamur H
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Aurelian Antoninianus Coin122 viewsThis type refers to Aurelian's defeat of Zenobia's Palmyrene Empire in the east. The captives wear Parthian caps and are typically attributed as Persians. The real captives were more likely Palmyreans. Typical of Roman propaganda, Zenobia's Sasanian supporters are depicted to glorify Aurelian's victory and mask that this was an internal revolt and civil war.

RS52117. Silvered antoninianus, RIC V 151, gVF, Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, weight 4.178g, maximum diameter 24.1mm, die axis 180o, 270 - 275 A.D.; obverse IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right; reverse ORIENS AVG, Sol advancing left, raising right hand, globe in left, two bound captives at feet, TXXT in exergue; near full circles strike, extensive silvering remaining
Colby S
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Aurelian- RESTITVT ORIENTIS83 viewsAurelian, August or September 270 - October or November 275 A.D.

Radiate draped bust right

Obverse:

IMP AVRELIANVS AVG

IMP: Imperator
AVRELIANVS: Aurelianus
AVG: Augustus,

Reverse:

RESTITVT: Restoration
ORIENTIS: Orientis

Aurelian standing left facing woman, holding sceptre and receiving wreath from her

Domination: AE Antoninianus, 20 mm, Bronze

Mint: *T, Siscia in Italy.

John Schou
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B139 viewsConstantine I “The Great” AE3

Attribution: RIC VII 117, Thessalonica
Date: AD 320-321
Obverse: CONSTANTINVS AVG, laureate head r.
Reverse: DN CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, VOT dot XX in wreath with star at top,
TSEVI in exergue
Size: 18.5 mm
Weight: 3.0 grams

"When men commend my services, which owe their origin to the inspiration of Heaven, do they not clearly establish the truth that God is the cause of the exploits I have performed? Assuredly they do, for it belongs to God to do whatever is best, and to man, to perform the commands of God." - Constantine To the Assembly of the Saints 26

Constantine fought his battles under the banner of the cross and with Christian standards. This is quite a shift from the mentality of his predecessors who were overtly pagan. After his defeat of Licinius I in AD 324, Constantine established himself as the master of the entire Roman Empire, and suddenly changed his entire demeanor as sole ruler. He seemed to have acquired a self-righteousness about him. He moved the capital of the empire to a new city in Byzantium named, aptly, Constantinople. This further diminished the importance of Rome and Italy in the entire scope of things. In fact, he even disbanded the praetorian guard which had played an undeniably central role in the appointment of numerous previous emperors. In AD 326, he had his son Crispus executed for commiting adultery. His wife, Fausta, also died when the temperature of her bath was turned up and she subsequently suffocated on the steam. Despite these instances of questionable judgement, Constantine's reputation remained unscathed. Constantine proved to be an able administrator, but was often criticized by critics and supporters alike for his heavy taxation. When it came to the military, he excelled. His restructuring of the military was also criticized at first, but Constantine proved these doubts wrong with his military successes. Although Constantine waged several victorious campaigns against the Alemanni, Goths, and Sarmatians, much of the land he won was soon lost after his death. One of his most ambitious military endeavors occurred in the latter years of his reign. Constantine planned to Christianize Persia and even went to the lengths of appointing his nephew Hannibalianus as "King of Armenia" intending to give him rule over Persia. He never saw these plans come to fruition, however, because he became terminally ill. Before his death at Ankyrona on May 22, AD 337, Constantine had himself baptized by the bishop of Nicomedia. He was buried in Constantinople in a customized mausoleum called the Church of the Holy Apostles. His sons divided the empire amongst themselves as follows: Constantine II took the west, Constantius II the east, and Constans Italy and the Upper Danube. A fourth heir, Constantine's nephew Flavius Dalmatius II was given control of Greece and the Lower Danube. So ended the legacy of one of the most influential emperors Rome had ever produced: Constantine the Great.
9 commentsNoah
3547.jpg
Black-glazed Handled bowl37 viewsBlack-glazed bowl in buff terracotta with single horizontal handle.

Apulian, S. Italy. 4th century B.C. Maximum diameter 12.11 cm (4.77 inches).

Intact with minor wear and soil deposits consistent with prolonged burial.

Ex Lincolnshire, England private collection.
1 commentsTLP
Boeotia_Thebes_BCD-Boiotia536.jpg
Boeotia, Thebes.12 viewsBoeotia, Thebes. c. 371-338 BC. AR Stater (12.33 gm) Struck circa 368-364 BC. Boeotian shield / Amphora, magistrate AR-KA across field. Rare use of the R form of the letter rho. It is almost always rendered as P except in Sicily and Italy, which occasionally use the R form. gVF. BCD Boiotia 536; SNG Cop 318; Hepworth 13; HGC 4 #1330-1334 var (magistrate); Head Boeotia p 64. cf CNG 58 #453. Christian T
BrettianShield.jpg
Brettian AE Didrachm or reduced Sextans115 views Head of Ares left; wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with griffin; thunderbolt below

BPETTIΩN
Hera Hoplosmia (or Athena) advancing right, holding spear and shield; at feet

Bruttium Circa 211-203 BC

16.39g; 29mm

HN Italy ? depends on mark off flan

A nice big heavy coin minted by the last loyal hold outs against Rome in support of Hannibal.
7 commentsJay GT4
Brutti.jpg
Brettian league - AE drachm12 viewsBruttium
c. 216-203 BC
laureate head of Zeus right, stalk of grain behind
eagle standing left on lightning, cornucopia right, star above
BPET_TIΩN
SNG ANS 44; SNG Cop 1663; Pfeiler p. 22, 1; HN Italy 1942
ex Dionysos
Johny SYSEL
Bruttium_Zeus~0.jpg
Bruttium AE 1/2 Unit22 viewsNIKA
Head of Nike facing left, barley ear to right.

BRETTI ΩN
Zeus striding right, Holding thunderbolt and scepter; hammer or double axe on left, cornucopia right

Lokroi Epizephyrioi? C. 214-211 BC

4.09g

HN Italy 1982, Scheu 28; Forschner 306-7 variant;
Jay GT4
BrettianJupiter.jpg
Bruttium drachm99 viewsVeiled head of Hera Lakinia right, wearing polos; scepter over shoulder, feather to left

ΒΡΕΤΤΙΩΝ
Zeus standing left, right foot on ionic capital, holding scepter; crab to left, [tiny Γ between foot and scepter].

Second Punic War issue. Circa 216-214 BC.
3.88 g.

Arslan dies 12/17’; Scheu 68–77 var. (obv. symbol);

HN Italy 1969. VF, toned, struck with worn dies.

Rare issue with feather on obverse, unknown to Scheu.

Ex-CNG 407 lot 14, From the B. H. Webb Collection. Ex-Pipito Collection

Tough to photograph, much better in hand.
5 commentsJay GT4
Bruttium_Italy~0.JPG
Bruttium Italy25 viewsRhegion, Bruttium, Italy, c. 415 - 387 B.C. RARE
Bronze AE 19, SNG ANS 684; SNG Cop -, VF, Rhegion mint, 5.266g, 18.4mm, 180o, obverse facing lion scalp; reverse ΡΗΓΙΝΩΝ, laureate
head of Apollo right, olive-leaf (or spear-head) behind; attractive green patina;

EX: Forvm Ancient Coins

RARE;
1 commentsRomanorvm
Bruttium~1.jpg
Bruttium Petelia Quadrantes59 viewsLaureate head of Zeus right; behind three pellets,

ΠΕΤΗ/ΛΙΝΩΝ
Zeus standing right, preparing to hurl thunderbolt and holding scepter; device (monogram?) to the left.

Bruttium Petalia
3.57g

SNG Copenhagen 1916; HN Italy 2461 var. (symbol)
4 commentsJay GT4
Rhegium.jpg
Bruttium Rhegium Æ 2358 viewsLaureate head of Asklepios right

ΡHΓINΩN
Hygieia standing left, holding serpent; III to left

Rhegium, 203-150 BC

6.28g Æ 23

(R2) Very rare

HN Italy 2560; SNG ANS 786-8, MIAMG.3645

Ex-American Rarities (Boulder); Ex-Ebay

4 commentsJay GT4
Bruttium_Crab.jpg
Bruttium Terina53 viewsHead of ninph left

TEPI
Crab; above crescent.

Terina; c. 350-275 BC

4.01g

Rare
HNItaly 2646; SNG ANS 889.

Beautiful glossy black/brown patina

Ancient Terina was located on the north shore of the Gulf of Saint Euphemia, about 20 km (12 mi) from Lamezia Terme in Calabria, Italy.
3 commentsJay GT4
Bruttium_Terina_third_nomos.JPG
Bruttium Terina third nomos43 viewsBRUTTIUM, Terina. Late 4th Century BC.
AR 1/3 Nomos
Obverse:TERINAIWN, Head of the nymph Terina left; triskeles behind neck
Reverse: Winged Nike seated left on cippus, bird perched on her extended right hand; star in left field.
SNG ANS 867; BMC Italy 47
16mm, 2.1gm
Jerome Holderman
Bruttium_Zeus.jpg
Bruttium Uncia64 viewsLaureate and bearded head of Zeus right.

BPET-TIΩN
Eagle standing left with open wings; at left cornucopiae, above double-axe.

214-211 BC

7.69g

HN Italy 1978

Ebay, From the Tony Hardy collection #999
5 commentsJay GT4
Bruttium~0.jpg
Bruttium Uncia75 viewsLaureate and bearded head of Zeus right.

BPET-TIΩN
Eagle standing left with open wings; at left cornucopiae, above double-axe.

214-211 BC

8.30g

Scheu 13; SNG ANS 44; HN Italy 1978

Ex-Ebay
3 commentsJay GT4
Vibo.jpg
Bruttium Vibo Valentia Semis78 views Bronze semis

head of Juno (Hera) right, wearing stephane, S (mark of value) behind

VALENTIA
Double cornucopia overflowing with grain and grapes, carnyx (control symbol) and S (mark of value) on right


Vibo Valentia mint, 193 - 150 B.C.

3.57g, 18.1 mm 270o

Mensitieri Valentia 211; HN Italy 2263; SNG ANS 483, SNG Cop 1849; BMC Italy p. 361, 16 (control described as staff ending in boar's head)

Ex-Forum from the Andrew McCabe Collection
6 commentsJay GT4
Bruttium,_Brettii,_Under_Hannibal_(215-205_BC),_AR-quarter_shekel,_Tanit-Demeter_l_,_Horse_r_,_SNG_Cop_369,_HN_Italy_2020,__Q-001,_0h,_13,5mm,_1,67g-s.jpg
Bruttium, Brettii, Under Hannibal, (215-205 B.C.), AR-Quarter Shekel, SNG Cop 369, -/-//--, Free horse standing right,231 viewsBruttium, Brettii, Under Hannibal, (215-205 B.C.), AR-Quarter Shekel, SNG Cop 369, -/-//--, Free horse standing right,
avers: Head of Tanit-Demeter left, wreathed with grain, in pendant earring and necklace.
reverse: Free horse standing right.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 13,5mm, weight: 1,67g, axes: 0h,
mint: Bruttium, Brettii, date: 215-205 B.C., ref: SNG Cop 369, Robinson, NC 1964, p. 53, 3., HN Italy 2020.,
Q-001
4 commentsquadrans
IT_kotka.jpg
Bruttium, eagle with a lean figure13 viewsBrettii, Bruttium, Italy, c. 216 - 214 B.C. Bronze reduced uncia, SNG ANS 44, HN Italy 1978, 7.142g, 21.8mm, 270o, c. 216 - 214 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Zeus right; reverse BRET-TIWN, eagle standing left, wings open, cornucopia left; green patina; ex FORVMkaitsuburi
Bruttium_Kaulonia_SNG-ANS185.jpg
Bruttium, Kaulonia.34 viewsBruttium, Kaulonia. 470-440 BC. AR Stater (6.71 gm). Apollo Catharsius advancing r., laurel branch in hand, small figure running on outstretched arm. Stag in r. field, looking back, bucranium (wolf's head) in tree to l. / Stag stdg. r., KAVΛΩΝΙAΤA-N. VF. CNG 55 #71. SNG ANS 185 (same dies); HN Italy Type G 2049; HGC 1 1419var (℞ full legend); Noe Caulonia group G #108-109; SNG Lockett 588 (same dies); SNG Cop 1714.1 commentsChristian T
Bruttium_Kaulonia_SNG-ANS175.jpg
Bruttium, Kaulonia.15 viewsBruttium, Kaulonia. 475-425 BC. AR Stater (8.02 gm). Apollo advancing r. holding lustral branch, small figure running on outstretched arm. Stag on basis in r. field, looking back, ʌvʌʞ (KAVA retrograde) to l. / Stag stdg. r., ʌvʌʞ (KAVA retrograde) above and laurel branch to r. VF/EF. Bt. Coral Gables 1999. SNG ANS 175, 178ff; HN Italy 2046; HGC 1 1419; Noe Caulonia group F #93; SNG Cop 1712; SNG Lockett 586.Christian T
5006LG.jpg
BRUTTIUM, Kaulonia. Circa 475-425 BC.60 viewsAR Nomos, Noe, Caulonia Group F, 78 (same dies); HN Italy 2046. BMC 42, aVF, 7.9 g, 19 mm,. Apollo advancing right, holding branch; [small daimon] running right on Apollo's left arm; to right, stag standing right, head reverted / Stag standing right; KAV above in retrograde, leaf to right.

Ex Holyland
2 commentsPhiloromaos
Kroton.jpg
Bruttium, Kroton (Circa 425-350 BC)25 viewsAR Stater

7.73 g

Obverse: Eagle standing left, head right, on stag’s head

Reverse: Tripod; ivy leaf to left, QPO to right.

HN Italy 2146; SNG ANS 351-2

Obeying a directive of the oracle of Delphi, A group of Achaean settlers founded Kroton around 710 BC. Like its neighbor to the north, Sybaris, it soon became a city of power and wealth. Kroton was especially celebrated for its successes in the Olympic Games from 588 BC onward (Milo of Kroton being the most famous of its athletes).

The philosopher Pythagoras established himself there about 530 BC and formed a society of 300 disciples who were sympathetic toward aristocratic government. In 510 BC Kroton was strong enough to defeat the Sybarites and raze their city to the ground. However, shortly after the sack of Sybaris the disciples of Pythagoras were driven out, and a democracy established.

The obverse was comparable with similar types on probably contemporary coins from Elis (which put on the Olympic games at the nearby sanctuary of Olympia) The coins of both cities were thus likely issued for athletic festivals in honor of Zeus. In Kroton’s case the coins probably commemorated its citizens’ Olympic victories with the eagle representing Zeus who presided over Olympia and the games themselves. The tripod (reverse) represented the divine sanction for the town's founding from the Oracle of Delphi (who sat on a three legged stool when producing her oracles).
2 commentsNathan P
Kroton~0.jpg
Bruttium, Kroton (Circa 530-500 BC)29 viewsAR Nomos

28 mm, 7.82 g

Obverse: Tripod, legs surmounted by wreaths and terminating in lion's feet, two serpents rising from the bowl, set on basis of three lines, the center dotted, koppa-P-O (KRO - short for Kroton) to left

Reverse: Incuse tripod as obverse, but wreaths and serpents in outline.

HN Italy 2075; SNG ANS 231; Bement 272.

The importance of the Delphic oracle to the founding of Kroton was celebrated on its coinage from the earliest days. Despite later myths ascribing the founding of Kroton to Herakles, the city's historical oikist is recorded as Myskellos of Rhypai who, on consulting the Delphic oracle about his lack of children was given the response that Apollo would grant children, but that first Myskellos should found the city of Kroton 'among fair fields'. After being given directions on how to locate the site, Myskellos travelled to southern Italy to explore the land that he had been assigned, but seeing the territory of the Sybarites and thinking it superior, he returned once more to the oracle to ask whether he would be allowed to change. The answer came back that he should accept the gifts that the god gave him. A further element of the story is that Myskellos was accompanied on his expedition by Archias of Corinth; the Delphic oracle gave the pair the choice between health and wealth. Archias elected wealth, and was assigned the site of Syracuse, while Myskellos chose health: the favourable climate of Kroton, the eminent skill of its physicians and the prowess of its athletes later earned its citizens this reputation for good health.
1 commentsNathan P
greek3.jpg
Bruttium, Kroton Ar Nomos43 views(480-430 BC)
Obv.: Tripod, legs terminated in lion's feet, heron to left.
Rev.: Incuse tripod.
SNG ANS 260; HN Italy 2102.
2 commentsMinos
HN_2100.jpg
Bruttium, Kroton, c. 480-430 BC, Stater22 views6.88g, 20mm, 5h
ϘPO (retr.), tripod; crab at left.,
Rv. Incuse tripod; dolphin at right.
HNItaly 2100; SNG ANS 280. Rare.
Leo
Bruttium_Kroton_SNG-ANS308.jpg
Bruttium, Kroton.16 viewsBruttium, Kroton. 480-430 BC. AR Stater (7.80 gm). Delphic tripod; to l. & r.: stork stdg r. & ϘPO Ex: strung bow. / Tripod incuse, sunken border. VF. CNG EA 1999. ex-CNG XXII (1992-09-02). SNG ANS 308; HN Italy 2104; HGC 1 1449; SNG Cop 1762; SNG München 1430.Christian T
Bruttium_Kroton_SNG-ANS286.jpg
Bruttium, Kroton.20 viewsBruttium, Kroton. 500-450 BC. AR Stater (6.78 gm) w/ medium flan. Delphic tripod with three lion's foot legs, ϘPO-TOИ to l. & r. (retrograde). / Incuse eagle flying r. Good VF. Pegasi VI #87. SNG ANS 286; Dewing 499v (retrograde legend); HGC 1 1447; HN Italy 2095; SNG Cop 1766; SNG Fitzwilliam 757.Christian T
Bruttium_Kroton_SNG-ANS273.jpg
Bruttium, Kroton.15 viewsBruttium, Kroton. 480-430 BC. AR Stater (8.05 gm). Tripod w/ three lion's foot legs, ϘPO in l. field. / Incuse tripod in sunken border. VF. Bt. Coral Gables 1999. SNG ANS 273-274; HN Italy 2102; HGC 1449; SNG Cop 1753.Christian T
Bruttium_Kroton_SNG-ANS380.jpg
Bruttium, Kroton.19 viewsBruttium, Kroton. c. 370 BC. AR Stater (7.68 gm). Head of Hera Lakinia facing three-quarters, wearing stephanos adorned with honeysuckle & griffin heads. / Herakles Epitrapezios seated l. on rock w/ lionskin, holding wine cup, letter Ϙ by ankle. Bow & club crossed above. KPOT & tripod to l. ME in field above arm. VF. CNG EA 1999. SNG ANS 380; Dewing 512; HN Italy 2162; HGC 1 1463; SNG Lockett 629var (Δ overstruck on E of Rᵪ); SNG Cop 1800var (same).Christian T
Bruttium_Kroton_SNG-ANS346.jpg
Bruttium, Kroton.16 viewsBruttium, Kroton. 425-380 BC. AR Stater (7.68 gm). Eagle standing r. on olive branch, wings spread, BOI to l. (Boiskos magistrate). / Delphic tripod adorned with fillet, laurel branch behind. ϘPOTΩ to l. VF/ gVF. Pegasi 122, #41. SNG ANS 346 (same dies); SNG Fitzwilliam 775 (same); HN Italy 2151; HGC 1460.Christian T
Bruttium_Laus_SNG-ANS135.jpg
Bruttium, Laus.21 viewsBruttium, Laus. 480-460 BC. AR Stater (8.07 gm). Man-headed bull stdg l., looking back. ΛAΣ (retrograde) above. / Man-headed bull standing r. ΛAΣ (retrograde) above. VF. CICF06 138 #1422. SNG ANS 135 (Lucania); HN Italy 2275; SNG Cop. 1146; SNG Fitzwilliam 445; SNG München 920; Sternberg 9 (V8/R8); Weber 728.1 commentsChristian T
Bruttium_Lokroi_Epizephyrioi_SNG-ANS513.jpg
Bruttium, Lokroi Epizephyrioi.15 viewsBruttium, Lokroi Epizephyrioi. 350-375 BC. AR Stater (8.65 gm). Pegasus flying l., thunderbolt beneath. ΛΟΚΡΩΝ. / Head of Athena l. wearing Corinthian helmet. EF. Bt. Rare Coins & Classical Arts, NJ, 2000. SNG ANS 513-515; HN Italy 2342; HGC 1 1574; Pegasi 13; SNG Cop 1869; SNG Oxford 1547, 1551.Christian T
IMG_9348.JPG
BRUTTIUM, Petelia15 viewsBRUTTIUM, Petelia. Circa 214-212 BC. Æ 20mm
Veiled head of Demeter right / [PETHLINWN], Zeus standing left, head reverted, holding thunderbolt and sceptre; star to left, F to right. Caltabiano, Petelia 3; SNG ANS 602 var. (N not F); HN Italy 2454.
ecoli
2400034.jpg
BRUTTIUM, Rhegion14 viewsBRUTTIUM, Rhegion. Circa 425-420 BC. AR Litra (10mm, 0.68 g, 6h). Facing lion’s scalp / Olive-spray with two berries. Herzfelder pl. VI, F; SNG ANS 670-674; HN Italy 2492.1 commentsTLP
bruttium_rheg_lion_resb.jpg
BRUTTIUM, RHEGION31 viewsca. 260 - 215 BC
AE 23 mm, 7.04 g
O: Head of Artemis right, bow and quiver over shoulder
R: ΡΗΓΙΝΩΝ, lion walking right
Rhegion mint; HN Italy 2544
(ex Forum)
laney
IMG_0574.JPG
BRUTTIUM, Rhegion13 viewsBRUTTIUM, Rhegion. Circa 415/0-387 BC. Æ 11mm . Lion's head facing /laureate head of Apollo right. Cf. SNG ANS 702; HN Italy 2524ecoli
HN_Italy_2497.jpg
Bruttium, Rhegion, 415-387 B.C., Drachm 25 views14mm, 3.89 grams
Reference: Sear 502; B.M.C.1.38
Lion's scalp facing.
PHΓINON, Laureate head of Apollo right, olive-sprig behind.

"Dionysios I, after concluding a peace with the Carthaginians, went about securing his power in the island of Sicily. His troops, however, rebelled against him and sought help from, among others, the city of Rhegion (Diod. Sic. 14.8.2). In the ensuing campaigns, Dionyios I proceeded to enslave the citizens of Naxos and Katane, with whom the Rhegians shared a common history and identity (Diod. Sic. 14.40.1). This association was a source of anger and fear for the inhabitants of Rhegion. The Syracusan exiles living there also encouraged the Rhegians to go to war with Syracuse (Diod. Sic. 14.40.3). The overarching strategy of Dionysios I included extending his power into Italy by using Rhegion as a stepping stone to the rest of the peninsula. In 387 BC, after a siege that lasted eleven months, the Rhegians, on the brink of starvation, surrendered to Dionysus. Indeed, we are told that by the end of the siege, a medimnos of wheat cost about five minai (Diod. Sic. 14.111.2). Strabo remarks that, following Dionysios' capture of the city, the Syracusan “destroyed the illustrious city” (Strabo 6.1.6).

The next decade or so of the history of Rhegion is unclear, but sometime during his reign, Dionysios II, who succeeded his father in 367 BC, rebuilt the city, giving it the new name of Phoibia (Strabo 6.1.6). Herzfelder argues that this issue was struck by Dionysios II of Syracuse after he rebuilt the city, and dates it to the period that Dionysios II is thought to have lived in the city. Due to civil strife at Syracuse, Dionysios II was forced to garrison Region, but was ejected from the city by two of his rivals circa 351 BC (Diod. Sic. 16.45.9).

The coin types of Rhegion, founded as a colony of Chalcis, are related to its founding mythology. Some of the earliest tetradrachms of the city, from the mid-5th century BC, depict a lion’s head on the obverse, and a seated figure on the reverse. J.P. Six (in NC 1898, pp. 281-5) identified the figure as Iokastos, the oikistes (founder) of Rhegion (Diod. Sic. 5.8.1; Callimachus fr. 202). Head (in HN), suggested Aristaios, son of Apollo. Iokastos was one of six sons of Aiolos, ruler of the Aeolian Islands. All of the sons of Aiolos secured their own realms in Italy and Sicily, with Iokastos taking the region around Rhegion. Aristaios, born in Libya, discovered the silphium plant, and was the patron of beekeepers (mentioned by Virgil), shepherds, vintners, and olive growers. He also protected Dionysos as a child, and was the lover of Eurydike. The replacement of the seated figure type with the head of Apollo circa 420 BC also suggests the figure could be Aristaios. An anecdote from the first-century BC geographer Strabo (6.1.6 and 6.1.9), which connects Rhegion’s founding to the orders of the Delphic Oracle and Apollo, as the reason for the advent of the new type could be simply serendipitous.

Different theories exist for the lion’s head on the coins of Rhegion. The lion’s head (or mask as it is sometimes described) first appeared on the coinage of Rhegion at the start of the reign of Anaxilas, in about 494 BC. E.S.G. Robinson, in his article “Rhegion, Zankle-Messana and the Samians” (JHS vol. 66, 1946) argues that the lion was a symbol of Apollo. He makes a comparison to the coinage of the nearby city of Kaulonia, “At Kaulonia Apollo’s animal was the deer; if at Rhegion it was the lion, the early appearance and persistence of that type is explained. The lion is a certain, though infrequent, associate of Apollo at all periods.” The link, he suggests, is that the lion was associated with the sun, as was Apollo himself.

The lion’s head could also relate to the exploits of Herakles, who had some significance for the city. The extant sources tell us that Herakles stopped at southern Italy near Rhegion on his return with the cattle of Geryon (Diod. Sic. 4.22.5). It was here that supposedly a bull broke away from the rest of the herd and swam to Sicily (Apollod. 2.5.10). Though but a passing reference in Apollodorus, it is very possible that the Rhegians venerated Herakles. Indeed, Herakles was a very important figure throughout the entire area. Dionysios of Halicarnassus says that “in many other places also in Italy [besides Rome] precincts are dedicated to this god [Herakles] and altars erected to him, both in cities and along highways; and one could scarcely find any place in Italy in which the god is not honoured” (I.40.6). As the skin of the Nemean Lion was one of the main attributes of Herakles, the lion’s head may refer to him through metonymic association."
1 commentsLeo
7094045.jpg
Bruttium, Rhegion. Bronze c. 260-215 B.C.20 viewsBruttium, Rhegion. c. 260-215 B.C. Bronze 24mm, 9.8 grams.
Obv: Diademed head of Artemis right, bow and quiver over shoulder.
Rev: RHGI-NWN Lion walking right.
Ref: HN Italy 2544; SNG ANS 725.1
EF, dark green patina.
mjabrial
BRUTTIUM,_Rhegion_.jpg
BRUTTIUM, Rhegion. Circa 450-445 BC. AR Drachm.127 viewsAR Drachm (16.5mm, 3.64 g, 12h). Facing lion scalp; pellet to right / Iokastos seated left, holding scepter; all within laurel wreath. Herzfelder 19 (D12/R16); HN Italy 2478. VF, lightly toned, rough and scratched surfaces on reverse.

Ex Classical Numismatic Group Electronic Auction 379 / Lot 38.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection.
4 commentsSam
bruttium_lion_olive.jpg
BRUTTIUM, RHEGIUM17 viewscirca 425-410 BC
AE Pentonkion 17 mm; 4.52 g
O: Facing lion-mask.
R: PH between two leaves of olive-sprig.
Bruttium, Rhegium; cf SNG ANS 680; Historia Numorum Italy 2520.
d.s.
laney
greek92.jpg
Bruttium, Terina AR Drachm40 views420-400 BC
Obv.: Head of nymph right, hair rolled around ampyx. TEPI behind.
Rev.: Nike seated left on wreathed cippus, holding wreath, bird resting on her hand.
Holloway-Jenkins Group F, 97; SNG ANS 858; HN Italy 2634.
1 commentsMinos
Bruttium_Terina_Trihemiobol_AR11_1_22g.jpg
Bruttium, Terina, Trihemiobol24 views11mm, 1.22g
obv: head of nymph left, hair bound in sphendone
rev: Nike seated left on cippus, holding wreath; Π to right
(Holloway & Jenkins 74 (same obv. die); SNG ANS 875; HN Italy 2624)

ex CNG, e-auction 240, lot 36
areich
Bretti.jpg
Bruttium, the Bretti133 viewsLaureated and bearded head of Zeus right, at left thunderbolt, dotted border

BΡETTIΩN
warrior attacking right holding shield and spear; below bucranium. Dotted border.

211-208 BC


Scheu 42; HNItaly 1988; SNG Copenhagen 1658; SNG ANS 108.

8.05g

Round punch mark on obverse
3 commentsJay GT4
Bretti~0.jpg
Bruttium, The Bretti, drachm82 viewsdiademed, draped and winged bust of Nike right, at left Club and crescent

BPETTIΩN
River-god Aisaros/Dionysos standing, crowning himself, holding cloak and scepter, at right Snake and Σ.

216-214 BC

4.60g

HNItaly 1961 SNG Copenhagen

Second Punic War issue

Ex-Calgary Coin


3 commentsJay GT4
Brettian_HN1970.jpg
Bruttium, The Bretti, drachm25 viewsDiademed, draped and winged bust of Nike right, bird? behind

BPETTIΩN
River-god Aisaros/Dionysos standing, crowning himself, holding cloak and scepter, monogram and shield to right

216-214 BC Punic war issue

4.81g

Rare with these control marks. Only 2 on acsearch including this one, both from same dies and die flaws.
Struck with worn obverse die.

Arslan dies 81/107’; Scheu S65; HN Italy 1970

Ex-CNG 452 Lot 48; From the John L. Cowan Collection; Ex-Pegasi, 31 May 2012 Auction 24 lot 44.
2 commentsJay GT4
00017Q00.JPG
Bruttium, The Brettii (Circa 211-208 BC)27 viewsÆ Double Unit (Didrachm)

26 mm, 16.19 g

Obverse: Head of Ares left, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with griffin

Reverse: BRET-TIWN, Hera Hoplosima (or Athena) advancing right, holding spear and shield; racing torch right.

Scheu 72; SNG ANS 82; HN Italy 1987

The Brettii were an indigenous Italian people who emerged in southern Italy in the mid-fourth century BC. Ancient authors describe them as a group of revolted slaves and miscellaneous fugitives who came together after seeking refuge in the rugged mountains of the area. Nonetheless, it is more likely that most of these people were native Oenotrians or Pelasgians who had escaped from domination by the Greek cities and other native groups to the north. By the mid-third century BC, this disparate congregation of people, now known as the Brettii, had become the predominant power over most of Italy south of the river Laos, including the important mints of Consentia, Medma, Hipponium, Terina, and Thurium (Diod. XVI.15; Strabo VI). Their rising power, however, was eventually checked by the expansion of Roman authority in their region. In the 280s BC, they united with their neighbors, the Lucanians, against Rome, an adventure that proved inconclusive. Soon thereafter, they aided Pyrrhos in his war against Rome, an unsuccessful endeavor that resulted in the Romans carrying on the conflict against the Brettians after defeating the Epiran leader. The Brettians submitted to the Romans, but in the face of Hannibal's successes against Rome, they again allied themselves with Rome's enemy during the Second Punic War (Livy XXII. 61). In this conflict, the Brettians were completely invested in the alliance with Carthage, such that the entire region of Bruttium became a veritable Punic fortress, and it was during this war that the entire series of Brettian coinage was struck. Once again, though, the Brettii had supported the losing side, and this time the Romans were determined to squash any further ability of the Brettians to threaten them. In the aftermath of Hannibal's defeat, the Romans subjugated Bruttium through annual military deployments and the establishment of three colonies, at Tempsa, Kroton, and Vibo Valentia (Livy XXXIV. 45 and XXXV. 40). Unlike other Italian populations that had been conquered by the Romans, the Brettii were also not admitted as Roman allies and could not serve in the Roman military (Appian, Annib. 61). Little is known of the Brettii thereafter.
1 commentsNathan P
HN_Italy-1975.jpg
Bruttium, the Brettii: Anonymous (ca. 214-211 BCE) Æ Double – Didrachm (Scheu, Bronze 1; HN Italy 1975)42 viewsObv: Helmeted head of Ares left; two pellets to right, grain ear below
Rev: Nike standing left, erecting trophy; cornucopia between


2 commentsQuant.Geek
Brittium__The_Bretti_River_God_221-179_BC.jpg
BRUTTIUM. The Brettii.21 viewsAR Drachm
215-2015 BC
18.5mm, 4.23 grams
Diademed bust of Nike r.; behind, harpa
BPETTIΩN, river-god standing, crowning himself, holding cloak and sceptre at r., snake and Σ.
Scheu 61. SNG Copenhagen 1624. Historia Numorum Italy 1963.
The Bretti (or Brutti) emerged from the rugged hills of southern Italy in the mid-4th century BC as an insurgent force of escaped slaves and other fugitives rebelling against the Lucanians, who had subjugated the area a generation earlier. Having thrown off the yoke of oppression, the Bretti retained their independence until 280 BC, when they helped the Greek king Pyrrhus of Epirus in his war against the Romans. After defeating Pyrrhus, the Romans invaded Bruttium and occupied most of the country. The Brettii remained pacified throughout the First Punic War (264-241 BC) but were among the first to declare in favor of the Carthaginian general Hannibal against Rome in the Second Punic War (218-201 BC), resulting in their final crushing as a separate people and absorption by Rome.
1 commentsJBGood
Brettian.jpg
Bruttium; the Bretti39 viewsLaureate head of Zeus right, at left thunderbolt

BPETTIΩN
Warrior standing right, holding shield and spear, below bunch of grapes.

Bruttium, circa 211-208 BC.

8.51g

HN Italy 1988; SNG ANS 106.

Scarce
2 commentsJay GT4
38651_vibo_Valentia,_Bruttium.jpg
Bruttium; Vibo Valentia; semis; Hera/ VALENTIA, double cornucopia, S30 viewsVibo Valentia, Bruttium, Italy, 192 - 89 B.C. Bronze semis, HN Italy 2263, SNG ANS 475 - 483, VF, rough green patina, Vibo Valentia mint, 5.027g, 18.8mm, 270o, 192 - 89 B.C.; obverse head of Hera right, wearing stephane; reverse VALENTIA, double cornucopia, S (mark of value) in right field. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
0530-Jtn-K-Con-S7_109.jpg
BYZANTINE, Anonymous Half-Siliqua, Struck at Constantinople (c.530AD), Bendall Type 8c159 viewsObverse: Helmeted and draped bust of Constantinople facing right.
Reverse: Large K in a pearl border.

S. Bendall made an attempt at the classification and chronology of these types. He accepted the general conclusion that the oldest issues, of very fine style, were struck during the inauguration of the new capital of the empire on May 11th, A.D.330. Bendall, having analyzed the changes in style, suggested that some issues were struck on the anniversaries of the founding of Constantinople in A.D.430 and A.D.530, and that other variants might have been issued during the reign of Justinian I to celebrate the reconquest of Italy.

Atelier : Constantinople (Istanbul en Turquie) - Ref : Bendall Type 8c - Sommer 7.109 (Maurice), Tolstoï 28, 612 - Rare
0,80 g / 13-15 mm - Etat presque Extremely Fine
3 commentséRIC_FR
Mauricius Tiberius.jpg
BYZANTINE, Mauricius Tiberius55 viewsMauricius Tiberius, 582 - 602 AD
Solidus, Constantinopel, 4,29g, VF

obv: O.N.MAVRC.TIb.PP.AVG (Dr. and cuir. bust facing, wearing plumed helmet and holding gl. cr.)
rev: VICTORIA AVGGI (officinae I), (angel stg. facing, holding staff surmounted by P and gl.cr.; in ex., CONOB)

"Maurice Tiberius
August 13, 582 through November 22, 602.
Maurice Tiberius was an excellant military officer and was responsible for the curbing the Persians during the end of Justin II's reign. And during his reign he used diplomatic means to bring peace with the Persians. The western part of the empire saw a reuniting of control over much of Italy, Sicily and North Africa, but the Balkans proved to be his downfall. Due to losses of territory and prestige in the Balkan peninsula, a military revolt occurred with Phocas taking over as emperor. Maurice Tiberius and his two sons fled Constantinople, only to be slain a month or so later"
Nico
annius_Crawford366.1a.jpg
C. Annius Luscus, Crawford 366/1a161 viewsC. Annius Luscus, gens Annia, and L. Fabius Hispaniensis
AR - denarius, 3.76g
mint in Northern Italy or Spain, 82-81 BC
obv. C.ANNI.T.F.T.N.PRO.COS.EX.S.[C.]
Bust of Anna Perenna(?), draped, wearing frontale, ear-rings and necklace, r.
caduceus behind, scales before, beneath T
rev. Victory, in long clothes, stg. in quadriga r., holding reigns in l. and long palmbranch in
r. hand
above Q
in ex. L.FABI.L.HIS[P]
Crawford 366/1a; Sydenham 748; Annia 2a; BMC Spain 1-12
nice VF

An imperatorial issue for the campaign against Sertorius in Spain. The questor Fabius, named on the reverse, later passed over to Sertorius and then perished with him.
For more information about Anna Perenna look at the thread 'Mythological interesting coins'
Jochen
803_Annius_Luscus_and_Fabius_Hispaniensis.jpg
C. Annius T.f. T.n. Luscus and L. Fabius L.f. Hispaniensis - AR denarius8 views²Transalpine Gaul
¹north Italy
¹²82-81 BC
diademed draped bust of Anna Parenna right; caduceus left, scales right, dagger below
C·ANNI·T·F·T·N_·_PRO·COS·EX·S·C·
Victory in quadriga right, holding palm branch and reins
Q .
L·FABI·L·F·HISP
¹Crawford 366/1a, SRCV I 289, Sydenham 748, RSC I Annia 2
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
3,7g
ex Gitbud and Naumann

Moneyer apparently used Anna Parenna as a pun to his name Annius. It is the only known depiction of Anna Parenna whose identity is very complicated.

"An older myth tells that Anna Perenna was an old woman from the city of Bollivae in Latium. The myth tells that Anna Perenna brought bread and cakes to the Plebeians who wanted to separate from Rome because of their unequal status as Plebeians in 494 BC and so she saved them from starving. This is why she was popular on the common people and considered as goddes after her death.

A later tradition from the time of the myth of Aeneas made Anna the sister of Dido. After Dido has committed suicide and Carthage was conquered she had to fly. A heavy storm throw her to the coast of Latium at Laurentum where Aeneas was the ruler. Aeneas and his companion went to the beach and he recognized her and took her to his palace. In a dream Anna was warned to be alarmed at the traps that Lavinia, Aeneas' wife, would set for her so she fled from the palace. While she was wandering she met Numicius, the god of a nearby stream who carried her off to his bed. The servants of Aeneas searched for Anna and followed her tracks to the river bank a shape rose from the water and revealed to them that Anna had become a water nymph, whose new name, Perenna, signified eternity. Aeneas' servants in their joy scattered among the fields and passed the day in feasting and festivities, which became established as an annual celebration of the festival of Anna Perenna. There is another opinion too that she committed suicide by drowning in the river Numicius because of her desperation.

In another myth she was an old woman again. Mars was fallen in love to Minerva, sworn virgin. Mars asked Anna Perenna for interceding on his behalf. But instead of this - knowing about the impossibility of his wishes - she dressed herself like Minerva and came to Mars veiled. When he tried to kiss her she lifted her veil, break out in laughter and mocked Mars. Minerva's main festival, the Quinquatrus, was celebrated 4 days after the festival of Anna Perenna so this could be reason of this story." from Jochen's coins of mythological interest.
Johny SYSEL
clovi_Crawford476.1a.jpg
C. Clovius, Crawford 476/1a131 viewsAE - Orichalcum-Dupondius, 14.87g, 27mm
struck 45 BC for Julius Caesar, mint in northern Italy (probably Milano)
obv. bust of Victoria, winged, draped and with ear-ring, r.
CAESAR.DIC.TER before
rev. Minerva, wearing Korinthian helmet, advancing l., holding trophy over r.
shoulder, spear and shield decorated with head of Medusa; behind her feet a
snake, erecting in front of her.
C.CLOVI before, PRAEF behind
Crawford 476/1a; Sydenham 1025; C.7; RPC I 601/1; CRI 62; Julia 17; BMRR 4125
about VF, attractive yellow-olive patina (so-called river-patina!)
Pedigree:
ex Glendining 25.June 1997, lot 45
ex CNG

An exceptional issue: It is the first Roman coin struck from Orichalcum (brass). Probably this type was struck after the victory over the sons of Pompeius at Munda 17.March AD 45 to serve as donation at his triumph in Rome. The depiction is unusual and is a symbol of Caesar's military abilities. Brass was used probably to make the look of the coin more valuable.
4 commentsJochen
1441_C_Servilius_Mf.jpg
C. Servilius M.f. - AR denarius4 viewsRome
²137 BC
¹136 BC
helmet head of Roma right
wreath left
(XVI) ROMA
the Dioscuri riding in opposite directions, heads turned confronting, each with star above his head and holding a spear
C·SERVEILI·M·F
¹Crawford 239/1, Sydenham 525, RSC I Servilia 1, BMCRR Italy 540, SRCV I 116
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
ex Jesus Vico

It's the first issue with ROMA on obverse also Dioscuri are riding unconventionally from each other.
Johny SYSEL
C__Servilius_M_f_.jpg
C. Servilius M.f. - fouré denarius8 viewsRome - unofficial mint
²137 BC (date of official issue)
¹136 BC (date of official issue)
helmet head of Roma right
wreath left
(XVI) ROMA
the Dioscuri riding in opposite directions, heads turned confronting, each with star above his head and holding a spear
C·SERVEILI·M·F
official issue - ¹Crawford 239/1, Sydenham 525, RSC I Servilia 1, BMCRR Italy 540, SRCV I 116
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
2,6g

It's the first issue with ROMA on obverse also Dioscuri are riding unconventionally from each other.
Johny SYSEL
qb3KTen4s8DiMpa26JLtFjp95ZdwzM.jpg
Caabria Tarentum AR Stater circa 380-375 BC 21mm 7.72g 9h Vlasto 428,HNItaly 876.12 viewsNude warrior holding shield on horse galloping left/Phalanthos extending hand,astride dolphin left.1 commentsGrant H
Untitled_collage614.jpg
Caabria Tarentum AR Stater circa 333-332 BC 21mm 7.82g 12 h67 viewsWarrior preparing to cast spear held in right hand,holding two spears and shield in left,on horse rearing right,eight rayed star on hind leg.Rev Taras holding kantharos in extended right hand,cradling trident in left arm,astride dolphin leftAP to left below small dolphin.
Vlasto 602,SNG ANS 995,HN Italy 937.
3 commentsGrant H
9e9MJS2ow5kRsG6y4d4XmFz3Ep7soB~0.jpg
Caabria Tarentum AR Stater circa280-272 BC 19 mm 6.42 g48 viewsYouth nude,on horseback right,crowning horse with wreath.Rev Phalanthos riding dolphin left,holding Phrygian helmet,two stars flanking.
Grant H
940279~0.jpg
Caabria Tarentum circa 240-228 BC AR Nomos 18 mm 6.48 g 6h39 viewsWarrior on horseback rearing right,holding crowning Nike and reins,monogram to left.Rev Phalanthos riding dolphin left,holding crowning Nike and cradling trident,monogram to right.
ex Elvira Elisa Clan-Stefanelli,as the Demarete collection.
Grant H
60-1a-blk.jpg
Caduceus (early) - Denarius, Crawford 60/113 viewsDenomination: Denarius
Era: c. 211-208 BC
Metal: AR
Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma R; X behind. Border of dots

Reverse: Dioscuri riding r.; Caduceus symbol below.; ROMA in raised letters in frame. Line border

Mint: Unknown mint in central Italy
Weight: 4.72 gm.
Reference: RRC 60/1
Provenance: Aureo & Calico Alba Longa sale, November 7, 2018; Ex. The Goodman Collection, Triton I, December 2-3, 1997, lot 892.

This issue is one of the most crude but distinctive of the early denarii. Lovely light toning, well centered and about EF.
1 commentsSteve B5
Caelia.jpg
Caelia - AE sextans8 views220-150 BC
head of Athena right wearing crested helmet
●●
trophy of captured arms, helmet spear, palm branch and shield decoraded with Medusa head; club left
KAIΛIN_ΩN
HNItaly 762; Weber 439; SNG ANS 670-671; BMC Italy pg. 133, 3; SNG Copenhagen 632; SNG Morcom 201 var.; Laffaille -
Johny SYSEL
Caesar_Lf.jpg
Caesar: Grandfather of Mark Antony 132 viewsCAESAR
Head of young Mars left wearing a crested helmet

Rev.
L IVLI L F
Venus Genetrix in Biga left drawn by two cupids, before them a lyre

Rome 103 BC

Sear 198

ex-Harlan J. Berk

Lucius Julius Caesar was Mark Antony's grandfather and Gaius Julius Caesar's cousin. He was moneyer in 103 BC and tried in vain to obtain the quaestorship. However he was praetor in 94 and then became the proconsul of Macedonia. Finally he gained the Consulship in 90 BC the same year his younger brother Gaius was aedile.

In 90 BC Lucius Julius Caesar as consul defeated the Samnites and proposed the Lex Julia which offered citizenship to all communities in Italy that were not in revolt. In the following year 89, the Lex Plautia Papiria extended citizenship to those who gave up the fight by a certain date. Lucius Julius Caesar was now made censor along with Publius Licinius Crassus (father of the triumvir). But it was a time of unrest.

In 87 Marius returned to Rome with Cinna and captured the city. Lucius and Gaius were killed during the fighting and according to Livy their heads were exposed on the speakers platform.
1 commentsTitus Pullo
Vlasto_157-9.jpg
CALABRIA (Apulia), Taras, c. 470-465 BC. AR Drachm54 views(14mm, 3.20g, 3h).

Forepart of hippocamp r.; pecten below. R/ Diademed head of Satyra r. Vlasto 157-9; HNItaly 839; SNG ANS 846. Rare, Good Fine
1 commentsLeo
Taras_Calabria_Italy.jpg
Calabria Italy Taras on Dolphin89 viewsTaras, Calabria, Italy, Silver nomos, Taros mint, 272 - 235 BC, 20.3mm, 6.375g, 0o axis, Vlasto 877 ff., SNG ANS 1197 ff., HN Italy 1033
OBV: Nude youth on horseback right, shield and two lances in left hand, spear pointed downwards in right, DI above left, API-STI/KL-HS below
REV: TARAS, Taras astride dolphin left, kantharos in right, trident in left, head of a nymph left behind; typical tight flan

The reverse depicts Taras, the son of Poseidon and of a local nymph,
Satyrion, being saved from a shipwreck by riding a dolphin sent to him by Poseidon.
This symbol of the ancient Greek city is still the symbol of Taranto today.

EX: Forum Ancient Coins
4 commentsRomanorvm
Calabria_Italy_Taras_on_Dolphin.jpg
Calabria Italy Taras on Dolphin21 viewsTaras, Calabria, Italy, c. 272 - 240 B.C., Silver nomos, Unpublished(?); Vlasto 932 var. (different controls), SNG ANS 1239 var. (same), HN Italy 1044 var. (same), SNG Cop -, BMC Italy -, VF, 6.520g, 19.7mm, die axis 180°,
OBV: Nude warrior wearing crested helmet on horse standing left, holding shield on left arm, horse raising right foreleg, ET (control) before horse, API-ΣTΩN below divided by horse's left foreleg;
REV: Taras on dolphin left, kantharos in extended right hand, trident nearly vertical in left, ΓY (control) behind upper right, TAPAΣ below;

Very Rare variant. EX: Forum Ancient Coins

Taras, the only Spartan colony, was founded in 706 B.C. The founders were Partheniae ("sons of virgins"), sons of unmarried Spartan women and Perioeci (free men, but not citizens of Sparta).
These out-of-wedlock unions were permitted to increase the prospective number of soldiers (only the citizens could be soldiers) during the bloody Messenian wars. Later, however, when they were no longer
needed, their citizenship was retroactively nullified and the sons were obliged to leave Greece forever. Their leader, Phalanthus, consulted the oracle at Delphi and was told to make the harbor of Taranto
their home. They named the city Taras after the son of Poseidon, and of a local nymph, Satyrion. The reverse depicts Taras being saved from a shipwreck by a dolphin sent to him by Poseidon.
This symbol of the ancient Greek city is still the symbol of modern Taranto today.

SRukke
Vlasto_235-6.JPG
CALABRIA TARAS Nomos. Circa 425-415 BC.68 views23 mm 7,39 g.

Obv: Phalanthos, right arm outstretched and holding shield on left arm, riding dolphin left; cockle shell below.

Rev: Nude male figure, holding bird in his extended left hand and spindle in his right, seated right on himation draped over a stool.

Fischer-Bossert 270a; Vlasto 235-6; HN Italy 844; SNG Lloyd 140; BMC 78; SNG Newcastle 19; Boston MFA 59; de Luynes 286; Gulbenkian 24; McClean 558.

near VF

Rare
2 commentsLeo
FotorCreated~62.jpg
Calabria Tarentum AR Diobol circa 325-280 BC 12mm 0.98g 10h 55 viewsHelmeted head of Athena right,wreath on helmet.Rev Herakles standing right facing left,strangling the Nemean lion,quiver to lower left ,club to lower right.
Very rare issue with wreath helmet,and Herakles standing right of lion.
EX Thomas Cederlind 165 8-1-12 lot 11
EXPeus 396 11-5-08 lot 26
EX Heidelberger Munzhandlung 28,11-12-99 lot 18
2 commentsGrant H
940279.jpg
Calabria Tarentum AR Nomos 18mm 6.48g 6h 240-228 BC119 viewsWarrior on horseback rearing right holding crowning Nike in right hand,and reins in left.Monogram to left in two lines KANNIK PATHE.Rev Phalanthos riding dolphin left holding crowning Nike and cradling trident,monogram to right.
Vlasto 963-70,HN Italy 1059. EX Elvria Elisa Clain Stefanell collection,known as the Demarete collection.
Period of Roman Alliance
2 commentsGrant H
FotorCreated~75.jpg
Calabria Tarentum AR Nomos circa 240-228 BC 21mm 6.37 g 10h47 viewsOlympis Magistrate,warrior brandishing javelin,on horse gelloping right wreath to left Olympis below.Rev Taras riding dolphin left, holding kantharos and cornucopiae,tripod to right. Grant H
FotorCreated~9.jpg
Calabria Tarentum AR Nomos circa 272-240 BC 19mm 6.23g 7h41 viewsYouth on horseback right,crowning horse and holding rein,behind,Nike flying right,crowning youth,APIETO/KPATHE in two lines below.Phalanthos riding dolphin left, holding cornucopia and trident,herm to right.
From the Kallman collection,EX Pegasi auc 19 lot 34, 11-18-08
1 commentsGrant H
FotorCreated~8.jpg
Calabria Tarentum AR Nomos circa 280 BC 20mm 7.93g 12 h59 viewsWarrior wearing shield on left arm and holding spear,on horse prancing left,to left Nike standing facing restraining horse.Rev Phalanthos wearing shield{ inscribed E} and holdingtwo spears,standing astride dolphin left,ZOP to left,waves below.
From the Kallman collection,purchased from Colosseum coin exchange
1 commentsGrant H
FotorCreated~10.jpg
Calabria Tarentum AR Nomos circa 302-280 BC 20mm 7.96g30 viewsNude youth on horseback right crowning horse,behind and above EA, in two lines below APE-O?N.Rev Taras riding dolphin left holding tripod in right hand below AE-TAPAE.
This group,Evans,Period 6 is the last before the reform reducing the weight of the nomos.
Grant H
FotorCreated~13.jpg
Calabria Tarentum AR Nomos circa 340-335 BC 22.5mm 7.45g 12h 31 viewsYouth on horseback right,crowning horse,below youth removing stone from horses hoof.Rev Phalanthos shield on arm,holding kantharos and trident,riding dolphin left,E and waves below.
A very charming type
Grant H
3940031.jpg
Calabria Tarentum AR Nomos circa 344-340 BC 21mm 7.49g 8h41 viewsWarrior,wearing helmet and holding spear and shield,standing facing,head right,behind horse standing right,to right l-.Rev Phalanthos holding trident and shield,riding dolphin left,below, A above waves.1 commentsGrant H
2580002.jpg
Calabria Tarentum AR Stater circa 280-272 BC 20 mm 6.46 g 12 h65 viewsThe Dioskouroi on horseback riding left,monogram above.Rev Phalanthos astride dolphin left,holding shield ,two spears,and crowning Nike.Waves below.2 commentsGrant H
98000313~0.jpg
Calabria Tarentum AR Stater circa 340-335 BC 23mm 7.87g 1h36 viewsNude youth on horseback right,holding rein in left hand,crowning horse with wreath held in right hand,to left Nike flying right placing fillet on head of youth.AP below.Rev Phalanthos nude riding sideways on dolphin right,head turned slightly left,spearing cuttlefish below with trident held in right hand,KA monogram to left.TAPAE to right,all encircled by waves.Grant H
Calabria_Tarentum_Drachm_Athena_and_Owl.jpg
Calabria Tarentum Drachm Athena and Owl47 viewsCALABRIA, Tarentum, Circa 280 - 272 BC, AR Drachm, 17mm, 2.85g, 10h, Neumenios - magistrate, Vlasto 1062-3, HN Italy 1015
OBV: Head of Athena right, wearing helmet decorated with Skylla
REV: NEYMHNIOΣ to left, Owl standing right, head facing, on olive branch, API to right

EX: CNG electronic auction, 270 lot 5

2 commentsRomanorvm
taras1.jpg
Calabria, Taras52 viewsAR Didrachm
c. 330-302 BCE (Period V)

O: Naked warrior in crested helmet riding horse right, spearing downward with right hand, shield and two extra spears in left; ΔΑΙ below.

R: Naked ephebe riding dolphin left, holding trident over right shoulder, shield decorated with hippocamp in left; ΦΙ to left, ΤΑΡΑΣ to right, murex shell below.

Vlasto 594; Cote 239; Evans V, B5; Fischer-Bossert 1022a; HN Italy 935; SNG ANS 991.
1 commentsSalaethus
Vlasto_509.jpg
Calabria, Taras (c. 344-340 B.C.), Silver Stater.83 views8.03g., 2h
Naked youth on a horse pacing right, crowning the horse with a wreath held in his extended right hand, K(KAA?) and an upright club below the horse, rev. TAP-A-Σ, Phalanthos riding on a dolphin left, holding a kantharos in his extended right hand, and a trident and a shield in his left, Ω below dolphin's tail, waves below.
Fischer-Bossert, Group 49, 685 (V260/R532); Vlasto 509 (these dies); SNG Lloyd 173 (these dies); SNG ANS 960; HN Italy 887. An exceptional example, well-struck from fresh dies and perfectly centred on a flan of good metal, extremely fine and most attractive.
From Sovereign Rarities (2018)

The "K" or "KAL" engraver was one of the finest Greek masters working in the 4th century. His work though rare, can also be found on coins from Heraklea, Metapontion, and Thouroi.
4 commentsLeo
greek17.jpg
Calabria, Taras Ar Nomos57 views(272-240 BC) Apollonios, magistrate.
Obv.: Warrior on horseback holding shield and spear.
Rev.: Taras riding dolphin, holding trident; Nike above crowning him; waves below.
Vlasto 894-898. HN Italy 1038.
2 commentsMinos
Vlasto_941.jpg
Calabria, Taras AR Nomos. Circa 240-228 BC.24 views6.56g, 21mm, 11 h
Zopyrion, magistrate. Nude youth on horseback to right, ΖΩΠΥΡΙΩΝ below; below forelegs, ΣΩ above bukranion / Taras astride dolphin to left, holding hippocamp in extended right hand, trident against left arm; monogram and mask of Silenos right, TAPAΣ below. Vlasto 941; HN Italy 1054.
Extremely Fine; a beautiful reverse composition. Very Rare.
1 commentsLeo
Vlasto_701-3.jpg
Calabria, Taras AR Nomos. Circa 281-270 BC.5 views7.85g, 23mm, 6h.
Rider dismounting from horse left, holding spear and shield; EY in right field, [NIK]ΩΝ below horse
Taras seated astride dolphin left, holding barley ear in right hand and resting left on dolphin's back; API before, TAPAΣ behind, spearhead below.
Vlasto 701-3; HN Italy 969; SNG ANS 1078.

Extremely Fine; lustrous metal.
1 commentsLeo
Vlasto_379ff.jpg
Calabria, Taras AR Nomos. Circa 390-385 BC.74 viewsNude warrior on horseback left, holding reins in right hand, small round shield on left arm; A below / Taras astride dolphin left; P and ΤΑΡΑΣ below. Vlasto 379ff; HN Italy 869; SNG ANS 900. 6.98g, 23mm, 8h.

Good Fine.
4 commentsLeo
Vlasto_1077.jpg
Calabria, Taras Drachm circa 280-27234 viewsAR 16mm., 3.21g. Head of Athena l., wearing helmet decorated with Skylla. Rev. Owl standing r. on thunderbolt, with open wings. Vlasto 1077. Historia Numorum Italy 1018.

Attractive old cabinet tone, Good Very Fine.
2 commentsLeo
Vlasto_132.jpg
Calabria, Taras Nomos circa 500-48038 viewsAR 19mm., 8.03g. Oecist riding dolphin r., extending arms; below, shell. Rev. Hippocamp l. Vlasto 132. Historia Numorum Italy 827.

Toned, Very Fine/Good Very Fine.
1 commentsLeo
Vlasto_1506.jpg
Calabria, Taras Obol14 viewsCirca 325-280, AR 7.5mm., 0.27g. Calabria, Tarentum, Obol (?) circa 325-280, AR 6mm, 0.27g. Cockle shell. Rev. Dolphin swimming r.; below, thunderbolt. Vlasto 1506. SNG Copenhagen 1038. SNG France 2152. Historia Numorum Italy 979 (litra ?).

Rare, Toned and Extremely Fine.
Leo
Calabria,_Taras,_AR-Litra,_Scallop-shell,_TAPA,_Dolphin,_shell,_HN_Italy_831,_c_500-480_BC,Q-001,_6h,_9-10mm,_0,63g-s.jpg
Calabria, Taras, (c.520-473 B.C.), AR-Litra, HN Italy 831, -/-//Scallop-shell, TAPA (retrograde), Dolphin, below, Scallop-shell,123 viewsCalabria, Taras, (c.520-473 B.C.), AR-Litra, HN Italy 831, -/-//Scallop-shell, TAPA (retrograde), Dolphin, below, Scallop-shell,
avers: Scallop-shell, linear border.
reverse: TAPA (retrograde), Dolphin, below, Scallop-shell, linear border.
exergue: -/-//Scallop-shell, diameter: 9,0-10,2mm, weight: 0,63g, axes: 6h,
mint: Calabria, Taras, date: c.520-473 B.C., ref: HN Italy 831, Vlasto 1136, Cote 102,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Vlasto_1132.jpg
CALABRIA, TARAS, AR 1/6 Stater or diobol, 500-480 BC 26 viewsweight 1,25gr. | silver Ø 11mm.
obv. Dolphin right, cockle-shell below
rev. Hippocamp right, TAPA (retrograde) above
BMC 55 | cf. Vlasto 1132 | Côte 34 | cf. SNG.Copenhagen 783 |
cf. SNG.Paris 1612 | cf. Historia Numorum, Italy 829 | Sear 227 R
Rare cointype in an attractive condition.
vf
1 commentsLeo
Vlasto_797.jpg
CALABRIA, Taras, AR Nomos71 viewsCirca 280-272 BC. (21.5mm, 6.28 g, 10h). Warror, holding shield and two spears, on horse galloping left; ZΩ to right, [A]ΠOΛΛΩ below / Phalanthos, holding grape bunch and distaff, astride dolphin left; ANΘ to left. Vlasto 797; HN Italy 1013. VF, toned.2 commentsLeo
Vlasto_1760.jpg
CALABRIA, Taras, c. 280-228 BC. AR Hemiobol8 views6mm, 0.24g
Two crescents back-to-back; two pellets around. R/ Two crescents back-to-back; two pellets around.
Vlasto 1758-9; cf. HN Italy 1077. VF
1 commentsLeo
Vlasto_413-4.jpg
CALABRIA, Taras, c. 385-380 BC. AR Nomos (Contemporary Imitation)37 views21mm, 7.47g, 9h
Nude youth on horseback l., crowning horse with wreath; pellet to l., A below. R/ Phalanthos riding dolphin l., holding kantharos. Cf. Vlasto 413-4; cf. HNItaly 875; SNG Fitzwilliam 257; Fisher-Bossert N 71. Corrosions, VF
1 commentsLeo
Vlasto_638.jpg
CALABRIA, Taras, Circa 315-302 BC. AR Nomos58 views21mm, 8.04 g, 11h
Warrior, preparing to cast spear held aloft in right hand, holding two spears and shield with left hand, on horse rearing right; Ξ to left, API below / Phalanthos, nude, holding kantharos in extended right hand and cradling oar in left arm, riding dolphin left; KΛ to left, TAPAΣ to right. Fischer-Bossert Group 74a, 914 (V357/R709); Vlasto 638; HN Italy 939; SNG ANS 1016 (same obv. die); SNG Lloyd –; BMC 208 (same dies); Pozzi 123 (same obv. die). Very rare in this quality. Excellent style. Beautiful patina. Extremely fine.
Ex Hess-Divo 329 (17 November 2015), lot 6; Leu 91 (10 May 2004), lot 15.

The obverse of this nomos depicts an example of the mercenary cavalrymen for which Taras became famous in the Hellenistic period. The Tarentine cavalryman is believed to have been the first mounted warrior of the Greek world to carry a shield. This novelty made him popular in the armies of Hellenistic kings and led to the training of cavalrymen in the Tarentine style.
2 commentsLeo
calabria_1a_img.jpg
Calabria, Taras, Nomos, Vlasto 85337 viewsSilver Nomos
Obv:– Naked boy-horseman prancing right, crowning horse with right, AGAQA/RCOX below.
Rev:– Taras naked seated on dolphin left, extending kantharos in right, cornucopia in left, TARAS below, race torch behind
Minted in Calabria, Taras from .c. 270 - 240 B.C.
Reference:– HN Italy 1028, Vlasto 853, SGCV I 375 var

Slabbed by ICG - EF40

Ex-Forum

Photographed through slab. Still deciding whether to free it from the tomb.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
Calabria_1c_img.jpg
Calabria, Taras, Nomos, Vlasto 89181 viewsSilver Nomos
Obv:– Helmeted, nude warrior riding on horse right, transverse spear in right hand, large round shield behind, [ΦI before], ΦHRAE / ΛHTWΣ below.
Rev:– [T_A_RAS], Taras astride dolphin left, holding flower & cornucopiae; EI monogram & thymiaterion behind
Minted in Calabria, Taras from .c. 272 - 235 B.C. Pheraeletos as magistrate
Reference:– Vlasto 891 ???, SNG ANS 1209???. HN Italy 1037
4 commentsmaridvnvm
Vlasto_836.jpg
Calabria, Taras.52 viewsSilver Nomos (6.64 g), ca. 272-240 BC.
Sy… and Lykinos, magistrates. Youth on horseback left, crowning horse with wreath; behind and below in two lines, magistrate's names: ΣY and ΛYKI/NOΣ. Reverse: TA-PAΣ, Phalanthos riding dolphin left, hurling trident; behind, owl standing left, head facing. Vlasto 836; HN Italy 1025. Gorgeous iridescent toning. Superb Extremely Fine.
1 commentsLeo
Vlasto_297.jpg
CALABRIA, Taras. c. 400-390 BC. AR Nomos23 views21mm, 7.67g, 6h
Warrior, wearing helmet, holding shield and lance, dismounting from horse cantering l. R/ Phalanthos, holding helmet and large oval shield, on dolphin l.; Σ below. Vlasto 297; HNItaly 849. VF
1 commentsLeo
Vlasto_1012.jpg
CALABRIA, Taras. Campano-Tarentine series. Circa 281-272 BC. AR Nomos27 views20mm, 7.07 g, 4h
Diademed head of Satyra left / Nude youth on horseback right, crowning horse with wreath; TA to left, dolphin below. Vlasto 1012–4; HN Italy 1098. VF.

"The Campano-Tarentine series dates to around the middle of the 3rd century BC, and are usually said to have been struck somewhere in Campania or Lucania. The type displays not the usual horseman and dolphin rider combination, but instead the obverse is occupied by a nymph resembling those on the coinage of Neapolis. Furthermore, the coins are struck on the standard not of Tarentum, being 0.8 grams lighter on average, but of those cities on the west coast of Magna Graecia, hence the credence given to this theory. However, the question of where these coins were struck and which region they were intended for, was addressed by J.G. Milne (An Exchange-Currency of Magna Graecia), who convincingly argues that it was more likely they were produced in Tarentum for circulation in or trade with the Greek cities of Bruttium, and that they should therefore be properly referred to as Bruttio-Tarentine coinage."
Leo
vlasto_965.jpg
CALABRIA, Taras. Circa 240-228 BC. AR Nomos8 views18mm, 5.94 g, 6h
Kallikrates, magistrate. Warrior riding right, head facing, extending right hand to receive crowning Nike, flying right; monogram to left, magistrate’s name in two lines below
Phalanthos riding dolphin left, holding trident and Nike; NE monogram to right.
Vlasto 964; HN Italy 1059. VF, darkly toned, some marks under tone.
Leo
Vlasto_704.jpg
CALABRIA, Taras. Circa 280 BC. AR Nomos39 views(22.5mm, 7.74 g, 1h).
Youth on horse galloping right; EY to left, NIKOΔAMO[Σ] below / Phalanthos, holding kantharos and distaff, riding dolphin left; ZOP and gazelle below. Vlasto 704; cf. HN Italy 970/958. Near EF, deep iridescent tone, a hint of porosity. Well centered on a broad flan.
1 commentsLeo
Vlasto_684.jpg
CALABRIA, Taras. Circa 280 BC. AR Nomos31 views21mm, 7.82 g, 2h.
Warrior on horse galloping left, holding shield; ΦIΛΩ (retrograde) below / Phalanthos riding dolphin left, holding small Nike; waves below. Vlasto 684 (same obv. die); HN Italy 964. VF, toned.
2 commentsLeo
Vlasto_1463.jpg
CALABRIA, Taras. Circa 280-228 BC. AR Diobol1 views11mm, 0.89 g, 11h
Head of Athena facing slightly left, wearing triple crested helmet / Herakles strangling the Nemean lion; club and shield to left, AP monogram between legs.
Vlasto 1463; cf. HN Italy 1062. Near VF, toned, a few marks, compact flan.

From the AG Collection.
Leo
Vlasto_1723.jpg
CALABRIA, Taras. Circa 280-228 BC. AR Obol19 views10mm, 0.46 g, 6h
Horse head right / Horse head right; race torch to right. Vlasto 1723; HN Italy 1075. Good VF, old cabinet toning.
1 commentsLeo
V_804.jpg
CALABRIA, Taras. Circa 280-272 BC. AR Nomos6 views19.5mm, 6.46 g, 2h
Youth on horseback right, crowning self; ZΩ to left, ZAΛO and Ionic capital below / Phalanthos riding dolphin left, holding aphlaston and distaff; ANΘ to right.
Vlasto 804; HN Italy 1014. Good VF
Leo
Vlasto_543–4.jpg
CALABRIA, Taras. Circa 333-331/0 BC. AR Nomos94 views19.5mm, 7.70 g, 2h
Warror, preparing to throw spear and holding shield and two more spears, on horse rearing right; [|- to left], Λ to right, KAΛ and Δ below / Phalanthos, holding crested Phrygian helmet, astride dolphin right; stars flanking, API below. Fischer-Bossert Group 60, 770–3 var. (V303/R– [unlisted rev. die]); Vlasto 543–4 (same obv. die); HN Italy 896. Good VF, toned, a little off center. From fine style dies.

On this coin we see the rider on horseback exercising his martial prowess, galloping forward and preparing to thrust a javelin into an object which the viewer does not see. On his far side he carries a round shield and two additional spears. The reverse depicts the dolphin rider facing to the right, holding a helmet of Phrygian design with cheek guards and a long, sweeping crest. Two stars in the fields flank the dolphin rider, and should perhaps be interpreted as alluding to the Dioskouroi and thus to Sparta. If so, then the design should be seen in light of the ill-fated expedition of the Spartan king Archidamos III. In 343/2 B.C. at the request of the city’s leading citizens, the Spartan king arrived with a fleet and soldiers in order to help the Tarentines to repel incursions by their Italic neighbors, notably the noisome Lucanians to Tarentum’s north and west. He was subsequently killed during the fighting, and the dolphin rider here may be thought of as mourning the slain Spartan king.
3 commentsLeo
Vlasto_498~0.jpg
CALABRIA, Taras. Circa 340-335 BC. AR Nomos2 views23mm, 7.87 g, 1h
Nude youth on horseback right, holding rein in left hand, crowning horse with wreath held in right hand; to left, Nike flying right, placing fillet on head of youth; AP below.
Phalanthos, nude, riding sideways on dolphin right, head turned slightly left, spearing cuttlefish below with trident held in right hand; KA monogram to left, TAPAΣ to right; all encircled by waves.
Fischer-Bossert Group 54, 717 (V267/R561); Vlasto 498 (same dies); cf. HN Italy 886; SNG ANS –; SNG Copenhagen 822 (same obv. die). VF, lightly toned. Struck from artistic dies on a broad flan. Very rare issue, only ten examples noted by Fischer-Bossert.
Leo
Vlasto_1139_(this_coin).jpg
CALABRIA, Taras. Circa 380-325 BC. AR Tritemorion(?)8 views 0.47 g
Female head left / Three crescents facing outward around central pellet.
Vlasto 1139 (this coin); HN Italy 924.
Near VF, toned, cleaning marks. Apparently unique.
From the Colin E. Pitchfork Collection. Ex Spink Numismatic Circular CVIII.4 (August 2000), no. 2874; M.P. Vlasto Collection, 1139; Nervenga Collection (Sambon, 18 November 1907), lot 381.
Leo
Vlasto_349.jpg
CALABRIA, Taras. Circa 385-340 BC. AR Nomos6 views19 mm, 7.51 g, 6 h
Nude ephebe on horse standing right, crowning horse with wreath / TAPAΣ, Phalanthos astride dolphin left.
Fischer-Bossert grp. 31a, 446 (V197/R340); Vlasto 350-1 (same dies); SNG ANS 890 (same dies); HN Italy 868.
Minor porosity on the fields. Very fine.
Leo
Vlasto_338.jpg
CALABRIA, Taras. Circa 400-390 BC. AR Nomos28 views20mm, 7.93 g, 2h
Youth on horse galloping right; tiny Λ below / Phalanthos, holding torch, riding dolphin left.

Fischer-Bossert Group 26, 361.2 (V164/R283) = Vlasto 338 (this coin); HN Italy 850. Old collection tone, small edge test cut, a few marks on edge, struck from worn dies. VF.

Ex Michel Pandely Vlasto Collection.
1 commentsLeo
Vlasto_320.jpg
CALABRIA, Taras. Circa 415-405 BC. AR Nomos7 views22mm, 7.88 g, 9h
Nude rider seated right on horse, which he crowns; kerykeion to right, ΛA in exergue / Phalanthos, nude, extending his hand, riding dolphin right.
Fischer-Bossert Group 21, 297 (V134/R229); Vlasto 320–1 (same dies); HN Italy 851; SNG Copenhagen 803 (same dies); SNG Lloyd 150 (same dies); SNG Lockett 351 (same dies); Hirsch 190 (same dies); Dewing 137 (same dies).
Even light gray tone, with iridescence around the devices, a few marks under tone on obverse, light scuffs under tone and die flaw on reverse. Near EF. Very rare.

From the Matthew Curtis Collection. Ex William N. Rudman Collection (Triton V, 15 January 2002), lot 1040.
Leo
Vlasto_1193.jpg
CALABRIA, Taras. Circa 450-380 BC. AR Trias14 views6.5mm, 0.19 g, 11h
Large T; three pellets (mark of value) around / Large T; three pellets (mark of value) around, small P to lower right.
Vlasto 1193; HN Italy 853. Good VF, toned. Very rare.
1 commentsLeo
Vlasto_140.jpg
CALABRIA, Taras. Circa 470-465 BC. AR Nomos14 views18.5mm, 8.05 g, 7h
Taras, nude, raising left hand and supporting himself with his right, riding dolphin right; TARAS (retrograde) to left, scallop shell below / Head of nymph (Satyra?) left in linear circle within concave incuse. Fischer-Bossert Group 5, 91b (V41/R60) = Vlasto 140 (this coin, illustrated in both references); HN Italy 838; Berlin 65 (same dies). VF, old cabinet tone, a few marks.

From the Gasvoda Collection. Ex M. L. Collection of Coins of Magna Graecia and Sicily (Numismatica Ars Classica 82, 20 May 2015), lot 4; A. D. Moretti Collection; Classical Numismatic Group 40 (with Numismatica Ars Classica, 4 December 1996), lot 575; Hess-Leu [11] (24 March 1959), lot 5; Kricheldorf IV (7 October 1957), lot 26; Münzen und Medaillen AG VIII (8 December 1949), lot 696; Michel Pandely Vlasto Collection; Maddalena Collection (Sambon & Canessa, 7 May 1903), lot 244.
Leo
Vlasto_115.jpg
CALABRIA, Taras. Circa 500-490 BC. AR Nomos33 views8.03 g, 9h
Taras riding dolphin right, holding cuttlefish, left hand extended / Hippocamp left; cockle shell below. Fischer-Bossert 27 (V12/R21); Vlasto 115 (same obv. die); HN Italy 827; McClean 533. VF, minor roughness.

In the time this coinage was produced Tarentum was a monarchy, as it had been since its foundation. Though we have little information concerning the early governance of Tarentum, the monarchy was probably modelled on the one ruling over Sparta. According to Herodotus (iii, 136) a certain king Aristophilides ruled over the city in this period.
Since the arrival of the Greeks in the region in the late 8th century BC, a long-running series of skirmishes appears to have taken place between the Tarentines and the indigenous Iapygian tribes (Messapians, Daunians and the Peucetii) who controlled the interior of the Apulian peninsula. Tarentine expansion was therefore limited to the coast because of the resistance of these populations, a situation reflected in their coinage types which are predominantly marine in character.
In c.490 BC the Messapians moved against the Tarentines with a composite force of around 8,000 men including shield infantry, skirmishers, and their skilled cavalry. The Tarentines meanwhile fielded 4,000 citizen hoplites and 1,000 light infantry in support, as well as a combination of light and sword-wielding cavalry. Outside the walls of their city the Tarentines withstood the initial skirmishing and the Messapian charge; despite the superiority of the Messapian cavalry and being greatly outnumbered on foot, the Tarentines appear to have represented their Spartan heritage well in this battle, and were able to claim victory and a temporary respite from the Iapygian attacks. After this defeat the Iapygians would not challenge Taras again for nearly twenty years, but in 473 when they would again come against the Tarentines, they would come in overwhelming numbers.
Leo
Vlasto_68~1.jpg
CALABRIA, Taras. Circa 510-500 BC. AR Incuse Nomos11 views8,03 g; 24 mm; 11 h
Phalanthos riding dolphin right, extending left arm, holding dolphin with right hand; crowning Nike to left; shell below
Rv. Incuse of obverse, but ethnic in relief.
HNItaly 826; Vlasto 68. The first issue of Tarentine coinage. Very rare. Lightly toned and in fine archaic style, extremely fine.

I got this great piece from an auction last fall and it was the most important acquisition for me.
Taras incuse stater is more compact and thicker than Kaulonia and Sybaris incuse stater. It was dibble (or triple) striked and the details were hard to detect. We can found slight trace on the Taras’s head and his left hand. I believe this is the reason that the pattern looks very sharp while the high points (such as dolphin’s eyes and tail ) are flat.

Dating from the late sixth century, this nomos shows Phalantus naked, riding a dolphin, expressing a motif destined for popular success in the coins of Taras: the dolphin brings Phalantus safe and sound across the sea (also evidenced by the presence of a pecten in the lower field of the coin), and conveys him to Italy, according to the dictate of the Delphic oracle. We learn from the Periegesis of Greece of Pausania (II cent. A.D.) that statues of Taras, Phalantus, and Phalantus’ dolphin (cf. Paus. X 13) were among the votive offerings (anathemata) presented to Delphi by the Tarantines with a fifth of the spoils taken from the Peucetii and the Iapygians. The reverse has the same representation as the obverse, in incuse, using a well-known technique of early coinage that was deployed at many other Southern Italian cities besides Taras
Leo
Vlasto_955-7.jpg
Calabria, Taras. Silver Nomos (5.92 g), ca. 240-228 BC.44 viewsXenokrates, magistrate. Dioskouros on horseback left, head facing, raising hand and holding rein; in right field, TP monogram and pileos; in two lines below, magistrate's name: [Ξ]E-NOKPA/T-HΣ. Reverse: TAPAΣ, Phalanthos riding dolphin left, head and torso facing, holding trident and lifting drapery; in right field, monogram; below, waves and cuttlefish. Vlasto 955-7; HN Italy 1058. Toned. Choice Very Fine.

The Hanbery Collection; Purchased privately from F. Kovacs in the 1980s
1 commentsLeo
Vlasto_342.jpg
Calabria, Taras; AR Nomos. Circa 430-380 BC.11 views7.40g, 23mm, 9h.
Nude youth on horseback left, crowning horse with wreath and holding small round shield / Taras astride dolphin right, hurling trident (?) downwards to right; TAPAΣ upwards to left. Vlasto 342; HN Italy 850.

Very Fine. Lightly toned. Rare early type.
Leo
Vlasto-699.jpg
Calabria, Taras; c. 302-281 BC, Stater18 views7.73g. Vlasto-699, HN Italy-968. Obv: Youth on horseback galloping l., holding small shield behind him, EY behind, NIKOTTAΣ below. Rx: ΤΑΡΑΣ, Taras astride dolphin l. hurling javelin, trident on shoulder; ΛY behind, hippocamp below.1 commentsLeo
Vlasto_692.jpg
Calabria, Taras; c. 302-281 BC, Stater12 views7.82g, 20mm, 3h.
Si... and Deinokrates, magistrates. Warrior, preparing to cast spear held in right hand, holding two spears and shield in left, on horse rearing right; [ΣI] to left, [ΔEINOKPATHΣ] below / Taras, holding small dolphin, astride dolphin left; TAPAΣ behind.
Vlasto 692-3; HN Italy 967.
1 commentsLeo
Vlasto-651.jpg
Calabria, Taras; c. 332-302 BC, Stater33 views7.88g. Vlasto-651, HN Italy-941. Obv: Youth on horseback r. crowning horse. Rx: ΤΑΡΑΣ, Taras astride dolphin l., holding palm branch; helmet behind.. Choice VF2 commentsLeo
Vlasto-585.jpg
Calabria, Taras; c. 332-302 BC, Stater24 views7.70g. Vlasto-585, HN Italy-934. Obv: Youth on horseback r., stabbing downward with spear held in r. hand, two spears and round shield held behind him; ΣA below. Rx: ΤΑΡΑΣ, Taras astride dolphin l., holding distaff, prow below.Some porosity in reverse field. VF1 commentsLeo
103002.jpg
CALABRIA, Tarentum183 viewsTaranto was founded in 706 BC by Dorian immigrants as the only Spartan colony, and its origin is peculiar: the founders were Partheniae, sons of unmarried Spartan women and perioeci (free men, but not citizens of Sparta); these unions were decreed by the Spartans to increase the number of soldiers (only the citizens of Sparta could become soldiers) during the bloody Messenian Wars, but later they were nullified, and the sons were forced to leave. According to the legend Phalanthus, the Parthenian leader, went to Delphi to consult the oracle and received the puzzling answer that he should found a city where rain fell from a clear sky. After all attempts to capture a suitable place to found a colony failed, he became despondent, convinced that the oracle had told him something that was impossible, and was consoled by his wife. She laid his head in her lap and herself became disconsolate. When Phalanthus felt her tears splash onto his forehead he at last grasped the meaning of the oracle, for his wife's name meant clear sky. The harbour of Taranto in Apulia was nearby and he decided this must be the new home for the exiles. The Partheniae arrived and founded the city, naming it Taras after the son of the Greek sea god, Poseidon, and the local nymph Satyrion. A variation says Taras was founded in 707 BC by some Spartans, who, the sons of free women and enslaved fathers, were born during the Messenian War. According to other sources, Heracles founded the city. Another tradition indicates Taras himself as the founder of the city; the symbol of the Greek city (as well as of the modern city) is Taras riding a dolphin. Taranto increased its power, becoming a commercial power and a sovereign city of Magna Graecia, ruling over the Greek colonies in southern Italy.

In its beginning, Taranto was a monarchy, probably modelled on the one ruling over Sparta; according to Herodotus (iii 136), around 492 BC king Aristophilides ruled over the city. The expansion of Taranto was limited to the coast because of the resistance of the populations of inner Apulia. In 472 BC, Taranto signed an alliance with Rhegion, to counter the Messapii, Peuceti, and Lucanians (see Iapygian-Tarentine Wars), but the joint armies of the Tarentines and Rhegines were defeated near Kailìa (modern Ceglie), in what Herodotus claims to be the greatest slaughter of Greeks in his knowledge, with 3,000 Reggians and uncountable Tarentines killed. In 466 BC, Taranto was again defeated by the Iapyges; according to Aristotle, who praises its government, there were so many aristocrats killed that the democratic party was able to get the power, to remove the monarchy, inaugurate a democracy, and expel the Pythagoreans. Like Sparta, Tarentum was an aristocratic republic, but became democratic when the ancient nobility dwindled.

However, the rise of the democratic party did not weaken the bonds of Taranto and her mother-city Sparta. In fact, Taranto supported the Peloponnesian side against Athens in the Peloponnesian War, refused anchorage and water to Athens in 415 BC, and even sent ships to help the Peloponnesians, after the Athenian disaster in Sicily. On the other side, Athens supported the Messapians, in order to counter Taranto's power.

In 432 BC, after several years of war, Taranto signed a peace treaty with the Greek colony of Thurii; both cities contributed to the foundation of the colony of Heraclea, which rapidly fell under Taranto's control. In 367 BC Carthage and the Etruscans signed a pact to counter Taranto's power in southern Italy.

Under the rule of its greatest statesman, strategist and army commander-in-chief, the philosopher and mathematician Archytas, Taranto reached its peak power and wealth; it was the most important city of the Magna Graecia, the main commercial port of southern Italy, it produced and exported goods to and from motherland Greece and it had the biggest army and the largest fleet in southern Italy. However, with the death of Archytas in 347 BC, the city started a slow, but ineluctable decline; the first sign of the city's decreased power was its inability to field an army, since the Tarentines preferred to use their large wealth to hire mercenaries, rather than leave their lucrative trades.

In 343 BC Taranto appealed for aid against the barbarians to its mother city Sparta, in the face of aggression by the Brutian League. In 342 BC, Archidamus III, king of Sparta, arrived in Italy with an army and a fleet to fight the Lucanians and their allies. In 338 BC, during the Battle of Manduria, the Spartan and Tarentine armies were defeated in front of the walls of Manduria (nowadays in province of Taranto), and Archidamus was killed.

In 333 BC, still troubled by their Italic neighbours, the Tarentines called the Epirotic king Alexander Molossus to fight the Bruttii, Samnites, and Lucanians, but he was later (331 BC) defeated and killed in the battle of Pandosia (near Cosenza). In 320 BC, a peace treaty was signed between Taranto and the Samnites. In 304 BC, Taranto was attacked by the Lucanians and asked for the help of Agathocles tyrant of Syracuse, king of Sicily. Agathocles arrived in southern Italy and took control of Bruttium (present-day Calabria), but was later called back to Syracuse. In 303 BC-302 BC Cleonymus of Sparta established an alliance with Taranto against the Lucanians, and fought against them.

Arnold J. Toynbee, a classical scholar who taught at Oxford and other prestigious English universities and who did original and definitive work on Sparta (e.g. The Journal of Hellenic Studies, vol. xxxiii 1913 p. 246-275) seemed to have some doubts about Tarentum (Taranto) being of Spartan origin.

In his book The Study of History vol. iii p. 52 he wrote: "...Tarentum, which claimed a Spartan origin; but, even if this claim was in accordance with historical fact..." The tentative phrasing seems to imply that the evidence is neither conclusive or even establishes a high degree of probability of the truth that Tarentum (Taranto) was a Spartan colony.

CALABRIA, Tarentum. Circa 302-281 BC. AR Drachm (17mm, 2.91 gm). Helmeted head of Athena right, helmet decorated with Skylla hurling a stone / Owl standing right head facing, on olive branch; Vlasto 1058; SNG ANS 1312; HN Italy 1015. VF.

Ex-Cng eAuction 103 Lot 2 190/150
2 commentsecoli
2380011.jpg
CALABRIA, Tarentum48 viewsCALABRIA, Tarentum. Circa 380-325 BC. AR Diobol (12mm, 1.02 g, 10h). Head of Athena right, wearing helmet decorated with hippocamp / Herakles standing right wrestling Nemean lion, club behind. Vlasto 1273-4; HN Italy 914.3 commentsTLP
nomos_k.jpg
CALABRIA, Tarentum23 viewsAR didrachm or nomos, 20mm, 8.0g, 6h; c. 302-290 BC.
Obv.: Nude, helmeted warrior on horseback right, holding shield and two spears, thrusting spear downward; ΔAI below.
Rev.: Taras riding dolphin left, holding shield decorated with hippocamp and trident; ΦI to right, murex shell below, [TAPAΣ] to right.
Reference: Vlasto 594, SNG ANS 990, HN Italy 935 / 16-410-375
2 commentsJohn Anthony
diobol.jpg
CALABRIA, Tarentum AR Diobol51 viewsHelmeted head of Athena right, helmet decorated with three rosettes

Herakles kneeling on right leg, strangling the Nemean lion.

Tarentum Calabria
Circa 325-280 BC

0.78g

Vlasto 1372; SNG ANS 1444; HN Italy 976.

Ex-ANE
Jay GT4
Tarentum_obol_5.jpg
CALABRIA, Tarentum AR Obol57 viewsKantharos; five pellets around

Kantharos; five pellets around.

Tarentum, Circa 280-228 BC.

8.5mm 0.53 g

Vlasto 1655-6; HN Italy 1076.

Ex-CNG 381 Lot 13; Ex-Steve P Collection

2 commentsJay GT4
Calabria,_Tarentum,_AR_Nomos_-_Spink___Sons_Ltd.jpg
Calabria, Tarentum, 334-330 BC, AR Didrachm 62 viewsNaked horseman crowning himself on stationary horse right, small ΣA and large Ionic capital beneath.
Taras holding sea snake and whip astride dolphin facing left, KO in lower right.

Fischer-Bossert group 75, 960-973; HN Italy 941-942; SNG ANS 1026; Vlasto 654-8; Evans V, E1 and McGill II, 57-58.

(20 mm, 12h).
Spink & Son Ltd, July 1988.
4 commentsn.igma
Vlasto_330.jpg
CALABRIA, Tarentum, c. 400-390 BC. AR Nomos RARE26 views22mm, 7.67g, 12h
Nude youth on horseback l., crowning horse. R
Phalanthos, holding distaff, on dolphin l.
Vlasto 330; HN Italy 850.
Rare, toned, VF
1 commentsLeo
Vlasto_1118.jpg
Calabria, Tarentum, c. 480-470 BC. AR Hexas9 views4mm, 0.13g
Cockle shell. R/ Wheel of four spokes. Vlasto 1118; HNItaly 836. Rare, Good VF
Leo
Calabria_Tarentum_SNG-ANS840.jpg
Calabria, Tarentum.18 viewsCalabria, Tarentum. 500-480 BC. AR Nomos (8.18 gm). Taras (Phalanthos) riding dolphin l., arms outstretched, cockle shell below, TAPA∫. / Hippocamp left. gVF. CNG 72 #73. SNG ANS 840; Fischer-Bossert group 7, 109b (V56/R71, 34 specimens known); Hermitage I 45; Hirsch 81; HN Italy 827; SNG Lloyd 117-118; SNG Cop 776; Vlasto 133 Ward 21 (all from same dies). cf HGC 1. 753.Christian T
Calabria_Tarentum_SNG-ANS1307.jpg
Calabria, Tarentum.15 viewsCalabria, Tarentum. 3002-280 BC. AR Drachm (2.97 gm). Head of Athena r. in Attic helmet ornamented with Skylla hurling stone. / Owl stdg r., head facing, club and IOP to r. VF. Bt. Herakles Numismatics, 2011. SNG ANS 1307; Vlasto 1054; HNItaly 975; HGC 1 823; SNG Cop 955.Christian T
Calabria_Tarentum_SNG-ANS1142ff.jpg
Calabria, Tarentum.14 viewsCalabria, Tarentum. 280-272 BC. AR Nomos (6.58 gm). Youth on horseback r., crowning himself. ꞮΩ behind, ꞮAΛO (magistrates Zo-, Zalo-, and An-) and Ionic capital below. / Taras (Phalanthos) on dolphin l., holding distaff and aphlaston; ANΘ behind; TAPAΣ below. gVF. Ex. CNG Web Auction #1213202540. SNG ANS 1142ff; HN Italy 1014; HGC 1 888; SNG Cop 898-899; Vlasto 803ff.Christian T
Calabria_Tarentum_SNG-ANS1003.jpg
Calabria, Tarentum.15 viewsCalabria, Tarentum. 281-272 BC. AR Nomos (6.51 gm) of Apulia. Boy on hoseback l., stg figure to l., crowning horse. ΓΥ in field to r., ΑΡΙ ΣΤΙ Π below to l. / Taras (ecist) on dolphin r., holding bow and arrow. Elephant in field to r., ΔΙ to l. VF. Bt. Coral Gables 2000. SNG ANS 1003; SNG Cop 883-884; HN Italy 1000; Vlasto 736; Sear 370.Christian T
Calabria_Tarentum_SNG-ANS990.jpg
Calabria, Tarentum.13 viewsCalabria, Tarentum. 332-302 BC. AR Didrachm (7.63 gm). Helmeted horseman as armed ephebus r., raising spear, with two spears & shield behind. ΔAΙ below. / Taras or Phalanthos riding dolphin l. w/ trident & shield decorated with hippocamp, TAPAΣ to r., ΦΙ to l., murex shell below. nVF. Bt. Gables Coin, 1998. SNG ANS 990-993; Fischer-Bossert group 77, 1035; HN Italy 935; HGC 1 801; SNG Cop 845-846; SNG France 1820-3; Vlasto 594-596.Christian T
Calabria_Tarentum_SNG-ANS988.jpg
Calabria, Tarentum.32 viewsCalabria, Tarentum. 334-330 BC. AR Didrachm (7.78 gm). Helmeted horseman advancing r. with spear, holding shield and two spears; below magistrate ΦIΛI (Phili c. 290-281). / Taras (Phalanthos) on dolphin l., holding distaff and dolphin; ΦI to l. , ivy-leaf & TAPAΣ to r. , waves below. EF. Pegasi 121 #40. Ex Vlasto coll. SNG ANS 988-989 (same obverse die); Vlasto 589; HN Italy 934 (2); HGC 1 800; SNG Cop 842; Fischer-Bossert 1090.1 commentsChristian T
280-228_litra.jpg
Calabria, Tarentum. Ca. 280-228 B.C. AR litra47 views10.8 mm, .59 g, 11 h
Cockle-shell / Dolphin right; elephant below.
HN Italy -; SNG ANS -; Vlasto -.
Nice VF. Apparently unpublished control mark. "
4 commentsLeo
8178A732-E722-408B-AFFE-578EB282340D.jpeg
CALABRIA, Tarentum. Circa 272-240 BC.30 viewsCALABRIA, Tarentum. Circa 272-240 BC. AR Nomos (20mm, 6.48 g, 9h). Warrior on horseback right, holding shield and spear; DI above; APO[LL/WNIOS] in two lines below / Phalanthos riding dolphin left, head facing with flowing chlamys around left arm, holding trident in right hand; crowning Nike to left; waves below. Vlasto 894-898; HN Italy 1038. Lustrous2 commentsMark R1
Vlasto_884.jpg
CALABRIA, Tarentum. Circa 272-240 BC. AR Nomos26 viewsPhi- and Philemenos, magistrates.
Youth on horseback right; FI before, FILHME-NOS below
Phalanthos astride dolphin left, holding tripod and trident; bucranium with fillets hanging from horns behind.
Vlasto 884; HN Italy 1035. Good VF, toned
1 commentsLeo
Vlasto_773.jpg
CALABRIA, Tarentum. Circa 280-272 BC. AR Nomos61 views19mm, 6.45 g, 4h
The Dioskouroi riding left; monogram above, [ΣΩ]Δ-A-M-O-Σ below
Phalanthos, nude, holding two spears, shield decorated with hippocamp, and Nike, who crowns him with wreath, riding dolphin left; ΠY to left, waves below.
Vlasto 773; HN Italy 1011. Good VF, toned, compact flan. Well centered.
4 commentsLeo
Vlasto_448.jpg
CALABRIA, Tarentum. Circa 344-340 BC. AR Nomos9 views21mm, 7.77g, 3h
Warrior, wearing helmet and holding shield, on horseback r.; |- below. R/ Phalanthos, holding kantharos, on dolphin l.; below, Π above waves. Vlasto 448; HNItaly 890. Graffiti and small metal-flaw on rev., VF
Leo
DSC06581.JPG
CALABRIA, Tarentum. Circa 380-325 BC. 144 views
AR Diobol (12mm, 1.11 g, 9h). Head of Athena right, wearing helmet decorated with hippocamp / Herakles wrestling the Nemean lion; club to left, K between Herakles’ legs. Vlasto 1254-7; HN Italy 914. VF, toned.

From the Colin E. Pitchfork Collection.

CNG 211, Lot: 62.
5 commentsCGPCGP
Vlasto_984.jpg
Calabria, Tarentum. Time of Hannibal, c. 212-209 BC. Nomos54 views3.98gg. (5h). Obv: Naked youth on horseback right, holding reins and carrying filleted palm; ΣΩKAN - NAΣ below. Rx: Taras astride dolphin left, holding aphlaston in extended right hand, cradling trident in left arm; eagle standing with wings spread behind; TAPAΣ below. Vlasto 984. HN Italy 1082. SNG ANS 1272. Perfectly struck; Mint State.
Ex Philip T. Ashton Collection. Ex Berk 130, 6 January 2003, lot 81.

Hannibal used the region around Tarentum and Metapontum as winter quarters during his occupation of southern Italy. He installed his own magistrates and struck coinage based on the Punic half shekel standard.
3 commentsLeo
Vlasto_319.jpg
CALABRIA. Taras. 425-380 BC. AR nomos57 views6.26 gm
Nude ephebe cantering left, holding bridle with both hands, ΛΕ (retrograde) beneath horse / TARAS, dolphin rider right, wielding trident and pointing with left hand.
HN Italy 850. Vlasto 319 (same dies).
Porous. Edge bump (8:00 obverse) and reverse scratches. Good very fine.

The aristocratic Tarentines were especially proud of their reputation as first-rate horsemen, and the coinage of Tarentum mirrors this pride by displaying all manner of equestrian showmanship. Some of the riders appear in full armor, and those must be cavalrymen in battle, but most appear nude: those riders are surely taking part in the various races and games that the aristocrats loved so much. One of the more dangerous, and most prestigious, of the races was the kalpé. In this form of race the rider would, at a certain stage, slide off his horse and, while holding the reins, run along side. The Tarentine staters show several stages in the process. On this coin we see the very beginning: the rider places his left hand on the horse’s rump and has moved his right hand from the right to the left side of the his horse’s head. On the next lot we see him moving his right leg up over the horse’s back; on other coins (not here) we see both legs stretched out on the left side of the horse just before the rider leaps to the ground. For a short discussion of this event see Sport, p. 79. The actual process of getting off the horse was termed apobates. There are many examples of the initial stages of the apobates to be found in this rich collection.
2 commentsLeo
Vlasto_943.jpg
Calabria. Taras. c. 240-228 BC. Nomos27 views6.57g.
Obv: Hippokontist in close fitting lorica hurling javelin on horseback. ΟΛΥΜΠΙΣ beneath horse; wreath in left field.
Rx: ΤΑΡΑΣ Taras on dolphin holding cornucopiae and kantharos; tripod to his left.
Vlasto Coll. 943 (same dies). HN Italy 1055. EF.
2 commentsLeo
Vlasto_498.jpg
CALABRIA. Taras. Ca. 332-302 BC. AR stater20 views22mm, 7.80 gm, 6h
Youth riding horse r., crowning horse; at l., flying Nike holding wreath, below the horse, ΣIM, Rv. TAPAΣ, oecist riding dolphin l., holding kantharos and trident; below, |-HP and waves.
Vlasto 498-507; HNItaly 886; SNG Copenhagen 823;" SNG ANS -.
Cabinet tone, minor scratches.
2 commentsLeo
Vlasto_626.jpg
CALABRIA. Taras. Ca. 332-302 BC. AR stater19 views21mm, 7.75 gm, 8h. NGC XF 5/5 - 2/5.
Sa-, Her- and Hr, magistrates. Warrior on horseback rearing right, shield and two spears in left hand, preparing to cast a third in right; ΣA below / ΤΑΡΑΣ, Taras astride dolphin right, bow and arrows outward in left hand, spear forward in right; ?HP and HP monogram below.
HN Italy 938. Vlasto 626-33.
1 commentsLeo
Vlasto_518.jpg
CALABRIA. Taras. Ca. 380-334 BC. AR stater18 views21mm, 7.79 gm, 1h
NGC XF. Ephebos, naked but for helmet, carrying long spear and large round shield, standing to front behind bridled horse, horizontal T before / TAPAΣ, Taras holding trident and round shield seated sideways on dolphin swimming left over stylized waves, A below.
Vlasto 518 . HN Italy 889.
1 commentsLeo
Vlasto_607.jpg
CALABRIA. Taras. Circa 302-280 BC. Nomos36 viewsSilver, 22 mm, 7.82 g, 9 h
Nude rider on horse galloping to right, stabbing with spear held in his right hand and holding two other spears and shield with his left; below, ΣΑ.
Rev. ΤΑΡΑΣ Youthful oikist, nude, riding dolphin to left, holding kantharos in his right hand and trident with his left; to left, K; below, dolphin.
HN Italy 937. Vlasto 607.
1 commentsLeo
Vlasto_497.jpg
CALABRIA. Taras. Circa 380-340 BC, Nomos14 viewsA very rare didrachm or nomos from Tarentum
Silver, 21 mm, 7.73 g, 1 h
Nude warrior, holding bridles with his right hand and carrying small round shield with his left, about to dismount from horse to left; below horse, Λ; all within circle of waves. Rev. TAPAΣ Youthful oikist, nude, riding dolphin to left, holding trident in his right hand and placing his left on the tail of the dolphin; all within circle of waves.
Fischer-Bossert 629. HN Italy 885. Vlasto 497.
Very rare. An unusual issue of splendid style. Very fine.
Leo
Vlasto_32.jpg
CALABRIA. Taras. Intervention of Pyrrhus, Ca. 280-272 BC. AV half-stater10 views15mm, 4.25 gm, 3h
Head of young Heracles right, wearing lion skin headdress, paws tied before neck.
TAPANTINΩN, Taras driving biga right, trident in right hand, reins in left; NIKAP above, two amphorae between horse's forelegs.
HN Italy 985. Vlasto 32 (same dies). Fischer-Bossert G 31g.
Ex Harlan Berk, Buy or Bid Sale 76 (23 February 1993)
Leo
Vlasto_1628.jpg
CALABRIA. Taras. Obol (Circa 280-228 BC).21 views9mm, 0.64g, 7h
Kantharos; five pellets around. R/ Kantharos; V to l., five pellets around.
Cf. Vlasto 1628; HN Italy 1076.
Toned, VF
1 commentsLeo
Vlasto_43.jpg
CALABRIA. Taras. Time of Pyrrhus (ca. 280 BC). AV 10th stater29 views11mm, 0.85 gm, 5h
Head of young Heracles right, wearing lion skin headdress / TAPAΣ, Taras astride dolphin left, holding cantharus in extended right hand and trident cradled in left arm.
Vlasto 43. SNG ANS 1401. HN Italy 992.
Very rare! Exceptionally well struck and pleasing, with reddish tone in deep recesses.
3 commentsLeo
221111_l.jpg
Calabria. Tarentum. (Circa 332-302 BC)37 viewsAR Nomos (21 mm, 7.76 g)

Obverse: Warrior, preparing to cast spear held in right hand, holding two spears and shield in left, on horse rearing right; ΣA below

Reverse: Taras, holding kantharos in extended right hand, cradling trident in left arm, astride dolphin left; AP to left, TAPAΣ (Taras) to right; below, small dolphin left.

Vlasto 614-20; HN Italy 937.
2 commentsNathan P
211114_l.jpg
Calabria. Tarentum. Nomos (Circa 302-280 BC)27 viewsAR Nomos

21 mm, 7.78 g

Obv: Youth, holding shield, on horse rearing left; ΣΛ to right, ΦΙΛΩΝ below.
Rev: TAPAΣ.
Phalanthos, holding crowning Nike, riding dolphin left; waves below.

Vlasto 684-5; HN Italy 964.

In Greek mythology, Phalanthos (Φάλανθος) is a divine hero, the leader of the Spartan Partheniae and the founder of Taranto. In Ancient Greece, the Partheniae or Parthenians were a lower ranking Spartiate population which, according to tradition, left Laconia to go to Magna Graecia and founded Taras, modern Taranto, in the current region of Apulia, in southern Italy. In Greek mythology, Phalanthos is a divine hero, and the leader of the Spartan Partheniae.

At least three distinct traditions carry the origins of the Parthenians. The oldest is that of Antiochus of Syracuse, according to which the Spartiates, during the first Messenian war (end of the 8th century BC), had rejected like cowards those who had not fought, along with their descendants:

"Antiochus says that, during the Messenian war, those Lacedemonians which did not take part with the mission shall be declared as slaves and called Helots; as for the children born during the mission, we shall call them Parthenians and deny them of all legal rights."

The Parthenians were therefore the first tresantes ("trembling"), a category which gathers the cowards and thus excludes themselves from the community of the Homoioi, the Peers. Thereafter, Parthenians plotted against the Peers and, discovered, would have been driven out of Sparta, from which they departed for Italy and founded Taras, whose date is traditionally fixed in 706 BC - which archaeology does not deny.

In the second tradition, according to Ephorus (4th century BC), the Spartiates swore during the Messenian War, not to return home as long as they had not attained victory. The war prolonged and Sparta's demography being threatened, the Spartiates let the young Spartans who had not sworn the oath return home. These were ordered to copulate with all the girls available. The children who were born from these unions were named Parthenians. Their mothers, since they were compelled by the state to procreate, were legally considered unmolested and fit to marry once the war was over.

Lastly, a third tradition, made the Parthenians bastards who had resulted from the unions of Spartan women and their slaves, always during the Messenian war. The same tradition is told to explain the origins of Locri, also in Magna Graecia.
Nathan P
Tarentumobol.jpg
CALABRIA. Tarentum. Obol70 viewsKantharos; three pellets around.

Bucranium; three pellets around.

Circa 380-325 BC
Weight: 0.33 g.
Diameter: 9 mm.

Rare with 3 pellets

cf. Vlasto 1617 (number of pellets); cf. BMC 432 (same). HN Italy 918; SNG France 3 specimens, c.f. 2201-03 (number of pellets)

Ex Dr. P. Vogl collection; ex Bankhaus Aufhäuser (sold 30.12.1992; with dealer's ticket), Ex-Numismatik Naumann auction 42 lot 15; Ex-Calgary Coin

A tiny coin with a fantastic design.
9 commentsJay GT4
Vlasto_894.jpg
CALABRIEN, Taras, AR Nomos,BC 272/24011 views6.4 g, 20 mm_
Obv: Warrior, holding shield and spear, on horse rearing right; ΔΙ to left; ΑΠΟΛΛ/ΩΝΙΟΣ in two lines below. Rev: TAPAΣ. Phalanthos, holding trident, riding dolphin left; to left, crowning Nike flying right; waves below.
Vlasto 894-8; HN Italy 1038.
Condition: Very fine.
Leo
Cales.jpg
Cales, Campania37 views265-240 BC
AE 22 (22mm, 6.32g)
O: Head of Athean left, wearing crested Corinthian helmet, all within dotted border.
R: Cock standing right, star behind; CALENΩ downward to right, all within dotted border.
Sambon 916; HN Italy 435; SNG ANS 188; SNG Cop 322; Sear 548
ex Forvm Ancient Coins

This very common type, with Athena left and the cock/star reverse, was minted throughout the region, including Cales, Suessa Aurunca, Teanum Sinicinum in Campania and Aquinum in Latium, with only the ethnic varying. Speculation is that this suggests a monetary alliance between the various cities, but given the history of Campanian coining I wonder if a common mint may have produced them all, as we have seen with the MFB coins of Nola, Hyria and Neapolis?


2 commentsEnodia
Paduan_Caligula.JPG
Caligula, 37 - 41 AD147 viewsObv: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG PM TRP IIII PP, laureate head of Caligula facing left.

Rev: AGRIPPINA DRVSILLA IVLIA, The three sisters of Caligula, standing side by side; on the left, Agrippina (personified as Securitas) with head turned right, holds cornucopia, resting right hand on column, left hand on Drusilla’s shoulder; in center Drusilla (personified as Concordia), with head turned left, holding patera in right hand and cornucopia in left; on right Julia (personified as Fortuna Augusta), with head turned left, holding rudder in right hand and cornucopia in left; SC in exergue.

20.1 grams, 35 mm

This coin is a copy of a medallion made my Giovanni da Cavino of Padua, Italy. Though it's not an "ancient forgery" I would estimate it's manufacture to be sometime in the mid to late 19th Century. There appears to be genuine wear on the coin's surface along with a waxy residue visible in the lettering above Caligula's head leading me to believe this coin might have been used as a host to cast other fakes. It appears to be a direct copy of the Paduan housed in the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris. It is pictured in Imitations and Inventions of Roman Coins by Zander H. Klawans as Caligula 1.

RIC 41, Klawans Caligula 1
SPQR Coins
Greek 1.jpg
Campania Italy36 viewsSuessa Aurunca (Sessa), Campania, Italy, c. 265 - 240 B.C.
Bronze AE 20, SNG ANS 606 ff., 4.5g, 20 mm,
Obverse: laureate head of Apollo left, O behind;
Reverse : Man-headed bull standing right, being crowned by Nike who flies above



Tanit
Capua_copy.jpg
CAMPANIA, Capua18 viewsCirca 216-211 BC. Æ Biunx. Diademed head of Herakles right; club over left shoulder / Lion walking right, breaking spear held in its mouth; •• above. SNG ANS 208; BMC Italy pg. 80, 1-2; SNG Copenhagen 332; SNG Morcom -; Laffaille -; Weber 292. aF/F, obverse quite rough. Rare.

Ex. CNG eAuction 308, lot 539 (part of)
Molinari
GRK_SRCV_294_Campagnia_Hyria.jpg
Campania, Hyria.10 viewsSRCV 294 var. (Athena facing right), HN Italy 539, Rutter 88.

AR nomos, struck c.a. 400-395 B.C., 7.02 gr., 20.19 mm. max., 0°.

Obv.: Head of Athena left, in Attic helmet decorated with owl and laurel branch.

Rev.: Man-headed bull walking left, YDINAI above.
Stkp
Hyria.jpg
Campania, Hyrianoi. (Circa 405-400 BC)36 viewsFourrée Nomos (20.5mm, 6.33 g)

Obverse: Head of Athena wearing crested helmet decorated with olive-wreath and owl.

Reverse: Man-faced bull standing r. on exergual line, YDINA (retrograde) above. YDINA is in Oscan script and means "Urina", another name for Hyria.

For prototype, cf. HN Italy 539.

The city, named both Nola (new city) and Hyria (which Nola likely arose from), was situated in the midst of the plain lying to the east of Mount Vesuvius, 21 miles south of Capua. While Neapolis was the focus of minting in this general area, Neapolitan designs were adopted by several new series of coins, some of them bearing legends in Oscan script referring to communities that are otherwise unknown (such as the Hyrianoi). Complex die linking between these different series indicate, at the very least, close cooperation in minting. Didrachms sharing motives (Athena/man headed bull), but with legends referring to different issuing communities on the reverse, testify to the integration into a common material culture in Campania in the late fifth to early fourth century. The die sharing and use of legends in Oscan script allow for an interpretation of these issues as indigenous coinages struck in the Campanian mileu.

The influence of Athens on Hyria can be seen not only in the great number of Greek vases and other articles discovered at the old city but by the adoption of the head of Pallas with the Athenian owl as their obverse type.

This particular coin is an ancient forgery, which were quite common in Magna Graecia and typically of much higher quality than fourrees produced elsewhere. In ON THE FORGERIES OF PUBLIC MONEY [J. Y. Akerman
The Numismatic Chronicle and Journal of the Numismatic Society, Vol. 6 (APRIL, 1843–JANUARY, 1844), pp. 57-82] it is noted that ancient forgeries tend "to be most abundantly found to belong to the most luxurious, populous, and wealthy cities of Magna Graecia...Nor is it surprising that the luxury and vice of those celebrated cities should have led to crime; and among crimes, to the forging of money, as furnishing the means for the more easy gratification of those sensual indulgences, which were universally enjoyed by the rich in those dissipated and wealthy cities. Many of the coins of the places in question having been originally very thickly coated, or cased with silver (called by the French, fourrees), pass even now among collectors without suspicion."
1 commentsNathan P
3NeapolisDidrachm.jpg
CAMPANIA, Neapolis19 viewsCAMPANIA, Neapolis. Circa 300-275 BC. AR Nomos (19mm, 7.11 g, 3h). Diademed head of nymph right; X behind / Achelous Sebethos as a man-headed bull walking right; above, Nike flying right, placing wreath on bull's head; EΥΞ below. Sambon 477; HN Italy 579; SNG ANS 372 (same dies). Near VF, toned. Ex. CNG 84, Lot. 52. From the Colin E. Pitchfork Collection1 commentsMolinari
3330002.jpg
CAMPANIA, Neapolis34 viewsCAMPANIA, Neapolis. Circa 300-275 BC. AR Nomos (18mm, 7.06 g, 5h). Head of nymph right; X behind / Man-headed bull walking right; above, Nike flying right, placing wreath on bull's head; EYΞ below. Sambon 477; HN Italy 579; SNG ANS 370. Fine, toned,ecoli
neapolis_mfb_k.jpg
Campania, Neapolis18 viewsSilver didrachm, 7.3g, 20mm, 9h; c. 350-325 BC.
Obv.: Head of nymph Parthenope right, wearing headband, pendant earring, and pearl necklace.
Rev.: Man-faced bull walking right, head facing, above Nike flying right to crown him // [NΕΟΠΟΛΙΤΗΣ]
Reference: SNG ANS 296-298. SNG Lockett 79. HN Italy 565 / 17-100-225
1 commentsJohn Anthony
Campania.jpg
CAMPANIA, NEAPOLIS AR Didrachm25 viewsOBVERSE: Head of nymph Parthenope right, wearing headband, pendant earring, and pearl necklace
REVERSE: Man-faced bull walking right, head facing, above Nike flying right to crown him // [NΕΟΠΟΛΙΤΗΣ]
Struck at Neapolis (Naples) 350-325 BC
7.3g, 20mm
SNG ANS 296-298. SNG Lockett 79. HN Italy 565
ex. JAZ Numismatics
1 commentsLegatus
Coin.JPG
Campania, Neapolis, AR Nomos58 viewsCAMPANIA, Neapolis. 395-385 BC. AR Nomos (20mm, 7.11 g, 12h). Diademed head of nymph right / Man-headed bull walking left on double exergue-line; above, Nike flying left, placing wreath on bull's head. Rutter 158 (O101/R143); HN Italy 563. Fine, toned. Well centered reverse. Ex. CNG 84, Lot 23. From the Collin E. Pitchfork Collection.1 commentsMolinari
Campania,_Neaopolis,_AR_Nomos_300-275_BC_-_CNG_167_Lot_0007.jpg
Campania, Neapolis, ca. 320-300 BC, AR Didrachm 22 viewsHead of the Siren Parthenope right, hair bound by band, wearing triple pendant earring and pearl necklace; pileos behind.
Man-faced bull standing right with head facing while being crowned by Nike flying right above; K below.

HN Italy 579.

(19 mm, 7.23 g, 10h).
Classical Numismatic Group e-Auction 167, 27 June 2007, 7; from the Charles Gillet collection, ex-Stacks, 15 November 1989, 90.
n.igma
Campania_Neapolis_SNG-ANS376.jpg
Campania, Neapolis.25 viewsCampania, Neapolis. 450-340 BC. AR Didrachm (7.29 gm). Head of nymph Parthenope r., hair bound with ampyx, wearing single-pendant earring, X behind. / Man-headed bull standing r., head facing, with Nike flying above, crowning bull, Θ below. [NEO]POΛITΩ[N] on raised exergal band. VF. SNG ANS 376; SNG Cop 436; ; Sambon 476; SNG München 223; cf HN Italy 579; CNG EA 288 #22.1 commentsChristian T
Campania_Neapolis_SNG-ANS338.jpg
Campania, Neapolis.21 viewsCampania, Neapolis. 320-300 BC. AR Nomos (7.47 gm). Head of nymph Parthenope r., with pendant earring, dolphins around. / Man-headed bull walking, Nike above, crowning. ΟΥΙΛ below. Ex: [NEO]POΛITΩ[N]. VF. Pegasi AXXI #40 SNG ANS 337-339; SNG Cop 413-414; HN Italy 576; HGC 1 452; Sambon 458.1 commentsChristian T
14.jpg
Campania, Neapolis. (Circa 300 BC)19 viewsAR Didrachm

20 mm, 6.98 g

Obverse: Head of nymph r., wearing taenia, triple-pendant earring and necklace; four dolphins around (only the bottom two around the neck visible).

Reverse: Man-headed bull walking r., being crowned by Nike; ΘE below bull. [NE]OΠOΛI[TΩN] in exergue

Sambon 457; HNItaly 576; SNG ANS 336.

Neapolis was founded ca. 650 B.C. from Cumae (a nearby city and the first Greek colony on mainland Italy). Ancient tradition records that it had originally been named after the siren Parthenope, who had been washed ashore on the site after failing to capture Odysseus (Sil. Pun. 12.33-36). The early city, which was called Palae(o)polis, developed in the SW along the modern harbor area and included Pizzofalcone and Megaris (the Castel dell'Ovo), a small island in the harbor. Megaris itself may have been the site of a still older Rhodian trading colony (Strab. 14.2.10). Owing to the influx of Campanian immigrants, the town began to develop to the NE along a Hippodamian grid plan. This new extension was called Neapolis, while Palae(o)polis became a suburb. Incited to a war with Rome by the Greek elements, the city was captured in 326 B.C. by the proconsul Quintus Publilius Philo (Liv. 8.22.9), and the suburb ceased to exist. Neapolis then became a favored ally of the Romans; it repulsed Pyrrhos, contributed naval support during the First Punic War, and withstood the attacks of Hannibal.
Nathan P
neap.jpg
CAMPANIA, Neapolis. Circa 275-250 BC. 57 viewsÆ (19mm, 5.42 g, 10h).
Obv: Laureate head of Apollo left; ΝΕΟΠΟΛΙΤΩΝ before; Ξ behind.
Rx: Man-headed bull walking right; above, Nike flying right, placing wreath on bull's head; IΣ below.

Taliercio Series IIIa, 38; HN Italy 589. Good Fine, green patina, some roughness.

CNG Electronic Auction 233, Lot: 47.
4 commentsDino
CAMPANIA,_Neapolis_Nomos.JPG
CAMPANIA, Neapolis. Circa 300-275 BC. AR Nomos20 viewsCAMPANIA, Neapolis. Circa 300-275 BC. AR Nomos (19mm, 7.21 g, 11h).
Head of nymph right; kantharos behind, XAPI below / Man-headed bull walking right; above, Nike flying right, placing wreath on bull's head; K below. Sambon 467b; HN Italy 569; SNG ANS 356 (same rev. die). Near VF, bright iridescent toning, light roughness on obverse.
Leo
phistelia_BMC4-6.jpg
Campania, Phistelia, BMC 4/625 viewsCampania, Phistelia, 325-275 BC
AR - Obol, 0.51g, 11.22mm, 270°
obv. Head oy young male slightly r.
rev. Barley-grain, above Dolphin r., below mussel
below legend in Oscan FISTVLIS (read from inward from r. to l.)
ref. BMC I, p.12, 4/6; Sambon p.332, 831; Sear 336; Camapana, agg. Fistelia 4a; HN Italy 613
scarce, about EF, toned

Phistelia was one of the Samnite cities destroyed by Sulla and is today only known by its coins. Because of the dolphins and mussels depicted on its coins it is suggested that it was situated near the sea.
1 commentsJochen
Campania_Phistelia_obol.jpg
Campania, Phistelia, obol36 views11mm, 0.50g
obv: head of Nymph facing slightly left
rev: lion left, star above, snake below
(HN Italy 619, SNG ANS 590-592)

ex Rauch
1 commentsareich
phistelia_SNGfrance1134.jpg
Campania, Phistelia, SNG France 113418 viewsPhistelia, c. 325-275 BC
AG - Obol, 0.61g, max. 10.5mm, 180°
obv. Female head facing, slightly l.
rev. Lion with raised tail walking l.
in ex. snake in one coil l.
ref. SNG ANS 584; SNG France 1134; Rutter p.180, Group IV; HN Italy 619
VF, toned, small flan crack at 4 o'clock, some scratches
Pedigree:
ex CNG Sale XXI (9./10. 9. 1994), Lot 21
ex coll. David Herman
ex CNG e-auction (20. 9. 06), Lot 93
ex coll. Jyrki Muona

From Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!

Phistelia was apparently among those Samnite cities which were destroyed by Sulla and vanished. At present it is known only by its coins.
1 commentsJochen
HN_Italy_453.JPG
CAMPANIA, Teanum Sidicinum40 viewsTeanum Sidicinum. Æ. Helmeted head of Athena left / Cock standing right; star behind. HN 453. Rare.

Ex. CNG eAuction 305, lot 466 (part of).
Ex. Reverend Edward A. Sydenham Collection.
3 commentsMolinari
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Campania. Neapolis AR Nomos75 viewsCirca 275-250 BC. AR Nomos (21mm, 7.21 g, 11h). Sambon–; HN Italy 586; BMC 87; SNG France–; SNG ANS–. Obverse: Diademed head of nymph left, wearing triple-pendant earring and necklace; to right, Artemis standing right, holding torch in both hands. Reverse: Man-headed bull walking right; above, Nike flying right, placing wreath on bull's head; IΣ below; [N]EOΠOΛITΩN in exergue. Good VF, toned. Scarce symbol for issue.

Ex Gorny & Mosch 125 (13 October 2003), lot 21. Ex Classical Numismatic Review XXXIX No. 2 Summer 2014, lot 979726.

The obverse of early Neapolitan coins represent the siren Parthenope who, according to legend, committed suicide after her failed attempt to seduce Odysseus and his shipmates as they passed the Sorrento peninsula. Her body was washed up on the shore of nearby Megaride, a tiny island in the Bay of Naples. The locals interred her in Mount Echia, now the hill of Pizzofalcone. The Sirens were originally the islands found at the mouth of the river Achelöos in Greece which flowed into the Ionian Sea between Akarnania and Aetolia. The man-headed bull on the reverse of the coins was meant to represent Achelöos, the greatest water god of ancient Greece and father of Parthenope. This coin, however, belongs to a later group known as Class VI (Numismatic Circular, vol. 14, 1906). The latest coins with the obverse head always facing left may well be identified as the head of Dia-Hebe. She is associated with Dionysus Hebon and the Neapolitan bull on the reverse was reinterpreted as the bull with which Dionysus Hebon was always depicted.


3 commentsJason T
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CAMPANIA: Neapolis12 viewsNeapolis, Bronze, circa 350-326 BC, 3.31 g. Obv: Laureate head of Apollo r.
Rev: Forepart of Achelous Sebethos as a man-faced bull to right; above, dolphin.
SNG Copenhagen 474. Historia Numorum Italy 575 var. Sambon 579 var. Taliercio Id, 7. MSP I, 223 (this coin illustrated). Rare.
Green patina and about very fine. (Ex. Silingardi' Ex. NAC)
Molinari
Caracalla.jpg
Caracalla, RIC 80, 205 AD, Rome, Italy14 viewsBust of Caracalla, laureate, draped, right. Mars, helmeted, naked except for cloak on left shoulder, standing left, right foot set on helmet, holding branch in right hand and spear in left hand.

ANTONINVS PIVS AVG
PONTIF TR P VIII COS II
Antoninus Pius The Revered Emperor.
Pontifex Tribune of the People for the 8th time Consul for the 2nd time.
Jonathan N
punicOR~0.jpg
Carthage, Punic Spain, SNG BM Spain 6738 viewsMobile military mint, Punic Spain, C. 237-209 B.C. AE, 13mm 1.46g, MHC 114; CNH 42; SNG BM Spain 67
O: Wreathed head of Tanit l.
R: Helmet l.


After putting down the mercenary revolt, Hamilcar Barca and other Carthaginians went to Spain to “start over” in the only remaining significant Carthaginian possession outside of North Africa. They extended Carthaginian influence beyond the Punic cities of southeastern Spain and utilized the local mineral resources to help re-establish the Carthaginian empire. Hamilcar drowned in 231 BC and was succeeded by his son-in-law, Hasdrubal, who founded Carthago Nova in 229 BC. Hasbrudal was assassinated in 221 BC. Hannibal Barca succeeded his brother-in-law. In 219 BC, Hannibal took Saguntum. Rome responded by declaring war and Hannibal made preparations to invade Italy. After Hannibal was in southern Italy during the Second Punic War, Spain continued to support his efforts until P. Cornelius Scipio (later Africanus) captured Carthago Nova in 209 BC. Carthaginian forces were driven out of Spain by 206 BC and Rome maintained control after the Second Punic War.
casata137ec
Carthage.jpg
Carthage, Second Punic War (220-215 BC)28 viewsAE Trishekel

29 mm, 18.21 g

Obverse: Head of Tanit left, wearing wreath of grain ears and single-pendant earring

Reverse: Horse standing right; palm tree in background to left.

MAA 84; Müller, Afrique 147; SNG Copenhagen 344.

The Second Punic War formally began when the Carthaginian general Hannibal and his army crossed the Alps in November of 218 BC and descended into Northern Italy. Battles raged on Italian soil for nearly 15 years until Hannibal and what remained of his army sailed for North Africa in the summer or fall of 203 BC. Shown above is a typical example of what would have been a lower-value coin issued by the Carthaginians in the early stages of the war.

Carthage was a Phoenician colony, and as such the Carthaginians were related to the Hebrews and the Canaanites (among others). Culturally they had much in common, including the use of the shekel as the primary unit of money. Likewise, the Carthaginians worshipped a variety of deities from the ancient Middle East. One in particular was the goddess Tanit. A Phoenician (Punic) goddess of war, Tanit was also a virgin mother goddess and a fertility symbol.
2 commentsNathan P
64035p00_copy.jpg
Carthage, Second Punic War, c. 216 - 205 B.C.20 views
64035. Silver quarter shekel, Robinson NC 1964, p. 44, group I, 3; SNG Cop 348 -349; Alexandropoulos 78; HN Italy 2015, VF, scratches, 1.733g, 13.6mm, 45o, Carthage mint, c. 216 - 205 B.C.; obverse head of Tanit left, wreathed with grain, wearing necklace and earring, dot border; reverse horse standing right, dot border; ex Ancient Eagles;
MagisterRiggs
Calvino_Hadrian_Sestertius.jpg
Cavino Hadrian Sestertius30 viewsObv. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P, bare head Right.
Rev. S C, Mars Walking Right, Holding Trophy and spear.
Mint: Padua, Italy, 16th century

36mm 28,52g

Klawans Hadrian, 3 p. 78
1 commentskc
bpCelticCorrSilver.jpg
CELTIC, Gaul, Boii tribe, AR half-unit.165 views.9 gm 9.3 mm
Struck 200-150 BC.
Blank obverse.
Reverse: Horse prancing left, pellet above, torque below.
Listed in the Celtic Coin Atlas of Henri de la Tour, but only as a line drawing.
Three similar coins auctioned in CNG 31, 1994, lots 8-10.
The Boii were a Celtic tribe that settled in Northern Italy bounded to the south by the Rubicon river. Considered by Julius Caesar to be the "good" Gauls. Area was annexed as Rome's third Provence after Sicily and Corsica. Merged into Italia by Octavian in 42 BC as part of his 'Italicisation' program during the second Triumvirate.
1 commentsMassanutten
Civil_Wars_RIC_121.jpg
Civil Wars of 68-69 Clasped Hands72 viewsCivil Wars of 68-69 AD AR denarius. 3.49 g. Minted by pro-Vitellian forces in Southern Gaul.
O: FIDES EXERCITVVM, two clasped hands.
R: FIDES PRAETORIANORVM, two clasped hands.
-BMC 65; Martin 7; RIC² 121 (Group IV) , Ex Jonathan P. Rosen, Ex Auktion Myers/Adams 7, New York 1974, Nr. 269.

The message of a unified fidelity, or loyalty, of the 'armies' (FIDES EXERCITVVM) and the praetorians (FIDES PRAETORIANORVM) would only be an effective propaganda tool if it was distributed among the praetorians.

David R Sear, writing in RCV, agrees with Kraay (Num. Chron 1949, pp 78.) that this interesting, anonymous civil war issue was produced on behalf of Vitellius, to be used as 'bribe money' to suborn the soldiers, as well as the Praetorian Guard, loyal to Otho in the capital. "In March 69 AD, Vitellian commander Fabius Valens entered Italy from Southern Gaul at the head of a small band of secret agents. Their mission was to infiltrate the capital, especially the ranks of the Praetorians, with the object of disseminating pro-Vitellian propaganda and dissociating the guards from their allegiance to Otho. These coins, struck in advance in Southern Gaul, would thus have played a vital role as 'bribe money'. Despite these covert activities, the Praetorians remained loyal to their Emperor, though all was to be for naught, as the following month, the invading army of Vitellius was victorious at the battle of Bedriacum, and Otho took his own life" - David R Sear

Here is the ad from the New york times December 1, 1974 page 208, advertising the Myers/Adams auction 7:
Several thousand foreign coin collectors are expected here next weekend for the biggest event on their winter calendar, the third annual New York International Numismatic Convention. The three‐day show will be held in the Albert Hall of the Americana Hotel, Seventh Avenue between 52d and 53rd Streets. It will open at 11 A.M. on Friday, with the exhibit area and the dealer bourse to remain open till 8 P.M. On Saturday the hours are 10 A.M. to 8 P.M., and on Sunday from 11 A.M. to 6 P.M. There will be an admission charge of 50 cents, for which a badge will be issued that will be good for all three days.
As its title indicates, the show emphasizes foreign numismatics to the point of almost excluding U.S. material. This holds true in exhibits as well as in the bourse and throughout the convention program. All of the exhibits are, again, invitational—noncompetitive—and were selected to assure representation of a wide range of international numismatic interests.

One symbol of the convention's success is that the, number of exhibitors and dealers has grown each year. This year there will be 67 bourse tables, roughly a quarter of them occupied by dealers from Europe and Canada; the remainder will be taken by leading U.S. dealers who have established reputations as specialists in ancient and foreign coins.
The convention will have two auctions, both described in some detail in this column a couple of weeks ago. The first, a “prologue” to the convention, will he the Myers/ Adams auction of ancient Greek and Roman coins at 7 P.M. on Thursday. The second, a two‐session sale of foreign coins and paper money, will be conducted by Henry Christensen, Inc., at 7 P.M. on Friday and 1:30 P.M. on Saturday.
3 commentsNemonater
Claudius_Æ_Sestertiu.jpg
Claudius (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 6 viewsTI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P - Laureate head right, NCAPR counterstamp behind bust
EX S C / P P / OB CIVES / SERVATOS - Legend within wreath
Mint: Rome (50-54AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 23.42g / 36.39mm / 180
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC² 112
Cohen 38
BMC 185
Sear 1850
Provenances:
Marc Breitsprecher
Old Roman Coins.Com
Acquisition/Sale: Ancient Imports Internet $0.00 8/17
The Gary R. Wilson Collection


The countermark NCAPR was applied to numerous orichalcum coins of the reigns of Tiberius and Claudius. NCAPR is most often explained as "Nero Caesar Augustus Populo Romano." Others believe NCAPR abbreviates "Nummus Caesare Augusto Probatus" or "Nero Caesar Augustus Probavit" (probavit means approved). Excavations of the Meta Sudans and the northeastern slope of the Palatine Hill in Rome indicate that this countermark was applied for Nero's congiarium (distribution to the people) in 57 A.D., which supports the Populo Romano interpretation. Varieties of this relatively common countermark are identified by some authors as applied in either Italy, Spain or Gaul. The countermark is not found on coins bearing the name or portrait of Caligula. Clearly any coins of Caligula that were still in circulation and collected for application of the countermark were picked out and melted down, in accordance with his damnatio, rather than being countermarked and returned to circulation. A NCAPR countermark has, however, been found on a Vespasian dupondius which, if genuine and official, seems to indicate the N may refer to Nerva, not Nero.



The wreath on the reverse is the corona civica, the oak wreath awarded to Roman citizens ex senatus consulto (by special decree of the Senate) for saving the life of another citizen by slaying an enemy in battle. It became a prerogative for Roman emperors to be awarded the Civic Crown, originating with Augustus, who was awarded it in 27 B.C. for saving the lives of citizens by ending the series of civil wars.

NCAPR counterstamp of Nero behind bust.

From The Museum of Countermarks on Roman Coins website:
There are several interpretations of what this, the most interesting of all Julio-Caludian ctmk., means. The two most likely are:
1. Nero Ceasar Augustus Populi Romani
2. Nero Caesar Augustus Probavit
In the first instance it is a congiarium or public dole given by Nero to the people of Rome. In the second, it is a revalidation of the earlier coins of ones predecessors still in circulation.
Possible is also a later use, eg. by Nerva, or that no emperors name was part of the countermark.

Previously believed to be applied during the reign of Nero, a specimen in the Pangerl collection appears on an as of Vespasian, necessitating a later date for the series. Three distinct production centers can be identified for this issue, in Spain, Gaul, and Italy. The Italian type is distinguished by the frequent joining of the letters NC at the base.

NCAPR (Nummus Caesare Augusto PRobatus?) in rectangular countermark-Translated-'Money Caesar Augustus Approved'
Gary W2
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-oXfGCiAQjcBiF-Claudius_arch.jpg
Claudius (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius5 viewsTI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P - Laureate head right with NCAPR countermark behind head.
NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMAN IMP, S C - Arch of Nero Claudius Drusus: triumphal arch consisting of single arch & decorated piers set on raised base with four columns supporting ornate attic.
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (42AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 24.20g / 35mm / 180
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC 114
Cohen 48
BMC 187
Acquisition/Sale: shpadoinkle24 Ebay $0.00 8/17
Notes: Jan 9, 19 - NCAPR Countermark

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Nero Claudius Drusus was Tiberius' younger brother. He was a successful general but died at only 29 after a fall from his horse. He married Antonia, daughter of Mark Antony and Octavia. Their sons were Germanicus and Claudius. Claudius issued his coins.

From CNG:
The Arch of Nero Claudius Drusus was erected by order of the Senate sometime after the death of Drusus in 9 BC. Located on the Via Appia, it commemorated his victories along the German frontier. Eventually, the presence of the arch may have lent its name to the surrounding region, known colloquially as the vicus Drusianus (Drusus' district). By the late fourth century AD, the arch may have survived as the arch then known as the arcus Recordationis (Arch of Remembrance).

Claudius, 25 January 41 - 13 October 54 A.D.
Claudius was one of the most capable, yet unlikely emperors. Shunned as an idiot by his family due to a limp and embarrassing stutter, Claudius spent the first decades of his life absorbed in scholarly studies until the death of his nephew Caligula. After Caligula's murder, the Praetorian Guard found him hiding behind a curtain in the Imperial Palace, expecting to be murdered. Instead, the guard proclaimed him emperor. His reign was marred by personal catastrophes, most notably promiscuity and betrayal by his first wife. He governed well and conquered the troublesome island of Britain. He was poisoned by his second wife, Agrippina Jr., mother of Nero.

The countermark NCAPR was applied to numerous orichalcum coins of the reigns of Tiberius and Claudius. NCAPR is most often explained as "Nero Caesar Augustus Populo Romano." Others believe NCAPR abbreviates "Nummus Caesare Augusto Probatus" or "Nero Caesar Augustus Probavit" (probavit means approved). Excavations of the Meta Sudans and the northeastern slope of the Palatine Hill in Rome indicate that this countermark was applied for Nero's congiarium (distribution to the people) in 57 A.D., which supports the Populo Romano interpretation. Varieties of this relatively common countermark are identified by some authors as applied in either Italy, Spain or Gaul. The countermark is not found on coins bearing the name or portrait of Caligula. Clearly any coins of Caligula that were still in circulation and collected for application of the countermark were picked out and melted down, in accordance with his damnatio, rather than being countermarked and returned to circulation. A NCAPR countermark has, however, been found on a Vespasian dupondius which, if genuine and official, seems to indicate the N may refer to Nerva, not Nero.

NCAPR counterstamp of Nero behind bust.

From The Museum of Countermarks on Roman Coins website:
There are several interpretations of what this, the most interesting of all Julio-Caludian ctmk., means. The two most likely are:
1. Nero Ceasar Augustus Populi Romani
2. Nero Caesar Augustus Probavit
In the first instance it is a congiarium or public dole given by Nero to the people of Rome. In the second, it is a revalidation of the earlier coins of ones predecessors still in circulation.
Possible is also a later use, eg. by Nerva, or that no emperors name was part of the countermark.

Previously believed to be applied during the reign of Nero, a specimen in the Pangerl collection appears on an as of Vespasian, necessitating a later date for the series. Three distinct production centers can be identified for this issue, in Spain, Gaul, and Italy. The Italian type is distinguished by the frequent joining of the letters NC at the base.

NCAPR (Nummus Caesare Augusto PRobatus?) in rectangular countermark-Translated-'Money Caesar Augustus Approved'

Just FYI-This coin has been 'Liberated' from the NGC slab and is now how it should be-free for a person to hold, as all ancients should be!
Gary W2
Claudius_II_AE_Antoninianus.jpg
Claudius II Gothicus, September 268 - August or September 270 A.D.26 viewsSilvered antoninianus, MER-RIC 60, RIC V 157, Normanby 1031, Venera 9303 - 9364, Cunetio 2263, Hunter IV 58, SRCV III 3215, Cohen VI 202, Choice gVF, some silvering, 4.608g, 22.0mm, 315o, 3rd officina, Mediolanum (Milan, Italy) mint, issue 2, mid 269 - spring 270; obverse IMP CLAVDIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse PAX AVG, Pax walking left, extending olive-branch in right hand, long transverse scepter in left, T in exergue.

Ex FORVM Ancient Coins

In 268, Gallienus was murdered by his senior officers while besieging the would-be usurper Aureolus in Mediolanum (Milan). The Senate charged Marcus Aurelius Claudius with Gallienus' murder but it was never proven. The accused became the new emperor, Claudius II.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection.
Sam
COMMODO_sesterzio_BRIT_Paolo_Finale.jpg
Commodus (177-192 A.D.)20 viewsCommodus. (177-192 A.D.) sestertius, Rome mint. Struck AD 185.
Æ ,30mm, 23,03 gr, B
D/ M COMMODVS ANT P FELIX AVG BRIT, laureate head right
R/ (P M TR P X IMP VII COS IIII P P), S C across field, FOR RED in exergue,
Fortuna seated left, holding rudder set on globe in right hand and cradling cornucopia in left arm.
Note: Ancient cuts a la Damnatio Memoriae.
Reference: RCV 5746, RIC III 513, BMC IV 618.
Provenance: ex Stefan Bieniek-Binetti collection, Berlin, Germany (2008). Berardengo collection, Rome Italy (2012)
paolo
Constance clore follis ticinium.jpg
Constance Clore, Follis,37 viewsAE, 25mm, 305/306 A.D., Ticinium (Italy)
Obv: Imp C Constantius PF Aug
Rev: Fides Militum
Ex: T.T. for tercia Ticinium
Ref: CMIR vol. III, Juan R. Cayon p. 1832/1833 # 167
Jean Paul D
Maiorina COnstance II.jpg
Constance II, Maiorina (AE3)54 viewsAE 20.5 mm, 348/350 A.D., Aquilleia (Italy)
Obv: DN Constantius PF Aug, (B on left)
Rev: Fel Temp Reparatio, gamma
Ex: AQQ for quarta Aquilleia= 4 th officina of Aquilleia
Ref: CMIR, Vol IV, Juan R. Cayon, p. 2547 # 299
Jean Paul D